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1

The Effect of Insecticide Synergists on the Response of Scabies Mites to Pyrethroid Acaricides  

PubMed Central

Background Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide), DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) and DEM (diethyl maleate) were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001). Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%); inhibition of GST activity (73%) with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81%) with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites. Conclusions These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.

Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Gunning, Robin; Rossiter, Louise; Holt, Deborah; Walton, Shelley; Beckham, Simone; McCarthy, James

2009-01-01

2

Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. It is common all over the world, and can affect anyone. Scabies spreads quickly in crowded conditions where there is ...

3

Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

... Epidemiology & Risk Factors Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

4

Scabies: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... form when people get crusted scabies, also called Norwegian scabies. Signs and symptoms of scabies include: Itching, ... crusted scabies. Another name for crusted scabies is Norwegian scabies. These crusts house 100s to 1,000s ...

5

Scabies: Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... found at http://www.usa.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Add this to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Treatment On this Page Suggested General Guidelines Medications Used to Treat Scabies Suggested General Guidelines It is important to ...

6

The occurrence of autophagic cell death in the tegument of rabbits pre-infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and exposed to selamectin (active principle of acaricide pfizer revolution(®) ).  

PubMed

Ticks of Rhipicephalus sanguineus species have great medical and veterinary importance for being a vector of various diseases. In an attempt to minimize their action on the host, people have resorted to chemical control by using various acaricides, such as selamectin. Although previous studies have demonstrated its toxic action in domestic animals, no studies focused on the detection of cell death when exposed to selamectin. For this reason, the technique for detecting autophagic cell death was used in order to demonstrate the responses of rabbits' skin tissues pre-infested with R. sanguineus and exposed to different concentrations of selamectin. The obtained results when exposed to 100 and 80% concentrations of selamectin showed a strong mark of acid phosphatase on the cells of the connective tissue of the dermis and hair follicles, whereas the ones exposed to the 50% concentration had a weak mark on the cells of the connective tissue of the dermis and moderate staining in hair follicles. It became clear that, when used at high concentrations (100 and 80%), selamectin is capable to induce a large scale occurrence of the autophagic cell death process. On the other hand, the concentration of 50% causes minor morphophysiological changes in the skin of rabbit hosts when evaluated the cell death process. Therefore, the data confirms that selamectin is a powerful dose-dependent toxic agent causes increased activity of the enzyme acid phosphatase. Microsc. Res. Tech. 76:1171-1176, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23983162

Bozzatto, Vlamir; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa De; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2013-08-23

7

Degenerative process and cell death in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged female exposed to the acaricide permethrin.  

PubMed

Ticks are ectoparasites of great medical and veterinary importance around the world and synthetic chemicals such as permethrin have been used for their control. This study provides a cytochemistry analysis of both degenerative and cell death processes in salivary glands of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females exposed to 206, 1,031, and 2,062 ppm of permethrin. The results presented herein demonstrate that permethrin is a potent chemical acaricide that would act on the glandular tissue's morphophysiology in this tick species by eliciting severe changes in the acinus shape, intense vacuolation of the acinar cells' cytoplasm, marked glandular tissue disorganization, culminating in an advanced degenerative stage with consequent formation of many apoptotic bodies (cell death). In addition, permethrin induced major changes in the acinar cells' nucleus, such as a change both in its shape and size, chromatin marginalization, nuclear fragmentation, and appearance of picnotic nuclei, especially when the highest concentrations of the product were used. Thus, permethrin induced early degeneration of this tissue characterized by significant changes in the structure of acinar cells and production of enzymes related to the cell death process, in addition to interfering directly in the genetic material of these cells. PMID:22407742

Nodari, Elen Fernanda; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; De Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2012-03-10

8

Scabies: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

9

Scabies: Disease Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

10

Lice and scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediculosis pubis and scabies are cutaneous infections that are often seen in sexually active young people. Pediculosis pubis is caused by the pubic louse (crab louse), Phthiris pubis. Scabies is caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. These obligate parasites live on or within the skin, and sexual intercourse provides the necessary physical intimacy for transmission; hence, they are considered as

Chris Bignell

2005-01-01

11

Acaricide mode of action.  

PubMed

The last few years have seen the introduction of an unprecedented number of new classes of acaricides with novel or under-exploited modes of action, discovered by traditional screening. Acaricide research has uncovered several unrelated compounds that possess improved properties. Pyridaben, acequinocyl, diafenthiuron, etoxazole, spirodiclofen and bifenazate, in particular, are acaricides that are safe to beneficials, have low mammalian toxicity and short environmental persistence. Many of the new acaricides appear to affect mitochondrial respiration, and previously unknown targets affecting mite growth and development have been identified, offering new opportunities for mite control. PMID:15625668

Dekeyser, Mark A

2005-02-01

12

SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN IN SCABIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum immunoglobulin levels were measured in 100 patients with scabies. White cell counts and erythrocyte sedimentation rates were measured in 62 of these patients and were normal in 59. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether their symptoms had been present for more or less than 3 weeks. The values for IgA were significantly lower in both

B. W. Hancock; A. Milford Ward

1974-01-01

13

Ivermectin vs. lindane in the treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies is commonly treated with acaricides but the treatment of choice is still controversial. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. lindane lotion 1% for the treatment of scabies. Four hundred fourty patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 microg/kg body weight, and the second group were treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Single dose of oral ivermectin provided a cure rate of 63.6% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 81.8% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 45.4% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 63.6% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Single dose ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow up. PMID:23829057

Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

2013-01-01

14

Treatment of scabies: newer perspectives  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a common dermatological problem managed by general physicians, family physicians, and dermatologists. Scabies manifests itself in various forms in different individuals. The treatment of scabies has undergone developments with the evolution of new treatment strategies and antiectoparasitic drugs. The advent of drugs such as permethrin and ivermectin has revolutionised treatment. Management of scabies not only includes prescribing the drugs but also educating patients properly about the method of application of the drug. Treatment failures may result for various reasons and must be managed appropriately.

Karthikeyan, K

2005-01-01

15

Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... scabies and my job requires skin-to-skin contact with patients? In order for me to return to work, my employer ... for persons with scabies. Back To Top In order for ... by prolonged skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies. Scabies sometimes ...

16

Permethrin for scabies in children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT QUESTION I frequently see children with scabies in my practice. A variety of medications are available to treat scabies. Permethrin is one of the most common medications used. Is permethrin a safe and effective option for children? ANSWER Scabies is a common parasitic skin infection. It is highly prevalent in young children. Topical permethrin (5% cream) is a safe and effective scabicide in children. It is recommended as a first-line therapy for patients older than 2 months of age. Because there are theoretical concerns regarding percutaneous absorption of permethrin in infants younger than 2 months of age, guidelines recommend 7% sulfur preparation instead of permethrin.

Albakri, Lina; Goldman, Ran D.

2010-01-01

17

Scabies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scabies - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Pubic Lice ("Crabs") and Scabies English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department of Health ...

18

Psoroptic Cattle Scabies Research: An Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Psoroptic cattle scabies is a dermatitis that causes harmful itching, crusting, scurfing, and depilitation. Psoroptes ovis mites are the specific cause of common scabies in cattle. A major reason for the inadequacy of formerly successful eradication progr...

1979-01-01

19

Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

20

Histopathology of the tegument of rabbits infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) ticks and exposed to selamectin (active principle of acaricide Revolution, Pfizer).  

PubMed

Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites which can transmit several diseases to the host during their feeding process. When ticks mechanically damage the tissue, they eventually induce inflammatory responses on the skin spot where they are fixed. One of the alternatives to control these ectoparasites is the use of chemical substances like selamectin-the active principle of Pfizer's antiparasitic Revolution-a macrocyclic lactone capable of doing neurotoxic damage to the tick and eventually eliminating infestation in dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to analyze, using histological and histochemical techniques, the occurrence of morphophysiological alterations in the skin of the host rabbits exposed to selamectin and infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae). Histologically, the exposed and infested rabbits showed a partial and/or total decrease in the stratum corneum and the epithelium decreased in the number of cell layers, consequently reducing the stratification (thinning) and quite pronounced formations of sub-epidermal edemas with consequent disorganization of collagen fibers in the dermal layer's connective tissue. Histochemical tests showed strong periodic acid-Schiff-positive reaction in the hair follicle and some regions of the dermis, besides resynthesis of collagen fibers detected by Mallory's trichrome technique. The obtained results showed that selamectin acts like a toxicant agent when in contact with the skin of the rabbit infested with ticks, inducing morphophysiological alterations in the acute inflammatory process in the animal's tegument. Selamectin is a chemical substance which has a dose-dependent action since higher concentrations cause greater morphophysiological damage in the skin of rabbits. PMID:23613180

Bozzatto, Vlamir; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2013-04-24

21

Acaricidal activity of extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei in vitro.  

PubMed

The possible acaricidal activity of Eupatorium adenophorum was analyzed using extracts created by water decocting, ethanol thermal circumfluence, and steam distillation. The toxic effect of each extract was tested against Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei in vitro. Ethanol thermal circumfluence extract had strong toxicity against mites, killing all S. scabiei at 0.5 and 1.0 g/ml (w/v) concentration, while 1g/ml extract was also found to kill all P. cuniculi within a 4-h period. Similarly, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/ml concentration of extract had strong toxicity against S. scabiei, with median lethal time (LT(50)) values at 0.866, 0.785 and 0.517 h, respectively. 0.5 g/ml and 1g/ml showed strong acaricidal action against P. cuniculi; the LT(50) values were 0.93 h and 1.29 h, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values were 0.22 g/ml for Scabies mite and 0.64 g/ml for P. cuniculi in 1h. The results indicated that E. adenophorum contains potent acaricidal ingredients; as a first step in the potential development of novel drugs, it may provide new acaricidal compounds for the effective control of animal acariasis. PMID:22244533

Nong, Xiang; Fang, Chun-Lin; Wang, Jia-Hai; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Yang, De-Ying; Liu, Tian-Fei; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Run-Hui; Zheng, Wan-Peng; Peng, Xue-Rong; Wang, Shu-Xian; Yang, Guang-You

2011-12-23

22

Complement Inhibitors from Scabies Mites Promote Streptococcal Growth - A Novel Mechanism in Infected Epidermis?  

PubMed Central

Background Scabies is highly prevalent in socially disadvantaged communities such as indigenous populations and in developing countries. Generalized itching causes discomfort to the patient; however, serious complications can occur as a result of secondary bacterial pyoderma, commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) or Staphylococcus aureus. In the tropics, skin damage due to scabies mite infestations has been postulated to be an important link in the pathogenesis of disease associated with acute rheumatic fever and heart disease, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and systemic sepsis. Treatment of scabies decreases the prevalence of infections by bacteria. This study aims to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the link between scabies and GAS infections. Methodology/Principal Findings GAS bacteria were pre-incubated with blood containing active complement, phagocytes and antibodies against the bacteria, and subsequently tested for viability by plate counts. Initial experiments were done with serum from an individual previously exposed to GAS with naturally acquired anti-GAS antibodies. The protocol was optimized for large-scale testing of low-opsonic whole blood from non-exposed human donors by supplementing with a standard dose of heat inactivated human sera previously exposed to GAS. This allowed an extension of the dataset to two additional donors and four proteins tested at a range of concentrations. Shown first is the effect of scabies mite complement inhibitors on human complement using ELISA-based complement activation assays. Six purified recombinant mite proteins tested at a concentration of 50 µg/ml blocked all three complement activation pathways. Further we demonstrate in human whole blood assays that each of four scabies mite complement inhibitors tested increased GAS survival rates by 2–15 fold. Conclusions/Significance We propose that local complement inhibition plays an important role in the development of pyoderma in scabies infested skin. This molecular link between scabies and bacterial infections may provide new avenues to develop alternative treatment options against this neglected disease.

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Pickering, Darren; McMillan, David; Sriprakash, Kadaba S.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja

2012-01-01

23

Scabies: Who Gets and Causes  

MedlinePLUS

... young children. Sexually active young adults. Residents of nursing homes, assisted-living residences, and extended-care facilities. Having a weakened immune system also increases the risk of getting scabies. The elderly and people who have a weak immune system ...

24

Policy Decisions in Scabies Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a Kansas elementary school, an outbreak of scabies was discovered by the school nurse. Through cooperative planning with the local health department, the infected children were excluded from school pending medical treatment, and a screening program was set up for the entire student population. (JN)|

Foutes, James A.; And Others

1981-01-01

25

9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected...quarantined by the Secretary of Agriculture for scabies in cattle be unloaded en route and...are found en route to be affected with scabies or to have been exposed thereto,...

2013-01-01

26

Atypical scabies in HIV-positive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cases of Norwegian or keratotic scabies in HIV-positive patients are described. One of these patients was the source of an outbreak in a hospital, ultimately involving 72 persons. Three of our patients had a markedly pruritic eruption. This is unusual in crusted scabies in which pruritus is usually slight or absent. Two of the five patients had unusual CD4

José J. Portu; Juan M. Santamaria; Zuriñe Zubero; Maria V. Almeida-Llamas; Mikel Aldamiz-Etxebarria San Sebastian; Ana Rubio Gutiérrez

1996-01-01

27

Scabies: New Future for a Neglected Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scabies is a disease of global proportions in both human and animal populations, resulting from infestation of the skin with the “itch” mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy the intensely itching lesions engender significant morbidity primarily due to secondary sepsis and post-infective complications. Some patients experience an extreme form of the disease, crusted scabies, in which many

Shelley F. Walton; Deborah C. Holt; Bart J. Currie; David J. Kemp

2004-01-01

28

The Diagnostic Accuracy of Dermoscopy for Scabies  

PubMed Central

Background Scabies is a contagious skin infestation characterized clinically by nocturnal pruritus, visible burrows and contagiousness. Dermoscopy has been suggested as an alternative for diagnosing scabies. But, there have been few well-designed studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy. Objective We tried to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy for diagnosing scabies. We also tried to demonstrate specific circumstances in which dermoscopic identification of mites ("with dermoscopy") is more useful in diagnosing scabies, and to identify the specific clinical findings that could be used as a possible marker in diagnosing scabies. Methods We compared the scraping procedure "with dermoscopy" and "without it" in 49 patients, measuring the duration and outcome of each procedure. Also, we tried to find the specific clinical factors associated with our objects. Results The skin scraping "with dermoscopy" was superior to "without it" with respect to the duration and accuracy of the procedure. A history of previous steroid treatment was associated with the superiority of dermoscopy. The correlation between the presence of visible burrows and the positive outcomes of "with dermoscopy" was statistically significant. Conclusion Skin scraping with dermoscopy is implicated as the diagnostic method of choice for scabies at the present time. Dermoscopy is especially useful in diagnosis of incognito scabies. In addition, the presence of visible burrows could be a reliable positive marker of scabies in the absence of dermoscopy or microscopy data.

Park, Ju Hyuk; Kim, Sang Seok

2012-01-01

29

Prevention, control and treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies is a common, but neglected, skin condition that is becoming increasingly prevalent globally. It causes distress and is frequently regarded as a stigmatising condition, although it can affect anyone of any age or social class. Understanding the epidemiology and life cycle of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei which causes scabies, is the key to effective prevention and control. PMID:21141167

Gould, D

30

9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment...permitted. Cattle not visibly diseased with scabies, but which are known to be part...shall be marked âCattle Exposed to Scabies,â in accordance with § 73.6,...

2013-01-01

31

Norwegian scabies mimicking rupioid psoriasis.  

PubMed

Norwegian scabies is a highly contagious skin infestation caused by an ectoparasite, Scarcoptes scabiei var. Hominis, which mainly affects immunosuppressed individuals. Clinically, it may simulate various dermatoses such as psoriasis, Darier's disease, seborrheic dermatitis, among others. This is a case report of a 33-year-old woman, immunocompetent, diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (cancer phobia), who had erythematous, well-defined plaques, covered with rupioid crusts, on her neck, axillary folds, breast, periumbilical region, groin area, besides upper back and elbows, mimicking an extremely rare variant of psoriasis, denominated rupioid psoriasis. PMID:23197214

Costa, Juliana Bastos; Rocha de Sousa, Virna Lygia Lobo; da Trindade Neto, Pedro Bezerra; Paulo Filho, Thomás de Aquino; Cabral, Virgínia Célia Dias Florêncio; Pinheiro, Patrícia Moura Rossiter

32

Norwegian scabies mimicking rupioid psoriasis*  

PubMed Central

Norwegian scabies is a highly contagious skin infestation caused by an ectoparasite, Scarcoptes scabiei var. Hominis, which mainly affects immunosuppressed individuals. Clinically, it may simulate various dermatoses such as psoriasis, Darier's disease, seborrheic dermatitis, among others. This is a case report of a 33-year-old woman, immunocompetent, diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (cancer phobia), who had erythematous, well-defined plaques, covered with rupioid crusts, on her neck, axillary folds, breast, periumbilical region, groin area, besides upper back and elbows, mimicking an extremely rare variant of psoriasis, denominated rupioid psoriasis.

Costa, Juliana Bastos; de Sousa, Virna Lygia Lobo Rocha; da Trindade Neto, Pedro Bezerra; Paulo Filho, Thomas de Aquino; Cabral, Virginia Celia Dias Florencio; Pinheiro, Patricia Moura Rossiter

2012-01-01

33

Efficacy and application considerations of selected residual acaricides against the mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) in simulated retail habitats.  

PubMed

The mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), is a stored product pest of economic significance that commonly infests many types of food and animal feed products. There is limited information regarding pest management tactics, including residual acaricides for managing this pest in retail store habitats. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of commercially available acaricides that could provide a protective barrier near susceptible food packages destined for consumer use. Mite mortality at 24 and 48 h was measured after exposing mites to acaricide residues applied to a nonporous surface. Two additional factors included in the study were humidity and the presence of an adjuvant to facilitate spread of acaricide on nonporous surfaces. Increasing humidity levels generally decreased acaricide efficacy. Use of the adjuvant itself did not appear to affect efficacy, but the type of application (wet or slurry, or dry) of dust acaricides significantly affected efficacy. The potential for residual acaricides to act as a barrier (within 24-48 h) against dispersal of this mite was discussed. PMID:24020311

Freitag, Jessica A; Kells, Stephen A

2013-08-01

34

Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

... there are lots of people, like college dorms, camps, classrooms, and childcare centers. In crowded places like ... cream is there, too. If you leave any spaces uncovered, the mites will go there and start ...

35

Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool and soak your skin. Soaking in cool water or applying a cool, wet washcloth to irritated areas of your skin may minimize itching. Apply soothing lotion. Calamine lotion, available without a prescription, can effectively relieve the pain and itching of ...

36

The development of protective immunity in canine scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven of eight dogs that had been previously infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and then cured, expressed protective immunity when experimentally reinfested with scabies. All seven dogs that expressed resistance were spontaneously cleared of scabies by 64 days after they were experimentally reinfested. Five of the eight dogs were free of scabies by 24 days. The sequential changes in

Larry G. Arlian; Marjorie S. Morgan; Christine M. Rapp; DiAnn L. Vyszenski-Moher

1996-01-01

37

Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever\\/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely

Katja Fischer; Christopher G. Langendorf; James A. Irving; Simone Reynolds; Charlene Willis; Simone Beckham; Ruby H. P. Law; Sundy Yang; Tanya A. Bashtannyk-Puhalovich; Sheena McGowan; James C. Whisstock; Robert N. Pike; David J. Kemp; Ashley M. Buckle

2009-01-01

38

Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa triggered by scabies infestation.  

PubMed

Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa (EB-Pr) is an unusual variant of dystrophic EB. Potential genetic disease modifiers and metabolic factors have been investigated, but thus far no specific insight into this phenotype has emerged. We report an in-depth description of three patients diagnosed as having EB-Pr in whom this particular phenotype developed after scabies infestation and dramatically improved after full treatment. This short communication suggests that scabies infestation could be one of the important triggering factors for the development of the EB-Pr phenotype. PMID:23663219

Kim, Jaehwan; Loh, Chee Hoou; Murrell, Dedee F

2013-05-10

39

Caffeine, a naturally occurring acaricide.  

PubMed

Since caffeine is a plant alkaloid that has been described as a naturally occurring insecticide, its acaricidal effect on Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) was investigated. Twelve cultures were established by adding 30 Dp to 200 mg of Tetramin fish food and brewer's yeast (8:2 ratio); six cultures were treated with 20 mg of finely ground caffeine. All 12 cultures were incubated at 75% relative humidity, 25 degrees C, and observed during 8 weeks. Live mites were then counted under a stereoscope, cultures were extracted, and supernatants were analyzed for Der p I and Der f I allergen content with a two-site monoclonal RIA. Live mite counts in untreated cultures varied from 146 to 274 (215 +/- 47.1), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 0 to 3 (1 +/- 1.2; p less than or equal to 0.0001). Der p I concentrations in untreated cultures varied from 588 to 9000 ng/gm (3138.3 +/- 2990.8 ng/gm), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 52 to 117 ng/gm (78 +/- 23.8 ng/gm; p less than or equal to 0.01). Der p I was not detected in the food media or caffeine; Der f I was not detected in any of the cultures. Results demonstrate that caffeine inhibits mite growth and allergen production. PMID:1991914

Russell, D W; Fernández-Caldas, E; Swanson, M C; Seleznick, M J; Trudeau, W L; Lockey, R F

1991-01-01

40

Control strategies for endemic childhood scabies.  

PubMed

Human scabies is a major global public health issue, with an estimated 300 million cases per year worldwide. Prevalence rates are particularly high in many third-world regions and within various indigenous communities in developed countries. Infestation with Sarcoptes Scabiei is associated with group-A streptococcal pyoderma which in turn predisposes to rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and their respective long-term sequelae: rheumatic heart disease and chronic renal insufficiency. The documented difficulties inherent in achieving scabies control within affected communities have motivated us to develop a network-dependent Monte-Carlo model of the scabies contagion, with the dual aims of gaining insight into its dynamics, and in determining the effects of various treatment strategies. Here we show that scabies burden is adversely affected by increases in average network degree, prominent network clustering, and by a person-to-person transmissibility of greater magnitude. We demonstrate that creating a community-specific model allows for the determination of an effective treatment protocol that can satisfy any pre-defined target prevalence. We find frequent low-density treatment protocols are inherently advantageous in comparison with infrequent mass screening and treatment regimes: prevalence rates are lower when compared with protocols that administer the same number of treatments over a given time interval less frequently, and frequent low-density treatment protocols have economic, practical and public acceptance advantages that may facilitate their long-term implementation. This work demonstrates the importance of stochasticity, community structure and the heterogeneity of individuals in influencing the dynamics of the human scabies contagion, and provides a practical method for investigating the outcomes of various intervention strategies. PMID:21283575

Gilmore, Stephen J

2011-01-25

41

Control Strategies for Endemic Childhood Scabies  

PubMed Central

Human scabies is a major global public health issue, with an estimated 300 million cases per year worldwide. Prevalence rates are particularly high in many third-world regions and within various indigenous communities in developed countries. Infestation with Sarcoptes Scabiei is associated with group-A streptococcal pyoderma which in turn predisposes to rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and their respective long-term sequelae: rheumatic heart disease and chronic renal insufficiency. The documented difficulties inherent in achieving scabies control within affected communities have motivated us to develop a network-dependent Monte-Carlo model of the scabies contagion, with the dual aims of gaining insight into its dynamics, and in determining the effects of various treatment strategies. Here we show that scabies burden is adversely affected by increases in average network degree, prominent network clustering, and by a person-to-person transmissibility of greater magnitude. We demonstrate that creating a community-specific model allows for the determination of an effective treatment protocol that can satisfy any pre-defined target prevalence. We find frequent low-density treatment protocols are inherently advantageous in comparison with infrequent mass screening and treatment regimes: prevalence rates are lower when compared with protocols that administer the same number of treatments over a given time interval less frequently, and frequent low-density treatment protocols have economic, practical and public acceptance advantages that may facilitate their long-term implementation. This work demonstrates the importance of stochasticity, community structure and the heterogeneity of individuals in influencing the dynamics of the human scabies contagion, and provides a practical method for investigating the outcomes of various intervention strategies.

Gilmore, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

42

The elimination of scabies: a task for our generation.  

PubMed

Scabies prevalence remains unacceptably high in many regions throughout the world. Infestation with scabies significantly impacts quality of life and is linked to pyoderma and consequently to severe long-term sequelae such as post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In the past, control programs using topical treatments have met with poor compliance; however, the highly effective oral agent ivermectin may offer a new paradigm in scabies management. Problems still exist with insensitive diagnostic tests, questions concerning mite reservoirs, and restrictions on who can receive ivermectin. Despite these difficulties, the elimination of scabies in communities worst affected may soon be possible. PMID:23834401

McLean, Florence E

2013-07-08

43

Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.

Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

1996-01-01

44

TYROSINASE INHERITANCE IN STREPTOMYCES SCABIES II.  

PubMed Central

Gregory, Kenneth F. (Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ontario, Canada), and Jay C. C. Huang. Tyrosinase inheritance in Streptomyces scabies. II. Induction of tyrosinase deficiency by acridine dyes. J. Bacteriol. 87:1287–1294. 1964.—Growth in minimal medium containing 1 ?g of acriflavine per ml resulted in a large increase (up to 62%) in the frequency of tyrosinase-deficient (tye?) mutants in all of ten strains of Streptomyces scabies and eight unidentified streptomycetes studied. This increased frequency did not result from the selection of preformed mutants, since tye? clones were usually inhibited by lower concentrations of acriflavine than were tyrosinase-producing (tye+) clones, and no significant difference in mycelial yields occurred between the two types growing in a 1 ?g/ml concentration of the dye. The mutations induced by X rays and acriflavine were either allelic or closely linked. This tye? phenotype was not caused by the production of an enzyme inhibitor, lack of a cofactor, or defect in the conversion of a protyrosinase to tyrosinase. Tye? mutants formed no detectable tyrosinase under a variety of conditions, including the presence of possible inducers. Mutants were able to oxidize glucose and succinate. The S. scabies tyrosinase was heat-labile (half-life at 59 C = 1.6 min) and not particle-bound. We conclude that acriflavine induces the loss of, or alteration in, a structural gene for tyrosinase production present as an extrachromosomal factor.

Gregory, Kenneth F.; Huang, Jay C. C.

1964-01-01

45

Acaricide, Fungicide and Drug Interactions in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. Methodology/Principal Findings Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17) while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15). The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI) fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. Conclusions/Significance Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication appears to play an important role. Evidence of non-transivity, year-to-year variation and induction of detoxication enzymes indicates that pesticide interactions in bees may be as complex as drug interactions in mammals.

Johnson, Reed M.; Dahlgren, Lizette; Siegfried, Blair D.; Ellis, Marion D.

2013-01-01

46

Polarizable elements in scabies infestation: a clue to diagnosis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of scabies infestation is straightforward in cases where mite parts are largely visible; however, mites are often not captured in a specimen's planes of section. Polariscopic examination is a fast and simple adjunctive diagnostic tool to light microscopy. We describe the unique polariscopic findings in scabies infestation. Two cases of crusted scabies and eight cases of typical scabies were subjected to polariscopic examination. Diagnostic mite parts were visualized in at least one section in all cases. Attached and detached spines as well as scybala (fecal material) are polarizable. Specifically, spines show a polarizable outer sheath with dark central core while scybala show peripherally concentrated, stippled birefringence. Similar stippled birefringence is visible within the gut of some mites whereas significant birefringence is not appreciated in other mite parts. These results suggest that polariscopic examination is a helpful clue in the diagnosis of scabies infestation, especially in cases where the body of the mite is not visualized. PMID:23110486

Foo, Chong Wee; Florell, Scott R; Bowen, Anneli R

2012-10-30

47

An in vivo rodent model for identifying and characterizing acaricides.  

PubMed

Evaluation of candidate acaricides in livestock or companion animals is expensive, time-consuming, and usually requires large quantities of test material. To identify promising substances at the earliest possible stage of the development process, robust and predictive surrogate animal models, capable of rapidly characterizing potency with minimal compound requirements, are necessary. The objective of this study was to generate an in vivo surrogate animal bioassay capable of rapidly and accurately predicting the topical activity of acaricides emerging from in vitro acaricide bioassays. The rat acaricide test (RAT) requires adult rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769), a flexible tick containment device fastened to their dorso-thoracic region, and the nymphal stage of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.). The feeding kinetics of A. americanum nymphs on rats was assessed, and compound efficacies were determined by measuring tick survivorship and engorgement weight on acaricide-treated animals. Results from this bioassay demonstrated efficacy with fipronil, ivermectin, permethrin, and chlorpyrifos, and dose-response relationships for each acaricide were determined. The rank order of potencies was fipronil > ivermectin > chlorpyrifos = permethrin for nymphal mortality and fipronil > ivermectin > chlorpyrifos > permethrin for inhibition of nymphal engorgement. The activity of permethrin against nymphs in the RAT was positively correlated with potency values for technical and commercial permethrin formulations against adult A. americanum infestations on cattle. The RAT proved to be an economical, rapid surrogate animal bioassay that together with the in vitro acaricide bioassay can be used for the rapid identification, characterization, and prioritization of candidate acaricides. PMID:16739411

Gutierrez, Jesus A; Zhao, Xiaowen; Kemper, Connie J; Plummer, Philip R; Bauer, Steven M; Hutchens, Douglas E; Smith, Charles K; White, W Hunter

2006-05-01

48

Detection of scabies: A systematic review of diagnostic methods  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of scabies infection is important for patient treatment and for public health control of scabies epidemics. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the accuracy and precision of history, physical examination and tests for diagnosing scabies. METHODS: Using a structured search strategy, Medline and Embase databases were searched for English and French language articles that included a diagnosis of scabies. Studies comparing history, physical examination and/or any diagnostic tests with the reference standard of microscopic visualization of mites, eggs or fecal elements obtained from skin scrapings or biopsies were included for analysis. Data were extracted using standard criteria. RESULTS: History and examination of pruritic dermatoses failed to accurately diagnose scabies infection. Dermatoscopy by a trained practitioner has a positive likelihood ratio of 6.5 (95% CI 4.1 to 10.3) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.2) for diagnosing scabies. The accuracy of other diagnostic tests could not be calculated from the data in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: In the face of such diagnostic inaccuracy, clinical judgment is still practical in diagnosing scabies. Two tests are used – the burrow ink test and handheld dermatoscopy. The burrow ink test is a simple, rapid, noninvasive test that can be used to screen a large number of patients. Handheld dermatoscopy is an accurate test, but requires special equipment and trained practitioners. Given the morbidity and costs of scabies infection, and that studies to date lack adequate internal and external validity, research to identify or develop accurate diagnostic tests for scabies infection is needed and justifiable.

Leung, Victor; Miller, Mark

2011-01-01

49

COMPARISON OF THE REPORDUCTIVE BIOLOGY BETWEEN ACARICIDE-RESISTANT AND ACARICIDE-SUSCEPTIBLE RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPLILUS) MICROPLUS (ACARI:IXODIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The reproductive dynamics of an acaricide-susceptible strain (SUS) of Boophilus microplus were compared to strains of ticks resistant to organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid (P), or formamidine (F) acaricides to determine whether the acquisition of resistance caused a reduction in fitness. The SUS stra...

50

Scratching the itch: new tools to advance understanding of scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies remains a significant public health problem worldwide. Research into aspects of Sarcoptes scabiei biology and host-parasite interactions has been impeded by an inability to maintain mites in vitro and by limited access to parasite material and infected subjects. The generation of comprehensive expressed sequence tag libraries has enabled the initial characterisation of molecules of interest to diagnostics, vaccines, and drug resistance. The recent development and utilisation of animal models, combined with next-generation technologies, is anticipated to lead to new strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat scabies, ultimately improving skin health in both human and veterinary settings. This article will summarise recent molecular and immunologic advances on scabies, and will address priorities for the exciting 'next chapter' of scabies research. PMID:23088958

Mounsey, Kate E; McCarthy, James S; Walton, Shelley F

2012-10-19

51

Epidemic scabies in four Caribbean islands, 1981-1988.  

PubMed

Scabies infestation has been reported to the PAHO/WHO Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) from Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), Grenada, Dominica, the Turks and Caicos Islands (T&CI) and, more recently, St Lucia. Epidemic scabies was being reported from T&CI in 1981 (1200/100,000 population), but there were no reports from T&T until 1982 (8/100,000). The first phase of the bimodal epidemic in Grenada occurred between 1982 and 1984 (132/100,000) and the explosive second phase from 1985 to 1987 (474-699/100,000). In T&T there was a low incidence of scabies until 1985 (0-59/100,000) and in Dominica the rate fluctuated (67-14/100,000) during the same period. From 1986 to 1988, scabies infestation reached epidemic proportions in T&T (410-709/100,000) and fluctuated in Dominica (108-117/100,000). In Tobago alone, scabies was not reported until March 1986, and by December the incidence rate was 105/100,000; by 1988 it had increased to 1124/100,000 population. Although no secondary infections have been reported from Grenada, Dominica, T&CI or St Lucia, T&T has reported increased streptococcal skin infections and epidemic post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis (PSAGN). The observed trend of increasing scabies infestation, increasing streptococcal isolates from skin lesions, and increasing PSAGN in T&T is noteworthy. PMID:2389327

Reid, H F; Birju, B; Holder, Y; Hospedales, J; Poon-King, T

52

Crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the widely accepted association between crusted scabies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, crusted scabies has not been included in the spectrum of infections associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 28-year-old Mexican individual with late HIV-infection, who had no apparent skin lesions but soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, he developed an aggressive form of crusted scabies with rapid progression of lesions. Severe infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei was confirmed by microscopic examination of the scale and skin biopsy. Due to the atypical presentation of scabies in a patient responding to antiretroviral therapy, preceded by no apparent skin lesions at initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the episode was interpreted for the first time as “unmasking crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome”. Conclusion This case illustrates that when crusted scabies is observed in HIV-infected patients responding to antiretroviral therapy, it might as well be considered as a possible manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Patient context should be considered for adequate diagnosis and treatment of conditions exacerbated by antiretroviral therapy-induced immune reconstitution.

2012-01-01

53

Acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of camomile flowers, Matricaria chamomilla, against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi.  

PubMed

Arcaricidal properties of decoctions, infusions and macerates of dried flower heads of camomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in vitro against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi Delafond (Parasitiformes: Psoroptidae). This mite species is responsible for otoacariasis in domestic animals. Mites were exposed to the extracts for 24, 48 or 72 h. All the extracts tested showed highly significant acaricidal activity when compared with controls. Among them, a decoction of 10% was the only formulation which gave 100% activity at all the three observations times. PMID:15189247

Macchioni, F; Perrucci, S; Cecchi, F; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I; Pampiglione, S

2004-06-01

54

Scabies: important clinical consequences explained by new molecular studies.  

PubMed

In 2004, we reviewed the status of disease caused by the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei at the time and pointed out that very little basic research had ever been done. The reason for this was largely the lack of availability of mites for experimental purposes and, to a degree, a consequent lack of understanding of its importance, resulting in the trivial name 'itch mite'. Scabies is responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immunocompromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by bacterial pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus via skin lesions, resulting in severe downstream disease such as in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. We now have further evidence that in disadvantaged populations living in tropical climates, scabies rather than 'Strep throat' is an important source of S. pyogenes causing rheumatic fever and eventually rheumatic heart disease. In addition, our work has resulted in two fundamental research tools that facilitate much of the current biomedical research efforts on scabies, namely a public database containing ~45,000 scabies mite expressed sequence tags and a porcine in vivo model. Here we will discuss novel and unexpected proteins encountered in the database that appear crucial to mite survival with regard to digestion and evasion of host defence. The mode(s) of action of some of these have been at least partially revealed. Further, newly discovered molecules that may well have a similar role, such as a family of inactivated cysteine proteases, are yet to be investigated. Hence, there are now whole families of potential targets for chemical inhibitors of S. scabiei. These efforts put today's scabies research in a unique position to design and test small molecules that may specifically interfere with mite-derived molecules, such as digestive proteases and mite complement inhibitors. The porcine scabies model will be available to trial in vivo treatment with potential inhibitors. New therapies for scabies may be developed from these studies and may contribute to reduce the spread of scabies and the subsequent prevalence of bacterial skin infections and their devastating sequelae in the community. PMID:22726646

Fischer, Katja; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Kemp, David

2012-01-01

55

Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies  

PubMed Central

The recent article by Mohammed et al. demonstrates an impressive effect of ivermectin mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on the burden of scabies. Partnering scabies research within the evaluation and monitoring of Neglected Tropical Disease programmes could potentially increase our understanding of the epidemiology and control of scabies and its important bacterial complications.

2013-01-01

56

Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies.  

PubMed

The recent article by Mohammed et al. demonstrates an impressive effect of ivermectin mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on the burden of scabies. Partnering scabies research within the evaluation and monitoring of Neglected Tropical Disease programmes could potentially increase our understanding of the epidemiology and control of scabies and its important bacterial complications. PMID:23594459

Engelman, Daniel; Martin, Diana L; Hay, Roderick J; Chosidow, Olivier; McCarthy, James S; Fuller, L Claire; Steer, Andrew C

2013-04-17

57

Community Management of Endemic Scabies in Remote Aboriginal Communities of Northern Australia: Low Treatment Uptake and High Ongoing Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundScabies and skin infections are endemic in many Australian Aboriginal communities. There is limited evidence for effective models of scabies treatment in high prevalence settings. We aimed to assess the level of treatment uptake amongst clinically diagnosed scabies cases and amongst their household contacts. In addition, we aimed to determine the likelihood of scabies acquisition within these households over the

Sophie La Vincente; Therese Kearns; Christine Connors; Scott Cameron; Jonathan Carapetis; Ross Andrews

2009-01-01

58

Community Management of Endemic Scabies in Remote Aboriginal Communities of Northern Australia: Low Treatment Uptake and High Ongoing Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Scabies and skin infections are endemic in many Australian Aboriginal communities. There is limited evidence for effective models of scabies treatment in high prevalence settings. We aimed to assess the level of treatment uptake amongst clinically diagnosed scabies cases and amongst their household contacts. In addition, we aimed to determine the likelihood of scabies acquisition within these households over

Sophie La Vincente; Therese Kearns; Christine Connors; Scott Cameron; Jonathan Carapetis; Ross Andrews

2009-01-01

59

Ivermectin: new indication. Oral treatment of scabies: simple and effective.  

PubMed

(1) Ivermectin is the first oral drug to be licensed in France for the treatment of scabies. (2) In common scabies, three small trials suggest that ivermectin is about as effective as topical preparations. (3) Several cohort studies have shown that ivermectin can control outbreaks of scabies (especially in institutions) and also in endemic areas. (4) There are no clinical trial data on ivermectin in crusted scabies. Case series suggest that combining ivermectin with topical treatments may increase efficacy. (5) Ivermectin seems to have few, mostly mild short-term side effects in adults. There are no reports of ivermectin treatment in infants weighing less than 15 kg or in breast-feeding infants. Data on about 400 pregnant women treated with ivermectin are reassuring. (6) In a small cohort of elderly patients, ivermectin used after topical preparations coincided with excess mortality 6 months later. Subsequent studies were reassuring, but all adverse events (including death) in elderly patients treated with ivermectin must none the less be notified. (7) In practice, oral ivermectin is effective against scabies and is thus an alternative to topical treatments. Its single-dose administration facilitates treatment, especially during outbreaks. PMID:12378743

2002-10-01

60

Increased Allergic Immune Response to Sarcoptes scabiei Antigens in Crusted versus Ordinary Scabies?  

PubMed Central

Scabies, a parasitic skin infestation by the burrowing “itch” mite Sarcoptes scabiei, causes significant health problems for children and adults worldwide. Crusted scabies is a particularly severe form of scabies in which mites multiply into the millions, causing extensive skin crusting. The symptoms and signs of scabies suggest host immunity to the scabies mite, but the specific resistant response in humans remains largely uncharacterized. We used 4 scabies mite recombinant proteins with sequence homology to extensively studied house dust mite allergens to investigate a differential immune response between ordinary scabies and the debilitating crusted form of the disease. Subjects with either disease form showed serum IgE against recombinant S. scabiei cysteine and serine proteases and apolipoprotein, whereas naive subjects showed minimal IgE reactivity. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater serum IgE and IgG4 binding to mite apolipoprotein occurred in subjects with crusted scabies than in those with ordinary scabies. Both subject groups showed strong proliferative responses (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) to the scabies antigens, but the crusted scabies group showed increased secretion of the Th2 cytokines interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-13 and decreased Th1 cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-?) in response to the active cysteine protease. These data confirm that a nonprotective allergic response occurs in the crusted disease form and demonstrate that clinical severity is associated with differences in the type and magnitude of the antibody and cellular responses to scabies proteins. A quantitative IgE inhibition assay identified IgE immunoreactivity of scabies mite antigens distinct from that of house dust mite antigens, which is potentially important for specific scabies diagnosis and therapy.

Walton, Shelley F.; Pizzutto, Susan; Slender, Amy; Viberg, Linda; Holt, Deborah; Hales, Belinda J.; Kemp, David J.; Currie, Bart J.; Rolland, Jennifer M.; O'Hehir, Robyn

2010-01-01

61

Treatment of scabies: Comparison of permethrin 5% versus ivermectin.  

PubMed

Scabies is an ectoparasitic, highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite called Sarcoptes scabiei. The insecticides ivermectin and permethrin are commonly used for treatment of scabies. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin in treating scabies. Two hundred and forty-two patients with scabies attending the dermatology outpatient department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were admitted. Patients were divided into two groups randomly. The first group and their family contacts received 5% permethrin cream and the other received oral ivermectin. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 85.9% at a 2-week interval, which increased to 100% after crossing over to the permethrin group at a 4-week interval. Twice application of permethrin with a 1-week interval was effective in 92.5% of patients, which increased to 94.2% after crossing over to the ivermectin group at a 4-week interval. Permethrin-treated patients recovered earlier. Twice application of permethrin with a 1-week interval is superior to a single dose of ivermectin. The temporal dissociation in clinical response suggests that ivermectin may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:22385121

Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Hemayat, Sevil

2012-03-05

62

Treatment of scabies and pediculosis: Facts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike many other skin diseases, success or failure of therapy of ectoparasitic infestation depends much more on how to use the topical preparation and whom we treat than on which scabicide or pediculicides to use. The diagnosis of scabies should no longer rely on the rather uncommon and unpractical sign of finding a burrow or the number of parasites per

Ronni Wolf; Batya Davidovici

2010-01-01

63

Elastosis Perforans Serpiginosa in Association with Scabies Mite  

PubMed Central

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a form of perforating dermatoses, which has a characteristic clinical presentation of grouped keratotic papules coalescing into serpiginous or annular configurations. The majority of elastosis perforans serpiginosa cases are idiopathic; however, various etiologies have been postulated for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The authors present a unique case of elastosis perforans serpiginosa that developed focally secondary to a scabies mite.

Frederickson, Julie; Griffith, Jack; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

2013-01-01

64

European guideline for the management of scabies, 2010.  

PubMed

Transmission of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei generally occurs by protracted direct body contact; although in crusted scabies, transmission also occurs via infected clothing or bedding. Diagnosis is usually clinical and topical antiscabietics are the mainstay of treatment. Oral ivermectin is not licensed in most countries, but may have a role in certain patients. Treatment of sexual contacts is indicated. PMID:21680661

Scott, G R; Chosidow, O

2011-06-01

65

Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues  

SciTech Connect

The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.)

2009-08-07

66

Prevalence of scabies and head lice among children in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

This is a survey of 120 children for scabies and head lice infestations in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang. Children from this welfare home (Rumah Kanak-Kanak Taman Bakti, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) were randomly selected. Majority of them were Malays (72.5%) and the rest were Indians. The infestation rates were highest in the 10-12 years age group with 46% and 70% for scabies and head lice respectively. Head lice was more commonly seen in girls (65%) than boys (29%). Scabies was more commonly seen in boys (50%) than girls (16%). Overall prevalence rate for scabies was 31% and for head lice infestation was 49%. PMID:21399584

Muhammad Zayyid, M; Saidatul Saadah, R; Adil, A R; Rohela, M; Jamaiah, I

2010-12-01

67

Risk Factors for Delayed Diagnosis of Scabies in Hospitalized Patients From Long-Term Care Facilities  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed diagnosis of scabies can cause an institutional outbreak, which causes considerably economic burden to control. This study was to find the risk factors for delayed diagnosis of scabies in hospitalized patients from long-term care facilities. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the hospitalized patients from long-term care facilities, diagnosed to have scabies between January 2006 and December 2008. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for delayed diagnosis of scabies. Results A total of 706 episodes with scabies were identified retrospectively in 399 hospitalized patients from long-term care facilities. Of these, 44 episodes were considered as delayed diagnosis of scabies. These patients were more associated with chronic usage of steroid (73% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and had longer duration of hospitalization than the others (30 vs. 13 days, P < 0.001). After logistic regression, steroid therapy was the risk factor of delayed diagnosis of scabies (odds ratio: 23.493). Conclusions In the patients from long-term care facilities, clinical physicians should pay more attention to those with chronic usage of steroid to avoid delayed diagnosis of scabies. Keywords Scabies; Delayed diagnosis; Risk factor; Long-term care facility

Lay, Chorng-Jang; Wang, Chun-Lung; Chuang, Hui-Ying; Chen, Ya-Lan; Chen, Hsiang-Ling; Tsai, Shu-Juan; Tsai, Chen-Chi

2011-01-01

68

Monitoring of resistance or susceptibility of adults and larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to synthetic acaricides in Goiás, Brazil.  

PubMed

Amblyomma cajennense or the Cayenne tick is a three-host ixodid tick species of low parasitic specificity that is the principal vector of Brazilian spotted fever. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the possible development of resistance by adult specimens of A. cajennense to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and the principal miticide/acaricide commercially available in the region. The second objective was to monitor the susceptibility and/or resistance of larvae of this species to 12 synthetic acaricide formulations selected from the principal pesticides available in Goiás for the control of ticks. Unfed male and female adult specimens of A. cajennense were collected from leaves of bushes along a nature trail in the municipality of Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brazil. They were submitted to immersion in the highest recommended dose of deltamethrin and subsequently, were placed in contact with filter paper impregnated with the substance. The toxicological effects caused by the insecticide were observed every 6 h over a 36 h period. To obtain larvae, engorged females of A. cajennense were collected from naturally infested horses that had been free of acaricidal residue for at least 45 days, in farms situated in five different municipalities in the state (Caldas Novas, Hidrolândia, Goiás, Terezópolis and Goiânia). The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of 12 commercially available acaricidal formulations using the larval packet test (LPT) method. The control groups were treated with distilled water alone. The bioassays were performed in quadruplicate at a temperature of 27 °C, relative air humidity > 80% and 12 h light/dark cycles. The mean percentage of mortality MX was 72.6% in the adult specimens after 24 h of exposure to the dose of deltamethrin recommended by the manufacturer, characterizing a status of resistance. MX of 82, 89, 89.6 and 90% of the larvae were obtained, respectively, for deltamethrin, cypermethrin + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), amitraz and permethrin, characterizing a status of probable resistance of the larvae to these acaricides. No significant mortality was found in the control groups. PMID:20976616

Freitas, Edméia de Paula e Souza; Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio Garcia; Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas

2010-10-26

69

Effect of owner-controlled acaricidal treatment on tick infestation and immune response to tick-borne pathogens in naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria  

PubMed Central

Background Tick-borne infections resulting from regular tick infestation in dogs are a common veterinary health problem all over the world. The application of repellent and acaricidal agents to prevent transmission of pathogens is a major protection strategy and has been proven to be highly effective in several trials under laboratory and natural conditions in dogs. Despite such promising results, many dog owners still report tick infestation in their dogs although acaricidal agents are used. Information about the current infection status and changes of the infection status regarding tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs treated by the owner’s controlled acaricide application is lacking. Methods In this study 30 dogs were each treated with permethrin, fipronil + S-methoprene, or served as untreated controls. Application of the acaricide was performed by the owner who decided when and how often to use the spot on preparation. Over a period of 11 months, dogs were clinically examined and sampled for antibody responses against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., and TBE virus before the study started, 6 months later and at the end of the investigation period. Results The permethrin acaricide was applied on average 3.40 times within the examination period, whereas the fipronil + S-methoprene medication was applied 3.03 times. Approximately 2/3 of all dogs, independent of the group, had a positive immune response to one or more pathogens. Three dogs developed clinical symptoms of canine babesiosis, all other dogs remained healthy. Individual number of ticks per dog or number of infections per dog did not correlate with the application rate, and the number of ticks per dog did not influence the number of infections per dog. As owners did not apply the acaricides regularly no influence on the number of infections could be documented although the number of ticks was clearly reduced by the application of the spot-on drugs. Conclusions Clinical disease in dogs exposed to tick-borne pathogens is rare, although a humoral immune response reflecting infection is common. More educational training for dog owners is necessary to make the application of acaricides effective regarding the prevention of tick-borne diseases.

2013-01-01

70

Scabies with clinical features and positive darier sign mimicking mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Scabies is a common human parasitic infection in infants and children. But diagnosis pitfalls are frequent in infants, in whom the clinical presentation is usually atypical and different from adults. We report a misleading case of a 5-month-old child, who presented with pruritic brown-red macules of the trunk showing a positive Darier's sign, suggestive of an urticaria pigmentosa. PMID:19706114

Phan, Alice; Dalle, Stéphane; Balme, Brigitte; Thomas, Luc

71

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa in association with scabies mite.  

PubMed

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a form of perforating dermatoses, which has a characteristic clinical presentation of grouped keratotic papules coalescing into serpiginous or annular configurations. The majority of elastosis perforans serpiginosa cases are idiopathic; however, various etiologies have been postulated for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The authors present a unique case of elastosis perforans serpiginosa that developed focally secondary to a scabies mite. PMID:24155992

Kassardjian, Michael; Frederickson, Julie; Griffith, Jack; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

2013-10-01

72

Baseline Susceptibility and Cross Resistances of Some New Acaricides in the European Red Mite, Panonychus ulmi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed baseline susceptibility values for four new acaricides: bifenazate, acequinocyl, spirodiclofen and etoxazole\\u000a for eggs or adult females of a susceptible laboratory population of Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Further, we have tested diagnostic concentrations of each acaricide against populations resistant\\u000a to organochlorine, organotin or IGR-type acaricides. Resistance to etoxazole (ca. 4-fold) was identified in populations resistant\\u000a to the

D. J. Pree; K. J. Whitty; L. Van Driel

2005-01-01

73

Two-spotted spider mite in Cyprus: ineffective acaricides, causes and considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growers of greenhouse roses in Cyprus have recently reported failures of several acaricides against two-spotted spider mite\\u000a (Tetranychus urticae Koch). To verify the cause of these failures we evaluated the effectiveness of seven acaricides against two rose and two\\u000a cucumber spider mite populations in the laboratory. The acaricides included in our study represented the most important mode\\u000a of action groups

M. C. Stavrinides; M. Hadjistylli

2009-01-01

74

A spatial stochastic model simulating a scabies epidemic and coyote population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scabies is an important disease that affects many species and can greatly reduce population sizes in some species, yet have little effect on populations of other species. Here, we develop an exploratory mechanistic model to examine scabies epidemiology in the context of host demographics. As a starting point, we use empirical estimates from a well-studied coyote population to generate realistic

Brian Leung; Bryan T. Grenfell

2003-01-01

75

Scabies outbreaks in nursing homes for the elderly: recognition, treatment options and control of reinfestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scabies mite is an ectoparasite able to infest humans. Its clinical presentation is typical, although in immunocompromised, mentally retarded and elderly patients the clinical presentation may be altered. Diagnosis may therefore be difficult in such patient groups, who often reside in nursing homes. Because delay in diagnosis may induce rapid spread of the scabies mite, immediate diagnosis and treatment

Milan Tjioe; Wynand H P M Vissers

2008-01-01

76

A Tractable Experimental Model for Study of Human and Animal Scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundScabies is a parasitic skin infestation caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is common worldwide and spreads rapidly under crowded conditions, such as those found in socially disadvantaged communities of Indigenous populations and in developing countries. Pruritic scabies lesions facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections, particularly Group A streptococci. Streptococcal infections cause significant sequelae and the increased community streptococcal burden

Kate Mounsey; Mei-Fong Ho; Andrew Kelly; Charlene Willis; Cielo Pasay; David J. Kemp; James S. McCarthy; Katja Fischer

2010-01-01

77

Complement Inhibitors from Scabies Mites Promote Streptococcal Growth – A Novel Mechanism in Infected Epidermis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundScabies is highly prevalent in socially disadvantaged communities such as indigenous populations and in developing countries. Generalized itching causes discomfort to the patient; however, serious complications can occur as a result of secondary bacterial pyoderma, commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) or Staphylococcus aureus. In the tropics, skin damage due to scabies mite infestations has been postulated to be an

Angela Mika; Simone L. Reynolds; Darren Pickering; David McMillan; Kadaba S. Sriprakash; David J. Kemp; Katja Fischer

2012-01-01

78

Species-Specific Detoxification Metabolism of Fenpyroximate, a Potent Acaricide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode of selective toxicity of fenpyroximate (tert-butyl (E)-?-(1,3-dimethyl-5-phenoxypyrazol-4-ylmethyleneamino-oxy)-p-toluate), a potent acaricide, was studied with respect to its detoxification metabolism. Among its metabolites examined, only ester hydrolyzed metabolites completely lost the inhibitory activity toward NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which suggested that ester hydrolysis was the key step in detoxification. After a single oral administration of fenpyroximate to rats, two labile intermediates (metabolites

Kazuhiko Motoba; Hideo Nishizawa; Takashi Suzuki; Hiroshi Hamaguchi; Matazaemon Uchida; Shunji Funayama

2000-01-01

79

Acaricidal efficacy of neem against Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, is one of the most serious pests attacking chilli pepper in Brazil. Aiming to offer an additional tool to be used for its control, we tested the acaricidal effect of neem, Azadirachta indica, on P. latus. Chilli pepper seedlings were sprayed with neem seed extract (NeemAzal T\\/S, 1% of azadiractin) at concentrations of 0.05, 0.10,

Madelaine Venzon; Maria Consolação Rosado; Adrián José Molina-Rugama; Vanessa Silveira Duarte; Rondinelli Dias; Angelo Pallini

2008-01-01

80

ADULT IMMERSION TESTS OF ACARICIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN AMERICAN AND AUSTRALIAN STRAINS OF BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adult immersion tests (AITs) for acaricide susceptibility were conducted in a similar manner in Texas, USA, using the Muñoz strain and in Queensland, Australia, using the N-strain of B microplus. Data were collected on oviposition 7 d after exposure to acaricide and subjected to probit analysis. Mos...

81

Investigation of a scabies outbreak in a kindergarten in Constance, Germany.  

PubMed

In industrialized countries, scabies occurs sporadically or in the form of protracted epidemics, typically in nursing homes for elderly people. Outbreaks of scabies in a kindergarten are very rare. The main goal of our study was to investigate an outbreak of scabies in a kindergarten and to identify risk factors for the infestation with the ectoparasitosis. We investigated an outbreak of scabies in a kindergarten in the City of Constance, southern Germany, with a particular pedagogical concept. Risk factors indicating a transmission of Sarcoptes mites through body contact or via fomites were assessed using questionnaires and by following the daily routine in the kindergarten. A total of 16 cases were identified. The attack rate was significantly higher in nursery teachers (risk ratio 42.1) compared to children (risk ratio 10.5). In all cases, scabies had developed rather recently, with minimal clinical manifestations. In nursery teachers, the probability of scabies was 4.4 times higher in those teachers who hugged children regularly. Children who preferably played with their own soft toys had a lower probability of developing scabies [risk ratio 0.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.42; p?=?0.04]. It seems conceivable that the particular pedagogical concept of the kindergarten favored the spread of Sarcoptes mites. We were unable to show whether transmission had preferably occurred through body contact or via fomites. PMID:23052985

Ariza, L; Walter, B; Worth, C; Brockmann, S; Weber, M-L; Feldmeier, H

2012-09-28

82

Effect of acaricides on the activity of a Boophilus microplus glutathione S-transferase.  

PubMed

In the present study, we report the effect of several acaricides on the enzyme activity of a Boophilus microplus recombinant glutathione S-transferase (rGST). GST was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified with glutathione (GSH) affinity column chromatography. The kinetic constants were determined by reacting GST with the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione. We report the effect of several acaricides on the enzyme activity of rGST. Some acaricides (ethion, amitraz, chlorpyrifos, DDT, cypermethrin, diazinon, ivermectin, deltamethrin and flumethrin) inhibited rGST. Contrarily, coumaphos had an activating effect. Although the accurate mechanisms of the B. microplus resistance to acaricides remain elusive, this work helps in understanding how acaricides can interact with GST. PMID:14746982

da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Torino Lermen, Tiago; Michelon, André; Sanchez Ferreira, Carlos Alexandre; Joaquim de Freitas, Daniela Reis; Termignoni, Carlos; Masuda, Aoi

2004-01-30

83

Use of ivermectin for the management of scabies in a nursing home.  

PubMed

Ivermectin was used for the treatment of a scabies outbreak in a nursing home. Among the 128 residents, 42 presented pruritus or cutaneous lesions and scabies was parasitologically demonstrated in seven patients. All residents were treated with two 12 mg doses of ivermectin given two weeks apart. Ivermectin treatment associated with procedures for environmental disinfection led to the control of the outbreak. In only one case, was there a failure of the treatment. It is concluded that oral ivermectin is an effective and practical therapy for scabies in nursing homes. PMID:10491498

Dannaoui, E; Kiazand, A; Piens, M; Picot, S

1999-09-01

84

Dissecting the complete lipoprotein biogenesis pathway in Streptomyces scabies.  

PubMed

Following translocation, bacterial lipoproteins are lipidated by lipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (Lgt) and cleaved of their signal peptides by lipoprotein signal peptidase (Lsp). In Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria, lipoproteins are further lipidated by lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt), to give triacylated lipoproteins. Streptomyces are unusual amongst Gram-positive bacteria because they export large numbers of lipoproteins via the twin arginine protein transport (Tat) pathway. Furthermore, some Streptomyces species encode two Lgt homologues and all Streptomyces species encode two homologues of Lnt. Here we characterize lipoprotein biogenesis in the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies and report that lgt and lsp mutants are defective in growth and development while only moderately affected in virulence. Lipoproteins are lost from the membrane in an S. scabies lgt mutant but restored by expression of Streptomyces coelicolor lgt1 or lgt2 confirming that both encode functional Lgt enzymes. Furthermore, lipoproteins are N-acylated in Streptomyces with efficient N-acylation dependent on Lnt1 and Lnt2. However, deletion of lnt1 and lnt2 has no effect on growth, development or virulence. We thus present a detailed study of lipoprotein biogenesis in Streptomyces, the first study of Lnt function in a monoderm bacterium and the first study of bacterial lipoproteins as virulence factors in a plant pathogen. PMID:21477129

Widdick, David A; Hicks, Matthew G; Thompson, Benjamin J; Tschumi, Andreas; Chandra, Govind; Sutcliffe, Iain C; Brülle, Juliane K; Sander, Peter; Palmer, Tracy; Hutchings, Matthew I

2011-05-02

85

Scabies infestation: the effect of intervention by public health education.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of scabies in an infested village; to educate the residents on self-treatment and prevention by the use of 5% monosulfiram soap; to evaluate the short term effectiveness of this intervention by determining, 2 weeks later, the compliance to self-treatment and prevention; and to determine the prevalence rate on the second visit. In 59 households (96.7% of the village) containing 313 persons, an educational session was held and a leaflet distributed on the use and availability of the soap. Thirteen persons (4.2%) from eight households (13.6%) had scabies. After 2 weeks, 7 persons (2.2%) (2 persisting and 5 new cases) from 5 households (8.5%) were infested. Thus a cure rate of 85% was obtained though the prevalence rate showed no statistically significant difference. Among the under 15 year olds, the numbers infected decreased from 10 to 3 while among the over 15 years olds, the numbers infected increased from 3 to 4, neither reading significance at the 5% level. PMID:2249723

Reid, H F; Thorne, C D

1990-12-01

86

Scabies infestation: the effect of intervention by public health education.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of scabies in an infested village; to educate the residents on self-treatment and prevention by the use of 5% monosulfiram soap; to evaluate the short term effectiveness of this intervention by determining, 2 weeks later, the compliance to self-treatment and prevention; and to determine the prevalence rate on the second visit. In 59 households (96.7% of the village) containing 313 persons, an educational session was held and a leaflet distributed on the use and availability of the soap. Thirteen persons (4.2%) from eight households (13.6%) had scabies. After 2 weeks, 7 persons (2.2%) (2 persisting and 5 new cases) from 5 households (8.5%) were infested. Thus a cure rate of 85% was obtained though the prevalence rate showed no statistically significant difference. Among the under 15 year olds, the numbers infected decreased from 10 to 3 while among the over 15 years olds, the numbers infected increased from 3 to 4, neither reading significance at the 5% level.

Reid, H. F.; Thorne, C. D.

1990-01-01

87

Infection of potato tubers by common scab (Streptomyces scabies) during brief periods when soil is drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plots of chitted and unchittedMajestic seed planted in soil naturally infested withStreptomyces scabies, were trickle irrigated to prevent infection except during 5, 10 or 15 days from when plants from unchitted seed began to form tubers.

D. H. Lapwood; T. F. Hering

1968-01-01

88

Soil moisture and the infection of young potato tubers by Streptomyces scabies (common scab)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Majestic potatoes planted in soil naturally infested withStreptomyces scabies were trickle irrigated to prevent infection of the tubers except during consecutive 7-day periods in the first eight weeks when tubers were developing (28 May to 23 July).

D. H. Lapwood; T. F. Hering

1970-01-01

89

Psoroptic scabies in bignorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) in New Mexico.  

PubMed

Prior to 1978, no reports were made of scabies lesions or mites recovered from any Mexican bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) examined in the San Andres National Wildlife Refuge in southern New Mexico. In 1978, all of five rams harvested by hunters had live mites of the genus Psoroptes and active lesions of scabies in their ears and/or on their bodies. Deaths due to scabies were not documented during this outbreak although aerial helicopter surveys conducted in March, June and September, 1979 recorded less than half the sheep observations of five previous and similarly conducted surveys. After measurement of the length of the outer opisthosomal setae of the male mites, they appear to be Psoroptes ovis (Hering), the common scabies mite of domestic sheep, cattle and horses. Final specific determination must await proposed transmission studies with domestic livestock. PMID:7373729

Lange, R E; Sandoval, A V; Meleney, W P

1980-01-01

90

Relation of potato tuber growth and skin maturity to infection by common scab, Streptomyces scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cut surfaces of tuber tissue of either resistant or susceptible varieties permitted abundant, macroscopically visible growth\\u000a ofS. scabies after being autoclaved or fumigated with propylene oxide. Sparse aerial mycelium developed on freshly cut, washed tuber surfaces.\\u000a In contrast, macroscopically visible growth ofS. scabies was prevented by intact skin surfaces of mature tubers which had been washed only, or autoclaved, or

W. J. Hooker; O. T. Page

1960-01-01

91

Outbreak of scabies in Norwegian nursing homes and home care patients: control and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of five months (October 1998–February 1999), an outbreak of scabies affected 19 persons associated with a nursing home in Oslo, Norway. Scabies was diagnosed in 13 patients; six long-term patients, five short-term patients also cared for at home, and two home care patients associated with the same institution. Six healthcare workers who had assisted with infected patients

B. M. Andersen; H. Haugen; M. Rasch; A. Heldal Haugen; A. Tageson

2000-01-01

92

Acaricidal effect of Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils against adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro.  

PubMed

In a laboratory trial, in west-central Iran, the acaricidal effects of the essential oils (EOs) prepared from two medicinal plants, i.e. Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus on the adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus were evaluated. For this purpose, the engorged females of R. (B) annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of oils (0.31-5.0%) using a "dipping method" in vitro. The engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (eight per dilution) for 1min then each replicate was incubated in separate petri dishes at 26 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The mortality rate for adult ticks exposed to different dilutions of P. roseum and E. globulus EO's showed a dose-dependent decrease. It was however significant only for the 2.5% and 5.0% dilutions of P. roseum EO, when compared to the non-treated control (P<0.05). The mass of produced eggs in adult female ticks exposed to both P. roseum and E. globulus EOs had decreased dose-dependently. It was significant for only 2.5% and 5.0% dilutions of P. roseum EO, comparing the non-treated control (P<0.05). The highest decrease in egg laying was reported for ticks treated with 5% dilutions of P. roseum (87.5%) and E. globosus (25%) (P<0.05). This is the first report that details the acaricidal activity of EO's obtained from P. roseum and E. globosus against R. (B) annulatus. The results show that both plants, particularly P. Roseum can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of R. (B) annulatus in the field. PMID:19356854

Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Halajian, Ali

2009-03-17

93

A diagnostic test for scabies: IgE specificity for a recombinant allergen of Sarcoptes scabiei.  

PubMed

Scabies infestations are difficult to diagnose clinically and current serologic tests have less than 50% accuracy. To develop more reliable diagnosis of scabies, specific IgE antibodies to a major scabies antigen recombinant Sar s 14.3 (rSar s 14.3) were measured in 140 plasma samples from scabies-infested and control subject groups using dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays (DELFIA). Levels of rSar s 14.3-specific IgE were quantified, and cross-reactivity with its house dust mite homologue, Der p 14, was assessed. The rSar s 14.3 DELFIA showed excellent diagnostic capability, with 100% sensitivity and 93.75% specificity for distinguishing subjects with current scabies infestation from control, uninfested subjects. Recombinant Der p 14 preparation was ineffective at inhibiting IgE binding to rSar s 14.3. This study shows that quantification of levels of IgE antibody to rSar s 14.3 is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of scabies infestation in clinical practice. PMID:22018936

Jayaraj, Rama; Hales, Belinda; Viberg, Linda; Pizzuto, Susan; Holt, Deborah; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Currie, Bart J; Walton, Shelley F

2011-10-21

94

Detection of living Sarcoptes scabiei larvae by reflectance mode confocal microscopy in the skin of a patient with crusted scabies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The diagnosis of scabies is established clinically and confirmed by identifying mites or eggs by microscopic examination of scrapings from the skin or by surface microscopy using a dermatoscope. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy is a novel technique used for noninvasive imaging of skin structures and lesions at a resolution compatible to that of conventional histology. Recently, the technique was employed for the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of scabies. We demonstrate the first ever documentation of a larva moving freely inside the skin of a patient infected with scabies.

Levi, Assi; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Ingber, Arieh; Enk, Claes D.

2012-06-01

95

Increased risk of pemphigoid following scabies: a population-based matched-cohort study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: No prior study has investigated the possibility that scabies patients may be at an increased risk for developing pemphigoid. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of pemphigoid following scabies during a 3-year follow-up period using a Taiwanese population-based claims database and taking clinical and demographic characteristics into consideration. METHODS: This investigation consisted of a study group of 6793 subjects with a diagnosis of scabies and 33 965 randomly selected subjects used as a comparison group. Each patient was tracked for 3 years following their index dates to identify those who received a subsequent diagnosis of pemphigoid. Stratified Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of pemphigoid during the 3-year follow-up period. RESULTS: Of the 40 758 subjects, 52 (0.13%) had received a diagnosis of pemphigoid during the 3-year follow-up period; 33 (0.49% of the study group) were from the study group and 19 (0.06% of the comparison group) were from the comparison group. Compared to subjects without scabies, the HR for pemphigoid for subjects with scabies was 5.93 within the 3-year follow-up period following the index date after adjusting for monthly income, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, psoriasis, stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, coronary heart disease, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and after censoring those that died during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: This study detected an increased risk for pemphigoid among patients suffering from scabies. Physicians treating elderly patients with a history of scabies should be alert to the development of pemphigoid. PMID:23506522

Chung, S-D; Lin, H-C; Wang, K-H

2013-03-18

96

Scabies increased the risk of chronic kidney disease: a 5-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The most documented complication of scabies has been reported to be infection by group A streptococci, which has in turn been suggested to contribute to the development of glomerulonephritis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) subsequent to scabies utilizing a population-based dataset in Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective matched-cohort study included 5071 subjects with scabies and 25 355 randomly selected comparison subjects. We individually tracked each subject for a 5-year period to identify those who subsequently received a diagnosis of CKD during the follow-up period. Stratified Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of CKD during the 5-year follow-up period. RESULTS: The incidence rate of CKD during the 5-year follow-up period was 9.66 (8.51-10.93) per 1,000 person-years and 6.24 (5.82-6.69) per 1000 person-years for subjects with and without scabies respectively. The HR for CKD during the 5-year follow-up period for subjects with scabies was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.15-1.56) that of comparison subjects after adjusting for monthly income, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, stroke, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tobacco use disorder, hyperlipidemia and alcohol abuse during the 5-year follow-up period. Male subjects with scabies were 1.40 (95% CI = 1.14-1.71) times more likely than comparison subjects to suffer from subsequent CKD, and female study subjects were 1.27 (95% CI = 1.05-1.61) times more likely. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that there was an increased risk for CKD among patients suffering from scabies. PMID:23374101

Chung, S-D; Wang, K-H; Huang, C-C; Lin, H-C

2013-02-01

97

Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under ?(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. PMID:23084038

Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

2012-10-01

98

Susceptibilities of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acarina: Macronyssidae), and chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae), to selected acaricides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative toxicities of ten acaricides to northern fowl mite,Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken mite,Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), were determined simultaneously by holding the mites inside disposable glass Pasteur pipettes previously immersed in acetone solutions of various concentrations (w\\/v) of technical grade acaricides. The LC90s (parts per million) of the acaricides after 24 h exposure for the

M. G. Fletcher; R. C. Axtell

1991-01-01

99

Scabies: a review of diagnosis and management based on mite biology.  

PubMed

Scabies is a contagious parasitic dermatitis that is a significant cause of morbidity, especially outside of the United States. Scabies is diagnosed most often by correlating clinical suspicion with the identification of a burrow. Although scabies should be on the differential for any patient who presents with a pruritic dermatosis, clinicians must consider a wide range of diagnostic possibilities. This approach will help make scabies simultaneously less over- and underdiagnosed by clinicians in the community. Atypical or otherwise complex presentations may necessitate the use of more definitive diagnostic modalities, such as microscopic examination of KOH prepared skin scrapings, high-resolution digital photography, dermoscopy, or biopsy. Scabies therapy involves making the correct diagnosis, recognizing the correct clinical context to guide treatment of contacts and fomites, choosing the most effective medication, understanding how to use the agent properly, and following a rational basis for when to use and reuse that agent. Although the development of new therapeutic agents is always welcome, tried and true treatments are still effective today. Permethrin is the gold standard therapy, with malathion being an excellent topical alternative. Ivermectin is an effective oral alternative that is especially useful in crusted scabies, patients who are bed ridden, and in institutional outbreaks. Despite the availability of effective therapeutics, treatment failures still occur, mostly secondary to application error (ie, failure to treat the face and scalp or close contacts, failure to reapply medication) or failure to decontaminate fomites. Because increasing resistance to scabies treatments may be on the horizon, we propose that standard of care for scabies treatment should involve routine treatment of the scalp and face and re-treating patients at day 4 on the basis of the scabies life cycle to ensure more efficient mite eradication. Practitioners should attempt to treat all close contacts simultaneously with the source patient. To eradicate mites, all fomites should be placed in a dryer for 10 minutes on a high setting, furniture and carpets vacuumed, and nonlaunderables isolated for a minimum of 2 days, or, for those who wish to be rigorous, 3 weeks. PMID:22210934

Golant, Alexandra K; Levitt, Jacob O

2012-01-01

100

GENETICALLY DISTINCT DOG-DERIVED AND HUMAN-DERIVED SARCOPTES SCABIEI IN SCABIES-ENDEMIC COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Overcrowding is a significant factor contributing to endemic infection with Sarcoptes scabiei in human and animal populations. However, since scabies mites from different host species are indistinguishable morphologi- cally, it is unclear whether people can be infected from scabies-infested animals. Molecular fingerprinting was done using three S. scabiei-specific single locus hypervariable microsatellite markers, with a combined total of 70

Shelley F. Walton; Jodie Low Choy; Annie Bonson; Antony Valle; James M Cbroom; David Taplin; Larry Arlian; John D. Mathews; Bart Currie; David J. Kemp

101

Scabies in the developing world--its prevalence, complications, and management.  

PubMed

Scabies remains one of the commonest of skin diseases seen in developing countries. Although its distribution is subject to a cycle of infection, with peaks and troughs of disease prevalence, this periodicity is often less obvious in poor communities. Scabies is a condition that affects families, particularly the most vulnerable; it also has the greatest impact on young children. Largely through the association with secondary bacterial infection caused by group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, the burden of disease is compounded by nephritis, rheumatic fever and sepsis in developing countries. However, with a few notable exceptions, it remains largely neglected as an important public health problem. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the current position of scabies with regard to its complications and control in resource-poor countries. PMID:22429456

Hay, R J; Steer, A C; Engelman, D; Walton, S

2012-04-01

102

Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases. PMID:21268539

Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

2010-12-01

103

Treatment of scabies and pediculosis: facts and controversies.  

PubMed

Unlike many other skin diseases, success or failure of therapy of ectoparasitic infestation depends much more on how to use the topical preparation and whom we treat than on which scabicide or pediculicides to use. The diagnosis of scabies should no longer rely on the rather uncommon and unpractical sign of finding a burrow or the number of parasites per infected patient. Most infested individuals have been shown to have several-fold more acari than the oft-quoted average of 12 adult acari per infected patient that appears in most of our textbooks (stemming from Mellanby's work). Contrary to what Mellanby taught us, we know that indirect transmission (ie, without personal contact) does occur. As to which agent to use, the winner remains undeclared at present. Although indirect contact transmission of hair lice has been clarified after thousands of years of infestation, there are still numerous questions, uncertainties, disagreements, and controversies on the subject; for example, we know that lice survive immersion in water but are probably not transmitted in swimming pools. There is no consensus on the best or most correct way to diagnose lice, nor is the problem of resistance resolved. We do not recommend a "no-nit" policy. PMID:20797511

Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya

104

A Novel Clinical Grading Scale to Guide the Management of Crusted Scabies  

PubMed Central

Background Crusted scabies, or hyperinfestation with Sarcoptes scabiei, occurs in people with an inadequate immune response to the mite. In recent decades, data have emerged suggesting that treatment of crusted scabies with oral ivermectin combined with topical agents leads to lower mortality, but there are no generally accepted tools for describing disease severity. Here, we describe a clinical grading scale for crusted scabies and its utility in real world practice. Methodology/Principal Findings In 2002, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH), a hospital in tropical Australia developed and began using a clinical grading scale to guide the treatment of crusted scabies. We conducted a retrospective observational study including all episodes of admission to RDH for crusted scabies during the period October 2002–December 2010 inclusive. Patients who were managed according to the grading scale were compared with those in whom the scale was not used at the time of admission but was calculated retrospectively. There were 49 admissions in 30 patients during the study period, of which 49 (100%) were in Indigenous Australians, 29 (59%) were male and the median age was 44.1 years. According to the grading scale, 8 (16%) episodes were mild, 24 (49%) were moderate, and 17 (35%) were severe. Readmission within the study period was significantly more likely with increasing disease severity, with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 12.8 (1.3–130) for severe disease compared with mild. The patients managed according to the grading scale (29 episodes) did not differ from those who were not (20 episodes), but they received fewer doses of ivermectin and had a shorter length of stay (11 vs. 16 days, p?=?0.02). Despite this the outcomes were no different, with no deaths in either group and a similar readmission rate. Conclusions/Significance Our grading scale is a useful tool for the assessment and management of crusted scabies.

Tong, Steven Y. C.; Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

2013-01-01

105

Photodecomposition of an acaricide, fenazaquin, in aqueous alcoholic solution.  

PubMed

Fenazaquin (I) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. The photodecomposition of I was studied in aqueous methanolic and 2-propanolic solution under UV light (30 h) and sunlight (70 h) separately. The photolytic half-lives in aqueous methanolic solution were found to be 17.1 h (UV) and 38.1 h (sunlight), whereas these were 12.9 h (UV) and 29.2 h (sunlight) for aqueous 2-propanolic solution; all followed a first-order reaction kinetics. Six photoproducts were obtained: beta-phenyl (p-tert-butyl) ethyl alcohol (II), 4-hydroxyquinazoline (III), p-tert-butyl vinyl benzene (IV), 2,4-dihydroxyquinazoline (V), phenyl (p-tert-butyl) acetic acid (VI), and 2-methyl-2-[4'-(2' '-hydroxyethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid (VII). Compounds VI and VII could be isolated only from aqueous 2-propanolic solution under sunlight irradiation. The major degradation products are formed as a result of cleavage of the ether bridge linking the quinazoline and phenyl ring systems of the molecule, oxidation of the tert-butyl substituent, and oxidation of the heterocyclic portion of the quinazoline ring. A probable mechanism of formation of the photoproducts is also suggested. PMID:12822939

Bhattacharyya, Jayati; Banerjee, Hemanta; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

2003-07-01

106

Photodegradation of the acaricide abamectin: a kinetic study.  

PubMed

The acaricide abamectin is a mixture of two colorless homologues in a molar ratio of at least 4:1 with the same structure of macrocyclic lactone. The kinetics of its degradation under direct (254 nm) and dye-sensitized (>400 nm) photoirradiation in methanol solution has been studied by UV-vis spectrophotometry, potentiometric detection of dissolved oxygen, stationary fluorescence, laser flash photolysis, and time-resolved detection of singlet molecular oxygen (O2((1)Delta(g))) phosphorescence. The results indicate that the degradation is very efficient under direct irradiation with UV light (254 nm), with a quantum yield of 0.23. On the contrary, under visible-light irradiation, using the natural pigment riboflavin or the synthetic dye rose bengal as sensitizers, the degradation is very inefficient and proceeds through a O2((1)Delta(g))-mediated mechanism, with a bimolecular rate constant for the overall O2((1)Delta(g)) quenching (the sum of physical and chemical quenching) of 5.5 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). This value is similar to those reported for the rate constants of the reactions of O2((1)Delta(g)) with isolated double bonds or conjugated dienes and points to similar processes in the case of abamectin. PMID:18642837

Escalada, Juan Pablo; Gianotti, José; Pajares, Adriana; Massad, Walter A; Amat-Guerri, Francisco; García, Norman A

2008-07-19

107

Acaricide resistance status in Indian isolates of Hyalomma anatolicum.  

PubMed

The multi host tick, Hyalomma anatolicum, is the commonest Hyalomma species in India and cattle serves as the main host of this species. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance of H. anatolicum to deltamethrin, cypermethrin and diazinon was conducted in 20 areas located in three agro climatic regions known to have abundance of the species. Results obtained by the "larval packet test" (LPT) showed a low grade resistance (level-I, RF <5) in the tick species to both deltamethrin and cypermethrin in 10 areas and higher grade resistance (level-II, RF <25) to deltamethrin in one area, where intensive use of synthetic pyrethroids are practiced for tick control. Low grade resistance to diazinon (level I) was recorded in six areas where organophosphates compounds are extensively used for agricultural practices allowing increased exposure of the moulting instars of the ticks to these chemicals. Biochemical analysis of the samples suggested involvement of esterase and alterations of acetylcholinesterase in the resistance mechanisms. PMID:22760859

Shyma, K P; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Ray, D D; Ghosh, S

2012-07-04

108

Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) tick populations susceptible or resistant to acaricides in the Mexican Tropics.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were: (i) to identify the frequency of cattle farms with a cohabitation of Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus, (ii) to determine the status of susceptibility or resistance to acaricides used in Veracruz, Mexico, on A. cajennense populations and (iii) to identify factors associated with A. cajennense resistant to acaricides. Fifty farms were visited to determine the presence of ticks (A. cajennense and R. microplus) and to collect engorged A. cajennense individuals. From these, 24 A. cajennense populations were evaluated in resistance bioassays using discriminating doses of acaricides. The acaricides tested were organophosphates (chlorpiriphos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amidines (amitraz) and fipronil (a broad spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide). A. cajennense infesting bovines were identified in 86% (43/50) of the farms visited, and 100% of the farms sampled (43/43) had cohabitation between R. microplus and A. cajennense. Of the farm owners or managers surveyed, 87.5% could not distinguish the morphological difference between tick genera. Populations of A. cajennense were 100%, 91.7% and 12.5% resistant to diazinon, coumaphos and chlorpyriphos (organophosphates), respectively, and 12.5% to amitraz, as were those susceptible to flumethrin and fipronil. In conclusions, populations of A. cajennense showed a high frequency of resistance to the organophosphates tested and to amitraz. Factors associated with the resistance to acaricides in A. cajennense were not identified. PMID:23827041

Alonso-Díaz, M A; Fernández-Salas, A; Martínez-Ibáñez, F; Osorio-Miranda, J

2013-06-10

109

Comparative toxicity of acaricides to honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers and queens.  

PubMed

Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied five acaricides, each with a different mode of action, to young adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were found to be three-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and six-times more tolerant of thymol than workers when adjusted for body weight differences between workers (108 mg) and queens (180 mg). Queens survived the highest administered doses of fenpyroximate (1620 microg/g) and coumaphos (2700 microg/g) indicating that queens are at least 11-fold more tolerant of coumaphos and at least 54-fold more tolerant of fenpyroximate than workers. However, queens treated with as little as 54 microg/g of fenpyroximate exhibited reduced survival over 6 wk after treatment. Amitraz was the only acaricide tested for which queens were not more tolerant than workers. The striking difference in acaricide tolerance of queen and worker honey bees suggests physiological differences in how the two castes are affected by xenobiotics. PMID:23356051

Dahlgren, Lizette; Johnson, Reed M; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

2012-12-01

110

Dissipation behavior of propargite––an acaricide residues in soil, apple ( Malus pumila) and tea ( Camellia sinensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propargite, recently introduced in India, is an effective acaricide on a large number of crops most of which are consumed by human beings directly or after processing. Therefore, it has become important to check the dissipation behavior of propargite in edible raw commodities, processed products and in the environment. In the present study, dissipation of residue of this acaricide in

Vipin Kumar; Chitra Sood; Shivani Jaggi; S. D. Ravindranath; S. P. Bhardwaj; Adarsh Shanker

2005-01-01

111

Mode of inheritance of resistance to three new acaricides in the Kanzawa spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari:Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetics of resistance to three new types of acaricide tebufenpyrad, fenpyroximate and pyridaben was studied by crossing a resistant (R) with a susceptible (S) strain of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The resistance ratios calculated from the LC50s of the R and S strains were 97, 1265 and 134 for tebufenpyrad, fenpyroximate and pyridaben, respectively. The responses to the three acaricides

Kouichi Goka

1998-01-01

112

Mitigation of Resistance Through Mixtures of Traditional Pesticides, Anti-tick Vaccines, and New Acaricides Developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...

113

New nemadectin congeners with acaricidal and nematocidal activity from Streptomyces microflavus neau3 Y-3.  

PubMed

Two nemadectin congeners 1 and 2 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a mutant strain (Y-3) of Streptomyces microflavus neau3. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with data from the literature. Compound 2 possessed a 5-membered ring lactone that is unprecedented among known milbemycins and avermectins. Both compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent acaricidal activity and nematocidal activity. Especially, compound 2 demonstrated impressive acaricidal activity against adult mites with an IC50 of 2.3±0.9?g/mL and mite eggs with an IC50 of 17.5±2.1?g/mL and nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans with an IC50 of 0.7±0.2?g/mL, which are higher than those of nemadectin and the known commercial acaricide and nematocide milbemycin A3/A4. PMID:23992860

Yang, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ji-Dong; Zhang, Ji; Xue, Chang-Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

2013-08-11

114

Studies in vitro on the relative efficacy of current acaricides for Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of Sarcoptes scabiei to various topical therapies has been described, but clinical assessment of treatment failure is problematic and in-vitro assays are generally not available. We describe a simple in-vitro analysis used to evaluate the relative efficacy of a range of topical, oral, and herbal treatments available in Australia for the treatment of scabies. S. scabiei var. hominis mites

S. F. Walton; M. R. Myerscough; B. J. Currie

2000-01-01

115

Fatty Acid and Protein Profiles of Streptomyces scabies Strains Isolated in Eastern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid composition was assessed for 31 pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains phenotypically related to Streptomyces scabies and isolated in eastern Canada. The profiles of these strains consisted of 12 to 17 fatty acids, most of which were saturated is0 and anteiso acids. The 31 strains were clustered into two groups within a Euclidian distance of 25. Members in the first

ERIC PARADIS; CLAUDIA GOYER; NANCY C. HODGE; RICHARD HOGUE; ROBERT E. STALL; CAROLE BEAULIEU

1994-01-01

116

A comparative study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The conventional antiscabietics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. Objective: This study compares the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies. Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients were randomized into 2 groups. Forty patients and their family contacts received

V. Usha; T. V. Gopalakrishnan Nair

2000-01-01

117

Recommendation for the conservation of the name Streptomyces scabies. Request for an opinion.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomic name of the pathogenic Streptomyces species that causes potato scab was changed in 1997 from Streptomyces scabies to Streptomyces scabiei in order to correct improper usage of Latin. The original species name had been in the literature since 1914 and this created confusion among resea...

118

Microarray analysis of acaricide-inducible gene expression in the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

Acaricide-inducible differential gene expression was studied in larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using a microarray-based approach. The acaricides used were: coumaphos, permethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz. The microarrays contained over 13 000 probes, having been derived from a previously described R. microplus gene index (BmiGI Version 2; Wang et al., 2007). Relative quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, real time PCR, and serial analysis of gene expression data was used to verify microarray data. Among the differentially expressed genes with informative annotation were legumain, glutathione S-transferase, and a putative salivary gland-associated protein. PMID:18834453

Saldivar, L; Guerrero, F D; Miller, R J; Bendele, K G; Gondro, C; Brayton, K A

2008-09-25

119

Comparison of oral ivermectin versus crotamiton 10% cream in the treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Scabies is a relatively contagious infection caused by a tiny mite (Sarcoptes scabiei). Products used to treat scabies are called scabicides because they kill scabies mites; some also kill mite eggs. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin versus crotamiton 10% cream for the treatment of scabies. Methods: In total, 320 patients with scabies were enrolled, and were randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200?µg/kg body weight, and the second group were treated with crotamiton 10% cream and were told to apply this twice daily for five consecutive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of two and four weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the two-week follow-up, the treatment was repeated. Results: A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 62.5% at the two-week follow-up, which increased to 87.5% at the four-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with crotamiton 10% cream was effective in 46.8% of patients at the two-week follow-up, which increased to 62.5% at the four-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Conclusion: A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as one application of crotamiton 10% cream at the two-week follow-up. After repeat treatment, ivermectin was superior to crotamiton 10% cream at the four-week follow up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:23431958

Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin

2013-02-25

120

Detection of living Sarcoptes scabiei larvae by reflectance mode confocal microscopy in the skin of a patient with crusted scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The diagnosis of scabies is established clinically and confirmed by identifying mites or eggs by microscopic examination of scrapings from the skin or by surface microscopy using a dermatoscope. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy is a novel technique used for noninvasive imaging of skin structures and lesions at a resolution compatible to that of conventional histology. Recently, the technique was employed for the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of scabies.We demonstrate the first ever documentation of a larva moving freely inside the skin of a patient infected with scabies. PMID:22734726

Levi, Assi; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Ingber, Arieh; Enk, Claes D

2012-06-01

121

Atypically distributed cutaneous lesions of Norwegian scabies in an HIV-positive man in South India: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Immune-compromised subjects, especially those with underlying HIV disease, are prone to be infected with Norwegian scabies, where the cutaneous lesions are classically distributed over the extremities. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an HIV-positive 16-year-old man with severe crusted Norwegian scabies initially misdiagnosed as a dermal fungal infection. The patient had extensive, generalized, thick, hyperkeratotic, crusting, yellowish papule

Ramachandran Vignesh; Esaki Muthu Shankar; Bella Devaleenal; Pachamuthu Balakrishnan; Shieh Mark Thousen; Ramalingam Sekar; Suniti Solomon; Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy

2008-01-01

122

Influence of long-term exposure to simulated acid rain on development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus  

PubMed Central

Development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduvals) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated after long-term (about 40 generations) exposure to various levels of acid rain; pH 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.6. Deionized water (pH 6.8) served as a control. The mites were reared on eggplant leaves at 28°C, 80%RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) in the laboratory. The results showed that the duration of the immature stage was significantly affected by acid rain exposure. The shortest duration (8.90 days) was recorded for populations exposed to pH 5.6 acid rain, while the longest duration (9.37 days) occurred after exposure to pH 2.5 acid rain. Compared with the control population, adult longevity was shortened with an increase in acidity. Similarly, the oviposition duration was also shortened by an increase in acidity. Statistically, female fecundity did not differ significantly between pH 5.6, pH 4.0 and control populations, but did differ significantly between the control population and those exposed to pH 2.5 and pH 3.0 acid rain. This suggested that the mite suffered reproductive defects after long-term exposure to acid rain with higher acidity (pH 2.5 and 3.0). The intrinsic rate of increase among different populations was not significantly affected, but the net reproductive rate of populations exposed to pH 2.5 and 3.0 acid rain was significantly less than pH4.0, 5.6, and control populations. Bioassay results showed that after long-term exposure to acid rain, susceptibility of the mites to two acaricides, dichlorvos and fenpropathrin, did not change significantly.

Wang, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Ping; He, Lin; Zhao, Zhi-Mo

2006-01-01

123

Baseline susceptibility of Oligonychus coffeae (Acarina: Tetranychidae) to acaricides in North Bengal tea plantations, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among various biotic stresses that tea plants face, mite attack, especially from the tea red spider mite (Oligonychus coffeae, Acarina: Tetranychidae), has been a major challenge in recent years. The difference in relative toxicity of different commonly used acaricides to O. coffeae was observed in plantations of the tea-growing region of North Bengal, India. This study indicated that the relative

Somnath Roy; Ananda Mukhopadhyay; G. Gurusubramanian

2010-01-01

124

Toxicity of Acaricides to the Bulb Mite Rhizoglyphus Echinopus (Acari: Acaridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a continuous exposure technique, the toxicity of 35 compounds to the bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze and Robin) was examined after 48 h. Sixteen acaricides yielded an LC50 of 2. The highest toxicity was exhibited by cyclodiene GABA antagonists (dieldrin, endrin and aldrin), some organophosphate (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and azinphosethyl) and carbamate (carbofuran) anticholinesterases and a thiazolidine flubenzimine. Oxythioquinox, fenazaflor,

Ibrahim Gencsoylu; Wei Liu; K. Amin Usmani; Charles O. Knowles

1998-01-01

125

Combination studies of selected acaricides with zineb, mancozeb, or carbamate for mite control on citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted between 1981 and 1988 to evaluate the potential of zineb (zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate), mancozeb (a coordination product of zinc ion and manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate) and carbamate (ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate) in combination with one or more of the following acaricides: ethion, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, chlorobenzilate, propargite or formetanate for the control of the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead)

Carl C. Childers

1990-01-01

126

Acaricide efficiency of amitraz/cypermethrin and abamectin pour-on preparations in game.  

PubMed

The efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. The eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. The amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. Both acaricides were effective against R. appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus in the eland. The amitraz/cypermethrin acaricide was effective against R. (Boophilus) decoloratus in the blesbok. Ticks can cause damage to the skins, secondary infections, abscesses, anaemia, loss of condition, tick toxicosis and act as vectors of infectious diseases. Introduction of hosts and/or ticks from endemic to non-endemic areas because of translocation of game, may lead to severe losses. The pouron acaricides tested were effective against natural tick infestations and should always be used according to the manufacturer's instructions and efficacy claims. PMID:16562734

Van Der Merwe, J S; Smit, F J; Durand, A M; Krüger, L P; Michael, L M

2005-12-01

127

The susceptibility of different strains of Cheyletus eruditus (Acarina: Cheyletidae) to organophosphate acaricides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acaricide susceptibility of seven strains of Cheyletus eruditus, originating from field populations of different sources, such as grain stores, a chaff pile and pheasant fodders, was compared with that of two laboratory strains. The strain least susceptible to all the organophosphates tested was the one that survived fumigation by PH3. The laboratory strains and a strain from Denmark were

1997-01-01

128

Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

129

A 35-month prospective study on onset of scabies in a psychiatric hospital: discussion on patient transfer and incubation period.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of scabies introduction into a hospital. We addressed the following question: Do patients transferred from other institutions pose a higher risk than patients from the community? From July 2003 to May 2006, a trained physician surveyed the inpatients and staff of a psychiatric hospital (six wards, 300 beds) on a monthly basis. During the study period, specific infection control measures beyond standard precautions, such as prophylactic treatment, were not adopted. There were 333 newly-admitted patients during the study period and among them, 122 were transferred from other institutions. Seven patients were diagnosed with scabies. Two of these patients were infected while in the hospital (secondary infection), thus the number of introduced scabies cases (index cases) was five. Four of the index cases were transferred from other institutions (three from psychiatric hospitals and one from a nursing home). The source of infection for one index case was unexplained. The rate of scabies infection among transferred patients was 3.3% while the infection rate among patients from the community was 0.5%. Therefore, transferred patients pose a higher risk than those from the community. The average time from admission to diagnosis of scabies was 141 days (range 34-313 days). The hospital personnel checked the skin condition of all patients at admission and none of the four patients showed symptoms of scabies. PMID:21950623

Makigami, Kuniko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Yasumura, Seiji

2011-09-26

130

Scabies Mite Peritrophins Are Potential Targets of Human Host Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Background Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1) was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD). Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL), the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. Conclusions/Significance This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the lectin pathway of the complement cascade. These initial findings indicate a novel role of scabies mite peritrophins in triggering a host innate immune response within the mite gut.

Holt, Deborah C.; Kemp, Dave J.; Fischer, Katja

2011-01-01

131

Effect of amino acids on thaxtomin A biosynthesis by Streptomyces scabies.  

PubMed

The regulatory effect of amino acids on the production of thaxtomin A, a phytotoxin produced by Streptomyces scabies, was investigated. Tryptophan had an important inhibitory effect on the toxin biosynthesis in all five strains of S. scabies tested. Two other aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) also inhibited thaxtomin A biosynthesis, while aliphatic amino acids did not cause an important decline in thaxtomin A production. Methylation of tryptophan prevented or reduced the inhibitory effect on thaxtomin A biosynthesis. In spite of the inhibitory action of tryptophan and phenylalanine on thaxtomin A production, incorporation of these radiolabeled molecules into thaxtomin A confirmed that they are metabolic precursors for the biosynthesis of the phytotoxin. PMID:12030709

Lauzier, Annie; Goyer, Claudia; Ruest, Luc; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Crawford, Don L; Beaulieu, Carole

2002-04-01

132

Scabies in animals and humans: history, evolutionary perspectives, and modern clinical management.  

PubMed

Scabies, a mite infestation frequently sexually transmitted, dates back to antiquity but remains a challenging parasite for study in clinical practice and community settings. Its history is one of centuries of slow progress to recognize the mite and to finally establish its nexus to the clinical syndrome of pruritis with several protean manifestations and different epidemiological patterns. Contemporary methods of management are briefly reviewed, with the future promise of improved evolutionary knowledge associated with the advent of molecular and genetic technology. Current information indicates that humans and earlier protohumans were most likely the source of animal scabies, first of dogs, and later of other species with subsequent spread to wildlife. Morphologically identical variants of Sarcoptes scabiei are nonetheless host specific, as determined by recent DNA studies, and invite future investigations into the dynamics of this troublesome sexually transmissible agent, with the goal of improved recognition and control. PMID:22417107

Currier, Russell W; Walton, Shelley F; Currie, Bart J

2011-08-01

133

Comparison of ivermectin and benzyl benzoate lotion for scabies in Nigerian patients.  

PubMed

Few studies have compared ivermectin directly with topical agents in developing countries. We compared the effectiveness of oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg) with topical 25% benzyl benzoate and monosulfiram soap in 210 subjects of age 5 to 65 years with scabies. Subjects with persistent lesions after 2 weeks received a second course of treatment. All lesions had resolved after 2 weeks in 77 of 98 (79%) subjects treated with ivermectin and in 60 of 102 (59%) subjects treated topically (P = 0.003). The improvement in severity score was greater in the ivermectin group than in the topical treatment group (P < 0.001). The overall cure rate after 4 weeks was 95% in the ivermectin group and 86% in the topical treatment group (P = 0.04). Compared with topical benzyl benzoate and monosulfiram in the treatment of scabies, ivermectin was at least as effective and led to more rapid improvement. PMID:17297053

Sule, Halima M; Thacher, Tom D

2007-02-01

134

EFFICACY OF ACARICIDES FOR CONTROL OF FOUR TICK SPECIES OF AGRICULTURAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE IN THE UNITED STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four acaricides (amitraz), cyfluthrin, permethrin and pyrethrins) were studied for their efficacy in killing three Amblyomma ticks (A. americanum, A. cajennense, and A. maculatum) and eight (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, fipronil, permethrin, pyrethrins and selamectin) for their effic...

135

Equivalent Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin and Lindane in the Treatment of Human Scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Of 53 patients, 43 (81%) completed the study, 19 in the group treated with ivermectin and 24 in the group treated with lindane. At day 15, 14 patients (74%; 95% confidence interval, 48.8%-90.8%) in the group re- ceiving ivermectin showed healing of their scabies and 13 patients (54%; 95% confidence interval, 32.8%- 74.4%) in the group treated with lindane

Edgardo N. Chouela; Alejandra M. Abeldano; Graciela Pellerano; Marta La Forgia; Rosa Maria Papale; Armando Garsd; Maria del Carmen Balian; Viviana Battista; Nora Poggio

1999-01-01

136

Cloning and Expression of a Gene from Streptomyces scabies Encoding a Putative Pathogenicity Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We cloned a 9.4-kb DNA fragment from Streptomyces scabies ATCC 41973 that allows the nonpathogen Strep- tomyces lividans 66 TK24 to necrotize and colonize potato tuber slices and produce scab-like symptoms on potato minitubers. Deletion analysis demonstrated that activity was conferred by a 1.6-kb DNA region. Se- quence analysis of a 2.4-kb DNA fragment spanning the DNA region necessary for

RAGHIDA A. BUKHALID; ROSEMARY LORIA

1997-01-01

137

A comparative study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The conventional antiscabietics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute.Objective: This study compares the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies.Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients were randomized into 2 groups. Forty patients and their family contacts received 200 ?g\\/kg

V. Usha; T. V. Gopalakrishnan Nair

2000-01-01

138

The efficacy of topical ivermectin versus malation 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Objective: There are different medications for the treatment of scabies but the treatment of choice is still controversial. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of topical ivermectin versus malation 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies. Methods: In total, 340 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin and the second group received topical malation 0.5% lotion and were told to apply this twice with 1 week interval. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Results: Two application of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 67.6% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 85.2% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of malation 0.5% lotion was effective in 44.1% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 67.6% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Conclusion:Two application of ivermectin was as effective as single applications of malation 0.5% lotion at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to malation 0.5% lotion at the 4-week follow up. PMID:23472617

Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham

2013-05-01

139

Development of acaricide resistance in Pacific spider mite ( Tetranychus pacificus ) from California vineyards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, grape growers in California reported failures of acaricides against Tetranychus pacificus McGregor. We collected T. pacificus populations from four vineyards and tested them for resistance to bifenazate, propargite and pyridaben. In addition, we sequenced\\u000a part of the cytochrome b gene of bifenazate-resistant and -susceptible T. pacificus to test for the presence of mutations reported to confer resistance

Menelaos C. Stavrinides; Pieter Van Nieuwenhuyse; Thomas Van Leeuwen; Nicholas J. Mills

2010-01-01

140

Fenazaquin Acaricide Specific Binding Sites in NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase and Apparently the ATP Synthase Stalk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenazaquin [4-(4-tert-butylphenethoxy)quinazoline] is one of several acaricides and insecticides, including rotenone and pyridaben, that are reported to act by inhibiting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) (EC 1.6.99.3) in the range 1–10 nM. [3H]Fenazaquin is used here at 0.8 nMas a radioligand with electron transport particles (ETP) of bovine heart mitochondria to develop a new and rapid filtration assay with 42% specific

Edgardo Wood; Bachir Latli; John E. Casida

1996-01-01

141

Factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript provides a summary of the results presented at a symposium organized to accumulate information on factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases. This symposium was part of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), held in New Orleans, LA, USA, during August 10–14, 2003. Populations of

L. D. Foil; P. Coleman; M. Eisler; H. Fragoso-Sanchez; Z. Garcia-Vazquez; F. D. Guerrero; N. N. Jonsson; I. G. Langstaff; A. Y. Li; N. Machila; R. J. Miller; J. Morton; J. H. Pruett; S. Torr

2004-01-01

142

Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300µg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0µg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient.

Afify, Abd El-Moneim MR; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Fayed, Sayed A; Shalaby, Emad A

2011-01-01

143

Treatment of scabies: the topical ivermectin vs. permethrin 2.5% cream.  

PubMed

Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei va. hominis). It is commonly treated with topical insecticides, but the treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of topical ivermectin vs. permethrin 2.5% cream for the treatment of scabies. In total, 380 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin at a dose of 400 microg/kg, repeated once the following week, while the second group received permethrin 2.5% cream and were told to apply this twice at one week intervals. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Two applications of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 63.1% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 84.2% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of permethrin 2.5% cream with a 1-week interval between them was effective in 65.8% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.5% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Two application of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of permethrin 2.5% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was as effective as permethrin 2.5% cream at the 4-week follow up. PMID:24171301

Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

2013-01-01

144

Novel Scabies Mite Serpins Inhibit the Three Pathways of the Human Complement System  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage.

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Mohlin, Frida C.; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M.; Pickering, Darren A.; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Pike, Robert N.; Blom, Anna M.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja

2012-01-01

145

Novel scabies mite serpins inhibit the three pathways of the human complement system.  

PubMed

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage. PMID:22792350

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L; Mohlin, Frida C; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M; Pickering, Darren A; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Pike, Robert N; Blom, Anna M; Kemp, David J; Fischer, Katja

2012-07-11

146

Composition and acaricidal activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil against two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch).  

PubMed

The essential oils from accessions of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) were characterized by GC and GC/MS and investigated for their acaricidal activity against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Twenty-nine compounds were identified with potential acaricidal activity. Glass receptacles were used as test chambers. For each dose and exposure time combination, three replicates were used. Each replicate consisted of 30 adult females of T. urticae, 10 mites in each leaf disk of Canavalia ensiformis placed in a Petri dish. Increasing amounts of oil or terpene were applied on a blotting paper strip, fixed on the inner surface of the glass recipient cover, corresponding to 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 microL/L of air, respectively. Exposure periods were 24, 48, and 72 h. Data obtained in these experiments were submitted to probit analysis. The essential oil of L. sidoides, thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:19758799

Cavalcanti, S C H; Niculau, E dos S; Blank, A F; Câmara, C A G; Araújo, I N; Alves, P B

2009-09-15

147

[Compatibility of two fungal biocontrol agents conidia with commercial chemical acaricides].  

PubMed

In this paper, the biological compatibility of fungal biocontrol agents Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus conidia with 10 commercial chemical acaricides were assayed, based on the conidial germination rates in nutritional liquid and on SDAY plate. The results showed that nutritional liquid was more available than SDAY plate in the assay. So far as the 24 h conidial viability concerned, there were significant differences among the test acaricides with the concentrations of recommended for field spray and 5 and 10 fold dilutions, as well as between the two fungal agents. Since acaricides azocyclotin, liuyangmycin, dicofol and avermectin had strong inhibitory effects on the 24 h germination rate of both fungal agents conidia, their combined application with fungal agents was unsuitable for mite control. However, the combined application of pyridaben, propargite, chlorpyrifos, hexythiazox or amitraz with either B. bassiana or P. fumosoroseus was practical, because of their short-term compatibility. When the mixtures of oil-based B. bassiana formulation with the three concentrations of pyridaben, propargite and chlorpyrifos were stored at 4 degrees C or at ambient temperature for 12 months, none of the three chemicals was considered to be good enough for a combined formulation due to the great variability in long-term compatibility. Nevertheless, chlorpyrifos exhibited an encouraging long-term compatibility with B. bassiana, because its low concentration in the fungal formulation did not affect the conidial viability during a 6.5-month period of storage at ambient temperature. When stored at 4 degrees C in dark, the B. bassiana formulation containing low or medium concentration of chlorpyrifos retained the conidial viability of > 90% for up to 12 months. PMID:17044504

Jiang, Yu; Feng, Mingguang

2006-07-01

148

Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.  

PubMed

The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite. PMID:22101075

El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

2011-11-12

149

The rise and fall of psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico.  

PubMed

Between 1978 and 1997, a combination of psoroptic scabies (Psoroptes spp.), mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation, and periodic drought reduced a population of native desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the San Andres Mountains (SAM), New Mexico, from >200 individuals to a single ewe. In 1999, this ewe was captured, ensured to be Psoroptes-free, and released back into the SAM. Eleven radio-collared rams were translocated from the Red Rock Wildlife Area (RRWA) in New Mexico into the SAM range and monitored through 2002 to determine whether Psoroptes spp. mites were still in the environment. None of these sentinel rams acquired scabies during this period, and no additional native sheep were found to be present in the range. In 2002, 51 desert bighorn sheep were translocated into the SAM from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona (n = 20) and the RRWA in New Mexico (n = 31). Twenty-one bighorn sheep have died in the SAM since that time, but Psoroptes spp. mites have not been detected on any of these animals, nor have they been found on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) sampled since 2000. We conclude that psoroptic scabies is no longer present in the San Andres bighorn sheep population and that psoroptic scabies poses a minimal to nonexistent threat to the persistence of this population at this time. PMID:16244062

Boyce, Walter M; Weisenberger, Mara E

2005-07-01

150

THE RISE AND FALL OF PSOROPTIC SCABIES IN BIGHORN SHEEP IN THE SAN ANDRES MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1978 and 1997, a combination of psoroptic scabies (Psoroptes spp.), moun- tain lion (Puma concolor) predation, and periodic drought reduced a population of native desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the San Andres Mountains (SAM), New Mexico, from .200 individuals to a single ewe. In 1999, this ewe was captured, ensured to be Psoroptes-free, and released back into the

Walter M. Boyce; Mara E. Weisenberger

2005-01-01

151

Acaricidal activity of cinnamaldehyde and its congeners against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acaricidal activity of cinnamaldehyde and its 11 congeners against adults of Tyrophagus putrescentiae was examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods and compared with that of benzyl benzoate, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and dibutyl phthalate. On the basis of 24h LD50 values, the compound most toxic to T. putrescentiae was cinnamyl acetate (0.89?g\\/cm2) followed by cinnamaldehyde (1.12?g\\/cm2), benzaldehyde (1.93?g\\/cm2), 3-phenylpropionaldehyde

Hyun-Kyung Kim; Jun-Ran Kim; Young-Joon Ahn

2004-01-01

152

Acaricidal activity of Margaritaria discoidea (Euphorbiaceae) plant extracts against the ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum (Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water soluble extract of M. discoidea, an African indigenous plant induced high mortalities in nymphs of both Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Amblyomma variegatum and in adult R. appendiculatus, but not in adult A. variegatum. An oil hexane extract from dry wood of this plant was found to be more acaricidal and a 6.25% concentrated extract killed 100% nymphal R. appendiculatus,

Godwin P. Kaaya; Esther N. Mwangi; Mutua M. Malonza

1995-01-01

153

Cross-resistance, inheritance, and biochemistry of mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor-acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Resistance of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, to acaricides acting as mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors (METIs) is an increasing problem. Because of their high levels of cross-resistance to all commercially available METI-acaricides, a Japanese strain (AKITA) and an English strain (UK-99) of T. urticae were investigated in detail. Larvae of both strains, AKITA and UK-99, showed 1,100- and 480-fold resistance against pyridaben, 870- and 45-fold resistance against fenpyroximate, and 33- and 44-fold resistance against tebufenpyrad, respectively, in a foliar spray application bioassay compared with the susceptible strain GSS. These resistance factors remained stable even when maintained in the laboratory without further selection. Furthermore, strain AKITA showed cross-resistance to dicofol. The METI resistant strains AKITA and UK-99 showed 2.4- and 1.7-fold enhanced O-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (cytochrome P450) activity. Increased oxidative metabolism of the METI-acaricides in the resistant strains could be partially suppressed in vivo by the monooxygenase-inhibitor piperonyl butoxide. Reciprocal crosses of homozygous, diploid females and hemizygous, haploid males of strains GSS (susceptible) and AKITA (resistant) revealed that resistance to pyridaben and fenpyroximate was inherited incompletely dominant with slight differences between maternal and paternal inheritance. This is the first attempt to mechanistically describe METI-acaricide resistance in T. urticae. The implications for resistance management strategies are discussed. PMID:11777067

Stumpf, N; Nauen, R

2001-12-01

154

A new in vitro test to evaluate the resistance level against acaricides of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus) microplus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present a new bioassay to assess the resistance status of ticks to acaricides. The Larval Tarsal Test (LTT) is a sensitive, highly time-effective in vitro test. It allows the investigation of a large number of compounds and doses on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a short period of time. The ability of the LTT

L. Lovis; J.-L. Perret; J. Bouvier; J.-M. Fellay; R. Kaminsky; B. Betschart; H. Sager

2011-01-01

155

Mange mites causing scabies in Egyptian buffaloes at Giza Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

In the present study, 560 buffaloes from a private animal farm in Giza Governorate were examined over one year for scabies infestation. The results showed that 466 Buffaloes (83.2%) were infested with two mange mites; Psoroptes natalensis and Sarcoptes scabiei. The highest prevalence rate of infestation was during winter (90.4%), and lowest was in summer (71.4%). The infestation on females was 90.4%, while on males was 80.8%. The mites were predominant on the withers, lumber, back, croup and the external angle of ilium. Buffaloes more than five years old were highly infested than smaller ones, but no mite's infestation were detected in those less than one year. PMID:21634242

Yassin, Mohammad K

2011-04-01

156

Acaricidal activity of an oleoresinous extract from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) against larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of oleoresinous extract (oleoresin) from the copaiba tree, Copaifera reticulata was investigated. Oleoresin was dissolved with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and mixed with distilled water at a rate of 0.4 ml of DMSO to 24.6 ml water. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different oleoresin concentrations. Four envelopes were impregnated with each tested solution. Thirty larvae between 14 and 21 days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27 degrees+/-1 degrees C, RH>or=80% and a photoperiod of 12:12 h. Larval mortality was observed 24 h after treatment. Four replicates for each concentration were evaluated to determine lethal concentrations (LC). Oleoresin LC50 and LC99 values were 1579 and 3491 ppm, respectively. The potential use of oleoresin for control of R. (B.) microplus is discussed. The results of this study reinforce the importance of the preservation of C. reticulata in its natural Biome, as a potentially auto-sustainable medicinal resource among the flora of Amazonian forest. PMID:17478043

de Freitas Fernandes, Fernando; de Paula Souza Freitas, Edméia

2007-05-02

157

Determination of the acaricide fenbutatin oxide in water samples by automated headspace-SPME-GC/MS.  

PubMed

The analysis of the acaricide fenbutatin oxide (FBTO) having a molecular weight of 1052.66 g mol(-1) in water samples by capillary GC/MS after in-situ derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4) and headspace-SPME enrichment is described. Automated SPME is performed at 80 degrees C for 30 min. Detection is carried out in the ion monitoring mode with deuterated triphenyltin (TPhTd15) as internal standard. Good linearity (R2 = 0.9993) was obtained in the dynamic range 20 to 1000 ng L(-1) with a limit of detection of 16 ng L(1) (LOD at 3 S/N) and a limit of quantitation of 50 ng L(-1) (LOQ at 10 S/N). Intra-day RSD% for n=6 was 8.9 at the LOQ level. PMID:15912737

Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Pat

2005-05-01

158

The ESX/type VII secretion system modulates development, but not virulence, of the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies.  

PubMed

Streptomyces scabies is a model organism for the investigation of plant-microbe interactions in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we investigate the type VII protein secretion system (T7SS) in S.?scabies; the T7SS is required for the virulence of other Gram-positive bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. The hallmarks of a functional T7SS are an EccC protein that forms an essential component of the secretion apparatus and two small, sequence-related substrate proteins, EsxA and EsxB. A putative transmembrane protein, EccD, may also be associated with T7S in Actinobacteria. In this study, we constructed strains of the plant pathogen S.?scabies carrying marked mutations in genes coding for EccC, EccD, EsxA and EsxB. Unexpectedly, we showed that all four mutant strains retain full virulence towards several plant hosts. However, disruption of the esxA or esxB, but not eccC or eccD, genes affects S.?scabies development, including a delay in sporulation, abnormal spore chains and resistance to lysis by the Streptomyces-specific phage ?C31. We further showed that these phenotypes are specific to the loss of the T7SS substrate proteins EsxA and EsxB, and are not observed when components of the T7SS secretion machinery are lacking. Taken together, these results imply an unexpected intracellular role for EsxA and EsxB. PMID:23009676

Fyans, Joanna K; Bignell, Dawn; Loria, Rosemary; Toth, Ian; Palmer, Tracy

2012-09-26

159

Effects of acaricides, pyrethroids and predator distributions on populations of Tetranychus urticae in apple orchards.  

PubMed

We sampled mites in three apple orchards in Nova Scotia, Canada, that had been inoculated with pyrethroid-resistant Typhlodromus pyri and had a history of Tetranychus urticae outbreaks. The objective of this study was to monitor populations of T. urticae and phytoseiid predators on the ground and in trees and to track dispersal between the two habitats. Pesticides were the chief cause of differences in mite dynamics between orchards. In two orchards, application of favourably selective acaricides (abamectin, clofentezine) in 2002, coupled with predation by T. pyri in trees and Neoseiulus fallacis in ground cover, decreased high T. urticae counts and suppressed Panonychus ulmi. By 2003 phytoseiids kept the tetranychids at low levels. In a third orchard, application of pyrethroids (cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin), plus an unfavourably selective acaricide (pyridaben) in 2003, suppressed phytoseiids, allowing exponential increases of T. urticae in the ground cover and in tree canopies. By 2004 however, increasing numbers of T. pyri and application of clofentezine strongly reduced densities of T. urticae in tree canopies despite high numbers crawling up from the ground cover. Another influence on T. urticae dynamics was the distribution of the phytoseiids, T. pyri and N. fallacis. When harsh pesticides were avoided, T. pyri were numerous in tree canopies. Conversely, only a few N. fallacis were found there, even when they were present in the ground cover and on tree trunks. Low numbers were sometimes due to pyrethroid applications or to scarcity of prey. Another factor was likely the abundance of T. pyri, which not only competes with N. fallacis, but also feeds on its larvae and nymphs. The scarcity of a specialist predator of spider mites in trees means that control of T. urticae largely depends on T. pyri, a generalist predator that is not particularly effective in regulating T. urticae. PMID:18008172

Hardman, J M; Franklin, J L; Beaulieu, F; Bostanian, N J

2007-11-16

160

Norwegian scabies.  

PubMed

An 87-year-old woman from a residential home presented with a 2-week history of worsening generalized pruritus. Her past medical history includes asteatotic eczema, recurrent urinary tract infections, and breast cancer. PMID:23958988

Govindarajan, Rk; Mitra, S; Obiechina, N; Weeraman, S

2013-08-01

161

The plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87-22 has a functional pyochelin biosynthetic pathway that is regulated by TetR- and AfsR-family proteins.  

PubMed

Siderophores are high-affinity iron-chelating compounds produced by bacteria for iron uptake that can act as important virulence determinants for both plant and animal pathogens. Genome sequencing of the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87-22 revealed the presence of a putative pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster (PBGC). Liquid chromatography (LC)-MS analyses of culture supernatants of S. scabies mutants, in which expression of the cluster is upregulated and which lack a key biosynthetic gene from the cluster, indicated that pyochelin is a product of the PBGC. LC-MS comparisons with authentic standards on a homochiral stationary phase confirmed that pyochelin and not enantio-pyochelin (ent-pyochelin) is produced by S. scabies. Transcription of the S. scabies PBGC occurs via ~19 kb and ~3 kb operons and transcription of the ~19 kb operon is regulated by TetR- and AfsR-family proteins encoded by the cluster. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of pyochelin production by a Gram-positive bacterium; interestingly regulation of pyochelin production is distinct from characterized PBGCs in Gram-negative bacteria. Though pyochelin-mediated iron acquisition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important for virulence, in planta bioassays failed to demonstrate that pyochelin production by S. scabies is required for development of disease symptoms on excised potato tuber tissue or radish seedlings. PMID:21757492

Seipke, Ryan F; Song, Lijiang; Bicz, Joanna; Laskaris, Paris; Yaxley, Alice M; Challis, Gregory L; Loria, Rosemary

2011-07-14

162

Acaricidal activity of fennel seed oils and their main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored-food mite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acaricidal activities of components derived from Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed oils against Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults were examined using direct contact application and compared with those of the compounds benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. The biologically active constituent of the F. vulgare seeds was characterized as (+)-carvone by spectroscopic analyses. On the basis of LD50 values, the compound most

Chi-Hoon Lee; Bo-Kyung Sung; Hoi-Seon Lee

2006-01-01

163

Susceptibility of two bulb mites, Rhizoglyphus robini and R. setosus (Acarina: Acaridae), to some acaricides and insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of two field-collected bulb mites,Rhizoglyphus robini andR. setosus to some organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids and other compounds with acaricidal activity was evaluated. In general,R. setosus was more tolerant to these compounds thanR. robini. Among the 58 commercially formulated compounds tested,R. robini was susceptible to chlorpyrifos 22.5% EC, EPN 45% EC, ethion 46.5% EC, fenitrothion 50% EC, methamidophos 50% S,

JENG-SHONG CHEN; Kang-Chenlo

1989-01-01

164

Monitoring of resistance or susceptibility of adults and larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to synthetic acaricides in Goiás, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amblyomma cajennense or the Cayenne tick is a three-host ixodid tick species of low parasitic specificity that is the principal vector of Brazilian\\u000a spotted fever. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the possible development of resistance by adult specimens\\u000a of A. cajennense to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and the principal miticide\\/acaricide commercially available in the region.

Edméia de Paula e Souza Freitas; Marco Túlio Antônio Garcia Zapata; Fernando de Freitas Fernandes

2011-01-01

165

Toxicity of plant essential oils to acaricide-susceptible and -resistant Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

The toxicity of 10 plant essential oils to adults of acaricide-susceptible, chlorfenapyr-resistant (CRT-53), fenpropathrin-resistant (FRT-53), pyridaben-resistant (PRT-53), and abamectin-resistant (ART-53) strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and to female Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined using spray or vapor-phase mortality bioassays. In bioassay with the susceptible adults, lemon eucalyptus (19.3 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, followed by peppermint, citronella Java, thyme red, caraway seed, clove leaf, and pennyroyal oils (LC50, 20.6-23.7 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these oils was almost identical against adults from either of the susceptible and resistant strains, even though CRT-53, FRT-53, PRT-53, and ART-53 adults exhibited high levels of resistance to chlorfenapyr (resistance ratio [RR], > 9,140), fenpropathrin (RR, 94), pyridaben (RR, > 390), and abamectin (RR, 85), respectively. Against female N. californicus, lemon eucalyptus (LC50, 21.4 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, whereas the LC50 values of the other nine oils ranged from 23.2 to 72.6 microg/cm3. N. californicus was 1-2 times more tolerant than T. urticae to the test essential oils. Thus, these essential oils merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of acaricide-resistant T. urticae populations as fumigants. PMID:20857739

Han, Jun; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Gyeu; Kim, Soon Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

2010-08-01

166

Transcriptome analysis of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, and its gene expression by exposure to insecticide/acaricide.  

PubMed

The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, is known for its ability rapidly to evolve resistance to insecticides/acaricides and to adapt to hosts that produce toxins. In this study, we constructed an unprecedented four gigabase pair transcriptome of P. citri, which was assembled into 64 149 unique transcripts, the functions of which were annotated by five public databases. A total of 116 unique transcripts were identified as representatives of potential involvement in the detoxification of xenobiotics. Genes recorded to encoding insecticide/acaricide target proteins were also obtained from the P. citri transcriptome. In order to explore novel candidate genes potentially involved in the pesticide detoxification of P. citri, we also constructed digital gene expression libraries of short-term transcriptome responses of P. citri to pesticides, which resulted in the identification of 120 unique transcripts potentially associated with insecticide/acaricide detoxification. Our study will facilitate molecular research on pesticide resistance in citrus red mites, as well as in other phytophagous mites. PMID:22676046

Niu, J-Z; Dou, W; Ding, T-B; Shen, G-M; Zhang, K; Smagghe, G; Wang, J-J

2012-06-08

167

Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed. PMID:22020517

Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

2011-10-21

168

Acaricide Treatment Affects Viral Dynamics in Varroa destructor-Infested Honey Bee Colonies via both Host Physiology and Mite Control  

PubMed Central

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed.

Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R.

2012-01-01

169

Development of acaricide resistance in Pacific spider mite (Tetranychus pacificus) from California vineyards.  

PubMed

In recent years, grape growers in California reported failures of acaricides against Tetranychus pacificus McGregor. We collected T. pacificus populations from four vineyards and tested them for resistance to bifenazate, propargite and pyridaben. In addition, we sequenced part of the cytochrome b gene of bifenazate-resistant and -susceptible T. pacificus to test for the presence of mutations reported to confer resistance to the congeneric T. urticae. None of the mutations conferring resistance to bifenazate in T. urticae were present in resistant T. pacificus. Resistance levels ranged from full susceptibility to statistically significant 11-fold resistance to pyridaben, sevenfold resistance to bifenazate and fourfold resistance to propargite compared to a susceptible population. Despite the relatively low levels of resistance detected, we estimated that under the conditions of our study the highest field rates of bifenazate and pyridaben application would cause less than 58 and 66% mortality of adult females in the most resistant populations, respectively. In contrast, field rates of propargite application would cause close to 100% mortality in the least susceptible population. These results highlight a potential link between resistance development and reduced field effectiveness for bifenazate and pyridaben. Finally, T. pacificus may be more tolerant to bifenazate and propargite than T. urticae, since the LC(50) values for the susceptible population of T. pacificus were several times higher than LC(50)'s reported for susceptible T. urticae. PMID:19771398

Stavrinides, Menelaos C; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Mills, Nicholas J

2009-09-22

170

Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.  

PubMed

In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light). PMID:20218530

Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

2009-01-01

171

Variation in chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Dermanyssus gallinae of four eucalyptus essential oils.  

PubMed

The results of this study suggest that certain eucalyptus essential oils may be of use as an alternative to synthetic acaricides in the management of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. At a level of 0.21 mg/cm(2), the essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora achieved 85% mortality in D. gallinae over a 24 h exposure period in contact toxicity tests. A further two essential oils from different eucalyptus species, namely E. globulus and E. radiata, provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower mite mortality (11 and 19%, respectively). Notable differences were found between the eucalyptus essential oils regarding their chemical compositions. There appeared to be a trend whereby the essential oils that were composed of the fewer chemical components were the least lethal to D. gallinae. It may therefore be the case that the complexity of an essential oil's chemical make up plays an important role in dictating the toxicity of that oil to pests such as D. gallinae. PMID:19089590

George, David R; Masic, Dino; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Guy, Jonathan H

2008-12-17

172

SUSCEPTIBILIDAD DE Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) COLECTADA EN Primula obconica Hance Y Convolvulus arvensis L. A ACARICIDAS Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) collected in Primula obconica Hance and Convolvulus arvensis L. to acaricides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The use of acaricides of high toxicity in the production and handling of ornamental plants should be a matter of consumer concern. The susceptibility of two populations of Tetranychus urticae was assessed: one collected from Primula obconica Hance and the other from Convolvulus arvenis L. as susceptible reference strain to the acaricides

173

Action of the insect growth regulator fluazuron, the active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak(®) , in Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the efficacy of fluazuron (active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak(®) ) and its effects on Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits exposed to different doses of this insect growth regulator. Three different doses of fluazuron (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg) were applied on the back of hosts (via "pour on"), while distilled water was applied to the Control group. On the first day of treatment with fluazuron (24 h), hosts were artificially infested with R. sanguineus nymphs. Once fully engorged, nymphs were removed and placed in identified Petri dishes in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) incubator for 7 days. After this period, engorged nymphs were processed for ultramorphological analysis. The results revealed alterations in the ultramorphology of many chitinous structures (smaller hypostome and chelicerae, less sclerotized scutum, fewer sensilla, fewer pores, absence of grooves, marginal and cervical strips and festoons in the body, even the anal plaque was damaged) that play essential roles for the survivor of ticks and that can compromise the total or partial development of nymphs and emergence of adults after periodic molting. Our findings confirm the efficacy of fluazuron, a more specific and less aggressive chemical to the environment and human health, and that does not induce resistance, in nymphs of the tick R. sanguineus in artificially infested rabbits treated with this arthropod growth regulator (AGR), indicating that it could be used in the control of this stage of the biological cycle of the tick R. sanguineus. Microsc. Res. Tech. 76:1177-1185, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24000046

Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; De Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2013-09-02

174

Acaricide toxicity and resistance in larvae of different strains of Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

The toxicities of eight structurally different acaricidal compounds to six-legged larvae (first motile stage) of three laboratory strains of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus uritcae, and the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi, were evaluated following spray application. The larvae of five field-derived strains of T urticae originating from France, Italy, Brazil, California and Florida were also tested for their susceptibilities to discriminating concentrations of several acaricides resulting in 95% mortality when applied to the organophosphate-resistant laboratory reference strain WI. The spray bioassay used was robust and gave repeatable results with a wide range of acaricidal compounds, irrespective of their mode of action (ovo-larvicides or primarily acting on motile life stages). Compounds tested were abamectin, azocyclotin, chlorpyrifos, clofentezine, deltamethrin, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox and pyridaben. Larvae of one of the laboratory strains of T urticae, AK, originally collected in Japan in 1996 and maintained without further selection pressure, exhibited 2000- and > 4000-fold resistance to the mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors pyridaben and fenpyroximate, respectively. Another strain of T urticae, AU, obtained from Australia and maintained in the laboratory under selection with hexythiazox and clofentezine since 1987 showed > 770- and > 1000-fold resistance to clofentezine and hexythiazox, respectively. The same resistance pattern was observed against larvae of a laboratory strain of P ulmi, CE, also selected with hexythiazox. Larvae of one of the field-derived strains of T urticae, BR, showed a lower susceptibility to a number of compounds, whilst the others were susceptible to all compounds except the organophosphates. PMID:11455655

Nauen, R; Stumpf, N; Elbert, A; Zebitz, C P; Kraus, W

2001-03-01

175

In-Vitro Assessment of the Acaricidal Properties of Artemisia annua and Zataria multiflora Essential Oils to Control Cattle Ticks  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect’ of Zataria multiflora and Artemisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Methods This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3) of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus) annulatus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were recorded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi). Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, and comparison of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure. Results The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3) to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3) and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively) by the end of the experiment (36 hpi). No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. annua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essential oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged female ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent. Conclusion Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro.

Pirali-Kheirabadi, KH; Teixeira da Silva, JA

2011-01-01

176

Soil transmitted helminths and scabies in Zanzibar, Tanzania following mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis - a rapid assessment methodology to assess impact  

PubMed Central

Background Ivermectin and albendazole are used in annual mass drug administration (MDA) for the lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes in African countries co-endemic for onchocerciasis, but have additional impact on soil transmitted helminths and the ectoparasitic mite which causes scabies. Assessing these collateral impacts at scale is difficult due to the insensitivity of available parasite detection techniques. Methods The numbers of cases diagnosed with intestinal helminths and scabies and who received prescriptions for treatment were evaluated in 50 health centres in Zanzibar. Records were examined from 2000, prior to the initiation of MDA to 2005, after six rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis had taken place. Results Health centre records showed a consistent decline in the number of cases of intestinal helminths and scabies diagnosed by community health workers in Zanzibar and the number of prescriptions issued across five age groups. A 90-98% decline in soil transmitted helminths and 68-98% decline in scabies infections were recorded. Poisson regression models aggregated to both the island-level and district-level indicated that the decline was statistically significant. Conclusions The described method of examining health centre records has the potential for use on a large scale, despite limitations, as a rapid method to evaluate the impacts resulting from both lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis MDA. This would result in a reduction in the need for parasitological evaluations to determine prevalence and intensity.

2012-01-01

177

Acaricidal activity against Panonychus citri of a ginkgolic acid from the external seed coat of Ginkgo biloba.  

PubMed

An acaricidal substance extracted from the external seed coat of Ginkgo biloba L. was identified by UV (ultraviolet), IR (infrared), EI-MS (electron impact ion source mass spectrometry), (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and (13)C NMR as 6-[(Z)-10-heptadecenyl]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (compound 1). Laboratory bioassay on citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Mcg), showed that compound 1 possessed the following properties. (i) Powerful contact toxicity with an LC(50) of 5.2 mg litre(-1) after 24 h that was similar to that of pyridaben (LC(50) = 3.4 mg litre(-1)) and significantly superior to that of omethoate (LC(50) = 122 mg litre(-1)). Furthermore, its LC(90) was 13.4 mg litre(-1) after 24 h, which is significantly superior to both pyridaben (LC(90) = 69.6 mg litre(-1)) and omethoate (LC(90) = 453 mg litre(-1)). (ii) Quick-acting acaricidal activity. At identical concentrations, compound 1 was much faster-acting than pyridaben or omethoate. (iii) Compound 1 had strong corrosive action on the cuticle of P. citri but no phytotoxicity to plants. PMID:16475219

Pan, Weigao; Luo, Peng; Fu, Ruobin; Gao, Ping; Long, Zhangfu; Xu, Feiyi; Xiao, Haibo; Liu, Shigui

2006-03-01

178

Nosema spp. parasitization decreases the effectiveness of acaricide strips (Apivar(®) ) in treating varroosis of honey bee (Apis mellifera iberiensis) colonies.  

PubMed

Given the key role played by honey bees in almost all terrestrial ecosystems, maintaining bee populations in adequate sanitary conditions is crucial for these essential pollinators to continue their work. From the beginning of the 21st century, beekeepers have reported a progressive increase in the overwintering mortality of honey bee colonies worldwide. Despite the failure to reach a consensus regarding the cause of this phenomenon, pathogens are thought to be strongly implicated. In the present work, we provide evidence of the negative effects of colony parasitization by Nosema spp. - primarily by N.?ceranae- on the effectiveness of acaricide strips to treat Varroa destructor. The effectiveness of the Varroa mite strip treatment (Apivar(®) ) was greater in colonies in which Nosema spp. parasitization had been controlled. Several studies report that infection by Nosema spp. may affect the behaviour of worker bees. As the effectiveness of Varroa strip treatment depends on bees contacting the strips and their subsequent interaction within the colony, such behavioural and social alterations could interfere with the treatment and allow more severe effects to develop in the colonies infected by Nosema. These results should be considered when assessing acaricide treatments in field conditions due to the high prevalence of both pathogens worldwide. PMID:23757230

Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Barrios, Laura; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; Nanetti, Antonio; Meana, Aranzazu; Higes, Mariano

2011-12-05

179

The Effect of Patch Size and Persistence of Host Plants on the Development of Acaricide Resistance in the Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus Urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal characteristics of host plants can influence the population biology of the herbivores feeding on them. In this study, I examined the effect of variation in host plant characteristics on the development of acaricide resistance in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a widely distributed agricultural pest. This investigation examined the geographic variation in the degree of resistance

Kouichi Goka

1999-01-01

180

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of acaricides against ticks (Ixodidae) on ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies for the assessment of the efficacy of acaricides (excluding vaccines and other bio-control agents) against single and multi-host ticks (Ixodidae) on ruminants. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. The use of

P. A. Holdsworth; D. Kemp; P. Green; R. J. Peter; C. De Bruin; N. N. Jonsson; T. Letonja; S. Rehbein; J. Vercruysse

2006-01-01

181

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of acaricides against (mange and itch) mites on ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies for the assessment of the efficacy of acaricides against mange and itch mites on ruminants. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. These guidelines also are intended to assist the investigators on

J. Vercruysse; S. Rehbein; P. A. Holdsworth; T. Letonja; R. J. Peter

2006-01-01

182

[Resistance of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) to acaricides that inhibit cellular respiration in citrus: cross-resistance and fitness cost].  

PubMed

Acaricides that inhibit cellular respiration play an important role in the control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) in citrus groves in Brazil. Studies were conducted to evaluate: (a) the variability in the susceptibility among B. phoenicis populations collected from citrus groves to cyhexatin, azocyclotin, propargite and sulphur; (b) cross-resistance relationships between propargite and azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dinocap, pyridaben and sulphur; and (c) the fitness cost associated with propargite resistance in B. phoenicis under laboratory conditions. A residual-type contact bioassay was used to characterize the susceptibility. The susceptibility was estimated with diagnostic concentrations based LC(95) of each acaricide. The cross-resistance was evaluated by characterizing the concentration-mortality responses of susceptible (S) and propargite-resistant (Propargite-R) strains. The fitness cost was evaluated by measuring the biological parameters of S and Propargite-R strains on citrus fruits at 25 +/- 1 degrees C and fotophase of 14h. Significant differences in the susceptibility of B. phoenicis were detected at diagnostic concentration of cyhexatin (survivorship from 16.3% to 80.5%), azocyclotin (from 3.0% to 15.0%), propargite (from 1.0% a 71.6%) and sulphur (from 9.0% to 82.6%). A low intensity of cross-resistance was detected between propargite and the acaricides azocyclotin (1.8-fold), cyhexatin (4.6-fold), dinocap (3.5-fold) and pyridaben (3.5-fold). On the other hand, the intensity of cross-resistance to sulphur (> 111-fold) was very high. There was no fitness cost associated with B. phoenicis resistance to propargite, based on biological parameters evaluated. Therefore, the use of these acaricides should also be done very carefully in resistance management of B. phoenicis to acaricides. PMID:17934623

Franco, Cláudio R; Casarin, Nádia F B; Domingues, Felipe A; Omoto, Celso

183

Residue distribution of the acaricide coumaphos in honey following application of a new slow-release formulation.  

PubMed

Acaricide used in beehives for the control of varroa often leaves residues in bee products. The behaviour and distribution of the acaricide coumaphos in honey following the application of a new slow-release strip formulation (CheckMite+) was assessed. The bee colonies were allowed to build new combs without foundation, and two strips were hung in the brood chamber of each colony for a period of 42 days. The distribution of coumaphos residues in honey in relation to the position of the frame and the duration of treatment was examined by collecting samples from each comb at various time intervals up to 145 days after treatment. In the brood chamber, coumaphos was incorporated into honey from the first day of application, and residues accumulated mainly in combs placed next to strips. In the adjacent combs, residues remained at low concentrations with slight variations. In the honey chamber, residue concentrations on the day of strip removal ranged between 0.006 and 0.020 mg kg(-1), while 79 days after application the concentration of coumaphos residues was below 0.020 mg kg(-1). Residues above the EC fixed maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.1 mg kg(-1) were measured only in brood chamber honey obtained from those combs placed next to strips. In these samples, 0.060-0.111 mg kg(-1) of coumaphos was detected up to 103 days after strip removal. Coumaphos residues in honey extracted from combs that were placed at the edge of the brood chamber were found below the MRL value, even during the 42 day period of CheckMite+ strip treatment. PMID:18069655

Karazafiris, Emmanuel; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas

2008-02-01

184

Structure and biosynthesis of scabichelin, a novel tris-hydroxamate siderophore produced by the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87.22.  

PubMed

Scabichelin and turgichelin, novel tris-hydroxamate siderophores, were isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus NBRC 13838/Streptomyces scabies JCM 7914 and Streptomyces turgidiscabies JCM 10429, respectively. The planar structures of scabichelin and turgichelin were elucidated by mass spectrometry, and 1- and 2-D NMR spectroscopic analyses of their gallium(III) complexes. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of the metabolites was determined by the modified Marfey's method in conjunction with computational modelling and NOESY NMR analysis of Ga-scabichelin and Ga-turgichelin. Genome sequence analysis of the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87.22 identified a gene cluster containing a gene encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) that was predicted to direct the production of a pentapeptide with structural similarities to scabichelin and turgichelin. Comparative LC-MS/MS analyses of iron-deficient culture supernatants from wild type S. scabies 87.22 and a mutant in which the NRPS gene had been disrupted, and scabichelin purified from S. antibioticus, showed that scabichelin is the metabolic product of the cryptic gene cluster, strongly suggesting that it functions as a siderophore. PMID:23752895

Kodani, Shinya; Bicz, Joanna; Song, Lijiang; Deeth, Robert J; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ochi, Kozo; Challis, Gregory L

2013-06-11

185

Seasonal and spatial distribution of ixodid tick species feeding on naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria and the influence of acaricides/repellents on these parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Effective control of tick infestation and pathogen transmission requires profound knowledge of tick biology in view of their vector function. The particular time of the year when the different tick species start to quest and the favoured sites on the canine host are of major interest. The efficacy of acaricides/repellents to control ticks in the field requires observation. Methods To address these issues, 90 dogs, grouped in “untreated”, “acaricide/repellent” (permethrin) and “acaricide only” (fipronil) animals and subjected to tick infestation under natural conditions in Burgenland (Eastern Austria), were examined. The number and species of ticks occurring during and outside the protection time was evaluated during a period of 11?months and the biting location on the dogs’ skin was recorded. Results Of the 700 ticks collected, the most common species in that particular walking area was Ixodes ricinus, followed by Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna. Regarding the on-host activity, D. reticulatus displayed more infestations in early spring and late autumn, whereas I. ricinus occurred almost one month later in spring and one month earlier in autumn. H. concinna followed a monophasic pattern of activity with a peak in summer. The preferred feeding sites of the ticks on the dogs were on the head, neck, shoulder and chest. This distribution over the dog’s body was not influenced by the use of the drugs, although on the whole fewer ticks (22.5% of all ticks) were found during the protection time. Interestingly, differences occurred with the use of drugs compared to non-protected dogs with regard to the infestation over the year. Acaricide-treated dogs displayed a higher prevalence in April, May and September, whereas dogs of the acaricide/repellent group showed a higher infestation in March, July, October and November. Conclusion The different tick species display different on-dog activity peaks over the year, during which particular canine diseases can be expected and predicted, considering the specific incubation times for each pathogen. The tick species occurring in this study do not seem to choose particular sites on the dogs. Their arrival place seems to represent the attachment and consequently the feeding sites. The use of acaricides leads to a significantly (p<0.01) lower number of infesting ticks but no change of the distribution pattern on the dogs was observed.

2013-01-01

186

Acaricidal activity of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae) essential oil and its major component, carvacrol against adults Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of an essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae), an endemic species in Turkey, and its major constituents, carvacrol was evaluated against unfed adults Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Kepez, Antalya. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. The major compound identified in the oil was carvacrol (93.02%). Generally, tick mortalities to the O. bilgeri distillate and carvacrol increased with concentrations. O. bilgeri oil produced >83% mortality at 48h at a concentration of 0.8% and mortality was higher than 63% at a carvacrol concentration of 0.4%. Our results have shown that O. bilgeri essential oil and its major component, carvacrol, may have potential as acaricidal agents against R. turanicus. PMID:23218220

Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Aydin, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

2012-11-14

187

Evaluation of the acaricide effect of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid, and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tick Boophilus microplus is the principal species of ectoparasite that impairs dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. Its control is mainly by using\\u000a synthetic chemical products during its parasitic phase. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acaricide activity of\\u000a four products of natural origin. Depending on solubility, tests were conducted with solutions in distilled water or emulsified

Adriana Maria da Silveira Novelino; Erik Daemon; Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves Soares

2007-01-01

188

Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether extract of neem oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography was diluted at different concentrations with liquid paraffin. The acaricidal bioassay was conducted using a dipping method. The results indicated that the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (at the concentration of 500.0ml/l) was 70.9ml/l, 24h after treatment. At concentrations of 500.0, 250.0, 125.0, 62.5 and 31.2ml/l, the median lethal times (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract were 8.7, 8.8, 10.8, 11.5 and 13.1h, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the petroleum ether extract of neem oil separated into four fractions (F1-F4). Acaricidal activity of 68.3% and 100.0% in the F2 and F4 was confirmed. These results suggest that petroleum ether extracts of neem oil and its four fractions possess useful acaricidal activity in vitro. PMID:22349080

Deng, Yunxia; Shi, Dongxia; Yin, Zhongqiong; Guo, Jianhong; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Lv, Cheng; Fan, Qiaojia; Liang, Xiaoxia; Shi, Fei; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Wei

2012-02-18

189

The acaricidal efficacy of aqueous neem extract and ivermectin against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in experimentally infested rabbits.  

PubMed

Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi is one of the most important veterinary ectoparasites in rabbits and results in considerable loss of weight, productivity, and wool quality. The acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of neem (CAN) and ivermectin (IVR) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Rabbits were classified into four groups (ten rabbits each). The first group (group 1) was designated as the negative control group. Each rabbit of the other groups was experimentally infested with 50 mites. One month post-infestation, the second group (group 2) was not treated and taken into account as the positive control group. The third group (group 3) was subcutaneously injected with 1 % IVR (200 ?g/kg body weight, three times within a week interval). The fourth group (group 4) was treated topically with CAN (25 %) every 3 days for three consecutive weeks. Index scoring of lesions was described weekly. The number of live mites (larvae, nymphs, and adults) on each rabbit was counted on the 14th, 28th, and 42th day post-treatment (PT). Blood samples were taken 28 and 42 days PT for estimation of some chemical parameters. The body weight and cumulative body weight gain were recoded 14, 28, and 42 days PT. CAN (40 %) was highly efficacious against larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi as 100 % mortality was reached 24 h PT. On the other hand, all treated mites with CAN (20 %) and IVR died 48 h PT. The lethal values of CAN (LC50, LC90, LC95, and LC99) were 7.496, 14.67, 17.75, and 25.37 %, respectively, 48 h PT. Lesion scoring in groups 3 and 4 were significantly decreased (P???0.05), reaching 0.20 and 0.40, respectively, when compared with that of group 2 (4.00), 42 days PT. Twenty-eight days PT, the reduction percentages of mites infesting rabbits were 93.38 and 93.09 % for IVR and CAN, respectively. However, complete mite reduction was reached 42 days PT. Rabbits treated with CAN did not show signs of restlessness or irritation, respiratory signs, or inflammation on the eye and/or skin at the time of application or afterwards. Regarding biochemical analysis, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, and total cholesterol in rabbits treated with CAN were decreased significantly (P???0.05) than those of rabbits of the positive control group and those treated with IVR. On the other hand, the levels of total protein, albumin, and globulin of rabbits in group 4 were significantly (P???0.05) increased when compared with the corresponding values of groups 2 and 3. The body weight and cumulative body weight gain of rabbits treated with CAN were significantly increased (P???0.05) when compared with such values of groups 2 and 3, 28 and 42 days PT. The present data indicated that CAN had in vitro and in vivo acaricidal efficiency similar to that of IVR and improved the performance of rabbits without inducing adverse effects on treated rabbits; consequently, CAN could be suitable as a promising alternative acaricide for veterinary use. PMID:23572045

Seddiek, Shaker A; Khater, Hanem F; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

2013-04-10

190

Factors related to cattle infestation level and resistance to acaricides in Boophilus microplus tick populations in New Caledonia.  

PubMed

Boophilus microplus, even in the absence of babesiosis, is a major disease of the cattle in New Caledonia where the particular farming system associates continental European breeds and a tropical climate tempered by the Pacific Ocean. In order to have a better understanding of the factors involved in cattle tick infestation, to decrease the possible wastage and use of chemicals and to increase the lifetime of the acaricides, the veterinary authorities investigated the conditions of the chemical treatments. A survey among 148 cattle farms of the whole of New Caledonia was carried out and factors that explain the development of tick resistance and cattle infestation have been determined. From this survey, three typologies for the main characteristics of the farms have been set up, the technical practices of the farmers and the tick control measures applied by the farmers, respectively. Some variables are significantly associated with the tick resistance to deltamethrin but their contribution to the explanation model is always moderate: farms in the south, with a positive resistance gradient from east to west, absence of bush fire and membership to a cattle farmers organization. The more the farmers have intensified their breeding-male castration, weaning, heifer separation, drenching, etc.-and pasture-high stock rate, mowing, extra feeding of the cows, many paddocks, etc.-techniques, the higher was the probability for the ticks in their farm to be resistant to deltamethrin. The technical details of the acaricide treatment had a low contribution to the explanation model. However, the use of a spray generated more resistance than a dip. Furthermore, there is a negative resistance gradient when the farmers increased the treatment interval average. Considering infestation, none of the variables from the three typologies were associated with the two infestation variables (1: semi-engorged tick females and 2: other ticks) at the herd level. However, the seven studied variables-the three typologies, breed, age, body condition score and breeding status-affected significantly the two infestation variables at the cow level, but their predictive ability remained very low (R(2)<3.5%). This result-individual effect more important than herd effect on the infestation-is confirmed by the importance of the variance of the intra-farm factors (99%) when compared with inter-farm factors (1%). Cows of Charolais breed, in poor body condition, old, pregnant or lactating, and those of the farms with irrational and high pressure control of ticks are the most infested. PMID:12581586

Bianchi, M W; Barré, N; Messad, S

2003-02-28

191

In vitro acaricidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts with known azadirachtin concentrations against Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

The effect of four extracts from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) containing 2000, 5000, 9000 and 10,000 ppm of azadirachtin A (AZA), quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diluted to 1.25%; 2.5%; 5.0%; 10.0% and 12.8% was verified by in vitro tests with engorged females and larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The results from the bioassays with the engorged females showed that the main toxic effect of the extracts was reduction of the reproductive parameters, with a sharp drop in the number of eggs laid and the hatching rate, mainly when the extracts were diluted to 10.0% and 12.8%. The product effectiveness (PE) calculations for all the solutions tested showed that the AZA solution at 10,000 ppm (N10) was the most effective. However, statistical analysis of the PE data obtained for the proportional AZA concentrations in the different diluted extracts showed significance (P<0.05) of the effects included in the model (extract dilution, principle effect (classificatory) of the assay (extract) and the interaction between the two), indicating significant variations due to the dilution, the test and the interaction between the two factors in the tests with engorged females. For solutions N2, N5, and N9, it was not possible to estimate LC(90) values in the dilution range tested. The lowest LC(50) was observed for extract N5, and although extract N10 was the only extract for which the LC(90) could be estimated within the range tested, the LC(50) was higher than for N5 and N9. These results suggest that substances other than AZA present in the extracts influenced the efficacy, especially up to a certain LC range. In the tests with larvae, no mortality was observed, indicating zero effectiveness of all the extracts tested. The results of the tests with engorged females showed that the neem extracts had acaricide activity, inhibiting egg laying and the larval hatching rate. Complementary studies are necessary to develop new methods to isolate and/or identify other substances besides AZA contained in this plant, to enable using products made from it as acaricides. PMID:21536387

Giglioti, R; Forim, M R; Oliveira, H N; Chagas, A C S; Ferrezini, J; Brito, L G; Falcoski, T O R S; Albuquerque, L G; Oliveira, M C S

2011-04-08

192

9 CFR 73.12 - Ivermectin. 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.12 Ivermectin...veterinarian.â (a) Cattle affected with scabies or which just prior to movement were affected with or exposed to scabies may be moved interstate from a...

2013-01-01

193

9 CFR 73.12 - Ivermectin.1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.12 Ivermectin.1 (a) Cattle affected with scabies or which just prior to movement were affected with or exposed to scabies may be moved interstate from a...

2009-01-01

194

9 CFR 73.12 - Ivermectin. 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.12 Ivermectin...veterinarian.â (a) Cattle affected with scabies or which just prior to movement were affected with or exposed to scabies may be moved interstate from a...

2010-01-01

195

Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of aqueous extract of Annona squamosa L peel as biomaterial for the reduction of palladium salts into nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In recent years the utilization of secondary metabolites from plant extract has emerged as a novel technology for the synthesis of various nanoparticles. In this paper we studied the potential of nanocrystalline palladium nanoparticles production using acaricidal, insecticidal and larvicidal efficacy of Annona squamosa L aqueous peel extract as the biomaterial for the first time. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as palladium nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and TEM analysis. The results clearly showed that the compounds containing -OH as a functional group played a critical role in capping the nanoparticles. Also the results highlight the possibility of green pathways to produce palladium nanoparticles. PMID:22205064

Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Kumar, Rajendran; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam

2011-12-06

196

Erratum to: the acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.  

PubMed

The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5%) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC?? and LC?? were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT?? and LT?? were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25%). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC?? and LC?? values were 0.0033 and 0.0052% (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT?? and LT?? values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.0025% DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5%), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.005 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42% after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28%) when compared with that of DMT (52%). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT. PMID:23955563

Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

2013-10-01

197

Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), ?-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides. PMID:20865426

Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

2010-09-24

198

Exposing the Programming Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue - probably because the textbook medium is static and therefore ill suited to expose the process of programming.

Jens Bennedsen; Michael E. Caspersen

2008-01-01

199

Community-based prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases through topical application of acaricide to white-tailed deer: background and rationale.  

PubMed

This series of articles describes the first large-scale experiment designed to explore the efficacy of reducing the risk of tick-borne disease in highly endemic communities of the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States through deployment of a self-application device that treats white-tailed deer with acaricide to prevent feeding by adult Ixodes scapularis ticks and all stages of Amblyomma americanum ticks where both species occur. The results of the multicenter study are reported in the accompanying articles in this issue. This article describes the background and rationale for this experiment by reviewing relevant literature on current tick-borne disease epidemics and previous efforts to reduce the public health burden of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. PMID:19650729

Fish, Durland; Childs, James E

2009-08-01

200

Lice, Scabies and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... can live on the body or in hair. Head lice are the most common type of lice. Lice ... or pyrethrin/piperonyl butoxide cream rinses to treat head lice during pregnancy. It is recommended that you do ...

201

Travelers' Health: Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

... Gatherings Health Information for Travel to Hajj Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sick After Travel Study Abroad Sun Exposure ...

202

Application of ionic-liquid-supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction for the determination of acaricides in fruit juice samples.  

PubMed

In this study, ionic liquid (IL) supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction was developed and a systematic investigation was conducted on imidazolium ILs for their extraction performance. This nano-based pretreatment procedure was then applied for the determination of acaricides in fruit juice samples for the first time. A feature of this technique is that the commonly laborious chemical modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was skillfully circumvented. Because of the combination of ILs, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and dispersive MNP solid-phase microextraction, the extraction efficiency can be significantly improved using commercial MNPs. Parameters of the extraction method were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time approach. The optimal experimental conditions were as follows: emulsification for 2 min by sonication with the addition of 50 ?L [C6 MIM][NTf2 ] in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step and vortexing for 90 s after adding 40 mg spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles (20 nm). The desorption time was 2 min. Good linearity (0.5-500 ng/mL) and detection limits within the range of 0.05-0.53 ng/mL were achieved. The application of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of real fruit juice samples, in which recoveries between 85.1 and 99.6% were obtained. PMID:23894018

Zhang, Jiaheng; Li, Min; Li, Yubo; Li, Zongyang; Wang, Fenfen; Li, Qiu; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua; Gao, Haixiang

2013-09-01

203

Acaricidal activity of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against the larvae of the rabbit mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract, the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests. The results showed that at all test time points, the petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest activity against the larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi, while the activities of the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract were similar. The activities of both the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract against the larvae showed the relation of time and concentration dependent. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (1.3 microL/mL) was about three times that of the chloroform extract (4.1 microL/mL) at 24 h post-treatment. At the concentrations of 500.0 microL/mL, the median lethal time (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 8.4 and 9.6 h, respectively. PMID:18752898

Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Pu, Zhong-Hui; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu-Qun; Lu, Yang

2008-07-23

204

Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control. PMID:21845941

Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

2011-07-01

205

Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the anti-parasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent against the larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae); head louse Pediculus humanus capitis, De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus, Grassi; and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, Say (Diptera: Culicidae). R. microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different ZnO NP concentrations. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs for 24 h. The results suggested that the mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 43% at 1 h, 64% at 3 h, 78% at 6 h, and 100% after 12 h against R. microplus activity. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 38% at 10 min, 71% at 30 min, 83% at 1 h, and 100% after 6 h against P. humanus capitis. One hundred percent lice mortality was observed at 10 mg/L treated for 6 h. The mortality was confirmed after 24 h of observation period. The larval mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 37%, 72%, 100% and 43%, 78% and 100% at 6, 12, and 24 h against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. It is apparent that the small size and corresponding large specific surface area of small nanometer-scale ZnO particles impose several effects that govern its parasitic action, which are size dependent. ZnO NPs were synthesized by wet chemical process, and it was characterized with the UV showing peak at 361 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the zinc oxide with lattice constants a = 3.249 and c = 5.206 Å. The FTIR spectrum showed the range of 400-4,000 cm(-1). The band at 899.56 cm(-1); 1,151.87 cm(-1); 1,396 cm(-1); and these bands showed the complete composition of ZnO NPs. SEM micrograph showed 60-120-nm size and aggregates of spherical shape nanoparticles. EDX showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles of zinc oxide. The maximum efficacy was observed in zinc oxide against the R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, and the larvae of A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus with LC(50) values of 29.14, 11.80, 11.14, and 12.39 mg/L; r (2)?=?0.805, 0.876, 0.894, and 0.904, respectively. The synthesized ZnO NPs showed the LC(50) and r (2) values against the R. microplus (13.41 mg/L; 0.982), P. humanus capitis (11.80 mg/L; 0.966), and the larvae of A. subpictus (3.19; 0.945 mg/L), against C. quinquefasciatus (4.87 mg/L; 0.970), respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay. This is the first report on anti-parasitic activity of the synthesized ZnO NPs. PMID:21340566

Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Velayutham, Kanayairam

2011-02-22

206

Children Exposed to Interparental Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this longitudinal study of children exposed to interparental aggression (IPA) and violence, we examined whether maternal parenting style contributed to children's functioning over the course of one year (data were collected over three time points). Participants were mothers and children from the community and battered women's shelters. Battered mothers endorsed higher levels of Permissive parenting than did non-battered mothers.

Jacqueline G. Rea; B. B. Robbie Rossman

2005-01-01

207

The ORGANIC Experiment on the ISS EXPOSE-R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are proposed as carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Recently the fullerenes C60 and C70 have been discovered in a young planetary nebula, Tc 1 and in other astronomical environments. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R, which was deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2009 and retrieved by extra-vehicular activity (EVA) in January 2011. The ORGANIC experiment monitors the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes exposed to solar illumination and cosmic radiation. The radiation dose that is collected on the ISS by the samples cannot be accurately simulated in Earth laboratories. Dark samples are shielded from the UV photons and will enable us to differentiate between the effects of exposure to photons and cosmic rays. The samples are monitored before and after space exposure; ground control samples were continuously monitored. We describe the ORGANIC experiment on the Space Station and report on laboratory ground-control measurements in the UV-Vis-NIR at NASA-Ames. Extended space exposure allows us to collect data on multiple samples which can be extrapolated to other astrophysical environments and thus greatly enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space environment.

Bryson, K.; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.

2011-05-01

208

9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. When cattle are shipped as...

2013-01-01

209

9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. When cattle are shipped as...

2009-01-01

210

9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. When cattle are shipped as...

2010-01-01

211

The lead-exposed worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lead standard established by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration in 1978 requires physicians and employers to follow very specific guidelines when treating lead-exposed workers. For example, if a worker's blood lead level is 2.90 μmol\\/L of whole blood or greater, the worker must be removed from work, with full pay and retention of seniority, until the blood

D. Rempel

1989-01-01

212

DEPLOYMENT OF INSECTICIDES AND ACARICIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter is intended to provide the reader with a general introduction to the various aspects involved with the application of pesticides. Once the applicator understands how to safely handle and spray a chosen pesticide, there are a variety of handbooks, websites, and computer models available...

213

Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot cycle or by dry-cleaning. Items that cannot be ... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot cycle or by dry-cleaning. Items that cannot be ...

214

Exposed-key weakness of ??  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?? protocol given by Barbosa et al. [G.A. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, H.P. Yuen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 227901, quant-ph/0212018] claims to be a secure way of encrypting messages using mesoscopic coherent states. We show that transmission under ?? exposes information about the secret key to an eavesdropper, and we estimate the rate at which an eavesdropper can learn about the key. We also consider the consequences of using further randomization to protect the key and how our analysis applies to this case. We conclude that ?? is not informationally secure.

Ahn, Charlene; Birnbaum, Kevin

2007-10-01

215

First Results from EXPOSE-LIFE Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the EXPOSE-LIFE-Experiment lichens, antarctic microfungi and rocks colonized by microorganisms have been exposed for 18 months on the ISS. The first results indicated survival and maintenance of metabolic activity.

de Vera, J.-P.; Onofri, S.; de La Torre, R.; Zucconi, L.; Selbmann, L.; Ott, S.; Demets, R.; Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.

2010-04-01

216

[Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1992-01-01

217

9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips...of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as follows: (1) Lime-sulphur...may be called upon to use them in the scabies eradication program. (c)...

2013-01-01

218

Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Design A randomized controlled trial (2002–2005; data analyzed 2005–2006) of a brief motivational intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in preconceptional women by focusing on both risk drinking and ineffective contraception use. Setting/Participants A total of 830 nonpregnant women, aged 18–44 years, and currently at risk for an AEP were recruited in six diverse settings in Florida, Texas, and Virginia. Combined settings had higher proportions of women at risk for AEP (12.5% overall) than in the general population (2%). Interventions Participants were randomized to receive information plus a brief motivational intervention (n=416) or to receive information only (n=414). The brief motivational intervention consisted of four counseling sessions and one contraception consultation and services visit. Main Outcome Measures Women consuming more than five drinks on any day or more than eight drinks per week on average, were considered risk drinkers; women who had intercourse without effective contraception were considered at risk of pregnancy. Reversing either or both risk conditions resulted in reduced risk of an AEP. Results Across the follow-up period, the odds ratios (ORs) of being at reduced risk for AEP were twofold greater in the intervention group: 3 months, 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.69–3.20); 6 months, 2.15 (CI=1.52–3.06); 9 months, 2.11 (CI=1.47–3.03). Between-groups differences by time phase were 18.0%, 17.0%, and 14. 8%, respectively. Conclusions A brief motivational intervention can reduce the risk of an AEP.

Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Mark; Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen; Nettleman, Mary; Sobell, Linda; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Ceperich, Sherry; von Sternberg, Kirk; Bolton, Burt; Skarpness, Bradley; Nagaraja, Jyothi

2010-01-01

219

Acaricidal activity of four fractions and octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester isolated from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.  

PubMed

Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5 h of exposure at a concentration of 200 mg ml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1 mg ml(-1) at 24 h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3 h at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml(-1). PMID:19443124

Du, Yong-Hua; Li, Jin-Liang; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Qun

2009-04-15

220

Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

2007-01-01

221

A class of exposed indecomposable positive maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposed positive maps in matrix algebras define a dense subset of extremal maps. We provide a class of indecomposable positive maps in the algebra of 2n × 2n complex matrices with n ? 2. It is shown that these maps are exposed and hence define the strongest tool in entanglement theory to discriminate between separable and entangled states.

Sarbicki, Gniewomir; Chru?ci?ski, Dariusz

2013-01-01

222

Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

2007-01-01

223

Autogenous Fascial Grafts for Exposed Retinal Buckles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\s=b\\\\Three patients with exposed scleral buckling elements received autogenous fascial grafts as an alternative to buckle removal. All three patients had success- ful coverage of their scleral buckles. There were no redetachments or infec- tions. One patient had a postoperative ptosis that required repair. Autogenous fascial grafts are useful procedures in patients with exposed retinal buckles who have a significant

Steven C. Dresner; David S. Boyer; Robert E. Feinfield

224

TREATMENT OF LEAD EXPOSED CHILDREN TRIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) clinical trial compared the effect of lead chelation with succimer to placebo therapy. Outcomes included IQ, neuropsychological function, behavior, physical growth and blood pressure three years after initiation of treatment. Residenti...

225

Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... friends or other things they enjoyed in the past Children and adolescents exposed to domestic violence should be evaluated by a trained mental health professional. There are good treatments for the emotional and behavioral problems caused by domestic ...

226

Sensorimotor development in cocaine-exposed infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant sensorimotor development. One hundred and sixty-seven12-month-olds (74 cocaine-exposed and 93 unexposed) were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Ninety-seven had previously been evaluated on the Movement Assessment of Infants and the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants at age 4 months. On the BSID, the cocaine-exposed

Orphia Bass-Busdiecker; JoMarie Mascia; Jennifer Angelopoulos

1998-01-01

227

Immune alterations in lead-exposed workers.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM), C3 and C4 complement protein concentrations of 25 male lead-exposed workers from storage-battery plants were examined and compared to 25 healthy male controls. Lead exposure was assessed using blood lead levels measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels assayed by hematofluorometry. The absolute number and the percentage of functionally different subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes, i.e. T, T-suppressor, B and natural killer cells, were unchanged. However, T-helper lymphocytes were significantly lower in lead-exposed workers compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). In addition, lead-exposed workers had a significant reduction in the IgG, IgM and C3, C4 complement levels (P < 0.05). These results suggest that human chronic exposure to lead may be detrimental to the immune system. PMID:8658547

Undeger, U; Ba?aran, N; Canpinar, H; Kansu, E

1996-05-17

228

Metabolomic analysis of sun exposed skin.  

PubMed

It is very well known that exposure of skin to sun chronically accelerates the mechanism of aging as well as making it more susceptible toward skin cancer. This aspect of aging has been studied very well through genomics and proteomics tools. In this study we have used a metabolomic approach for the first time to determine the differences in the metabolome from full thickness skin biopsies from sun exposed and sun protected sites. We have primarily investigated the energy metabolism and the oxidative pathway in sun exposed skin. Biochemical pathway analysis revealed that energy metabolism in photoexposed skin is predominantly anaerobic. The study also validated the increased oxidative stress in skin. PMID:23670218

Randhawa, Manpreet; Southall, Michael; Samaras, Samantha Tucker

2013-05-13

229

Exposing the Fallacy of Bell's Inequality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essential flaw of Bell's Inequality involves the mischaracterization of classical spin and classical polarization, the correction of which reveals that EPR experiments have been systematically misinterpreted. This poster session will show the specific mathematical details that expose the error of Bell's Inequality.

Gratke, N. Glenn

2006-04-01

230

Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering…

Shen, Hui

2011-01-01

231

Cytogenetic Analyses of Mice Exposed to Dichloromethane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chromosome damage was studied in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) by subcutaneous or inhalation treatments. No increase in either the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow cells ...

J. Allen A. Kligerman J. Campbell B. Westbrook-Collins G. Erexson

1990-01-01

232

Cocaine Babies: Florida's Substance-Exposed Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…

Harpring, Jayme

233

CYTOGENETIC ANALYSES OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROMETHANE  

EPA Science Inventory

Chromosome damage was studied in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) by subcutaneous or inhalation treatments. o increase in either the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow cells was observed after a singl...

234

Insecticide Urinary Metabolites in Nonoccupationally Exposed Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide use of insecticides in agricultural and residential settings has resulted in environmental contamination, leading to increased concern about exposure of the population and possible chronic effects on health. This review summarizes the studies that have measured urinary metabolites to assess exposure of nonoccupationally exposed population to nonpersistent insecticides, organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, and pyrethroids. Electronic search yielded 36 different

G. Bouvier; N. Seta; A. Vigouroux-Villard; O. Blanchard; I. Momas

2005-01-01

235

Mortality of workers exposed to acrylonitrile.  

PubMed

A retrospective cohort study was carried out in The Netherlands to investigate the potential carcinogenic effects in humans of occupational exposure to acrylonitrile (AN). The total study group consisted of 6803 workers "from eight chemical plants and one control plant" of whom 2842 had been exposed to AN between January 1, 1956 and July 1, 1979 for at least 6 months. All workers were employed by one of eight chemical companies. An extensive review of the available industrial hygiene data was conducted to assess the magnitude of past exposure to AN, occurrence of peak exposures, exposure to recognized potential human carcinogens, and respirator use. The total cohort was observed for mortality until January 1, 1988. In collaboration with the Central Bureau of Statistics, the causes of death were traced for the workers who died before 01-01-1988. In the exposed as well as in the nonexposed cohorts the total mortality was lower than expected, based on national mortality statistics. The observed cancer mortality in the exposed cohort was similar to the expected mortality. Specific analyses were carried out to investigate dose-response relationships and latency for total mortality and lung cancer mortality. Overall, no indications were found for a carcinogenic effect in this cohort of workers exposed to AN. PMID:1506938

Swaen, G M; Bloemen, L J; Twisk, J; Scheffers, T; Slangen, J J; Sturmans, F

1992-08-01

236

Lipid abnormalities in workers exposed to dioxin.  

PubMed Central

Ten years after an incident in which workers were exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) a controlled biochemical study showed statistically significant increases in the serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of workers both with and without chloracne. Urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid was significantly higher for all workers.

Martin, J V

1984-01-01

237

Genotoxicity in workers exposed to methyl bromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the genotoxicity of in vivo methyl bromide (CAS 74-83-9) exposure in humans, we collected blood and oropharyngeal cells as part of a cross-sectional morbidity study of methyl bromide-exposed fumigation workers and their referents. Micronuclei were measured in lymphocytes and oropharyngeal cells, and hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene (hprt) mutations were measured in lymphocytes. A total of 32 workers and

Geoffrey M Calvert; Glenn Talaska; Charles A Mueller; Marinel M Ammenheuser; William W Au; John M Fajen; Lora E Fleming; Thomas Briggle; Elizabeth Ward

1998-01-01

238

Cancer mortality among workers exposed to formaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proportionate mortality among workers exposed to formaldehyde was analyzed among employees of a large chemical plant in Western Massachusetts. Twenty-four such decedents, all males, were identified through union records, reports of former co-workers, and a systematic review of obituaries in local newspaper. Work histories were obtained from seniority lists. Race-age-sex-adjusted proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were significantly elevated for cancer of

Tina Liebling; Kenneth D. Rosenman; Harris Pastides; Ruth G. Griffith

1984-01-01

239

Children Exposed to War\\/Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related

Jon A. Shaw

2003-01-01

240

Assessment of service exposed boiler tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boiler tubes in power plants have finite life because of prolonged exposure to high temperature, stress and aggressive environment. Service-exposed platen superheater and reheater tubes (148,900 h) made of 2.25Cr-1 Mo steels in a 120 MW boiler of a thermal power plant were evaluated for remnant life. The investigation included hot tensile tests, hardness measurement, dimensional measurement, microscopy and creep

A. K. Ray; S. K. Sahay; B. Goswami

2003-01-01

241

Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers  

PubMed Central

Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

J?rs, Erik; Gonzales, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Baelum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

2007-01-01

242

The differences in phenolic content in rivers exposed and non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the work was to determine the differences in a kind, number and concentrations of phenol, chlorophenols, chlorocatechols chlorinated methoxyphenols (chloroguaiacols, chlorosyringols) and 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole in the drainage of the Dzier??zna river, the flow non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination and in the Ner river, the flow exposed to anthropogenic pollution. The samples of water were collected in the Dzier??zna river

Jaromir Micha?owicz; Bo?ena Bukowska; Wirgiliusz Duda

2008-01-01

243

Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

1981-07-01

244

Surface-Exposed Proteins of Ehrlichia chaffeensis? †  

PubMed Central

The surface proteins of Ehrlichia chaffeensis provide an important interface for pathogen-host interactions. To investigate the surface proteins of E. chaffeensis, membrane-impermeable, cleavable Sulfo-NHS-SS-Biotin was used to label intact bacteria. The biotinylated bacterial surface proteins were isolated by streptavidin-agarose affinity purification. The affinity-captured proteins were separated by electrophoresis, and five relatively abundant protein bands containing immunoreactive proteins were subjected to capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Nineteen out of 22 OMP-1/P28 family proteins, including P28 (which previously was shown to be surface exposed), were detected in E. chaffeensis cultured in human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells. For the first time, with the exception of P28 and P28-1, 17 OMP-1/P28 family proteins were demonstrated to be expressed at the protein level. The surface exposure of OMP-1A and OMP-1N was verified by immunofluorescence microscopy. OMP-1B was undetectable either by surface biotinylation or by Western blotting of the whole bacterial lysate, suggesting that it is not expressed by E. chaffeensis cultured in THP-1 cells. Additional E. chaffeensis surface proteins detected were OMP85, hypothetical protein ECH_0525 (here named Esp73), immunodominant surface protein gp47, and 11 other proteins. The identification of E. chaffeensis surface-exposed proteins provides novel insights into the E. chaffeensis surface and lays the foundation for rational studies on pathogen-host interactions and vaccine development.

Ge, Yan; Rikihisa, Yasuko

2007-01-01

245

The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the International Space Station. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples in space environment. EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, two control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center (MUSC) at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2012-05-01

246

The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the ISS. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples. EXPOSE-R was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, 2 control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Jessberger, E. K.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2013-06-01

247

7 CFR 28.37 - Exposing of samples for classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Exposing of samples for classification. 28...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING...Classification § 28.37 Exposing of samples for classification. Classification...shall not proceed until the samples, after being...

2013-01-01

248

7 CFR 27.33 - Exposing of samples for classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Exposing of samples for classification. 27...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION...Determinations § 27.33 Exposing of samples for classification. Classification...shall not proceed until the samples, after being...

2013-01-01

249

Pathology of Common Murres and Cassin's Auklets exposed to oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histopathology of diving seabirds exposed to oil is described. Cassins Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) were experimentally exposed to weathered Santa Barbara Channel (CA) crude oil by external application to the breast plumage or wings. Beached Common Murres (Uria aalge) were recovered from an accidental oil spill of bunker C fuel oil. Exposed birds exhibited hepatocellular dissociation and hemosiderosis, renal tubular

D. Michael Fry; Linda J. Lowenstine

1985-01-01

250

Support for Students Exposed to Trauma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Addressing the needs of students who are coping with the aftereffects of trauma can be most difficult, and this recent program manual from the RAND Organization may be useful those who work with such individuals. This 200-page manual was authored by Lisa H. Jaycox, Audra K. Langley, and Kristin L., and offers an overview of the Support for Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) program, which is "a series of ten lessons whose structured approach aims to reduce distress resulting from exposure to trauma." The manual starts with a discussion of how SSET works, and then goes to describe how group work with students might work, and various assignments that group members might undertake as part of the SSET program. The report continues with the ten lesson plans and a set of additional materials and worksheets.

Jaycox, Lisa; Langley, Audra; Dean, Kristin L.

2009-01-01

251

Arousal Modulation in Cocaine-Exposed Infants  

PubMed Central

The ability to modulate arousal is a critical skill with wide-ranging implications for development. In this study, the authors examined arousal regulation as a function of levels of prenatal cocaine exposure in 107 infants at 4 months of age using a “still-face” procedure. Facial expressions were coded. A greater percentage of heavily cocaine-exposed infants, compared with those who were unexposed to cocaine, showed less enjoyment during en face play with their mothers and continued to show negative expressions during the resumption of play following a period when the interaction was interrupted. This finding was independent of other substance exposure, neonatal medical condition, environmental risk, maternal contingent responsivity, and concurrent maternal sensitivity and vocalizations.

Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

2006-01-01

252

Toxicokinetics of toluene in occupationally exposed volunteers.  

PubMed

The influence on the kinetics of toluene from long-term occupational exposure, cigarette smoking, and ethanol consumption was studied in 26 male spray painters. A group of spray painters with reported subjective symptoms such as concentration deficits, fatigue, and dizziness due to the solvent exposure did not differ in the uptake and disposition of toluene from a group of spray painters with no symptoms. In occupationally exposed workers, a tendency for an enhanced clearance of toluene from the blood was observed in relation to personal habits such as smoking and/or moderate chronic ethanol intake. Long-term occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents does not exert any effect on the metabolic rate of toluene as compared with that of an unexposed group. PMID:3823807

Wallén, M

1986-12-01

253

Dust release from surfaces exposed to plasma  

SciTech Connect

Micrometer-sized particles adhered to a surface can be released when exposed to plasma. In an experiment with a glass surface coated with lunar-simulant dust, it was found that particle release requires exposure to both plasma and an electron beam. The dust release rate diminishes almost exponentially in time, which is consistent with a random process. As proposed here, charges of particles adhered to the surface fluctuate. These charges experience a fluctuating electric force that occasionally overcomes the adhesive van der Waals force, causing particle release. The release rate increases with plasma density, so that plasma cleaning is feasible at high plasma densities. Applications of this cleaning include controlling particulate contamination in semiconductor manufacturing, dust mitigation in the exploration of the moon and Mars, and dusty plasmas.

Flanagan, T. M.; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2006-12-15

254

Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds  

PubMed Central

Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

Edmondson, David A.; Barrios, Christy S.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Straus, David C.; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Fink, Jordan N.

2009-01-01

255

Children exposed to warfare: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Following the 1991 Gulf War a group of 94 children in Iraq were interviewed at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the war. The group was exposed to the bombing of a shelter where more than 750 were killed. Selected items from different inventories, including the Impact of Event Scale (IES) assessed children's reactions. Results reveal that children continue to experience sadness and remain afraid of losing their family. Although there was no significant decline in intrusive and avoidance reactions as measured by the IES from 6 months to 1 year following the war, reactions were reduced 2 years after the war. However, the scores were still high, indicating that symptoms persist, with somewhat diminished intensity over time. PMID:11936723

Dyregrov, Atle; Gjestad, Rolf; Raundalen, Magne

2002-02-01

256

Process Equipment Exposed to Fire. A Case Study on the Behaviour of a Fire Exposed LNG Segment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When pressurized equipment is exposed to flames, the main task of the safety system is to depressurize the exposed segments before any part of the equipment ruptures and cause possibly escalation. A new and more to the point guideline has been developed for designing of depressurization systems to protect fire exposed process equipment. The guideline has the added advantage of

Arve Klavenes; Geir Berge; Petrell AS

257

Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth  

PubMed Central

This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth, and that multiple-form victimization held the greatest jeopardy to development. Youth with multiple-form victimization reported significantly elevated risk factors (emotional distress, life stress, suicide risk, risky behaviors) and lower protective factors (social support, school engagement, family structure) than both single-form and never-exposed youth. Implications are discussed for preventive and early intervention programming and for examining the transition of at-risk youth into young adulthood.

Nurius, Paula S.; Russell, Patricia L.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.

2010-01-01

258

Comparative genomic hybridization study of arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed urinary transitional cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

To compare the differences in DNA aberrations between arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), we analyzed 19 arsenic-exposed and 29 non-arsenic-exposed urinary TCCs from Chi-Mei Hospital using comparative genomic hybridization. DNA aberrations were detected in 42 TCCs including 19 arsenic-exposed and 23 non-arsenic-exposed TCCs. Arsenic-exposed TCCs had more changes than unexposed TCCs (mean {+-} SD, 6.6 {+-} 2.9 vs. 2.9 {+-} 2.2). Arsenic exposure was significantly associated with the number of DNA aberrations after adjustment for tumor stage, tumor grade and cigarette smoking in multiple regression analysis. The most frequent DNA gains, which were strikingly different between arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed TCCs, included those at 1p, 4p, 4q and 8q. A much higher frequency of DNA losses in arsenic-exposed TCCs compared with non-arsenic-exposed TCCs was observed in 10q, 11p and 17p. Chromosomal loss in 17p13 was associated not only with arsenic exposure, but also with tumor stage and grade. The p53 immunohistochemistry staining showed that chromosome 17p13 loss was associated with either p53 no expression (25%) or p53 overexpression (75%). The findings suggest that long-term arsenic exposure may increase the chromosome abnormality in TCC, and 17p loss plays an important role in arsenic-induced urinary carcinogenesis.

Hsu, L.-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Allen W. [Department of Urology, Taipei City Hospital Zhongxiao Branch, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pu, Y.-S. [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.-H. [School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huan, Steven K. [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, C.-H. [Department of Pathology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, F.-I [School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsu277@yahoo.com.tw

2008-03-01

259

Menstrual function in workers exposed to toluene.  

PubMed Central

Rates of menstrual disorders were studied in 231 female production workers with high exposure to toluene (mean 88 (range 50-150 ppm) in a factory manufacturing audio speakers and compared with a control group of 58 female production workers in other departments in the same factory who had little or no exposure to toluene (0-25 ppm). An external community control group of 187 working class women under routine care at public maternal and child health centres were also studied. Detailed menstrual and reproductive histories were obtained by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. The rates for dysfunctional uterine bleeding (cycle irregularity and prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding) were similar in all groups. Dysmenorrhoea seemed to occur more often in the women highly exposed to toluene compared with women at maternal and child health centres, but not compared with factory controls with low exposure to toluene. There was no evidence that dysfunctional uterine bleeding was likely to result from exposure to toluene. It is uncertain whether dysmenorrhoea was associated specifically with exposure to toluene, as other behavioural and work related factors may also result in dysmenorrhoea.

Ng, T P; Foo, S C; Yoong, T

1992-01-01

260

Cytogenetic analyses of mice exposed to dichloromethane  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome damage was studied in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) by subcutaneous or inhalation treatments. No increase in the frequency of either sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow cells was observed after a single subcutaneous injection of 2,500 or 5,000 mg/kg DCM. Inhalation exposure to DCM for 10 days at concentrations of 4,000 or 8,000 ppm resulted in significant increases in frequencies of SCEs in lung cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes, CAs in lung and bone marrow cells, and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Lung cell CAs and blood erythrocyte MN reached frequencies of approximately two times control levels. Following a 3-month inhalation exposure to 2,000 ppm DCM, mice showed small but significant increases in lung cell SCEs and peripheral blood erythrocyte MN. These findings suggest that genotoxicity may play a role in the carcinogenicity of DCM in the lungs of B6C3F1 female mice.

Allen, J.; Kligerman, A.; Campbell, J.; Westbrook-Collins, B.; Erexson, G.; Kari, F.; Zeiger, E. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-01-01

261

Neurotoxicity of acrylamide in exposed workers.  

PubMed

Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies. PMID:23985770

Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

2013-08-27

262

Thyroid hormones in chronic heat exposed men  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous reports have indicated that thyroid gland activity, is depressed in the heat. Total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) serum levels in 17 workers of the metal work shop at a plant near the Dead Sea and 8 workers in Beer Sheva, Israel were examined. The metal workshop of the plant near the Dead Sea is part of a large chemical plant. The one in Beer Sheva is part of a large construction company. Maintenance work, as well as metal work projects are performed in both workshops. During the work shifts, the workers of the Dead Sea plant were exposed to temperatures ranging from 30 36°C (May Oct.) and 14 21°C (Dec. Feb). In Beer Sheva the range was 25 32°C (June Sept.) and 10 17°C (Dec. Feb.). Total T4 was measured by competitive protein binding and total T3 by radioimmunoassay in blood drawn before work (0700) in July and January. In summer. T4 was higher and T3 was lower for both groups than in winter. The observed summer T3 decrease may result from depressed extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3. We conclude that the regulation of energy metabolism in hot climates may be related to extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3.

Gertner, A.; Israeli, R.; Lev, A.; Cassuto, Y.

1983-03-01

263

Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers  

PubMed Central

Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.

Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

2013-01-01

264

Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth,

Paula S. Nurius; Patricia L. Russell; Jerald R. Herting; Carole Hooven; Elaine A. Thompson

2009-01-01

265

Exterior exposed ductwork: Delivery effectiveness and efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Most of California`s light commercial buildings use air transport through ductwork for thermal distribution. The same air distribution systems are often used to provide both thermal comfort and ventilation. Some air distribution ductwork is installed on rooftops, exposed directly to the outside environment. As such, there exist potential energy penalties related to externally installed ductwork. In order to evaluate the magnitude of these penalties, a case study was conducted of a one-story community college building, located in California`s Sacramento Valley. The majority of the building`s air distribution ductwork was located on the roof. Energy-related issues studied in this case included duct-related thermal losses (duct leakage and conduction), delivery effectiveness and efficiency, thermal comfort issues and the effect of a roof retrofit (additional insulation and a reflective coating). The building in this study underwent a retrofit project involving additional insulation and a highly reflective coating applied to the roof and ducts. As part of this project, methods were developed to analyze the air distribution system effectiveness independent of the introduction of outside air through an outside air damper. A simplified model was developed to predict the effectiveness and efficiency of the distribution system. The time frame of the retrofit allowed two separate three week monitoring periods. Despite the fact that the ducts started off with a conduction efficiency of 97%, the delivery efficiency was on average only 73% (with a supply side effectiveness of 78% and return effectiveness of 92%). This is due to the losses from the ducts being located on the roof. The retrofit increased the delivery efficiency to an average of 89% (with a supply side effectiveness of 90% and return effectiveness of 99%), reducing the average energy use for conditioning by 22%. The model predicted, on average, the results within 10%, or better, of measured results.

Delp, W.W.; Matson, N.; Modera, M.P.

1996-07-01

266

Foster placed children prenatally exposed to poly-substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a prospective, longitudinal study of children prenatally exposed to poly-substances, who were reared under minimal postnatal risk conditions. The aim of the study was to examine whether the substance-exposed group exhibited a higher level of attention-related problems than a group of age-matched, nonexposed children. The substance-exposed children (n = 42) evinced significant elevated levels of impulsivity

K. Slinning

2004-01-01

267

Intestinal parasite carriage in workers exposed to sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in sewage and the very low minimal infective doses of parasites suggest an occupational risk for workers exposed to sewage. The objective of this study was to assess this risk in a group of raw sewage–exposed workers. The relationship between sewage exposure and intestinal parasite carriage was estimated by a multiple cross-sectional

Olivier Schlosser; Dany Grall; Marie-Noëlle Laurenceau

1999-01-01

268

[Cardiovascular parameters in workers exposed to urban pollutions].  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to evaluate if "outdoor" workers exposed to chemical, physical and psycho-social urban stressors could have alterations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest and heart disease investigated by electrocardiogram compared with a group of "indoor" workers not exposed. Among non-smoking, the mean values of systolic blood pressure at rest were significantly higher in exposed compared to non exposed (p = 0.002) and frequency of electrocardiographic abnormalities was significantly higher in exposed (20.8%) than not exposed (10.4%, p = 0.02). Among exposed, the values of systolic blood pressure at rest were significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (p = 0.002). Among non-exposed, the frequency of electrocardiographic abnormalities was significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (p = 0.002). The study results suggest that chronic exposure to chemical, physical and psycho-social stressors can be a cardiovascular risk factor in addition to cigarette smoking in a manner determined by the categories of outdoor workers. PMID:20464975

Sancini, A; Palermo, P; Di Giorgio, V; Samperi, I; Infussi, A; Scimitto, L; Tasciotti, Z; Finori, E; Schifano, M P; Andreozzi, G; De Sio, S; Ponticiello, B G; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

269

Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

Currie, Cheryl L.

2006-01-01

270

The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

2005-01-01

271

Fire-exposed continuous span composite steel-concrete slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

From experimental evidence, it was concluded that existing rules for the calculation of the behaviour of fire-exposed composite beams and slabs often lead to conservative solutions. Furthermore, the range of common applications had grown beyond the limits of existing calculation rules. It was felt that existing rules lacked a fundamental basis, in order to optimally design and evaluate fire-exposed composite

K. Both

1996-01-01

272

The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence differed significantly from comparison children with respect to sym- pathetic nervous system functioning

Kasey M. Saltzman; George W. Holden; Charles J. Holahan

2005-01-01

273

The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

2005-01-01

274

Animal cruelty by children exposed to domestic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals.

Cheryl L. Currie

2006-01-01

275

Erosion of Metals Exposed to Hot, Dense Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metal foils were exposed in a ballistic compressor to a mixture of argon and hydrogen. Behavior of hydrogen is unpredictable. When pure iron foil was exposed to a mixture of Ar with 16% H2 (by volume) at 120 atmospheres and 1400 C about a millisecond, pre...

M. Takeo

1988-01-01

276

Obstructive airway diseases in women exposed to biomass smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of women living in rural areas in Turkey use biomass fuels for domestic energy and are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution every day. The objective of this study was to compare the presence of chronic airway diseases (CAD) in two groups of nonsmoking women older than 40 years with (exposed group, n=397) and without a

Aydanur Ekici; Mehmet Ekici; Ercan Kurtipek; Ahmet Akin; Mesut Arslan; Türkan Kara; Zeliha Apaydin; Selma Demir

2005-01-01

277

The differences in phenolic content in rivers exposed and non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination.  

PubMed

The purpose of the work was to determine the differences in a kind, number and concentrations of phenol, chlorophenols, chlorocatechols chlorinated methoxyphenols (chloroguaiacols, chlorosyringols) and 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole in the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, the flow non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination and in the Ner river, the flow exposed to anthropogenic pollution. The samples of water were collected in the Dzierzazna river in the Swoboda locality, the inflow of the Dzierzazna river - the Ciosenka river and, also, in the spring situated in Ciosny Sady locality. Water of the Ner river was collected in points near ?ód?, Konstantynów, Poddebice and Dabie towns. The compounds were condensed (adsorbed) and eluted with methylene chloride on octadecyl C18 layer in a Baker Separex system. The obtained eluent was separated using the method of gas chromatography and analysed using mass spectrometry technique. In samples collected from the drainage of the Dzierzazna river phenol, chlorophenols, guaiacol, trichloroguaiacol, tetrachloroguaiacol, trichlorosyringol and 3,4,5-trichloroveratole were determined. As no anthropogenic sources are situated within the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, we may suppose that most of the determined compounds are mainly of natural origin. No or trace concentrations of chlorinated methoxyphenols were noted in the water of the Ner river, but a higher number, and concentrations of chlorophenols and additionally chlorocatechols were determined in this flow. It is also apparent that changes in a number and concentrations of phenols in the water of the Ner river did not prove a seasonal character, which was typical of the Dzierzazna drainage waters. PMID:18048080

Micha?owicz, Jaromir; Bukowska, Bozena; Duda, Wirgiliusz

2007-11-28

278

Ventilatory function in workers exposed to tea and wood dust.  

PubMed Central

Changes in ventilatory capacity during the work shift were studied in workers exposed to tea dust in tea-packing plants, wood dust in two furniture factories, and virtually no dust in an inoperational power station. The FEV1 and FVC in workers exposed to dust were found to decline during the work shift by a small but significant volume. The MMFR, Vmax 50% and Vmax 75% were to variable to display any trend. No dose-response relationship could be discerned between the fall in workers' ventilatory capacity and the concentrations of airborne dust or microbes to which they were exposed. Bronchodilators could reverse the fall in FEV1.

Al Zuhair, Y S; Whitaker, C J; Cinkotai, F F

1981-01-01

279

Non-disjunction mutations in Drosophila exposed to magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency of XO mutations in Drosophila melanogaster was significantly higher than normal in magnetic field exposed, immature males, than in exposed, mature males. Mutation levels increased with magnetic field strength. Intercellular rings of black magnetic particles were formed in the high magnetic flux region of dorsally exposed, early stage pupae and to a lesser degree in the abdomen of young adult females. Orientation of minute, chromosome associated, magnetic domains within the microenvironment of the developing organism was believed to alter oxidative processes within maturing X+ sperm which during fertilization were incompatible with and destructive to an Xw chromosome in the zygote.

Levengood, W. C.

1987-09-01

280

Kids with Asthma Still Exposed to Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Kids with asthma still exposed to secondhand smoke (*this news item ... 2014) Wednesday, October 16, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Asthma in Children Secondhand Smoke By Kathryn Doyle NEW ...

281

TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES OF MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Transcriptional responses of mouse embryo cultures exposed to bromochloroacetic acid Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III* ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductive Tox...

282

RESPIRATORY DAMAGE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO URBAN POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are chronically exposed to complex mixtures of air pollutants. In a cross-sectional arm of our study, we investigated the association between exposure to SWMMC atmosphere and nasal abnormalities, hyperinflation, and intersti...

283

98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST SIDE OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING WEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

284

Children Exposed to Violence: Current Status, Gaps, and Research Priorities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This workshop brought together researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to provide perspectives on the current state of knowledge regarding children exposed to violence, and to identify research gaps and promising avenues for future research. Three ma...

2002-01-01

285

Florida's Challenge: A Guide to Educating Substance Exposed Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The videotape and participant workbook are designed for teachers of substance-exposed children. The training includes medical aspects, the home and community environment, the school and classroom environment, and behaviors and interventions. The primary a...

1994-01-01

286

Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

287

Temperatures of Ordnance Equipment Exposed at Innisfail, Queensland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Temperature of ordnance material exposed at Innisfail, Queensland, over a period of 18 months have been analysed to determine realistic temperature specifications for design and testing of equipment. The effect of exposure on the chemical deterioration of...

M. E. Redman J. A. McRae

1976-01-01

288

13. DETAIL SHOWING EXPOSED VERTICAL LOG CONSTRUCTION WITH MEASURING TAPE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL SHOWING EXPOSED VERTICAL LOG CONSTRUCTION WITH MEASURING TAPE, WEST ROOM AT REAR OF HOUSE, FIRST FLOOR - Pierre Delassus DeLuziereHouse, U.S. Route 61, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

289

RESPONSE OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of environmental contaminants, including pentachlorophenol (PCP), a widely-used wood preserving agent, on estuarine microbial community composition and processes were evaluated. Slurries of estuarine sediments were exposed to PCP at environmentally relevant concentrations...

290

Ozone exposed epithelial cells modify cocultured natural killer cells.  

PubMed

Ozone (O3) causes significant adverse health effects worldwide. Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are among the first sites within the respiratory system to be exposed to inhaled air pollutants. They recruit, activate, and interact with immune cells via soluble mediators and direct cell-cell contacts. Based on our recent observation demonstrating the presence of natural killer (NK) cells in nasal lavages, the goal of this study was to establish a coculture model of NECs and NK cells and examine how exposure to O3 modifies this interaction. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess immunophenotypes of NK cells cocultured with either air- or O3-exposed NECs. Our data show that coculturing NK cells with O3-exposed NECs decreased intracellular interferon-? (IFN-?), enhanced, albeit not statistically significant, IL-4, and increased CD16 expression on NK cells compared with air controls. Additionally, the cytotoxicity potential of NK cells was reduced after coculturing with O3-exposed NECs. To determine whether soluble mediators released by O3-exposed NECs caused this shift, apical and basolateral supernatants of air- and O3-exposed NECs were used to stimulate NK cells. While the conditioned media of O3-exposed NECs alone did not reduce intracellular IFN-?, O3 enhanced the expression of NK cell ligands ULBP3 and MICA/B on NECs. Blocking ULBP3 and MICA/B reversed the effects of O3-exposed NECs on IFN-? production in NK cells. Taken together, these data showed that interactions between NECs and NK cells in the context of O3 exposure changes NK cell activity via direct cell-cell interactions and is dependent on ULBP3/MICA/B expressed on NECs. PMID:23241529

Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Jaspers, Ilona

2012-12-14

291

No cognitive deficits in men formerly exposed to lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to investigate long-term cognitive effects resulting from low to moderate lead exposure below current threshold values. Executive functions, attention, visuospatial and visuomotor functioning in workers formerly exposed to lead were investigated. METHODS: 48 men formerly exposed to lead and with a mean current blood level (PbB) of 5.4 ?g Pb\\/100 ml were investigated, together with

Robert Winker; Alfred Barth; Elisabeth Ponocny-Seliger; Alexander Pilger; Wolf Osterode; Hugo W. Rüdiger

2005-01-01

292

Survival of cultured mammalian cells exposed to ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The colony-forming ability of cultured mammalian cells exposed to monochromatic ultrasonic vibrations of different frequencies (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.3 MHz) was studied. The combined effect of x rays and 1.0-MHz ultrasonic waves on the survival of M3-1 cells was also investigated. Split-dose experiments showed that cells exposed to ultrasound are “sensitized” to a subsequent exposure. Almost twice as

B. I. Martins; M. R. Raju; T. L. Hayes; C. A. Tobias

1977-01-01

293

Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.  

PubMed Central

Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

Smith, D M

1984-01-01

294

Simulations for Evaluation of Sensor Systems Exposed to Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for simulation of multi-sensor systems exposed to countermeasures has been developed with the aim to investigate how multi-sensor systems are affected by different types of countermeasures and deployment tactics. The target recognition function of a combined radar\\/IR-seeker exposed to countermeasures is studied. Features extracted from simulated high range resolution radar data and IR images are fused. Sensor data

N. Karlsson; S. Ahlberg; S. Gadd; M. Gustafsson; M. Karlsson; A. Lauberts; S. Molin; F. Nasstrom; C. Wigren

2006-01-01

295

Levoglucosan stability in biomass burning particles exposed to hydroxyl radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were carried out in a smog chamber to investigate the oxidation of levoglucosan in biomass burning particles exposed to gas-phase hydroxyl radicals (OH). The experiments featured atmospherically-relevant particle and oxidant concentrations and both high and low relative humidity conditions. In every experiment, we observed levoglucosan decay in particles exposed to OH. The extent of decay ranged from ˜20% to ˜90% and was strongly correlated to the integrated OH exposure. Increased relative humidity did not enhance or impede reaction. Relative kinetics indicate that levoglucosan has an atmospheric lifetime of 0.7-2.2 days when biomass burning particles are exposed to 1 × 106 molecules cm-3 of OH (typical average summertime conditions). This implies that levoglucosan reacts with OH on a timescale similar to that of transport and deposition, which has important implications for the use of levoglucosan as a tracer for biomass burning emissions in source apportionment studies.

Hennigan, Christopher J.; Sullivan, Amy P.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Robinson, Allen L.

2010-05-01

296

Bronchial symptoms and respiratory function in workers exposed to methylmethacrylate.  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the pulmonary effects of methylmethacrylate (MMA) in a group of occupationally exposed workers. In the exposed group 20% had chronic cough compared with 1% in controls. Spirometric values at the beginning of the workshift were similar in both groups, but a mild airways obstruction appeared during the workshift. The maximum expiratory flow when 50% of the forced vital capacity remained to be exhaled (MEF50) and the ratio of MEF50 to maximal expiratory flow (MEF50/MEF) decreased significantly during the workshift among exposed workers v controls (p = 0.04 and 0.01 respectively). Results remained unaffected after adjustment for smoking. Exposure to MMA seems to be responsible for a mild airways obstruction but further study on a larger population would be useful.

Marez, T; Edme, J L; Boulenguez, C; Shirali, P; Haguenoer, J M

1993-01-01

297

Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.  

PubMed

Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers. PMID:655606

Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

298

Cerebellar histogenesis in rats exposed to 2450-MHz microwave radiation  

SciTech Connect

Pregnant rats were either exposed or sham exposed from day 13 of gestation until birth to 2450-MHz linearly polarized microwaves at 10 mW/sq cm. A third matching group served as cage control. After birth, the pups were kept with their mothers for 21 days without any treatment, and at age 21 their brains were prepared for histological analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in the cerebellar area among the three exposure groups. The differences was seen only in the females and not in the males. Purkinje cell density was not significantly different (P>0.05) among the three exposure groups. However, Purkinje cell density in the females was highest in the microwave exposed rats and lowest in the cage controls. The differences in the cerebellar area among the three groups may not be attributed to microwave exposure but to some unidentifiable factor which differentiated the cage controls from both exposure groups.

Albert, E.N.

1988-08-01

299

Trace metal concentration in scalp hair of occupationally exposed autodrivers.  

PubMed

The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in the scalp hair of professional male autodrivers who are occupationally exposed to the vehicular/industrial pollutants in the industrial city of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The unwashed hair samples when compared with the washed hair showed a significantly higher levels of Cr, Zn and Pb. The correlation coefficient showed a strong mutual dependence on the scalp hair of the exposed individuals and no correlation was found among the trace metals except for Ni-Pb and Ni-Cd. The results in general showed a positive exogenous contribution of all the analyzed industrial trace metals. The drivers who are occupationally exposed to vehicular/industrial pollution are at risk. PMID:12180652

Vishwanathan, H; Hema, A; Edwin, Deepa; Rani, M V Usha

2002-07-01

300

Intestinal parasite carriage in workers exposed to sewage.  

PubMed

The presence of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in sewage and the very low minimal infective doses of parasites suggest an occupational risk for workers exposed to sewage. The objective of this study was to assess this risk in a group of raw sewage-exposed workers. The relationship between sewage exposure and intestinal parasite carriage was estimated by a multiple cross-sectional survey comparing yearly prevalence rates in 126 employees working in sewers in Paris, France, with the prevalence rate in 363 food-handlers employed between 1988 and 1993. The incidence of intestinal parasitic infestation was estimated among sewage-exposed workers. Four parasite species were identified among sewage-exposed workers: whipworm, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus. The prevalence mean of intestinal parasite carriage was 11.8% (57/480), related to the presence of protozoa in 91% of samples. G. lamblia was present in 3.5% (17/480) of samples. The incidence of positive parasitological stool examination was 5.9/100 person-years. The incidence of G. lamblia in stool examinations was 1.7/100 person-years. Age-adjusted odds ratios were significantly higher in exposed workers in 1988 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2.0-14.5), 1990 (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.2-10.1) and 1991 (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.0-8.2), but not during the other three years. The results of this study emphasize an occupational risk of intestinal protozoan infestation in workers exposed to sewage. The decrease of adjusted OR with time reflects the efficacy of compliance with rules of hygiene. PMID:10395056

Schlosser, O; Grall, D; Laurenceau, M N

1999-03-01

301

Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consultation service for chemical exposure during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight and head circumference at birth and at follow-up, and achievement on standard tests of cognitive and language development. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children exposed in utero to cocaine had an 8-fold increased risk for microcephaly (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 42.3); they also had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.005) and a lower gestational age (p = 0.002). In follow-up the cocaine-exposed children caught up with the control subjects in weight and stature but not in head circumference (mean 31st percentile v. 63rd percentile) (p = 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in global IQ, the cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower scores than the control subjects on the Reynell language test for both verbal comprehension (p = 0.003) and expressive language (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document that intrauterine exposure to cocaine is associated with measurable and clinically significant toxic neurologic effects, independent of postnatal home and environmental confounders. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy almost invariably smoke cigarettes and often use alcohol, it is impossible to attribute the measured toxic effects to cocaine alone.

Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

1994-01-01

302

Specific antibodies to methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride in exposed workers.  

PubMed

A group of 145 workers exposed to methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) was investigated. They were working in a plant which, since 1983, handled an epoxy resin with MTHPA as a hardener. Specific IgE antibodies (RAST) to a conjugate between MTHPA and human serum albumin (HSA) were statistically significantly increased (P = 0.001; 26 subjects = 18% positive) in the exposed group, compared to a non-exposed control group (n = 33). One positive worker was only exposed for 2 months. Twenty-three exposed subjects were also skin-prick test positive to MTHPA-HSA. The exposed group was divided into three different exposure categories, according to their contact with the epoxy resin. The average exposure levels at the time of the investigation were, in zone I 0.085 mg/m3, in zone II 0.014 mg/m3, and in zone III 0.010 mg/m3, though the exposure probably had been higher earlier. There was an association between exposure intensity and RAST-positive persons (P = 0.0025, chi-square trend test). Forty-four persons (30%) were smokers, and 16 (11%) atopics. No association between sensitization and either atopy or smoking was found. There was an association between exposure intensity and specific IgG antibodies (P = 0.0003, chi-square trend test). Specific IgG4 antibodies were closely related to specific total IgG antibodies (P = 0.0001). These findings demonstrate that MTHPA is a sensitizing agent at low levels of exposure. PMID:2083403

Welinder, H; Nielsen, J; Gustavsson, C; Bensryd, I; Skerfving, S

1990-11-01

303

42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements. 84...84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements...construction of component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure...

2011-10-01

304

42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements. 84...84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements...construction of component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure...

2012-10-01

305

30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 ...arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be...

2013-07-01

306

30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 ...arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded,...

2013-07-01

307

Temporal changes in respiratory dynamics in mice exposed to phosgene.  

PubMed

One hallmark of phosgene inhalation toxicity is the latent formation of life-threatening, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phosgene inhalation on respiratory dynamics over 12 h. CD-1 male mice, 25-30 g, were exposed to 32 mg/m(3) (8 ppm) phosgene for 20 min (640 mg min/m(3)) followed by a 5-min air washout. A similar group of mice was exposed to room air for 25 min. After exposure, conscious mice were placed unrestrained in a whole-body plethysmograph to determine breathing frequency (f), inspiration (Ti) and expiration (Te) times, tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (MV), end inspiratory pause (EIP), end expiratory (EEP) pause, peak inspiratory flows (PIF), peak expiratory flows (PEF), and a measure of bronchoconstriction (Penh). All parameters were evaluated every 15 min for 12 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein concentration and lung wet/dry weight ratios (W/D) were also determined at 1, 4, 8, and 12 h. A treatment x time repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between air and phosgene for EEP, EIP, PEF, PIF, TV, and MV, p < or =.05, across 12 h. Phosgene-exposed mice had a significantly longer mean Ti, p < or =.05, compared with air-exposed mice over time. Mice exposed to phosgene showed marked increases (approximately double) in Penh across all time points, beginning at 5 h, when compared with air-exposed mice, p < or =.05. BALF protein, an indicator of air/blood barrier integrity, and W/D were significantly higher, 10- to 12-fold, in phosgene-exposed than in air-exposed mice 4-12 h after exposure, p

Sciuto, Alfred M; Lee, Robyn B; Forster, Jeffry S; Cascio, Matthew B; Clapp, Diana L; Moran, Ted S

2002-05-01

308

Lung cancer in rats exposed to fibrogenic dusts  

SciTech Connect

Fischer-344 rats were exposed to quartz dusts and to quartz-bearing oil shale dusts in long-term inhalation studies. Aerosol concentrations of 12 mg/m/sup 3/ and 152-176 mg/m/sup 3/ for quartz and shale dusts, respectively, were used in exposure regimens lasting up to two years. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed in most animals surviving beyond 400 days. Adenocarcinomas and epidermoid carcinomas of the lung were observed in animals from all exposure groups, including those exposed to quartz alone. The pulmonary tumors were a late effect, with the earliest lung tumor being observed after 651 days. 13 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Tillery, M.I.; Smith, D.M.

1984-01-01

309

Color Discrimination Impairment in Workers Exposed to Mercury Vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor. Subjects: Twenty-four male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg vapor, aged 42±9.8 years, duration of exposure 14.7±9.7 years, were examined. The 8h TWA air-borne Hg concentration in workplace was 59?g\\/m3; mean Hg urinary excretion (HgU) was 20.5±19.3?g\\/g creatinine; mean Hg urinary excretion after the

Pavel Urban; Fabriziomaria Gobba; Jana Nerudová; Edgar Lukáš; Zdena ?ábelková; Miroslav Cikrt

2003-01-01

310

Assessment the Contact Toxicity of Methyl Palmitate on the Carmine Spider Mite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies showed that methyl palmitate had the acaricidal activity to T. viennensis. However, the mechanism of action of methyl palmitate on T. viennensis is unknown. Here, the toxicosis symptoms of T. viennensis exposed to methyl palmitate were studied to preliminarily uncover the acaricidal mechanism of methyl palmitate. Methyl palmitate caused dose-dependent mortality of T. viennensis in our studies.

Wang You-nian; Shi Guang-lu; Ren Jian-Jun; Zhao Lei; Du Juan; Liu Yu-Bo; Zhao Li-Lin

2009-01-01

311

Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological

D. M. Fry

1995-01-01

312

Nondestructive Evaluation of Oriented Strand Board Exposed to Decay Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being used in our laboratory to evaluate the performance properties of engineered wood. These techniques have proven useful in the inspection of timber structures to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. But no information exists concerning NDE and important properties of wood composites exposed to decay fungi. For

Barbara Illman; Vina W. Yang; Robert J. Ross; William J. Nelson

313

A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

2011-01-01

314

Clinical Findings on in Utero Exposed Microcephalic Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since animal experiments have shown that microcephaly is induced by fetal exposure to radiation and microcephaly has been found in children of mothers exposed to x-ray therapy during pregnancy (Murphy et al), the main cause of microcephaly in children exp...

A. Tabuchi T. Hirai S. Nakagawa K. Shimada J. Fujito

1966-01-01

315

Competitive interactions in macroinfaunal animals of exposed sandy beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of biotic interactions in structuring macroinfaunal communities of exposed sandy beaches, an unstable habitat characterized by strong physical forces, is generally considered negligible. We investigated the hypothesis that competitive interactions during burrowing could potentially affect the intertidal distribution and abundance of macroinfaunal animals of sandy beaches using two species of invertebrates, a hippid crab, Emerita analoga, and a

Jenifer E. Dugan; Eduardo Jaramillo; David M. Hubbard; Heraldo Contreras; Cristian Duarte

2004-01-01

316

Semen Study of Papaya Workers Exposed to Ethylene Dibromide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (106934) (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average leng...

J. M. Ratcliffe S. M. Schrader K. Steenland D. Clapp T. Turner

1984-01-01

317

Patterns of Adjustment Among Siblings Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored and compared patterns of adjustment in siblings exposed to intimate partner violence. The quality of family relationships were investigated as potential mechanisms that accounted for heterogeneity in these patterns. Participants included 47 sibling pairs and their mothers recruited from the community. Mothers and children reported on child adjustment measures and the quality of family relationships. Five cluster

Caroline C. Piotrowski

2011-01-01

318

Are children exposed to interparental violence being psychologically maltreated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on childhood witnessing of interparental violence is reviewed. Evidence is presented as to the severe developmental damages the witnessing covictims often sustain. These include: depression, anxiety, cognitive problems, delinquency, and proneness to violence and victimization. Parental failure to shield children from such traumatizing experiences constitutes child maltreatment in that it exposes the victims to (a) terrorizing, and (b) missocializing

Eli Somer; Anat Braunstein

1999-01-01

319

RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST  

EPA Science Inventory

Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

320

Neuropathological Evaluation of Monkeys Exposed to Ethylene and Propylene Oxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neuropathological effect of ethylene-oxide (75218) and propylene-oxide (75569) on monkeys was studied. Male monkeys were exposed to 0, 50, and 100 parts per million (ppm) ethylene-oxide and 0, 100, and 300ppm propylene-oxide at 6 hours per day, 5 days...

H. Matzke H. Sprinz J. Carter

1982-01-01

321

Genetic Predisposition for Dermal Problems in Hexavalent Chromium Exposed Population  

PubMed Central

We studied the effect of genetic susceptibility on hexavalent chromium induced dermal adversities. The health status of population was examined from the areas of Kanpur (India) having the elevated hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation to conduct polymorphic determination of genes, namely: NQO1 (C609T), hOGG1 (C1245G), GSTT1, and GSTM1 (deletion). Symptomatic exposed subjects (n = 38) were compared with asymptomatic exposed subjects (n = 108) along with asymptomatic controls (n = 148) from a non contaminated reference community. Exposed symptomatic group consisted of 36.8% subjects who were GSTM1 null genotyped as compared to asymptomatic where only 19.4% subjects were null. The exposed subjects with GSTM1 null genotype were more susceptible to dermal adversities in comparison with wild genotyped subjects (OR?=?2.42; 95% CI?=?1.071–5.451). Age, smoking, gender or duration of residence were not found to have any confounding effect towards this association. Association with other genes was not statistically significant, nonetheless, possible contribution by these genes cannot be ruled out. In conclusion, variation in the polymorphic status of GSTM1 gene may influence dermal outcomes among residents from Cr(VI) contaminated areas. Further studies are therefore, needed to examine these observations among different population groups.

Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Goel, Sudhir K.

2012-01-01

322

Risk of spontaneous abortion among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental contamination of livestock in Michigan in 1973 with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) led to the establishment of a registry of exposed individuals in 1976. At the time of enrollment, serum was collected and analyzed for PBBs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In 1997, women aged 18 years or older and active in the registry were invited to participate in a telephone

Chanley M. Small; Keely Cheslack-Postava; Metrecia Terrell; Heidi Michels Blanck; Paige Tolbert; Carol Rubin; Alden Henderson; Michele Marcus

2007-01-01

323

The Role of Carnitine in the Animal Exposed to Cold.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in the concentrations of carnitine and its derivatives in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle of rats exposed continuously to 4C for periods ranging up to 7 weeks were studied by using a specific enzymatic assay for carnitine. In heart and muscl...

G. Delisle M. W. Radomski

1967-01-01

324

Studies of workers exposed to low doses of radiation  

SciTech Connect

Currently, several epidemiologic studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to low levels of radiation are being conducted, and include studies of workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. This paper focuses on studies that evaluate the possible adverse effects resulting from external exposure to radiation. The radiation risk estimates that have been used to establish radiation protection standards for workers and others have been obtained mainly from studies of persons exposed at high doses (generally exceeding 100 rem) and dose rates. The study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is by far the most important study, but, in addition, there are many studies of persons exposed for medical reasons. However, questions remain with regard to the extrapolation process that has been necessary for estimating low-level radiation risks. Occupational studies provide a direct assessment of risk based on data on persons exposed at the actual levels of interest. If current risk estimates are correct, these studies have very little chance of detecting risk, but can still be used to provide useful upper limits on risks. The studies are also adequate to detect serious underestimation of risks. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Gilbert, E.S.

1991-07-01

325

Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We

Carsten Nowak; Christian Vogt; Markus Pfenninger; Klaus Schwenk; Jörg Oehlmann; Bruno Streit; Matthias Oetken

2009-01-01

326

Macrophages exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi induce Lyme arthritis in hamsters.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism(s) by which Lyme arthritis is induced has not been elucidated. In this study, we showed that macrophages have a direct, effector role in the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis. Severe destructive arthritis was induced in recipients of macrophages obtained from Borrelia burgdorferi-vaccinated and nonvaccinated hamsters exposed to Formalin-inactivated B. burgdorferi in vitro and then challenged with the Lyme spirochete. Swelling of the hind paws was detected within 8 h of infection, increased rapidly, and peaked at 21 h. This initial swelling decreased, and by day 4 only slight swelling was detected. Severe swelling of the hind paws was detected 8 days after infection and increased rapidly, with peak swelling occurring on day 11. Histopathologic examination affirmed that macrophages exposed to Formalin-inactivated spirochetes induced a severe destructive Lyme arthritis. The onset and severity of the severe destructive arthritis were dependent on the number of macrophages transferred. By contrast, macrophages not exposed to Formalin-inactivated B. burgdorferi failed to induce severe destructive arthritis in recipients after challenge with B. burgdorferi. Similarly, severe destructive arthritis was not detected in recipients of macrophages injected with spirochetal growth medium. Our results also showed that transferred macrophages could not protect hamsters from infection with B. burgdorferi, as spirochetes were readily recovered from their tissues when cultured. These findings demonstrate that macrophages exposed to B. burgdorferi are directly involved in the induction of Lyme arthritis.

Du Chateau, B K; England, D M; Callister, S M; Lim, L C; Lovrich, S D; Schell, R F

1996-01-01

327

Water Relations of Differentially Irrigated Cotton Exposed to Ozone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to O3 may be more susceptible to drought because O3 typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants. Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Han...

P. J. Temple

1990-01-01

328

'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.  

PubMed

A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain. PMID:6190269

Schoental, R

1983-05-01

329

Reactions of macrophages exposed to particles <10 ?m  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes experiments on cytotoxic effects and the production of oxidative radicals and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor growth factor alpha (TNF?) in a cell line of rat lung macrophages exposed to aqueous extracts from ambient air particles <10?m (PM10) collected on Teflon filters. The particles were collected during the four seasons at two urban sites, one rural site, and

Christian Monn; Roland Naef; Theo Koller

2003-01-01

330

Structural Alterations in Exposed and Unexposed Aged Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structural organization of the epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction, and papillary dermis from unexposed (upper inner arm) and exposed (dorsal forearm) sites of elderly people was compared to the organization of similar regions of young people. Despite an overall thinning of the viable epidermis there was no morphological evidence that the protective function of the epidermis was compromised by age.

Robert M. Lavker

1979-01-01

331

VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

332

2. VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

333

VIEW OF STATION SAXTON FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION SAXTON FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"2, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

334

VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT INCLUDING POST 1920 DOORWAY ALTERATIONS, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

335

3. VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF STATION PARLEY FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

336

VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION OSGOOD FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT AND LEFT SIDE OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANKWALL IS VISIBLE AT LEFT REAR - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

337

VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STATION LEARY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT INCLUDING POST 1920 DOORWAY ALTERATIONS, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

338

BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC THERMOREGULATION IN MICE EXPOSED TO MICROWAVE RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Preferred ambient temperature (T) and breathing rate were measured in free-moving mice exposed to 2,450-MHz microwaves. A waveguide-exposure system was imposed with a longitudinal temperature gradient that permitted mice to select their preferred T. Breathing rate was determined ...

339

Neurobehavioural effects among workers occupationally exposed to organophosphorous pesticides  

PubMed Central

Aims: To identify neurobehavioural deficits among workers exposed to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in their occupation. Methods: This study was conducted during the period when pesticides were applied to cotton crops in the fields in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt. Fifty two occupationally exposed male workers were compared to 50 unexposed male controls who were similar in age, socioeconomic class, and years of education (?12 years). All participants completed a questionnaire (assessing personal, occupational, and medical histories), general and neurological clinical examination, neurobehavioural test battery (including tests for verbal abstraction, problem solving, attention, memory, and visuomotor speed), personality assessment, and serological analysis for serum acetylcholinesterase. Results: After correcting for confounders of age and education, the exposed participants exhibited significantly lower performance than controls on six neurobehavioural tests (Similarities, Digit Symbol, Trailmaking part A and B, Letter Cancellation, Digit Span, and Benton Visual Retention). A longer duration of work with pesticides was associated with lower performance on most neurobehavioural tests after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Although serum acetylcholinesterase was significantly lower in the exposed than the control participants, it was not significantly correlated with either neurobehavioural performance or neurological abnormalities. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to OP pesticides was associated with deficits in a wider array of neurobehavioural functions than previously reported, perhaps because of higher exposure in this population. Moderate chronic OP exposure may not only affect visuomotor speed as reported previously, but also verbal abstraction, attention, and memory.

Farahat, T; Abdelrasoul, G; Amr, M; Shebl, M; Farahat, F; Anger, W

2003-01-01

340

LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

341

LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

342

Health Effects of Depleted Uranium on Exposed Gulf War Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small group of Gulf War veterans possess retained fragments of depleted uranium (DU) shrapnel, the long-term health consequences of which are undetermined. We evaluated the clinical health effects of DU exposure in Gulf War veterans compared with nonexposed Gulf War veterans. History and follow-up medical examination were performed on 29 exposed veterans and 38 nonexposed veterans. Outcome measures employed

Melissa A. McDiarmid; James P. Keogh; Frank J. Hooper; Kathleen McPhaul; Katherine Squibb; Robert Kane; Raymond DiPino; Michael Kabat; Bruce Kaup; Larry Anderson; Dennis Hoover; Lawrence Brown; Matthew Hamilton; David Jacobson-Kram; Belton Burrows; Mark Walsh

2000-01-01

343

Physiological mechanism of plant roots exposed to cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological experiments on plant roots exposed to cadmium were conducted on carrot and radish using a liquid culture and a pot experiment with a series of cadmium applications. Activities of four enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase), and concentrations of free proline and malonaldehyde in the roots of both plants were investigated. Results showed that the germination rate and

Y. X Chen; Y. F He; Y. M Luo; Y. L Yu; Q Lin; M. H Wong

2003-01-01

344

The characteristics of solar cells exposed to ?-radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the characteristics of solar cells exposed to ?-radiation from the standpoint of developing such gamma cells utilizing nuclear spent fuels. The examination was performed for three representative types of solar cells, i.e. amorphous, monocrystalline and polycrystalline types. These solar cells were remotely irradiated using a highly intensive 60Co ?-source instead of spent fuels, and the induced current

Norikazu Horiuchi; Koichi Taniguchi; Masaki Kamiki; Takashi Kondo; Masanori Aritomi

1997-01-01

345

Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed roof sections of buildings 934 (center) and 933 (left), 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 3, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

346

Biological monitoring of persons exposed to methanol vapours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five volunteers were exposed to constant and suitably graded concentrations of methanol vapours for a period of 8 h. The retention of methanol in the lungs and the course of its excretion in urine were monitored at single and at daily repeated exposures.

V. Šedivec; M. Mráz; J. Flek

1981-01-01

347

Estimating the Number of Substance-Exposed Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates the number of infants exposed to legal and illegal substances before birth, drawing on 27 published reports and National Institute on Drug Abuse data. The following are estimated exposure levels: (1) cocaine, 2-3 percent; (2) marijuana, 3-12 percent; (3) cigarettes, 38 percent; and (4) alcohol, 73 percent. (SLD)

Gomby, Deanna S.; Shiono, Patricia H.

1991-01-01

348

Endocrine disrupting chemicals accumulate in earthworms exposed to sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter endocrine function in exposed animals. Such critical effects, combined with the ubiquity of EDCs in sewage effluent and potentially in tapwater, have led to concerns that they could be major physiological disruptors for wildlife and more controversially for humans. Although sewage effluent is known to be a rich source of EDCs, there is as

Shai Markman; Irina A. Guschina; Sara Barnsley; Katherine L. Buchanan; David Pascoe; Carsten T. Müller

2007-01-01

349

Induction of alopecia in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

Besides being responsible for a high proportion of those chronic degenerative diseases that are the leading causes of death in the population, tobacco smoking has been associated with skin diseases. Smoke genotoxicants are metabolized in hair follicle cells, where they form DNA adducts and cause DNA damage. The suspicion was raised that, in humans, a link may exist between smoking and both premature grey hair and hair loss. In order to check this hypothesis, we carried out a study in C57BL/6 mice exposed whole-body to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke. After 3 months exposure, most mice developed areas of alopecia and grey hair, while no such lesions occurred either in sham-exposed mice or in smoke-exposed mice receiving the chemopreventive agent N-acetylcysteine with drinking water. Cell apoptosis occurred massively in the hair bulbs at the edge of alopecia areas. Smoke-exposed mice had extensive atrophy of the epidermis, reduced thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, and scarcity of hair follicles. On the whole, exposure to smoke genotoxic components appears to alter the hair cycle with a dystrophic anagen pattern. Although this mechanism is different from that of genotoxic cytostatic drugs, N-acetylcysteine appears to exert protective effects in both conditions. PMID:10713476

D'Agostini, F; Balansky, R; Pesce, C; Fiallo, P; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; De Flora, S

2000-04-01

350

EXPOSE. HCI-counseling for user interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPOSE is an expert system with the objective to provide user interface designers with empirical knowledge about common practice of the application domain, with software-ergonomic (HCI-) knowledge comprised from psychology and ergonomics research findings and with procedural knowledge about a principled approach (design rationale) to user interface design. The system provides the designer with a tool to describe the design

Peter Gorny

1995-01-01

351

How Permanent Is Permanent Placement for Substance-Exposed Infants?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors describe a study of families in the Family Drug Treatment Court (FTDC), an effort to promote permanent placement for substance-exposed infants within time requirements mandated by the 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA). The purpose of the study was to evaluate parent functioning after FTDC involvement, infant developmental…

Twomey, Jean E.; Lester, Barry M.

2007-01-01

352

Training needs and qualifications of anaesthesiologists not exposed to ALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To establish which needs exist for specific training in Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ALS) in anaesthesiology residents and interns not exposed to structured ALS courses. Methods: 48 residents, and seven interns accepted for training in anaesthesiology, were tested in a spontaneous, blind, cross-sectional, prospective assessment using a recording manikin with validated scoring system, a questionnaire, and 35 multiple-choice questions.

Gerrit J Noordergraaf; Wan Kian Be; Marc Sabbe; Reginald F Diets; Abraham Noordergraaf; Jan Van Hemelrijck

1999-01-01

353

Multidimensional Resilience in Urban Children Exposed to Community Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how parent, school, and peer support differentially affected resilience among urban sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-graders. Findings indicated that both parent and school support factors positively related to resilience in children who had been exposed to community violence; however, peer support negatively related to resilience in…

O'Donnell, Deborah A.; Schwab-Stone, Mary E.; Muyeed, Adaline Z.

2002-01-01

354

Psychological adjustment of children exposed to family violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major purpose of this study was to investigate the personality characteristics of children exposed to family violence. Clinical data indicates that these children may be prone to a variety of symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and aggression, which may not be readily apparent to either parent or clinician.^ This research examined the effects of family violence by comparing children

Valerie Hicks Mosca

1991-01-01

355

Resilience and psychopathology in children exposed to family violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists on how young children cope with traumatic events, including exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Available research reveals that many young children who witness IPV suffer greater adjustment problems than non-exposed children, while others appear to fare well despite violence exposure. Taking a developmental psychopathology perspective, this review seeks to consolidate current research on the impact of

Kathryn H. Howell

2011-01-01

356

Children Exposed to Violence: Criminal Justice Resources. OVC Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children exposed to violence are at higher risk of behavior problems and academic failure, as well as chronic delinquency and adult criminal behavior. This bulletin provides information about resources that are available to help improve the system's response to child victims and witnesses of violence. Information is provided about 14 private…

Connelly, Helen

357

BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF BOBWHITE ACUTELY EXPOSED TO CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, were orally dosed with the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos to examine effects on brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity. wo-week-old quail were acutely exposed and euthanized at selected times following gavage-dosing, ranging from 1...

358

PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED WASTEWATER EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic chemical(s) in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant was indicated by papillomas developing on caged black bullheads (Ictaluraus melas), hepatic enzyme induction in exposed fish, and Ames test mutagenicity of organic extracts of t...

359

Visual evoked potentials in infants exposed to methadone in utero  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of maternal drug misuse on neonatal visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Flash VEPs were recorded within 4 days of birth from 21 term infants of mothers misusing drugs and prescribed substitute methadone and 20 controls. Waveforms were classified as typical, atypical, immature or non-detectable, and amplitude and latencies were measured. VEPs from drug-exposed infants were less likely

L. McGlone; H. Mactier; M. S. Bradnam; R. Boulton; W. Borland; M. Hepburn; Daphne L. McCulloch

2008-01-01

360

Thyroid function in ``Yusho'' patients exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid function was investigated in 123 Yusho patients who were exposed to toxic levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 16 years ago. In Yusho patients, compared with the patients without evidence of Yusho or normal controls, the serum triiodothyronine (Tâ) and thyroxine (Tâ) levels were significantly higher, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured by sensitive assay were normal. There was

K. Murai; K. Okamura; H. Tsuji; E. Kajiwara; H. Watanabe; K. Akagi; M. Fujishima

1987-01-01

361

Psychosocial impacts in populations exposed to solid waste facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interdisciplinary study uses a parallel case study design to investigate psychosocial impacts in populations exposed to three solid waste facilities in Southern Ontario. Impacts are examined at three social scales: individual, social network and community levels. The objectives and design derive from a feasibility study recently completed by the same research team. A two stage approach is adopted. The

S. Martin Taylor; Susan Elliott; John Eyles; John Frank; Murray Haight; David Streiner; Stephen Walter; Norman White; Dennis Willms

1991-01-01

362

3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. First floor of rear ell: view of exposed framing on north wall, floor, and ceiling, looking north - McCrone House, Rear Ell, New Castle Hundred, 1 mile South of intersection of U.S. Route 13 & Route 40, west of Route 13, New Castle, New Castle County, DE

363

Dental caries in Faroese children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on dental caries of first permanent molars in children in the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to PCBs in their traditional diet, were evaluated. This study was part of a cohort study aimed at determining developmental risks resulting from the consumption of contaminated seafood. One hundred and fourteen children from

Janja Jan; Katrin Reinert

2008-01-01

364

Asymptotic Threshold Shift in Chinchillas Exposed to Impulse Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to more fully understand the results of long term exposures to impulse noise as they relate to asymptotic threshold shift (ATS), five monaural chinchillas were exposed to a repetitive, reverberant impulse noise for 10 days. The noise was gene...

E. A. Blakeslee K. Hynson R. P. Hamernik D. Henderson

1991-01-01

365

Monitoring Calcium in Trout Eggs Exposed to Hydrazine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was designed to determine if certain hydrazine-induced morphological abnormalities could be attributed to reduced levels of available calcium. Rainbow trout eggs (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to 48 hours to 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 mg/l of ...

V. Henderson

1981-01-01

366

Calculating the performance of sprinkler pipe exposed to fire conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model for predicting the onset of yielding in pressurized plastic pipe exposed to fire conditions has been developed. The model couples the aspects of solid mechanics and heat transfer to simulate the pipe performance. The von Mises yield criterion from solid mechanics is applied to predict yielding resulting from the plane stress induced in the pipe wall from

James A. Milke

1986-01-01

367

Urologic cancer risks for veterans exposed to Agent Orange.  

PubMed

Agent Orange, an herbicide widely used during the Vietnam War, has been linked to various health risks, including urologic malignancy. Exposed veterans are at risk for prostate cancer and may be entitled to compensation if diagnosed with prostate cancer. Current research studies are aimed at mitigating prostate dysplasia and prostate cancer PMID:23734554

Hoenemeyer, Lori A

368

CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF MICE EXPOSED TO STYRENE BY INHALATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The published data for the in vivo genotoxicity of styrene (STY) are equivocal. o evaluate the clastogenicity and sister chromatid exchange (SCE)-inducing potential of STY in vivo under carefully controlled conditions, 36C3F1 female mice were exposed by inhalation for 6 hours/day...

369

Apparatus for exposing cell membranes to rapid temperature transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We seek to determine whether cell membranes contain sensors that trigger a downstream response to temperature excursions. To do this, we have developed a novel apparatus for exposing a cell membrane to an extremely rapid temperature excursion in the nanosecond range. Cells are plated on a gold surface that is back-heated by a pulsed laser and cooled by conduction of

B. Steel; M. M. Bilek; C. G. dos Remedios; D. R. McKenzie

2004-01-01

370

FLOW CYTOMETRY ANALYSIS OF WHITE TAILED DEER EXPOSED TO BVDV  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two groups of four deer each, 2 to 4 weeks in age, were exposed to one of two bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains: type 1b or type 2a, originally isolated from two different whitetail deer in southeast South Dakota in the fall of 2003. Two control age-matched deer were also used. Flow cytomet...

371

CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews the manner in which chemical contaminants found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents enter the environment and subsequently human tissue. Approximately 100 contaminants are treated. Sources of literature used in the survey covered a 30-year period, the b...

372

Seismic Performance of Exposed Column Base Plates (Phase I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake damage and previous experiments have shown how vulnerable exposed column base plates are to earthquake-induced failures. Following pervious design methodologies, several column base connections did not perform adequately (Hajjar 1). The damage imposed on the base connections consisted of anchor rod elongation (see Figure 2), early anchor rod failure, shear key failure (see Figure 1), concrete crushing (see Figure

Jorge Camacho

373

Respiratory findings in gun factory workers exposed to solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Gun factory workers are exposed to many solvents (toluene, acetone, butanol, xylene, benzene, trichloroethylene). We investigated whether chronic exposure to solvents had adverse effect on respiratory system.Material and methods: The workers were questionnaired by modified Medical Research Council's respiratory questionnaire before morning start shift. Then physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable dry rolling spirometer were performed.

Aytül Çakmak; Aydanur Ekici; Mehmet Ekici; Mesut Arslan; Ahmet Iteginli; Ercan Kurtipek; Türkan Kara

2004-01-01

374

Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.  

PubMed Central

Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop colour-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies. Performance on behavioural tests was analysed using multiple linear regression with solvent concentration as an independent variable. Other relevant demographic variables were also considered for inclusion. No significant (p greater than 0.05) relation between solvent concentration and impairment on any of the 10 behavioural variables was observed after controlling for confounding variables. Exposed/non-exposed comparisons showed a significantly poorer digit span among those exposed, but this has not been generally reported in the Scandinavian studies. The medical examination showed no abnormalities of clinical significance. The inability to replicate the findings of the Scandinavian studies could have been due to the shortness of the duration of workers' exposure, the type of solvents in the mixtures, use of different behavioural tests, or to selection factors.

Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P

1985-01-01

375

Immunological studies in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls  

PubMed Central

The intactness of the immune system in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) has been investigated by using several immunoassays. Eighty-seven animals have been studied, 35 control animals (not exposed to PBBs) and 52 animals exposed to PBBs (0.02–30 ppm/g fat equivalent). The immunoassays included a complete blood count, identification of peripheral blood T and B lymphocyte subpopulations, serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA), the in vitro response to lymphocytes to phytolectins (PHA, Con A, PWM), the antibody response to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), the cell-mediated response to PPD, and determination of autoantibodies and/or immunosuppressive serum factors. For control and PBB-exposed cattle, there was no statistical difference between the number of circulating erythrocytes or leukocytes, the hematocrit, or hemoglobin content; the percentage or number of T and B lymphocytes; the isotope incorporation index (DNA synthesis) of lymphocytes in response to mitogens; the concentrations of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, or IgA; the mean peak titer to KLH; or in vivo or in vitro immune response to PPD. Additional evaluation of cattle with tissue levels of PBB greater than 3 ppm/g tissue for hematological and immunological parameters revealed no statistical difference from control animals. Other experiments were performed to evaluate serum from cattle exposed to PBBs for autoantibodies to smooth muscle, mitochondrial or nuclear antigens. No evidence for autoantibodies was observed. Further studies were done to examine the cytotoxic and/or immunosuppressive activity of sera from PBB-exposed animals. In these studies, the blastogenic response of lymphocytes from control cattle and humans were evaluated in the presence and absence of serum from animals exposed to PBBs (> 3 ppm/g tissue). No evidence for either a cytotoxic or an immunosuppressive influence of such sera was demonstrable. Our studies indicate that PBB, at the levels studied, does not alter or interfere with lymphocyte surface antigens, the complex nuclear and cytoplasmic events required for mitosis and cell division, or the biological events required for antibody formation and cell-mediated immune reactions. Further, PBB exposure at the levels studied does not predispose cattle to autoantibody production or leucotoxic serum factors.

Kateley, John R.; Bazzell, S. J.

1978-01-01

376

Immunomodulatory effects of mineral fibres in occupationally exposed workers.  

PubMed

In the context of a large-scale molecular epidemiology study, the possible immunomodulatory effects of mineral fibres, in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos, rockwool and glass fibres, were examined. In each plant, 61, 98 and 80 exposed workers and 21, 43 or 36 control clerical subjects, respectively, were recruited. In the case of the asbestos-exposed subjects, an additional town-control group of 49 people was included. Evidence of pulmonary fibrosis was found in 42% of the asbestos-exposed workers, while evidence of pleural fibrosis was found in 24%. The asbestos-exposed cohort had significantly decreased forced vital capacity of lungs as well as forced expiratory volume per first second. Our findings indicate that exposure to all three types of fibres examined modulates to different degrees the immune response. Suppression of T-cell immunity and to a lesser extent, B-cell immunity was found in the case of workers from a former asbestos cement plant, while stimulation of T-cell response was observed in rockwool workers, and stimulation of T- and B-cell response was seen in glass fibre workers. Depression of the percentage of lymphocyte subpopulation of CD 16+56 (natural killer cells) in peripheral blood was found in glass fibre workers. Statistical analysis showed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 asbestos; IL-8 all three fibres), expression of adhesion molecule L-selectin on granulocytes and monocytes (asbestos), levels of soluble adhesion molecules (SAMs) in sera (ICAM-1 all three fibres; E-selectin glass fibres), increased levels of immunoglobulin E (asbestos and rockwool) and elevated expression of activation markers on eosinophils (CD66b asbestos, glass fibres; CD69 asbestos). Significant correlations were observed between lymphocyte proliferation and markers of DNA damage and repair. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, SAMs, immunoglobulin E and elevated expression of activation markers on eosinophils was found in people with symptoms of hypersensitivity and an elevated inflammatory status. PMID:15288538

Tulinska, Jana; Jahnova, Eva; Dusinska, Maria; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Ilavska, Silvia; Horvathova, Mira; Wsolova, Ladislava; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Collins, Andrew; Harrington, Vikki; Fuortes, Laurence

2004-09-01

377

Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene  

SciTech Connect

We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m{sup 2} UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m{sup 2} and 350 J/m{sup 2} were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Grossman, L. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-05-01

378

Deuterium recombination coefficients on tungsten exposed to RF plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuterium recombination coefficients on pure tungsten have been experimentally studied. Tungsten samples were continuously exposed to deuterium RF plasma and, simultaneously, deuterium surface densities and bulk concentrations were observed by using a nuclear reaction analysis. From consideration of deuterium particle balance between surface and bulk, the recombination coefficient on the plasma-exposed surface, ku = 4.5 × 10-25 exp(-0.78 eV/kT) m4 s-1, was obtained at temperature range of 426-654 K. A potential energy diagram for hydrogen (deuterium) near tungsten surface was proposed based on the results. The diagram indicates that tungsten hardly absorbs hydrogen molecules and hydrogen atoms once entering into tungsten are not easily desorbed due to a high potential barrier between surface and vacuum.

Takagi, I.; Imade, R.; Ikegami, Y.; Akiyoshi, M.; Moritani, K.; Sasaki, T.; Moriyama, H.

2011-10-01

379

Work function recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report substantial work function (WF) recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing. We observed a sharp reduction in the MoOx WF (from 6.8 eV to 5.6 eV) as well as a very thin layer of oxygen rich adsorbate on the MoOx film after an hour of air exposure. The WF of the exposed MoOx film started to gradually recover with increasing annealing temperature in vacuum, and the saturation in the WF recovery was observed at 450 °C with WF ~6.4 eV. We further studied the interface formation between the annealed MoOx and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CuPc was observed to be almost pinned to the Fermi level, strongly suggesting the possibility of efficient hole injection with the vacuum annealed MoOx film.

Irfan, Irfan; James Turinske, Alexander; Bao, Zhenan; Gao, Yongli

2012-08-01

380

Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children  

PubMed Central

This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological, behavioral and maternal reported measures of reactivity. Five replicable clusters were identified which corresponded to 1) Dysregulated/High Maternal Report Reactors, 2) Low Behavioral Reactors, 3) High Reactors, 4) Optimal Reactors and 5) Dysregulated/Low Maternal Report Reactors. These clusters were associated with differences in prenatal cocaine exposure status, birthweight, maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal negative affect during mother-infant interactions. These results support the presence of distinct reactivity profiles among high risk infants recruited on the basis of prenatal cocaine exposure and demographically similar control group infants not exposed to cocaine.

Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

2012-01-01

381

Mortality among benzene-exposed workers in China.  

PubMed Central

A large cohort of 74,828 benzene-exposed and 35,805 nonexposed workers employed between 1972 and 1987 in 12 cities in China was followed to determine mortality from all causes. Benzene-exposed study subjects were employed in a variety of occupations including coating applications, and rubber, chemical, and shoe production. Mortality was slightly increased among workers with greater cumulative exposure to benzene (ptrend < 0.05), but this excess was largely due to cancer deaths (ptrend < 0.01). Deaths due to lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies (ptrend = 0.01) and lung cancer (ptrend = 0.01) increased with increasing cumulative exposure to benzene. Investigations continue to relate benzene exposure to specific lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies and other causes of death.

Hayes, R B; Yin, S N; Dosemeci, M; Li, G L; Wacholder, S; Chow, W H; Rothman, N; Wang, Y Z; Dai, T R; Chao, X J; Jiang, Z L; Ye, P Z; Zhao, H B; Kou, Q R; Zhang, W Y; Meng, J F; Zho, J S; Lin, X F; Ding, C Y; Li, C Y; Zhang, Z N; Li, D G; Travis, L B; Blot, W J; Linet, M S

1996-01-01

382

Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

R. D. Kolasinski; D. F. Cowgill; D. C. Donovan; M. Shimada

2012-05-01

383

Immunoglobulin levels and cellular immune function in lead exposed workers.  

PubMed

The immunological status of lead acid battery workers with blood lead levels and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) concentrations ranging from safe to toxic levels has been examined and compared with those of non-exposed, age and sex matched controls. No differences in the serum concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM between the populations were observed and there existed no correlation between blood lead level or ALA-U concentrations and serum immunoglobulin levels. In addition assessment was made of the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to respond to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a correlate of T cell function. As before, there was no difference between exposed and control populations and no correlation between reactivity and blood lead concentration. Our data suggest that chronic exposure to lead fail to compromise lymphocyte function in man. PMID:8169320

Queiroz, M L; Perlingeiro, R C; Bincoletto, C; Almeida, M; Cardoso, M P; Dantas, D C

1994-02-01

384

Characterization of enamel exposed to 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of three 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on enamel microhardness and surface morphology. Seventy-two enamel slabs were subjected to one of three carbamide peroxide solutions or an artificial saliva solution for 15 hours a day for 2- and 4-week periods. During the remaining 9 hours, slabs were exposed to human saliva in vivo. Although differences were not statistically significant, microhardness values of all treated specimens 2 weeks after treatment were less than those of control specimens. These trends, however, were not evident at 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation revealed significant surface alterations in enamel topography for slabs treated with the bleaching solutions for 4 weeks. The most severe alterations were found in slabs exposed to the lower-pH solutions. PMID:8511257

Shannon, H; Spencer, P; Gross, K; Tira, D

1993-01-01

385

Pneumoconiosis in animals exposed to poly(vinyl chloride) dust.  

PubMed Central

Rats, guinea pigs and monkeys were exposed by inhalation (6 hr/day, 5 days/week) for up to 22 months to a 13 mg/m3 concentration of PVC dust. Autopsies on rats and guinea pigs were performed after 12 months of exposure and on monkeys after 22 months after 22 months of exposure. Lung function tests were performed on monkeys after 9, 14 and 22 months of exposure. Aggregates of alveolar macrophages containing PVC particles were found in the lungs of all animals. These aggregates were more numerous in the monkey lungs. No fibrosis or significant cellular infiltrates were present in or near these cellular aggregates. No significant effects on pulmonary function could be demonstrated in the monkeys exposed to PVC. Under the conditions of this experiment, inhaled PVC produced a benign pneumoconiosis. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6.

Groth, D H; Lynch, D W; Moorman, W J; Stettler, L E; Lewis, T R; Wagner, W D; Kommineni, C

1981-01-01

386

Vaporization of Bicomponent Droplets Exposed to Asymmetric Radiant Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the fuel vapor distribution around vaporizing bicomponent droplets, exposed to asymmetric radiant heating, is investigated as an extension of prior work done by the authors involving single-component droplets. Acetone\\/octane and acetone\\/hexane mixtures (50\\/50 by volume) are used to explore bicomponent droplet phenomena within the context of asymmetric radiant heating. Planar laser-induced fluorescence images yield acetone vapor molar

K. Ammigan; R. S. Miller; H. L. Clack

2011-01-01

387

Limits of spalling of fire-exposed concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spalling may be a violent effect to fire-exposed concrete destroying the entire cross-sections or reducing the load-bearing capacity of a construction substantially. Spalling must therefore be considered when designing a concrete construction for fire. The paper discusses the present knowledge on the nature of spalling, add the latest findings from the research of the author, and derives limits within which

K. D. Hertz

2003-01-01

388

Maize pollen is an important allergen in occupationally exposed workers  

PubMed Central

Background The work- or environmental-related type I sensitization to maize pollen is hardly investigated. We sought to determine the prevalence of sensitization to maize pollen among exposed workers and to identify the eliciting allergens. Methods In July 2010, 8 out of 11 subjects were examined who were repeatedly exposed to maize pollen by pollinating maize during their work in a biological research department. All 8 filled in a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing (SPT) and immune-specific analyses. Results 5 out of the 8 exposed subjects had repeatedly suffered for at least several weeks from rhinitis, 4 from conjunctivitis, 4 from urticaria, and 2 from shortness of breath upon occupational exposure to maize pollen. All symptomatic workers had specific IgE antibodies against maize pollen (CAP class ? 1). Interestingly, 4 of the 5 maize pollen-allergic subjects, but none of the 3 asymptomatic exposed workers had IgE antibodies specific for grass pollen. All but one of the maize pollen-allergic subjects had suffered from allergic grass pollen-related symptoms for 6 to 11 years before job-related exposure to maize pollen. Lung function testing was normal in all cases. In immunoblot analyses, the allergenic components could be identified as Zea m 1 and Zea m 13. The reactivity is mostly caused by cross-reactivity to the homologous allergens in temperate grass pollen. Two sera responded to Zea m 3, but interestingly not to the corresponding timothy allergen indicating maize-specific IgE reactivity. Conclusion The present data suggest that subjects pollinating maize are at high risk of developing an allergy to maize pollen as a so far underestimated source of occupational allergens. For the screening of patients with suspected maize pollen sensitization, the determination of IgE antibodies specific for maize pollen is suitable.

2011-01-01

389

Isoprene emission protects photosynthesis in sunfleck exposed Grey poplar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we combined transient temperature and light stress (sunfleck) and comparably analyzed photosynthetic\\u000a gas exchange in Grey poplar which has been genetically modified in isoprene emission capacity. Overall, we demonstrate that\\u000a for poplar leaves the ability to emit isoprene is crucial to maintain photosynthesis when exposed to sunflecks. Net CO2 assimilation and electron transport rates were strongly

Katja Behnke; Maaria Loivamäki; Ina Zimmer; Heinz Rennenberg; Jörg-Peter Schnitzler; Sandrine Louis

2010-01-01

390

Photosynthesis and respiration of exposed salt-marsh fucoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis and respiration of the salt-marsh fucoids Ascophyllum nodosum ecad scorpioides and Fucus vesiculosus were investigated using an infrared CO2 gas analyzer under a variety of light intensities, temperatures, and levels of desiccation while the algae were exposed to the atmosphere. Results indicated that net photosynthesis (0.5 to 2.0 mg C\\/g dry weight\\/h) saturated rapidly at light intensities (0.1 to

B. H. Brinkhuis; N. R. Tempel; R. F. Jones

1976-01-01

391

Impact Features and Projectile Residues in Aerogel Exposed on Mir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 0.63 m2 of SiO2-based aerogel (0.02 g cm?3) was exposed for 18 months on the Mir Station to capture hypervelocity particles from both man-made and natural sources. Optical inspection revealed two major classes of hypervelocity impact features in the aerogel: (1) long, carrot-shaped tracks, well known from laboratory impact experiments, that exhibit a depth- (t) to-diameter (D) relationship of

F. Hörz; M. E. Zolensky; R. P. Bernhard; T. H. See; J. L. Warren

2000-01-01

392

An assessment of fertility in boron-exposed turkish subpopulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to assess the effects of boron and its compounds on human health in a country with the world’s largest deposits,\\u000a investigations were carried out on fertility and reproduction in the most highly exposed populations. The 927 probands, 697\\u000a male and 230 female, interviewed in the field were selected from six different areas of Turkey, in the provinces of

Bekir Sitki ?ayli

1998-01-01

393

Hematological Changes in Fingerling Channel Catfish Exposed to Malachite Green  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to 0.1 mg\\/l malachite green in 40-liter aquariums (fasted fish) and 500-liter troughs (fed fish). In both tests, neutrophilia at 1 and 3 days after treatment was the most drastic hematological change found. Other significant changes (P < 0.05) in the test with fed fish were increases in erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentrations, and

John M. Grizzle

1977-01-01

394

Testicular Changes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Phototherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the long-term effects of 72-h continuous phototherapy on the reproductive system of newborn\\u000a rats. The animals' weight, fertilization rates, and number of newborn and histopathological changes in the gonads in a normal\\u000a group not exposed to phototherapy and in the test animals were compared. At the age of 24 weeks there were no significant\\u000a differences

H. Koç; H. Altunhan; A. Dilsiz; A. Kaymakçi; S. Duman; B. Oran; I. Erkul

1999-01-01

395

Hepatic ultrasonic changes in workers exposed to perchloroethylene.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine if subclinical hepatotoxicity is associated with exposure to perchloroethylene at concentrations commonly experienced in the workplace, and whether surveillance with serum hepatic transaminase activity underestimates such effects. METHODS--Hepatic parenchymal echogenicity on ultrasonography and serum hepatic transaminase activity were compared in 29 community based dry cleaning operators exposed to perchloroethylene, and a control group of 29 non-exposed laundry workers. Perchloroethylene exposure was assessed by work history and air monitoring. RESULTS--Mean hepatic transaminase activities were minimally increased in dry cleaners compared with laundry workers. Increased alanine aminotransferase activities, between 1.0 and 1.5 times the normal limits, were found in five of 27 (19%) dry cleaners compared with one of 26 (4%) laundry workers. In contrast, diffuse parenchymal changes in echogenicity, as determined by hepatic ultrasonography, were increased nearly twofold in dry cleaners, occurring in 18 of 27 (67%) dry cleaners compared with 10 of 26 (39%) laundry workers (P < 0.05), and were most strongly associated with increased perchloroethylene exposure in older dry to dry or wet transfer operations (odds ratio 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-15.3). Mean eight hour time weighted average perchloroethylene exposure for dry cleaners was 16 ppm, which is less than the permissible exposure limit of 100 ppm in the United States. CONCLUSIONS--It was concluded that mild to moderate hepatic parenchymal changes occur more frequently in workers exposed to perchloroethylene than in populations not exposed to chemical solvents, and that these effects are underestimated by serum hepatic transaminase activity. Images Figure 1

Brodkin, C A; Daniell, W; Checkoway, H; Echeverria, D; Johnson, J; Wang, K; Sohaey, R; Green, D; Redlich, C; Gretch, D

1995-01-01

396

Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0

D Sherson; P Sabro; T Sigsgaard; F Johansen; H Autrup

1990-01-01

397

A stream compiler for communication-exposed architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing miniaturization of transistors, wire delays are becoming a dominant factor in microprocessor performance. To address this issue, a number of emerging architectures contain replicated processing units with software-exposed communication between one unit and another (e.g., Raw, SmartMemories, TRIPS). However, for their use to be widespread, it will be necessary to develop compiler technology that enables a portable,

Michael I. Gordon; William Thies; Michal Karczmarek; Jasper Lin; Ali S. Meli; Andrew A. Lamb; Chris Leger; Jeremy Wong; Henry Hoffmann; David Maze; Saman P. Amarasinghe

2002-01-01

398

Thrombolytic enhancement with perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin microbubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas low-intensity, high-frequency ultrasound (US) alone appears to cause minimal thrombolysis, US combined with air-filled microbubbles does increase the amount of urokinase (UK)-mediated clot lysis (CL). Because this phenomenon may be mediated by cavitation-induced streaming, we hypothesized that perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) microbubbles, which are more stable than air-filled microbubbles, may also enhance US-induced thrombolysis. We measured the percentage

Thomas R. Porter; Robert F. LeVeen; Randy Fox; Alan Kricsfeld; Feng Xie

1996-01-01

399

Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6?mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4?weeks (6?h/day, 5?days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4?weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1?week, 4?weeks or 13?weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ?6.8?mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8?mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats. PMID:24102467

Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

2013-10-01

400

Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

2013-10-01

401

Reproduction success of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed

While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally relevant levels of total PCBs (34.0 microg/g whole egg wet wt vs 0 microg/g for controls). Reproduction changed during, not after, PCB exposure in this two-year study. The PCB-exposed pairs laid smaller clutches later in the season and laid more totally infertile clutches. Hatching success was reduced in PCB-exposed pairs, and 50% of PCB nestlings died within 3 d of hatching. Nearly 60% of PCB-exposed pairs with hatchlings failed to produce fledglings. Higher levels of total PCB residues and congeners were associated with later clutch initiation and fewer fertile eggs, hatchlings, and fledglings. We suggest that nonpersistent PCB congeners have a greater influence on reproduction than do persistent congeners. PMID:11345453

Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R; Bird, D M

2001-04-01

402

Micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to lead.  

PubMed

Lead plays an important role in many industrial processes. Although highly useful to man, lead has various types of toxic effects. There is constantly growing evidence of a relationship between the induction of chromosome breaks and an increased risk of onset of cancer. However, available data about the possible genotoxic and carcinogenic action of lead are conflicting. In this report we present the results of studies on lead concentrations in blood and the respective micronucleus frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes from workers employed in the recycling of automotive batteries in the surroundings of Porto Alegre, Brazil. We observed that in the occupationally exposed group, both lead concentration in peripheral blood and micronucleus frequency in lymphocytes were significantly higher compared to control (Z=6.35, P<0.0001 and Z=4.47, P<0.0001). The nuclear division index (NDI) values were significantly higher in the control group than in the exposed group (Z=2.13, P=0.0330), indicating a possible effect of Pb on nuclear proliferation. We also detected a negative correlation between micronuclei and progression of nuclear division (tau=-0.312, P=0.0129). There were no changes in micronucleus frequency between smoking and non-smoking workers exposed to lead (Z=0.03, P=0.9790). The only difference found between the groups of smokers and non-smokers was with respect to NDI, whose values were significantly higher among non-smokers (Z=1.98, P=0.0481). PMID:15576239

Minozzo, Renato; Deimling, Luiz Irineu; Gigante, Luciana Petrucci; Santos-Mello, Renato

2004-12-31

403

Behavior of amino acids and peptides exposed in Earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the chemical comportment of organic molecules of prebiotic interest when exposed to space conditions, amino acids, derivatives and peptides where exposed in Earth orbit during the CNES "Perseus-Exobiologie" mission. Dry films of samples were exposed free or associated with mineral powders to vacuum and to solar light down to 120 nm during three months outside the MIR station. After the mission, the remaining products were analyzed with respect of chemical degradation, racemization and polymerization. The analyses revealed a higher sensitivity of amino acids comparatively to peptides. The identification of by-products has allowed determining some photolysis pathways where decarboxylation and decarbonylation were found to be the major chemical reactions for amino acids and peptides, respectively. The study of associated minerals have shown that meteoritic powder was the most efficient to protect samples against UV light. The exposure of different peptides associated to meteorite powder of various thickness have allowed to determine that 5?m films were at least necessary to protect associated organics. Implications for the exogenous origin of organics are discussed.

Barbier, Bernard; Boillot, François; Chabin, Annie; Venet, Michel; Bure, Corinne; Jacquet, Romain; Bertrand-Urbaniak, Marylène; Brack, André

2001-08-01

404

Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations.  

PubMed

Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. PMID:19081658

Nowak, Carsten; Vogt, Christian; Pfenninger, Markus; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Jörg; Streit, Bruno; Oetken, Matthias

2008-12-10

405

Biomarkers of genetic damage in humans exposed to benzene  

SciTech Connect

In order to study genetic damage caused by benzene, 44 workers exposed on average to 31 ppm benzene were compared to a control group matched for sex, age, and smoking. Blood samples were processed for the analysis of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes, and chromosome rearrangements and aneuploidy by standard methods and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Twenty-three exposed subjects and 22 controls were heterozygous for the red blood cell glycophorin A (GPA) M and N alleles, and were evaluated for the frequency of variant cells (V{sub f}). The GPA V{sub f} was twice as high in the benzene-exposed workers as in controls, with the major being NN (p<0.001). This increase was significantly associated with cumulative lifetime benzene exposure (p=0.032). Thus, benzene causes mutation at the GPA locus in the human bone marrow that are gene-duplicating in nature. Scoring and analysis of micronucleus levels, chromosome aberrations, and chromosomal damage using probes specific for chromosomes 7, 8, and 9 are currently in progress. A variety of metabolic and susceptibility markers are also being measured. These studies should provide a better understanding of the magnitude and nature of genetic damage produced by benzene in humans.

Smith, M.T.; Rothman, N.; Holland, N.T.; Hayes, R.B.; Zhang, L.; Kolachana, P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Haas, R. [Haz. Mat. Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, L.; Yin, S.N. [Chinese Academy Prevent. Med., Beijing (China); Wang, Y.Z. [Shanghai Hygiene/Anti-Epidemic Center, Shanghai (China); Quintana, P.J.E. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

1994-12-31

406

Genetic damage in subjects exposed to radiofrequency radiation.  

PubMed

Despite many research efforts and public debate there is still great concern about the possible adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on human health. This is especially due to the enormous increase of wireless mobile telephones and other telecommunication devices throughout the world. The possible genetic effects of mobile phone radiation and other sources of radiofrequencies constitute one of the major points of concern. In the past several review papers were published on laboratory investigations that were devoted to in vitro and in vivo animal (cyto)genetic studies. However, it may be assumed that some of the most important observations are those obtained from studies with individuals that were exposed to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation, either as a result of their occupational activity or as frequent users of radiofrequency emitting tools. In this paper the cytogenetic biomonitoring studies of RF-exposed humans are reviewed. A majority of these studies do show that RF-exposed individuals have increased frequencies of genetic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations) in their lymphocytes or exfoliated buccal cells. However, most of the studies, if not all, have a number of shortcomings that actually prevents any firm conclusion. Radiation dosimetry was lacking in all papers, but some of the investigations were flawed by much more severe imperfections. Large well-coordinated multidisciplinary investigations are needed in order to reach any robust conclusion. PMID:19073278

Verschaeve, Luc

2008-11-27

407

Fate of graphene in polymer nanocomposite exposed to UV radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene is increasingly incorporated in polymers to enhance their mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. However, organic polymers are prone to degrade when exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, graphene in polymer nanocomposites could eventually be released into the environment during their life cycle, which might have a negative impact on the environment and thus presents a roadblock to their use. This study investigates the degradation of a graphene/polyurethane composite and characterizes the graphene concentration at the nanocomposite surfaces during exposure to UV radiation. The polyurethane was a one-component, water-borne polyurethane and graphene material was graphene oxide (GO) sheets. GO/WBPU composites having a thickness between 105 ?m and 150 ?m were exposed to 75% RH, 50°C, and UV radiation between 290 nm and 400 nm in a NIST-developed UV chamber. Chemical degradation, mass loss, and surface morphology were measured at specified exposure time using FTIR, gravimetry, SEM, AFM and LCSM techniques. Results showed that, when exposed to UV radiation having wavelengths similar to those of the sunlight, the polyurethane matrix underwent photodegradation, subsequent mass loss and accumulation of a large amount of graphene on the composite surface.

Bernard, C.; Nguyen, T.; Pellegrin, B.; Holbrook, R. D.; Zhao, M.; Chin, J.

2011-07-01

408

Expose : procedure and results of the joint experiment verification tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station will carry the EXPOSE facility accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D located outside the Russian Service Module. The launch will be affected in 2005 and it is planned to stay in space for 1.5 years. The tray like structure will accomodate 2 chemical and 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Response of Organisms to Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. The either vented or sealed experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by the use of individual shutters. To test the compatibility of the different biological systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. The procedure and first results of this joint Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) will be presented. The results will be essential for the success of the EXPOSE mission and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results of the mission will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.

Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Baglioni, P.

409

Visual evoked potentials in rotogravure printers exposed to toluene.  

PubMed Central

Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) from stimulation by checkerboard pattern reversal were examined in 54 rotogravure printers exposed to toluene (all men, aged 22-64 years, duration of exposure 1-41 years). A control group consisted of 46 subjects (23 men and 23 women; aged 22-54 years). Compared with controls the exposed group showed more frequent responses with reduced reproducibility or absence of some waves, or both; the mean P1 wave latency was prolonged and mean amplitudes N1P1 and P1N2 were reduced. The VEPs were abnormal in 24% of workers. The frequency of abnormal VEPs correlated positively with the duration of exposure to toluene and also with the degree of alcohol drinking. No association was found between measurements of VEP and electroencephalogram (EEG) or electromyogram (EMG) examinations. A VEP measurement was made in 78% of the exposed workers two years after the first examination. No statistically significant difference between the two results was found. This suggests a marked stability of the observed VEP changes. These changes can be interpreted as a subclinical sign of dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) related to exposure to toluene and also to alcohol consumption.

Urban, P; Lukas, E

1990-01-01

410

Definitive Surgical Treatment of Infected or Exposed Ventral Hernia Mesh  

PubMed Central

Objective To discuss the difficulties in dealing with infected or exposed ventral hernia mesh, and to illustrate one solution using an autogenous abdominal wall reconstruction technique. Summary Background Data The definitive treatment for any infected prosthetic material in the body is removal and substitution. When ventral hernia mesh becomes exposed or infected, its removal requires a solution to prevent a subsequent hernia or evisceration. Methods Eleven patients with ventral hernia mesh that was exposed, nonincorporated, with chronic drainage, or associated with a spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula were referred by their initial surgeons after failed local wound care for definitive management. The patients were treated with radical en bloc excision of mesh and scarred fascia followed by immediate abdominal wall reconstruction using bilateral sliding rectus abdominis myofascial advancement flaps. Results Four of the 11 patients treated for infected mesh additionally required a bowel resection. Transverse defect size ranged from 8 to 18 cm (average 13 cm). Average procedure duration was 3 hours without bowel repair and 5 hours with bowel repair. Postoperative length of stay was 5 to 7 days without bowel repair and 7 to 9 days with bowel repair. Complications included hernia recurrence in one case and stitch abscesses in two cases. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 54 months (average 24 months). Conclusions Removal of infected mesh and autogenous flap reconstruction is a safe, reliable, and one-step surgical solution to the problem of infected abdominal wall mesh.

Szczerba, Steven R.; Dumanian, Gregory A.

2003-01-01

411

Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide. Houses and lawns in the United States receive a total of approximately 20 million annual chlorpyrifos treatments, and 82% of U.S. adults have detectable levels of a chlorpyrifos metabolite (3,5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; TCP) in the urine. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that there are 5,000 yearly reported cases of accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning, and approximately one-fourth of these cases exhibit symptoms. Organophosphates affect the nervous system, but there are few epidemiologic data on chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity. We studied neurologic function in 191 current and former termiticide applicators who had an average of 2.4 years applying chlorpyrifos and 2.5 years applying other pesticides, and we compared them to 189 nonexposed controls. The average urinary TCP level for 65 recently exposed applicators was 629.5 microg/L, as compared to 4.5 microg/L for the general U.S. population. The exposed group did not differ significantly from the nonexposed group for any test in the clinical examination. Few significant differences were found in nerve conduction velocity, arm/hand tremor, vibrotactile sensitivity, vision, smell, visual/motor skills, or neurobehavioral skills. The exposed group did not perform as well as the nonexposed group in pegboard turning tests and some postural sway tests. The exposed subjects also reported significantly more symptoms, including memory problems, emotional states, fatigue, and loss of muscle strength; our more quantitative tests may not have been adequate to detect these symptoms. Eight men who reported past chlorpyrifos poisoning had a pattern of low performance on a number of tests, which is consistent with prior reports of chronic effects of organophosphate poisoning. Overall, the lack of exposure effects on the clinical examination was reassuring. The findings for self-reported symptoms raise some concern, as does the finding of low performance for those reporting prior poisoning. Although this was a relatively large study based on a well-defined target population, the workers we studied may not be representative of all exposed workers, and caution should be exercised in generalizing our results. PMID:10753086

Steenland, K; Dick, R B; Howell, R J; Chrislip, D W; Hines, C J; Reid, T M; Lehman, E; Laber, P; Krieg, E F; Knott, C

2000-04-01

412

Natural course of silicosis in dust-exposed workers.  

PubMed

To provide a scientific basis for determining the health surveillance period of dust-exposed workers, data of a retrospective cohort study was re-analyzed with emphasis on natural course of silicosis. 33640 workers exposed to silica dust who were employed for at least 1 year from 1972 to 1974 in twenty Chinese mines or pottery factories were included as subjects, and were followed up till December 31, 1994. The cohort included subjects from 8 tungsten mines, 4 tin mines and 8 pottery factories. Our results showed that the mean latency of silicosis, for all the cases of the cohorts, was 22.9 +/- 9.8 y. 52.2 % of silicosis was diagnosed approximately 9.1 +/- 5.7 y after the dust exposure had ceased. The progression rates of silicosis from stage I to II and from stage II to III were 48.2 % and 18.5 %, and the duration was 4.1 +/- 0.2 and 6.8 +/- 0.2 y, respectively. The survival times of silicosis stage I , II and III, from the year of diagnosis to death, were 21.5, 15.8 and 6.8 years, respectively. There was 25 % of the silicosis patients whose survival time was beyond 33 y. The mean death age of all silicosis cases was 56.0 y. The death age increased to 65.6 y in the middle of 1990s. Among dust-exposed workers, subjects who became suspected case (0+ ) accounted for 15.0 %. 48.7 % of the suspected silicosis cases developed to silicosis, and the average year from the time of being suspected of the disease to the first stage of silicosis was 5.1 y. The natural characteristics, as mentioned above, varied with different mines and factories. We are led to conclude that silicosis is chronic in nature, but progress quickly. As a serious occupational disease it significantly reduces the life span of exposed workers. The study of its natural history is of importance for the development of health surveillance criteria for dust-exposed workers. PMID:16850763

Yang, Haibing; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junyue; Chen, Jingqiong

2006-01-01

413

Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers  

PubMed Central

Background Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) every year, including workers in the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking. Methods Eighteen dry cleaning workers and 18 laundry workers (unexposed controls) provided a peripheral blood sample for cytogenetic analysis by whole chromosome painting. Pre-shift exhaled air on these same participants was collected and analyzed for PCE levels. The laundry workers were matched to the dry cleaners on race, age, and smoking status. The relationships between levels of cytological damage and exposures (including PCE levels in the shop and in workers' blood, packyears, cumulative alcohol consumption, and age) were compared with correlation coefficients and t-tests. Multiple linear regressions considered blood PCE, packyears, alcohol, and age. Results There were no significant differences between the PCE-exposed dry cleaners and the laundry workers for chromosome translocation frequencies, but PCE levels were significantly correlated with percentage of cells with acentric fragments (R2 = 0.488, p < 0.026). Conclusions There does not appear to be a strong effect in these dry cleaning workers of PCE exposure on persistent chromosome damage as measured by translocations. However, the correlation between frequencies of acentric fragments and PCE exposure level suggests that recent exposures to PCE may induce transient genetic damage. More heavily exposed participants and a larger sample size will be needed to determine whether PCE exposure induces significant levels of persistent chromosome damage.

2011-01-01

414

Long term health and neurodevelopment in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs before birth  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the frequency of neonatal and later childhood morbidity in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero. Design: Retrospective population based study. Setting: Population of the Grampian region of Scotland. Participants: Mothers taking antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy between 1976 and 2000 were ascertained from hospital obstetric records and 149 (58% of those eligible) took part. They had 293 children whose health and neurodevelopment were assessed. Main outcome measures: Frequencies of neonatal withdrawal, congenital malformations, childhood onset medical problems, developmental delay, and behaviour disorders. Results: Neonatal withdrawal was seen in 20% of those exposed to antiepileptic drugs. Congenital malformations occurred in 14% of exposed pregnancies, compared with 5% of non-exposed sibs, and developmental delay in 24% of exposed children, compared with 11% of non-exposed sibs. After excluding cases with a family history of developmental delay, 19% of exposed children and 3% of non-exposed sibs had developmental delay, 31% of exposed children had either major malformations or developmental delay, 52% of exposed children had facial dysmorphism compared with 25% of those not exposed, 31% of exposed children had childhood medical problems (13% of non-exposed sibs), and 20% had behaviour disorders (5% of non-exposed). Conclusion: Prenatal antiepileptic drug exposure in the setting of maternal epilepsy is associated with developmental delay and later childhood morbidity in addition to congenital malformation.

Dean, J; Hailey, H; Moore, S; Lloyd, D; Turnpenny, P; Little, J

2002-01-01

415

Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.  

PubMed Central

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Goldsmith, J R; Grossman, C M; Morton, W E; Nussbaum, R H; Kordysh, E A; Quastel, M R; Sobel, R B; Nussbaum, F D

1999-01-01

416

Recovery of Salmonella from bermudagrass exposed to simulated wastewater.  

PubMed

Most confined swine (Sus scrofa) feeding operations in the southeastern United States hold manure in lagoons and apply effluent on bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] as fertilizer. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (ex Kauffman and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff, has been reported in Mississippi lagoons, but levels and potential for contamination of bermudagrass were unknown. A laboratory method was developed to examine Salmonella contamination of bermudagrass and levels of Salmonella were determined in lagoons. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worst case water was used to simulate effluent in exposing bermudagrass to Salmonella. Exposed leaves were washed and bacteria enumerated. Contamination of leaves exposed to 10(6) cfu mL(-1) varied from 0 to 10(4) cfu per leaf within and among eight bermudagrass cultivars and five Salmonella isolates. No differences (P < 0.05) occurred between cultivars (n = 20) or isolates (n = 10). Data fitted (R2 = 0.93) to a contamination equation (y = 5 x 10(-6)X6.623) described the relationship between levels (Log10 cfu mL(-1)) of exposure (x) and contamination (y). In fall 2007 Salmonella levels from six lagoons ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 log10 MPN 100 mL(-1) and were below the threshold for contamination predicted by the equation. These preliminary results must be tested with effluents in the field, but considered alongside work of others, which report lagoon Salmonella levels to be highest in fall, suggest that Salmonella levels in effluents from these lagoons may be too low to produce measurable contamination on bermudagrass. PMID:19141824

McLaughlin, Michael R; Brooks, John P

2009-01-13

417

Otoacoustic emissions in 28 young adults exposed to amplified music.  

PubMed

Popular concern about widespread damage to the hearing from exposure to amplified music continues, although there has been little firm evidence of permanent effects in casual listeners. Measurement of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) provides a sensitive technique for testing outer hair cell (OHC) function, and was used in this study of 28 young adults aged 18-25 years, whose only significant source of noise exposure was loud music, to look for evidence of poorer cochlear function in those of greater exposure; they provided 27 right ears and 27 left ears suitable for measurement of TEOAE strength. Estimates of subjects' total noise dose were obtained from self-reports of the duration and intensity of their exposure to music and other sources of noise. Ears with greater exposure to loud music showed significantly weaker TEOAEs than less exposed ears in response to a 4 kHz tone burst, or in response to a saturating (82 dBSPL) click if the response was treated with a high-frequency bandpass filter (2-4 kHz) (p<0.05). Differences between more exposed and less exposed groups of ears were most marked in the 2 kHz half-octave band for right ears, and in the 2.8 kHz half-octave band for left ears. A hypothesis is proposed that weakness in TEOAEs as a result of exposure to loud music is seen first in the 2 kHz region of the emission spectrum, and later at higher frequencies; and that for a given amount of exposure, TEOAE weakness (or OHC damage) is more advanced in left ears than in right. PMID:10509856

Mansfield, J D; Baghurst, P A; Newton, V E

1999-08-01

418

Relative Efficiency Of TLD-100 Exposed to X-Rays  

SciTech Connect

The relative efficiency of TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) exposed to X-rays in the range from 30 to 250 kV, with respect to {sup 60}CO gamma rays has been measured. Glow curves were deconvoluted into peaks 3 to 9. All efficiencies were greater than 1 having a maximum of 1.38 for the dosimetric region (peaks 3+4+5) and peaks 4, 5 and 9, and 2.2 for peaks 6a, 6b, 7 and 8 at the effective energy of 24 keV.

Ixquiac-Cabrera, J. M.; Gamboa-de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico 11801 DF (Mexico); Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, Mexico 01000 DF (Mexico)

2008-08-11

419

Clinical and HRCT screening of heavily asbestos-exposed workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To characterize asbestosis today and to clarify the indications for high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the surveillance\\u000a of heavily exposed workers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Six hundred and twenty-seven workers were screened and HRCT findings were classified and divided in two groups: pulmonary\\u000a fibrosis (n = 86) and no fibrosis (n = 541).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Most (65\\/86 = 76%) of the detected fibrosis cases were mild. The magnitude of asbestos exposure showed

Tuula Vierikko; Ritva Järvenpää; Pauliina Toivio; Jukka Uitti; Panu Oksa; Tuula Lindholm; Tapio Vehmas

2010-01-01

420

Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars.  

PubMed

The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap. PMID:12471268

Titus, Timothy N; Kieffer, Hugh H; Christensen, Phillip R

2002-12-05

421

Charge fluctuations for particles on a surface exposed to plasma  

SciTech Connect

We develop a stochastic model for the charge fluctuations on a microscopic dust particle resting on a surface exposed to plasma. We find in steady state that the fluctuations are normally distributed with a standard deviation that is proportional to (CT{sub e}){sup 1/2}, where C is the particle-surface capacitance and T{sub e} is the plasma electron temperature. The time for an initially uncharged ensemble of particles to reach the steady state distribution is directly proportional to CT{sub e}.

Sheridan, T. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio 45810 (United States); Hayes, A. [Veeco Process Equipment, Terminal Dr., Plainview, New York 11803 (United States)

2011-02-28

422

Asbestos-exposed populations: prevention, care, and compensation  

SciTech Connect

In Israel, the prevention and care of asbestos-associated diseases with latency periods of one to four decades (asbestosis, mesothelioma, increased frequency of cancer of the lung and other sites) are not satisfactory, and new national policies are required. Such policies have three major goals: (a) elimination or reduction of exposure to asbestos dust; (b) measures to promote cessation or drastic reduction of cigarette smoking among those currently or formerly exposed; and (c) equitable compensation for the consequences of past exposures. The practical elements of a program to achieve these three goals include (a) exposure standards and control technology; (b) identification of sources, routes, and levels of exposure and groups at risk; (c) compensation and job security; (d) medical monitoring and follow-up; (e) smoking cessation; (f) selective substitution of other substances for asbestos; and (g) establishment of a panel for policy supervision and the overseeing of compensation programs. Delay in implementation risks higher death rates for asbestosis and cancer among previously exposed workers, greater exposure among current workers, loss of experienced workers from the work force, and unnecessary hardship for families not adequately compensated.

Richter, E.D.; Tulchinsky, T.; Goldsmith, J.R.; Yaffe, Y.

1984-05-01

423

Examination of Japanese samples exposed in the Wilsonville liquefaction reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen samples provided by Mitsui SRC Development Co., Ltd. were exposed for 2497 hours through nozzles near the top of the two liquefaction reactors at the Wilsonville, Alabama, coal liquefaction facility. The samples were exposed during the entirety of run 263 which was the final run conducted at this facility. Examination of the samples provided the following information. (1) Both sets of samples with aluminum coatings had significantly greater weight losses than any of the other samples. The hot-dipped aluminum coating spalled in many areas leaving a layer rich in aluminum and iron. (2) The alumina plasma sprayed sample had an inner chromium-nickel layer, and there was a significant accumulation of metal sulfides between this inner layer and the base metal. (3) The titanium nitride CVD coated sample had an adherent, continuous coating and a very low corrosion rate. Chlorine, likely a result of the CVD process, was present in the coating. (4) The three uncoated metals, 2.25 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and the material labeled as 321 stainless steel, had low calculated corrosion rates and showed no evidence of corrosion in the microscopic or microprobe examinations.

Keiser, J.R.; Henson, T.J.

1992-01-01

424

Examination of Japanese samples exposed in the Wilsonville liquefaction reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen samples provided by Mitsui SRC Development Co., Ltd. were exposed for 2497 hours through nozzles near the top of the two liquefaction reactors at the Wilsonville, Alabama, coal liquefaction facility. The samples were exposed during the entirety of run 263 which was the final run conducted at this facility. Examination of the samples provided the following information. (1) Both sets of samples with aluminum coatings had significantly greater weight losses than any of the other samples. The hot-dipped aluminum coating spalled in many areas leaving a layer rich in aluminum and iron. (2) The alumina plasma sprayed sample had an inner chromium-nickel layer, and there was a significant accumulation of metal sulfides between this inner layer and the base metal. (3) The titanium nitride CVD coated sample had an adherent, continuous coating and a very low corrosion rate. Chlorine, likely a result of the CVD process, was present in the coating. (4) The three uncoated metals, 2.25 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and the material labeled as 321 stainless steel, had low calculated corrosion rates and showed no evidence of corrosion in the microscopic or microprobe examinations.

Keiser, J.R.; Henson, T.J.

1992-12-31

425

Test system for exposing fish to resuspended, contaminated sediment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe a new test system for exposing fish to resuspended sediments and associated contaminants. Test sediments were resuspended by revolving test chambers on rotating shafts driven by an electric motor. The timing, speed, and duration of test-chamber revolution were controlled by a rheostat and electronic timer. Each chamber held 45 litres of water and accommodated about 49 g of test fish. The system described had three water baths, each holding six test chambers. We illustrate the performance of this system with results from a 28-day test in which juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus were exposed to resuspended, riverine sediments differing in texture and cadmium content. The test had one sediment-free control and five sediment treatments, with three replicates (chambers) per treatment and 25 fish per replicate. Two-thirds (30 litres) of the test water and sediment in each chamber was renewed weekly. The mean concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) did not vary among treatments; the grand-mean TSS in the five sediment treatments was 975 mg litre-1, similar to the target TSS of 1000 mg litre-1. At the end of the test, an average of 50% of the introduced cadmium was associated with the suspended sediment compartment, whereas the filtered (0.45 ?m) water contained 0.4% and bluegills 1.8% of the cadmium.

Cope, W. G.; Wiener, J. G.; Steingraeber, M. T.

1996-01-01

426

Follow-up of infants prenatally exposed to cocaine.  

PubMed

Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy continues to be of great concern for health care professionals. Research in this area has increased as investigators examine the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure in the infant/young child. This paper will critically review the literature, identify the primary care needs of infants and young children with a known history of prenatal cocaine exposure, and present guidelines for the primary care practitioner to monitor the infant's physiologic and developmental sequelae during the first 3 years of life. Findings in the literature demonstrate inconsistencies in regard to the physiologic and developmental outcomes of infants/young children prenatally exposed to cocaine. Further research is warranted, as it is evident from studies that not all investigators are controlling for confounding variables such as poly-drug use, which is necessary in isolating cocaine's effects. Subtle effects, however, have been reported from well-controlled studies and, thus, particular attention needs to be paid to early identification and interventions by primary care practitioners to prevent negative health outcomes. The guidelines proposed assist the practitioner with a thorough and focused approach to assessing the physiologic and developmental effects that are currently known to occur in the infant/young child prenatally exposed to cocaine. PMID:16295162

Schiller, Cassandra; Allen, Pat Jackson

427

Liver structure and function in print workers exposed to toluene.  

PubMed

An unresolved controversy is whether exposure to organic solvents in the workplace causes hepatotoxicity. From a medical surveillance study of 289 printing factory employees who were exposed primarily to toluene, we identified eight workers who had persistently abnormal serum transaminase and/or alkaline phosphatase values. The eight men were generally healthy and gave no history of taking medications or of drinking ethanol to excess. None was obese or diabetic. Six patients had hepatomegaly based on physical examination. All eight had mild elevations (less than 2 to 3 times the upper value of normal) of serum transaminases [alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)]. However, there was a marked increase in the ratio of ALT/AST (mean = 1.61). In each case, liver biopsy revealed mild, pericentral fatty change. Our results, consistent with those previously published by some others, suggest that pericentral fatty liver with mild "reactive hepatitis" is the most likely diagnosis in workers exposed to solvents for whom common causes of mild liver test abnormalities have been excluded. An increased ALT/AST ratio may represent a convenient, previously unrecognized indicator of this condition. PMID:3230426

Guzelian, P; Mills, S; Fallon, H J

1988-10-01

428

Protection of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria exposed to simulated Mars environmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we studied the viability of two microorganisms under different conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. An acidophilic chemolithotroph isolated from Río Tinto belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus and Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation resistant microorganism, were exposed to simulated Mars conditions under the protection of a layer of ferric oxides and hydroxides, a Mars regolith analogue. Samples of these microorganisms were exposed to UV radiation in Mars atmospheric conditions at different time intervals under the protection of 2 and 5 mm layers of oxidized iron minerals. Viability was evaluated by inoculation on fresh media and characterization of their growth cultures. Here we report the survival capability of both bacteria to simulated Mars environmental conditions.

Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

2010-10-01

429

Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust  

PubMed Central

Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables.

Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

2003-01-01

430

Space Environment Sensors on the Jem Exposed Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will report on the objectives and performance characteristics of two sensors developed under NASDA sponsorship to measure aspects of the space environment encountered by the International Space Station. The first Standard DOse Monitor (SDOM) monitors the energetic particle environment. It is a compact spectrometer that simultaneously discriminates and analyzes the energy of electrons, protons, alpha and heavy ion particles. The unique characteristics it provides include a large geometric acceptance angle, a wide range of resolvable energies and the discrimination process algorithm. The specific deposited energy signal in each of several detector is used to make this determination. We will describe the SDOM development and ground calibration performance. The second sensor, Atomic Oxygen Monitor (AOM) will measure the integrated flux at the surface of the module. We rely upon an actinometric method for AO determination: erosion of carbon strips exposed to the space environment induces increased resistance to a calibrated current source. We employ a ratiometric approach to provide accurate determination of the total AO fluence encountered. We will present details of the design and calibration process using an 8km/s AO simulation facility at PSI. Both these sensors have completed fabrication and testing, have been calibrated, and delivered to NASDA. They are awaiting further ground processing in preparation for transport to the Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module on ISS. We will discuss their planned positions for these sensors on the EF and the planned mission operations concept.

Galica, G. E.; Green, B. D.; Nakamura, T.; Abe, T.; Badono, S.

2002-01-01

431

Nail damage in spray operators exposed to paraquat  

PubMed Central

Hearn, C. E. D., and Keir, W. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 399-403. Nail damage in spray operators exposed to paraquat. Nail damage in 55 persons due to contamination by diluted paraquat in a group of 296 spray operators employed on a sugar estate in Trinidad is described. The commonest lesion seen was transverse white bands of discoloration, but loss of nail surface, transverse ridging, gross deformity of the nail plate, and loss of nails occurred. The index, middle, and ring fingers of the right hand were predominantly affected and this could be ascribed to leakage from the knapsack sprayer. It is emphasized that, although the degree of contamination was unusually gross, it is nonetheless important to recognize that the diluted material can cause nail damage. Simple hygienic precautions and proper maintenance of spraying equipment can prevent its occurrence. Periodic medical examinations are recommended even for workers exposed only to diluted paraquat. The distribution of the nail lesions confirms that they are the result of a local action. Following cessation of further exposure subsequent nail growth is normal. Images

Hearn, C. E. D.; Keir, W.

1971-01-01

432

Chronic toxic encephalopathy in a painter exposed to mixed solvents.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes symptoms and findings in a 57-year-old painter who had been exposed to various organic solvents for over 30 years. He began to work as a painter at 16 years of age, frequently working in poorly ventilated areas; he used solvents to remove paint from the skin of his arms and hands at the end of each work shift. The patient and his family noticed impaired short-term memory function and changes in affect in his early forties, which progressed until after he stopped working and was thus no longer exposed to paints and solvents. After the patient's exposures had ended, serial neuropsychological testing revealed persistent cognitive deficits without evidence of further progression, and improvement in some domains. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed global and symmetrical volume loss, involving more white than gray matter. The findings in this patient are consistent with chronic toxic encephalopathy and are differentiated from other dementing processes such as Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct (vascular) dementia, and alcoholic dementia. Previous descriptions in the literature of persistent neurobehavioral effects associated with chronic exposure to organic solvents corroborate the findings in this case. Images Figure 2

Feldman, R G; Ratner, M H; Ptak, T

1999-01-01

433

Role of exposed metal sites in hydrogen storage in MOFs.  

PubMed

The role of exposed metal sites in increasing the H2 storage performances in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been investigated by means of IR spectrometry. Three MOFs have been considered: MOF-5, with unexposed metal sites, and HKUST-1 and CPO-27-Ni, with exposed Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), respectively. The onset temperature of spectroscopic features associated with adsorbed H2 correlates with the adsorption enthalpy obtained by the VTIR method and with the shift experienced by the H-H stretching frequency. This relationship can be ascribed to the different nature and accessibility of the metal sites. On the basis of a pure energetic evaluation, it was observed that the best performance was shown by CPO-27-Ni that exhibits also an initial adsorption enthalpy of -13.5 kJ mol(-1), the highest yet observed for a MOF. Unfortunately, upon comparison of the hydrogen amounts stored at high pressure, the hydrogen capacities in these conditions are mostly dependent on the surface area and total pore volume of the material. This means that if control of MOF surface area can benefit the total stored amounts, only the presence of a great number of strong adsorption sites can make the (P, T) storage conditions more economically favorable. These observations lead to the prediction that efficient H2 storage by physisorption can be obtained by increasing the surface density of strong adsorption sites. PMID:18533719

Vitillo, Jenny G; Regli, Laura; Chavan, Sachin; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Dietzel, Pascal D C; Bordiga, Silvia; Zecchina, Adriano

2008-06-06

434

Functions of TGF-?-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) belong to the family of dendritic cells and possess specific features that distinguish them from conventional dendritic cells. For instance, pDC are the main interferon-alpha-secreting cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells exert both proinflammatory and regulatory functions. This is attested by the involvement of pDC through interferon-alpha secretion in several autoimmune diseases, and by the implication of pDC in tolerance. The same is true for TGF-? that plays a dual role in inflammation. In this review, we discuss recent data on pDC and TGF-? interactions. As with many cell types, pDCs are able to respond to TGF-? using the classic Smad signaling pathway. In addition, pDCs are capable to secrete TGF-?, in particular in response to TGF-? exposure. Exposure of pDCs to TGF-? prevents type I interferon secretion in response to TLR7/9 ligands. In contrast, the consequences of TGF-? on the antigen-presenting cell capacities of pDC are less clear, since TGF-?-exposed pDCs may lead to both regulatory T-cell and interleukin-17-secreting cell polarization. Here, we discuss the factors that may influence this polarization. We also discuss how pDCs exposed to TGF-? may participate in tolerance induction and maintenance, or, on the contrary, in autoimmune diseases. PMID:23428227

Saas, Philippe; Perruche, Sylvain

2012-01-01

435

Cancer in Experimental Animals Exposed to Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Inorganic arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has long been considered a human carcinogen. Recent studies raise further concern about the metalloid as a major, naturally occurring carcinogen in the environment. However, during this same period it has proven difficult to provide experimental evidence of the carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in laboratory animals and, until recently, there was considered to be a lack of clear evidence for carcinogenicity of any arsenical in animals. More recent work with arsenical methylation metabolites and early life exposures to inorganic arsenic has now provided evidence of carcinogenicity in rodents. Given that tens of millions of people worldwide are exposed to potentially unhealthy levels of environmental arsenic, in vivo rodent models of arsenic carcinogenesis are a clear necessity for resolving critical issues, like mechanisms of action, target tissue specificity, and sensitive subpopulations, and in developing strategies to reduce cancers in exposed human populations. This work reviews the available rodent studies considered relevant to carcinogenic assessment of arsenicals, taking advantage of the most recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that has not yet appeared as a full monograph but has been summarized (IARC 2009). Many valid studies show that arsenic can interact with other carcinogens/agents to enhance oncogenesis, and help elucidate mechanisms, and these too are summarized in this review. Finally, this body of rodent work is discussed in light of its impact on mechanisms and in the context of the persistent argument that arsenic is not carcinogenic in animals.

Tokar, Erik J.; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Ward, Jerold M.; Lunn, Ruth; Sams, Reeder L.; Waalkes, Michael P.

2011-01-01

436

Neural Tube Defects In Mice Exposed To Tap Water  

PubMed Central

In May of 2006 we suddenly began to observe neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice. We hypothesized the mice were being exposed unknowingly to a teratogenic agent and investigated the cause. Our results suggested that NTDs were not resulting from bedding material, feed, strain or source of the mice. Additionally, mice were negative for routine and comprehensive screens of pathogens. To further test whether the NTDs resulted from infectious or genetic cause localized to our facility, we obtained three strains of timed pregnant mice from commercial suppliers located in 4 different states. All strains and sources of mice arrived in our laboratory with NTDs, implying that commercially available mice were possibly exposed to a teratogen prior to purchase. Our investigation eventually concluded that exposure to tap water was causing the NTDs. The incidence of NTDs was greatest in purchased mice provided tap water and lowest in purchased mice provided distilled deionized water (DDI). Providing mice DDI water for two generations (F2-DDI) eliminated the NTDs. When F2-DDI mice were provided tap water from three different urban areas prior to breeding, their offspring again developed NTDs. Increased length of exposure to tap water significantly increased the incidence of NTDs. These results indicate that a contaminant in municipal tap water is likely causing NTDs in mice. The unknown teratogen appears to have a wide geographic distribution but has not yet been identified. Water analysis is currently underway to identify candidate contaminants that might be responsible for the malformations.

Mallela, Murali K; Werre, Stephen R; Hrubec, Terry C

2010-01-01

437

Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy.  

PubMed

In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect. PMID:22468147

Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

2012-03-15

438

Therapeutic effects of cooling swine skin exposed to sulfur mustard.  

PubMed

Recent world events have highlighted the need for effective medical therapies for chemical weapon injuries. Of the chemical weapon agents, perhaps one of the most widely used, both historically and most recently in the Iran-Iraq War, is sulfur mustard (HD). No effective antidotes exist for this vesicant agent and, to this day, HD casualties are treated entirely symptomatically. Previous work carried out in this laboratory has indicated that cooling HD-exposed tissue may ameliorate the resultant injury. To further examine this, an anesthetized domestic swine model was used to investigate whether alteration of skin temperature had any effect either visually or histopathologically on the development and progression of HD-induced skin lesions over 7 days. Exposure of swine skin to HD vapor resulted in lesions whose severity was exposure time related (4, 8, 12, and 16 minutes). Postdecontamination heating of skin above ambient temperature (approximately 39 degrees C) resulted in worsening of the lesion, whereas postdecontamination cooling (approximately 15 degrees C) for between 2 to 4 hours postexposure lessened the severity of HD-induced injury. The authors conclude that the early, noninvasive and simplistic act of cooling HD-exposed skin may have a salutary effect on the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions. PMID:12448623

Sawyer, Thomas W; Nelson, Peggy; Hill, Ira; Conley, John D; Blohm, Kendal; Davidson, Corey; Sawyer, Thomas W

2002-11-01

439

Immunotoxic damage in floriculturists exposed to pesticide mixtures.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to determine if the use of pesticide mixtures produced alterations in immunotoxicity biomarkers. The study was undertaken in three groups: the first group consisted of 38 floriculturists, the second comprised 38 vendors of the local market, and the last comprised 33 non-exposed persons from another locality. The determinations included haematocrit, mean cellular volume, hemoglobin, number of erythrocytes and leukocytes, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE), percentage of T-lymphocytes, and mitotic index from lymphocyte cultures with and without phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). The obtained results indicated the following: (i) in the level of the studied immunoglobulins, the results were within the reference values; (ii) there was a reduction in the amount of T-lymphocytes in the floriculturists in comparison with the determined in the other two groups; (iii) there was a decrease in the mitotic index of PHA-stimulated lymphocyte cultures of floriculturists and vendors in relation to the value of the control group; (iv) there was an increase in the mitotic index of unstimulated lymphocytes of floriculturists compared with the lymphocytes of the other two groups; and (v) there was no correlation between the results and the personal characteristics of the studied individuals. Our results established an immunotoxic effect in the floriculturists exposed to pesticides. PMID:23030438

Castillo-Cadena, Julieta; González-Mercado, Ana Laura; Hernández-Caballero, Nancy; Ramírez-San Juan, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

2013-01-01

440

Urinary nickel and prolactin in workers exposed to urban stressors.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to verify whether the exposure to low Ni doses in urban air may have some effects on the prolactin values of outdoor workers exposed to urban pollutants. 334 workers have been included in the study and divided on the basis of gender, job, age, length of service and smoking habits. Each worker underwent urinary Ni and prolactin sampling. The t-test for independent samples, the Mann-Whitney U test for two mode variables (gender, smoking habit), the univariate ANOVA test and the Kruskal Wallis test for the variables in more than two modes (age, length of service and job duties) were performed on the total sample. Pearson's correlation coefficient (p two-tailed) among the parameters was evaluated both in the total sample and after the stratification by gender, smoking habit and job. Multiple linear regression was performed after taking account of the major confounding factors on the total sample and on the subcategories. The statistical tests showed a significant correlation between urinary Ni and prolactin both in the total sample and in the subcategories. We believe that the occupational exposure to low doses of Ni present in urban pollution may influence the prolactin values in exposed workers. PMID:24081300

Caciari, Tiziana; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Di Giorgio, Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Scala, Barbara; Giubilati, Roberto; Capozzella, Assunta; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

2013-10-23

441

Characterization of specimens exposed in a Li loop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monometallic V-4Cr-4Ti thermal convection loop was run for 2355 h with a peak temperature of 700 °C (973 K) and Li flow rate of 2-3 cm/s. Specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti exposed in the hot and cold legs of the loop and tensile tested in vacuum at 500 °C (773 K) showed an increase in the 0.2% yield and ultimate tensile strengths and a decrease in the serration amplitude with decreasing exposure temperature in the loop. However, only minor changes in ductility were measured. With the higher temperature exposures, a decrease in Vickers hardness was measured, but little change in the grain size was observed. Characterization of the microstructure after exposure at 627 °C (900 K) in the loop showed an increase in the density of Ti- and N-rich grain boundary and matrix precipitates near the specimen surface after exposure corresponding to an increase in the hardness in the near-surface region. Two-layer V/Y2O3 coatings on V-4Cr-4Ti substrates also were exposed in the loop, and initial room temperature characterization was conducted.

Unocic, K. A.; Lance, M. J.; Pint, B. A.

2013-11-01

442

Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint  

PubMed Central

The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source.

Deus, Helena F.; Veiga, Diogo F.; Freire, Pablo R.; Weinstein, John N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Almeida, Jonas S.

2011-01-01

443

Exposing public health surveillance data using existing standards.  

PubMed

With the growing use of information technologies, an increased volume of data is produced in Public Health Surveillance, enabling utilization of new data sources and analysis methods. Public health and research will benefit from the use of data standards promoting harmonization and data description through metadata. No data standard has yet been universally accepted for exchanging public health data. In this work, we implemented two existing standards eligible to expose public health data: Statistical Data and Metadata Exchange - Health Domain (SDMX-HD) proposed by the World Health Organization and Open Data Protocol (OData) proposed by Microsoft Corp. SDMX-HD promotes harmonization through controlled vocabulary and predefined data structure suitable for public health but requires important investment, while OData, a generic purpose standard, proposes a simple way to expose data with minimal documentation and end-user integration tools. The two solutions were implemented and are publicly available at http://sdmx.sentiweb.fr and http://odata.sentiweb.fr. These solutions show that data sharing and interoperability are already possible in Public Health Surveillance. PMID:23920668

Turbelin, Clément; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves

2013-01-01

444

Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint.  

PubMed

The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. PMID:20851208

Deus, Helena F; Veiga, Diogo F; Freire, Pablo R; Weinstein, John N; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

2010-12-01

445

Behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in mice exposed to microwave radiation.  

PubMed

Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) and breathing rate were measured in free-moving mice exposed to 2,450-MHz microwaves. A waveguide-exposure system was imposed with a longitudinal temperature gradient that permitted mice to select their preferred Ta. Breathing rate was determined by analyzing the rhythmic shifts in microwave energy not absorbed by the animal. Without microwave exposure mice selected an average Ta of 31 degrees C. This preferred Ta did not change until the specific absorption rate (SAR) at 2,450 MHz exceeded approximately 7.0 W X kg-1. Mice maintained their breathing rate near baseline levels by selecting a cooler Ta during microwave exposure. In contrast, mice maintained at 31 degrees C underwent a sharp increase in breathing rate when SAR exceeded approximately 7.0 W X kg-1. Mice exposed to microwaves in a waveguide with a temperature gradient increased breathing rate 0.6 breaths/min per unit increase in SAR, whereas without the temperature gradient breathing rate increased by 9.6 breaths/min per unit increase in SAR. Data from this study support previous studies that have shown behavioral thermoregulation is more effective (or efficient) in minimizing a thermal load than autonomic thermoregulation. PMID:6629957

Gordon, C J

1983-10-01

446

Microstructural examination of service exposed coal mill liner material  

SciTech Connect

This study mainly focuses the microstructural characterisation of the service exposed coal liner. These liners are generally referred to as bull ring segments in the bowl mill of coal pulveriser systems. The failed bull ring segment was collected from a coal-fired power plant of Kolaghat thermal plant, West Bengal, India. The crack that has been observed in the middle of the liner was observed under SEM and detailed microstructural studies are made for the liner material. The hardness measurements are made and XRD is carried out to identify the phases present in the sample. The results suggest that the material confirms to high chromium cast iron and microstructural studies reveal that the cracks are mainly due to the heavy service exposed conditions where lumps of coal and silica sand falling on these liners causing severe impact and abrasion conditions. High abrasive studies on the liner material are carried out and it showed that increasing the abrasive size as well as load is responsible for higher wear loss. The results suggest that prolonged exposure to abrasion conditions results in the progressive removal of the matrix material and due to various phase transformations from austenite to martensite introduces surface volume changes and causes the generation of cracks and further lead to failure of the component.

Venkateswarlu, K.; Chowdhury, S.G.; Pathak, L.C.; Ray, A.K. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

2007-10-15

447

The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: Flight sample preparation and ground control spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March of 2009, the ORGANIC experiment integrated into the European multi-user facility EXPOSE-R, containing experiments dedicated to Astrobiology, was mounted through Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) externally on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiment exposed organic samples of astronomical interest for a duration of 97 weeks (˜22 months) to the space environment. The samples that were returned to Earth in spring 2011, received a total UV radiation dose during their exposure including direct solar irradiation of >2500 h, exceeding the limits of laboratory simulations. We report flight sample preparation and pre-flight ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) characterization of the ORGANIC samples, which include 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The corresponding time-dependent ground control monitoring experiments for ORGANIC measured over ˜19 months are presented and the results anticipated upon return of the samples are discussed. We present the first UV-Vis spectrum of solid circobiphenyl (C38H16). Further, we present the first published UV-Vis spectra of diphenanthro[9,10-b?,10?-d]thiophene (C28H16S), dinaphtho[8,1,2-abc,2?,1?,8?-klm]coronene (C36H16), tetrabenzo[de,no,st,c?d?]heptacene (C42H22), and dibenzo[jk,a?b?]octacene (C40H22) in solid phase and in solution. The results of the ORGANIC experiment are expected to enhance our knowledge of the evolution and degradation of large carbon-containing molecules in space environments.

Bryson, K. L.; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2011-12-01

448

Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) every year, including workers in\\u000a the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible\\u000a cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighteen dry cleaning workers and 18 laundry workers (unexposed controls) provided a peripheral blood sample for cytogenetic\\u000a analysis by

James D Tucker; Karen J Sorensen; Avima M Ruder; Lauralynn Taylor McKernan; Christy L Forrester; Mary Ann Butler

2011-01-01

449

Characteristics and outcomes of drug-exposed and non drug-exposed children in kinship and non-relative foster care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of drug-exposed and non drug-exposed children in kinship and non-relative foster care. Outcomes included educational performance, emotional development, and problem behavior. Children were an average of 7.9 years old at the time of the study and were either 1.(a) non drug-exposed children placed with kin (n = 139),2.(b) drugexposed children placed with kin

Devon Brooks; Richard P. Barth

1998-01-01

450

Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Law Enforcement and Community Partnerships, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Children are all too frequently exposed to domestic violence. In the mental health community, it has been well documented that children exposed to domestic violence, particularly children who witness violence inflicted by one parent on the other parent, s...

B. E. Smith D. H. Mulmat H. J. Davies L. B. Nickles

2002-01-01

451

46 CFR 169.721 - Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only). 169.721 Section 169.721 Shipping COAST... Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only). (a) Unless clearly unsuitable, each...

2011-10-01

452

Biomarkers in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been identified as a major source of carcinogenic risk in the coke-oven industry. This study evaluates following markers: personal exposure to PAH, DNA adducts, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms. 23 top side coke-oven workers and 13 unexposed workers employed in the same plant at Kosice, Slovakia were studied. Personal monitors were used to measure carcinogenic PAH exposure during 8 h of working shift prior the collection of blood and urine samples. Personal exposure to eight carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 0.6 to 632 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and from 0.07 to 0.62 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for exposed and control groups, respectively. Based on the values of individual persons, the positive significant correlations were found between DNA adducts detected in WBC and LYM (Spearman r=0.451, p=0.044), between DNA adducts and SCE (r=0.363, p=0.034) and between AB.C. and SCE-H (SCE evaluated as the index of heterogeneity H-variance/mean: r=0.381, p=0.024). Using individual PAH exposure data the following significant correlations between exposure and biomarkers were found: WBC-DNA adducts (r=0.325;p=0.058);SCE-H (r=0.467, p=0.007). Groupwise comparison of the exposed and control groups (Mann-Whitney U-test) showed significantly increased values of SCE (6.71{+-}1.20 vs. 5.20 {+-}1.16, respectively) and DNA adducts in WBC and LYM (2.70{+-}0.74 vs 1.94{+-}0.51 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides; 2.46{+-}0.83 vs. 1.60{+-}0.32 adducts/10{sup 8}nucleotides, respectively). No influence of the smoking habits on the biomarkers was detectable in exposed or unexposed individuals. Multifactor analysis of variance taking into account confounding factors such as GSTM1, NAT2, diet and adjusting the data for age and smoking clearly showed the effect of exposure on DNA adducts, AB.C and SCE-H.

Binkova, B.; Topinka, J.; Mrackova, G. [Institute of Hygiene of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czechoslovakia)] [and others

1997-10-01

453

Risk of thyroid nodules in subjects occupationally exposed to radiation: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To examine, by ultrasonography the prevalence of thyroid nodules in a cross sectional study of male medical workers occupationally exposed to chi radiation at the Pisa hospital, in comparison with controls matched for age and sex. METHODS--50 male medical workers exposed to radiation were randomly matched for age (+\\/- 2 years) with 100 male workers not occupationally exposed to ionising

A Antonelli; G Silvano; F Bianchi; C Gambuzza; L Tana; G Salvioni; V Baldi; L Gasperini; L Baschieri

1995-01-01

454

Children Exposed to Community Violence or War\\/Terrorism: Current Status and Research Directions—Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue of Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, “Children Exposed to Community Violence or War\\/Terrorism: Current Status and Research Directions,” addresses the current status of our knowledge as well as critical research needs in the area of children exposed to violence outside the family. Although much has been learned in recent years about children exposed to violence, significant research

Ronald J. Prinz; Margaret M. Feerick

2003-01-01

455

Corrosion of exposed rebars, associated mechanical degradation and correlation with accelerated corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large number of steel reinforced concrete buildings in Greece, spalling of the cement has left the steel reinforcement (rebars) exposed to the atmosphere. This has led to corrosion of the exposed rebars, especially in coastal areas, with questions regarding their remaining load-carrying capacity. This work addresses the problem of corrosion and strength degradation of such exposed rebars. A