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Sample records for acaricide exposed scabies

  1. Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide naïve mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to naïve mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis- mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. PMID:20482766

  2. Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

    2010-01-01

    Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

  3. The Effect of Insecticide Synergists on the Response of Scabies Mites to Pyrethroid Acaricides

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Gunning, Robin; Rossiter, Louise; Holt, Deborah; Walton, Shelley; Beckham, Simone; McCarthy, James

    2009-01-01

    Background Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide), DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) and DEM (diethyl maleate) were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001). Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%); inhibition of GST activity (73%) with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81%) with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites. Conclusions These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites. PMID

  4. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Scabies KidsHealth > For Kids > Scabies Print A A A ... Stop to Scabies en español Sarna What Is Scabies? Scabies (say: SKAY-beez) is an itchy skin ...

  5. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    Scabies is an easily-spread skin disease caused by a very small mite. ... Human scabies; Sarcoptes scabiei ... The mites that cause scabies burrow into the skin and lay their eggs. ... do not spread human scabies. It is also not very likely for ...

  6. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other household members. Sharing clothes, towels, and bedding can sometimes spread scabies. This can happen much ... available to treat scabies. The infected person's clothes, bedding and towels should be washed in hot water ...

  7. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Human scabies is caused by ... Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms of the disease... ...

  8. Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious skin infestation caused by a mite. It causes significant global morbidity, with an estimated 300 million cases annually. Although it can affect individuals at any socioeconomic level, individuals who live in poverty or in overcrowded conditions are at much higher risk for scabies. Lack of local expertise can result in failure to recognize scabies, leading to delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment of cases and contacts. Scabies disproportionately affects many Indigenous (First Nations, Inuit, Métis) communities where risk factors are present. Scabies risk is also higher in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Institutional outbreaks of scabies have also been reported. Apart from a very itchy rash, scabies can lead to secondary bacterial infections and related complications, as well as to stigmatization, depression, insomnia and significant financial costs. Topical antiscabies lotions are still the mainstay of treatment, but oral ivermectin has also proven effective under certain circumstances. Asymptomatic and symptomatic household members should all be treated at the same time. In Canada and globally, the presence of scabies is usually a symptom of poor living conditions and a sign that basic necessities need improvement. Clinicians who work with Indigenous communities can improve their ability to diagnose and treat scabies, and should advocate for better living conditions where scabies is prevalent. PMID:26527041

  9. Scabies.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Scabies is a contagious skin infestation caused by a mite. It causes significant global morbidity, with an estimated 300 million cases annually. Although it can affect individuals at any socioeconomic level, individuals who live in poverty or in overcrowded conditions are at much higher risk for scabies. Lack of local expertise can result in failure to recognize scabies, leading to delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment of cases and contacts. Scabies disproportionately affects many Indigenous (First Nations, Inuit, Métis) communities where risk factors are present. Scabies risk is also higher in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Institutional outbreaks of scabies have also been reported. Apart from a very itchy rash, scabies can lead to secondary bacterial infections and related complications, as well as to stigmatization, depression, insomnia and significant financial costs. Topical antiscabies lotions are still the mainstay of treatment, but oral ivermectin has also proven effective under certain circumstances. Asymptomatic and symptomatic household members should all be treated at the same time. In Canada and globally, the presence of scabies is usually a symptom of poor living conditions and a sign that basic necessities need improvement. Clinicians who work with Indigenous communities can improve their ability to diagnose and treat scabies, and should advocate for better living conditions where scabies is prevalent. PMID:26527041

  10. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... may be worse at night or after a hot bath. A scabies infection begins as small, itchy ...

  11. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequent skin-to-skin contact between people. Hospitals, child-care centers, and nursing homes are examples. Scabies can easily infect sex partners and other household members. Sharing clothes, towels, ...

  12. Scabies.

    PubMed

    Rosamilia, Lorraine L

    2014-09-01

    Scabies infestation in humans is a complex interplay between mite, host, and host environment. New techniques for diagnosis, treatment, and eradication are constantly in flux due to varying presentations of scabetic eruptions, a dearth of especially sensitive and specific measures for diagnosis, resistances to pharmacologic therapy, and disparate regional resources. This review will provide an update on the clinical variations, detection methods, and management options. PMID:25577847

  13. Scabies.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2006-05-27

    Scabies is a neglected parasitic disease that is a major public health problem in many resource-poor regions. It causes substantial morbidity from secondary infections and post-infective complications such as acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Disease control requires treatment of the affected individual and all people they have been in contact with, but is often hampered by inappropriate or delayed diagnosis, poor treatment compliance, and improper use of topical compounds such as permethrin, lindane, or benzyl benzoate. In addition to concerns over toxicity with such compounds, parasite resistance seems to be increasing. Oral ivermectin is an alternative that has been used successfully in community control programmes. Plant derivatives such as turmeric, neem, and tea tree oil are also promising future treatments. The disease is strongly associated with poverty and overcrowding, and the associated stigma can ostracise affected individuals. Treatment of scabies in poor countries needs to integrate drug treatment programmes with efforts to improve the socioeconomic conditions and education programmes to reduce stigma. We expect the future to bring more sensitive and specific clinical and laboratory-based diagnostic methods, as well as new therapeutic strategies. PMID:16731272

  14. Microarray analysis of gene expression in acaricide-exposed Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricide-inducible differential gene expression was studied in larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using a microarray-based approach. The acaricides used were: coumaphos, permethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz. The microarrays contained over 13,000 probes, having been derived from a previous...

  15. Immune-related gene expression in nurse honey bees (Apis mellifera) exposed to synthetic acaricides.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Paula Melisa; Antúnez, Karina; Martín, Mariana; Porrini, Martín Pablo; Zunino, Pablo; Eguaras, Martín Javier

    2013-01-01

    The mite Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite affecting honey bees worldwide. Synthetic acaricides have been among the principal tools available to beekeepers for its control, although several studies have shown its negative effects on honey bee physiology. Recent research suggests that those molecules strongly impact on immune signaling cascades and cellular immunity. In the present work, LC(50) in six-day-old bees were determined for the following acaricides: tau-fluvalinate, flumethrin, amitraz and coumaphos. According to this obtained value, a group of individuals was treated with each acaricide and then processed for qPCR analysis. Transcript levels for genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and immune-related proteins were assessed. Flumethrin increased the expression of hymenoptaecin when comparing treated and control bees. Significant differences were recorded between coumaphos and flumethrin treatments, while the first one reduced the expression of hymenoptaecin and abaecin, the last one up-regulated their expressions. No significant statistically changes were recorded in the expression levels of vitellogenin, lysozyme or glucose dehydrogenase among bees treated with acaricides and control bees. This work constitutes the first report, under laboratory conditions, about induction of immune related genes in response to synthetic miticides. PMID:23147024

  16. Scabies Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Scabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Submit Button Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  17. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Baby, Kavya E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. PMID:26787146

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F.; Peterson, Greg M.; Walton, Shelley F.; Hammer, Kate A.; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C.; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M.; Baby, Kavya E.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted. PMID:26787146

  19. Scabies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat scabies by prescribing a medicated cream or lotion to kill the mites. The cream needs to ... may choose an oral medication instead of topical lotion to treat scabies in older children. Since scabies ...

  20. Bullous Scabies.

    PubMed

    Luo, Di-Qing; Huang, Mei-Xing; Liu, Juan-Hua; Tang, Wen; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-09-01

    Scabies is a common contagious cutaneous disease and usually affects the young, characterized by polymorphous lesions that may present as burrows, pruritic papules, and inflammatory nodules. Bullous scabies (BS) is its rather rare subtype, mimicking bullous pemphigoid. We report a 15-year-old Chinese boy presenting with 1-month history of pruritic bullae on his penile skin, showing poor response to both topical steroids and systemic antihistamines, but cured by sulfur ointment alone. No recurrence occurred in the 5 years of follow-up. We also reviewed the published cases. Up to date, 44 cases, including the present, have been reported. Of them, 30 were male and 14 were female. The age range was from 1 to 89 years old, with a median age of 70.6 years. The bullous lesions may involve the arms, legs, trunk, genitals, feet, buttocks, thighs, neck, inguinal folds, and may even be generalized. Trunk and extremities are the most common involved locations. Facial or mucosa involvement had never been reported. The histological findings present as a subepidermal split with variable inflammatory infiltrate predominantly neutrophils, and eosinophilic spongiosis, or both. Eighteen of 32 patients showed positive deposition of linear-granular IgG or complement 3 alone or in various combinations, and five of 24 patients revealed circulating IgG. All the 40 cases with therapeutic details were cured by antiscabietic remedy. BS always involves the trunk and extremities. It has a predilection for elderlies and males. The treatments for BS are similar to those of classical scabies. PMID:27402514

  1. [Diagnosis and evolution of scabies].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Hermanns-Lê, T; Piérard, G E

    2014-01-01

    Human scabies is an ectoparasitosis affecting any individual at any age. The level of infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is influenced by any defect in immune response. Several clinical types of scabies are described including baby scabies, profuse scabies of immunodepression, norvegian scabies and sarcoptic mange. Onchocerciasis dermatitis is a tropical microfilariosis completely distinct by its parasitic nature. PMID:25158389

  2. Scabies of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Oh, Susan; Vandergriff, Travis

    2014-01-01

    Scabies limited to the nail unit is quite unusual, but may persist after treatment of crusted scabies. We present a man with a history of crusted scabies that resolved with treatment, but later the patient reported a chronic problem with crumbly, thickened nails, which were found to be harboring scabies mites. PMID:25526011

  3. Retrospective analysis of institutional scabies outbreaks from 1984 to 2013: lessons learned and moving forward.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, K E; Murray, H C; King, M; Oprescu, F

    2016-08-01

    Scabies outbreaks can be disruptive in institutional settings, and are associated with considerable but under-researched morbidity, especially in vulnerable populations. In this paper, we describe key findings from a retrospective review of scabies outbreaks reported in the literature over the past 30 years. We undertook this review to gain insights into the impact of institutional outbreaks, the burden in terms of attack rates, economic costs, treatment trends, the types of index cases and outbreak progression. We found 84 reports over 30 years, with outbreaks most frequently reported in aged care facilities (n = 40) and hospitals (n = 33). On average, scabies outbreaks persisted for 3 months, and the median attack rate was 38%. While 1% lindane was once the most commonly employed acaricide, 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin are increasingly used. Crusted scabies represented the index case for 83% of outbreaks, and scabies was misdiagnosed in 43% outbreaks. The frequency of reported scabies outbreaks has not declined consistently over time suggesting the disease is still highly problematic. We contend that more research and practice emphasis must be paid to improve diagnostic methods, surveillance and control, health staff education and management of crusted scabies to prevent the development of scabies outbreaks in institutional settings. PMID:27019288

  4. [Crusted scabies: A review].

    PubMed

    Jouret, G; Bounemeur, R; Presle, A; Takin, R

    2016-04-01

    Crusted scabies is a rare and severe form of infestation by Sarcoptes scabies var. hominis. It is characterized by profuse hyperkeratosis containing over 4000 mites per gram of skin, with treatment being long and difficult. The condition is both direct and indirectly contagious. It has a central role in epidemic cycles of scabies, the incidence of which is on the rise in economically stable countries. Recent discoveries concerning the biology of mites, the pathophysiology of hyperkeratosis and the key role of IL-17 in this severe form open up new therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26948093

  5. Scabies mite, photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. Scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to scratching and damage of the skin (excoriation). The infestation may last for years without treatment and has been called the "seven year itch".

  6. Scabies: Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Scabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Submit Button Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  7. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Scabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Submit Button Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  8. A case of crusted scabies combined with bullous scabies

    PubMed Central

    SU, WEN-JING; FANG, SHENG; CHEN, AI-JUN; SHAN, KUI

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious skin disease that causes extremely itching. It is a parasitic disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and characterized by polymorphous lesions. Vesicular and bullous lesions in cases of scabies are rather rare. Bullous scabies has a pemphigoid presentation. Crusted scabies, also known as Norwegian scabies, is a rare and severe form of the disease. The large number of mites present in and on the skin cause scabies to be highly contagious. The present study reports a case of crusted scabies combined with bullous scabies, the clinical and histopathological manifestations of which mimicked those of bullous pemphigoid. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence test results were negative. Bullae recurred and persisted despite systemic corticosteroids and antihistamine medication. The patient was successfully treated with 10% sulfur cream and remained free of recurrence during the 12 months of follow-up. Differential diagnosis with bullous pemphigoid and the mechanism of formation of bullae are also discussed. PMID:26622520

  9. [Nosocomial scabies outbreak].

    PubMed

    Robles García, M; de la Lama López-Areal, J; Avellaneda Martínez, C; Giménez García, R; Cortejoso Gonzalo, B; Vaquero Puerta, J L

    2000-10-01

    A scabies outbreak is reported which appeared in the Inpatient Pneumology Department in a 500-bed hospital. The outbreak began after the admission of a 90-year old woman referred from a nursing home. A total of 27 secondary cases occurred among health care personnel (14) and patients (13); other 7 cases of likely scabies occurred among 198 contacts. Patients were treated with 5% permetrine cream, in three applications one week apart from each other. It was also applied as prophylaxis in non involved patients in a single application. A discussion follows on the medical and preventive recommendations to control the spreading of these outbreak. PMID:11153236

  10. [Scabies: A world plague].

    PubMed

    Spadoni, S; Lamand, V; Vonesch, M A; Béranger, C

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a ubiquitous contagious disease, and its prevalence is growing. Diagnostic difficulties vary according to the patient's age and health. Benzyl benzoate and ivermectin are the reference drugs in France. Decontamination of the patients' bedding, clothing, and environment is essential for successful treatment. PMID:24682642

  11. The scourge of scabies.

    PubMed

    Kemp, David J; Walton, Shelley F; Harumal, Pearly; Currie, Bart J

    2002-02-01

    Scabies ('Itch Mite') is truly a Great Neglected Disease that inflicts misery on millions. Molecular approaches, while still in their infancy, are providing a better understanding of the parasite and will have important implications for control and prevention. It has long been thought that dogs may act as a reservoir for human infections. However, genetic studies cast doubt over this supposition. PMID:11852281

  12. Controlling scabies in institutional settings: a review of medications, treatment models, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2004-01-01

    Scabies is a global problem and a significant source of morbidity in nursing home residents and workers because of its highly contagious nature. It is also a problem in hospitals that care for the elderly, the debilitated, and the immunocompromised. New outbreaks continue to occur, despite controlling the recurrent epidemics. Scabies manifests as papules, pustules, burrows, nodules, and occasionally urticarial papules and plaques. Most of the patients with scabies experience severe pruritus. A subset of patients have crusted or Norwegian scabies. These patients, who are usually debilitated or immunocompromised, do not experience the urge to scratch, and therefore do not scratch their own skin. Diagnosis of scabies is based on patient history, physical examination, and demonstration of mites, eggs, or scybala (black or brown football-shaped masses of feces of scabies) on microscopic examination. Scabies can be treated with topical or oral therapies. Topical treatments include 5% permethrin cream, 1% lindane (gamma benzene hexachloride) lotion, 6% precipitated sulfur in petrolatum, crotamiton, malathion, allethrin spray, and benzyl benzoate. Ivermectin, the only oral treatment, is not approved for scabies in the US. Most authorities advocate using a scabicide several times, specifically once a week over a period of 2-3 weeks. In an outbreak of scabies in a nursing home, residents, staff, and frequent visitors should all be treated even if they are not symptomatic. Ivermectin is useful in treating patients with Norwegian or crusted scabies, or who are debilitated. Ivermectin has no serious reported adverse effects. Model treatment plans to stop scabies epidemics have been developed. These plans coordinate treatment of all persons exposed (including ivermectin for debilitated patients), isolation of infected patients, disinfection of objects that patients have come into contact with, and education and reassurance of the medical staff. Failure to coordinate notification

  13. Ivermectin vs. lindane in the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Scabies is commonly treated with acaricides but the treatment of choice is still controversial. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. lindane lotion 1% for the treatment of scabies. Four hundred fourty patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 microg/kg body weight, and the second group were treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Single dose of oral ivermectin provided a cure rate of 63.6% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 81.8% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 45.4% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 63.6% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Single dose ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow up. PMID:23829057

  14. Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Scabies Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Submit Button Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  15. Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first

  16. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  17. Scabies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Pubic Lice ("Crabs") and Scabies English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department of Health Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Pubic Lice ("Crabs") and Scabies English Silmii Torbaanqabaa riffensa nannoo qaama ...

  18. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... who has been diagnosed with scabies and my job requires skin-to-skin contact with patients? Scabies ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  19. Scabies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Scabies URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/scabies.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Scabies - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. [Scabies as an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-03-01

    Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). It is mainly transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact. The spread of scabies can cause major difficulties in healthcare institutions, particularly in residential homes for the elderly. The disease is characterized by intense nocturnal itching, erythematous papules arranged in a linear order, and scratching resulting in excoriations. The diagnosis is confirmed by identification of the mite or by finding one or more mite tunnels in the skin. An individually occurring case does not need to be reported. If two or more cases occur in the same institution, the company physician and the appropriate public health department are to be informed in Germany. In case of a suspected scabies infection in medical personnel due to exposure in their work setting, medical notification to the statutory occupational accidents' insurance (Nr. 3101) is to be issued in accordance with § 202, Volume VII of the German Social Code. First line treatment is topical therapy with 5 % permethrin. If scabies control is required in an institution, systemic treatment with ivermectin may be considered. In the case of a scabies outbreak, all patients, contact persons, and staff must be treated simultaneously. PMID:25676574

  1. Policy Decisions in Scabies Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, James A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In a Kansas elementary school, an outbreak of scabies was discovered by the school nurse. Through cooperative planning with the local health department, the infected children were excluded from school pending medical treatment, and a screening program was set up for the entire student population. (JN)

  2. Pediculosis and scabies: treatment update.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Karen; Pippitt, Karly; Kiraly, Bernadette; Sayler, Morgan

    2012-09-15

    Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A "no nit" policy for schools and day care centers no longer is recommended because nits can persist after successful treatment with no risk of transmission. First-line pharmacologic treatment of pediculosis is permethrin 1% lotion or shampoo. Multiple novel treatments have shown limited evidence of effectiveness superior to permethrin. Wet combing is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment option. Finding pubic lice should prompt an evaluation for other sexually transmitted infections. Body lice infestation should be suspected when a patient with poor hygiene presents with pruritus. Washing affected clothing and bedding is essential if lice infestation is found, but no other environmental decontamination is necessary. Scabies in adults is recognized as a pruritic, papular rash with excoriations in a typical distribution pattern. In infants, children, and immunocompromised adults, the rash also can be vesicular, pustular, or nodular. First-line treatment of scabies is topical permethrin 5% cream. Clothing and bedding of persons with scabies should be washed in hot water and dried in a hot dryer. PMID:23062045

  3. What's eating you? Canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, Richard F; Elston, Dirk M

    2003-08-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, the causative strain of canine scabies, can produce a pruritic rash in humans. The rash generally manifests within 24 to 96 hours of contact with the affected pet. Scrapings are generally negative, and the correct diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. PMID:12953932

  4. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Shimose, Luis; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2013-10-01

    Scabies remains a public health problem, especially in developing countries, with a worldwide incidence of approximately 300 million cases each year. Prolonged skin-to-skin contact is necessary to allow the transmission of the causative mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. Classic scabies presents with burrows, erythematous papules, and generalized pruritus. Clinical variants include nodular scabies and crusted scabies, also called Norwegian scabies. The diagnosis is based mainly on history and physical examination, but definitive diagnosis depends on direct visualization of the mites under microscopy. Alternative diagnostic methods include the burrow ink test, video-dermatoscopy, newly serologic tests like PCR/ELISA, and specific IgE directed toward major mite components. Treatment of scabies consists of either topical permethrin or oral ivermectin, although the optimal regimen is still unclear. PMID:23904181

  5. Hypereosinophilia in erythrodermic psoriasis: superimposed scabies.

    PubMed

    Harman, Mehmet; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep M; Türkçü, Gül

    2014-09-01

    Scabies is a common ectoparasitic disease that can be diagnosed based on the presence of pruritus and typical clinical signs including burrows, vesicles, and erythematous papules. If a desquamative disease such as psoriasis precedes scabies, then the disease course may be altered. Pruritus may be absent and typical scabies lesions may be concealed due to the preexisting disease, resulting in delayed diagnosis. We present 2 cases of scabies in a brother and sister with erythrodermic psoriasis. In both cases peripheral hypereosinophilia suggested scabies. In patients with erythematous scaly inflammatory skin diseases who are treated with immunosuppressive agents, peripheral eosinophilia also could suggest scabies; therefore, a search for sarcoptic mites in skin scrapings should be undertaken. PMID:25279478

  6. Scabies: Advances in Noninvasive Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Micali, Giuseppe; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Chosidow, Olivier; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Scabies is a common, highly contagious skin parasitosis caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Early identification and prompt treatment of infested subjects is essential, as missed diagnosis may result in outbreaks, considerable morbidity, and significantly increased economic burden. The standard diagnostic technique consists of mites' identification by microscopic examination of scales obtained by skin scraping. This is a time-consuming and risk-associated procedure that is also not suitable to a busy practice. In recent years, some advanced and noninvasive techniques such as videodermatoscopy, dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated improved efficacy in the diagnosis of scabies. Their advantages include rapid, noninvasive mass screening and post-therapeutic follow-up, with no physical risk. A greater knowledge of these techniques among general practitioners and other specialists involved in the intake care of overcrowded populations vulnerable to scabies infestations is now viewed as urgent and important in the management of outbreaks, as well as in consideration of the recent growing inflow of migrants in Europe from North Africa. PMID:27311065

  7. Scabies: Advances in Noninvasive Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Chosidow, Olivier; Schwartz, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Scabies is a common, highly contagious skin parasitosis caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Early identification and prompt treatment of infested subjects is essential, as missed diagnosis may result in outbreaks, considerable morbidity, and significantly increased economic burden. The standard diagnostic technique consists of mites’ identification by microscopic examination of scales obtained by skin scraping. This is a time-consuming and risk-associated procedure that is also not suitable to a busy practice. In recent years, some advanced and noninvasive techniques such as videodermatoscopy, dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated improved efficacy in the diagnosis of scabies. Their advantages include rapid, noninvasive mass screening and post-therapeutic follow-up, with no physical risk. A greater knowledge of these techniques among general practitioners and other specialists involved in the intake care of overcrowded populations vulnerable to scabies infestations is now viewed as urgent and important in the management of outbreaks, as well as in consideration of the recent growing inflow of migrants in Europe from North Africa. PMID:27311065

  8. Dealing with Scabies in a Hospital Ward.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    A case of scabies has been diagnosed in the Medical Ward where Sophie works, and the hospital is having to take appropriate measures. Scabies mites can spread quickly, and staff who are in contact with the infected patient risk catching the parasites and contaminating their own family in turn. One of the night nurses is probably infected. PMID:26365648

  9. Norwegian crusted scabies: an unusual case presentation.

    PubMed

    Maghrabi, Michael M; Lum, Shireen; Joba, Ameha T; Meier, Molly J; Holmbeck, Ryan J; Kennedy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious condition that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person and has been frequently associated with institutional and healthcare-facility outbreaks. The subtype Norwegian crusted scabies can masquerade as other dermatologic diseases owing to the heavy plaque formation. Successful treatment has been documented in published reports, including oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Few case studies documenting the treatment of Norwegian crusted scabies have reported the use of surgical debridement as an aid to topical and/or oral treatment when severe plaque formation has been noted. A nursing home patient was admitted to the hospital for severe plaque formation of both feet. A superficial biopsy was negative for both fungus and scabies because of the severity of the plaque formation on both feet. The patient underwent a surgical, diagnostic biopsy of both feet, leading to the diagnosis of Norwegian crusted scabies. A second surgical debridement was then performed to remove the extensive plaque formation and aid the oral ivermectin and topical permethrin treatment. The patient subsequently made a full recovery and was discharged back to the nursing home. At 2 and 6 months after treatment, the patient remained free of scabies infestation, and the surgical wound had healed uneventfully. The present case presentation has demonstrated that surgical debridement can be complementary to the standard topical and oral medications in the treatment of those with Norwegian crusted scabies infestation. PMID:24370484

  10. Scabies and bedbugs in hospital outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Sfeir, Maroun; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Scabies and bedbugs are two emerging ectoparasitic infections reported in crowded areas, including hospitals. Skin involvement is the main presenting initial manifestation for both infections, and the diagnosis is yet challenging for both. Topical permethrin is considered the first-line therapy for scabies except for crusted scabies which is mainly treated with oral ivermectin. To the contrary, treatment of bedbugs is mainly symptomatic. Avoiding close contact, early diagnosis and treatment of infected persons as well as decontamination of the involved environment play an essential role in controlling outbreaks in healthcare settings. PMID:24897948

  11. Atypical scabies presenting as annular patches.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Delwar

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a common parasitic disease that can be recognized by the development of itchy lesions and a predilection for certain places on the body. It may infrequently present with patchy lesions. We report a patient with well-defined annular patches. Histopathology showed an egg of the scabies mite in the epidermis. Treatment with permethrin cream resulted in complete resolution of her disease. PMID:22967356

  12. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor will prescribe a medicated cream or lotion to kill the infestation, such as: Permethrin 5% ... days to kill recently hatched larvae. Crotamiton 10% lotion or cream (Eurax®, Crotan®) – This is not as ...

  13. Scabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... I have a terrible, itchy rash around my anal area. ACK, help! I’m having itching and peeling around my vagina? Should I be worried? Tweets by @CYWH The Center for Young Women’s Health (CYWH) is a collaboration between the Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine and the Division of ...

  14. Acaricidal activity of extracts from Ligularia virgaurea against the Sarcoptes scabiei mite in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LUO, BIAO; LIAO, FEI; HU, YANCHUN; LIU, XI; HE, YAJUN; WU, LEI; TAN, HUI; LUO, LIJUAN; ZHOU, YANCHENG; MO, QUAN; DENG, JUNLIANG; WEI, YAHUI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the acaricidal activity of Ligularia virgaurea. An extract was prepared by refluxing with ethanol and steam distillation, and its toxic effect was tested in vitro against Sarcoptes scabiei. The data from the toxicity tests were analyzed using a complementary log-log (CLL) model. The ethanol extract exhibited strong acaricidal activity against these mites; at a concentration of 2 g/ml it killed all S. scabiei within 2 h and at 1 g/ml it killed all S. scabiei within 6 h. Similarly, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml concentrations of the extract had strong toxicity against S. scabiei, with median lethal time (LT50) values of 0.716, 1.741, 2.968 and 4.838 h, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 1.388, 0.624, 0.310 and 0.213 g/ml for Scabies mite in 1, 2, 4 and 6 h, respectively. The results indicate that the L. virgaurea extract has strong acaricidal activity and may be exploited as a novel treatment for the effective control of acariasis in animals. PMID:26170943

  15. [Crusted scabies induced by topical corticosteroids: A case report].

    PubMed

    Bilan, P; Colin-Gorski, A-M; Chapelon, E; Sigal, M-L; Mahé, E

    2015-12-01

    The frequency of scabies is increasing in France. Crusted (or Norwegian) scabies is a very contagious form of scabies because of the huge number of mites in the skin. It is observed in patients suffering from immunodepression, motor or sensory deficiency, or mental retardation. The clinical presentation, except for the classic manifestation of scabies, is characterized by crusted lesions. Treatment is not easy and requires hospitalization. Topical corticosteroids are frequently used for children's dermatological diseases. Their long-term and inappropriate application in an infested scabies child can induce crusted scabies. We report on a case of an 8-year-old boy who developed crusted scabies induced by topical corticosteroid application. We discuss the therapeutic aspects of this severe form of scabies. PMID:26459132

  16. Eleven years of itching: a case report of crusted scabies.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Nurdan S; Turan, Enver; Erdemir, Asli; Gürel, Mehmet S; Bozkurt, Erol

    2014-08-01

    Crusted scabies is a rare and highly contagious form of scabies that is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin, extensive hyperkeratotic scaling, crusted lesions, and variable pruritus. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with an 11-year history of pruritic, hyperkeratotic, psoriasiform plaques and widespread erythematous papules that was diagnosed as crusted scabies. PMID:25184648

  17. Crusted scabies and multiple dosages of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Loayza, Alex G; McCall, Calvin O; Nunley, Julia R

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a bone marrow transplant patient who was diagnosed with crusted scabies but did not respond to the usual approach with topical permethrin and ivermectin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were contacted and suggested a 7-dose regimen of ivermectin. The patient started to improve remarkably after the third dose, and the skin eruption was resolved after 7 doses. This case supports the use of a more prolonged course of oral ivermectin for crusted scabies in those who fail the conventional approach. PMID:23652958

  18. Efficacy of spinosad against acaricide-resistant and -susceptible Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and acaricide-susceptible Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various acaricide-resistant strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, representative of the major resistance mechanisms found in Mexico and Brazil were exposed to spinosad using the FAO-Larval Packet Test and FAO-Adult Immersion Test (AIT). Larvae of all strains tested were found to be suscep...

  19. Past, Present, and Future of Chemical Acaricides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been many different acaricides and acaricide formulations used throughout the history of tick control. Originally, various mixtures of crude oil, lard, sulfur, and kerosene were used for dipping livestock. This was followed by Beaumont crude oil. Arsenical dips were introduced in 1911 and...

  20. Crusted scabies in the burned patient.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment of the burns. PMID:21427595

  1. In vitro acaricidal activity of 1,8-cineole against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi and regulating effects on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhenzhen; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Su, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2015-08-01

    1,8-Cineole found in many essential oils is a monoterpene and acts as a repellent against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of 1,8-cineole against S. scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated and the acaricidal mechanism was also investigated by assaying enzyme activities. The results showed that the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) value (95% confidence limit (CL)) and the lethal time of 50% (LT50) value (95% CL) of 1,8-cineole were 2.77 mg/mL and 3.606 h, respectively. The pathological changes under transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the mitochondria was abnormal, the cell nuclear membrane was damaged, and the nuclear chromatin was dissoluted. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs), monoamine oxidase (MAO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were significantly changed after treatment with 1,8-cineole for 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. SOD and GSTs are associated with the protection mechanism of scabies mites. And, the activities of SOD and GSTs were increased as compared with the control group. MAO, AChE, and NOS are associated with the nervous system of scabies mites. The activity of MAO was increased whereas the AChE was suppressed. The activity of NOS was suppressed in the high-dose group whereas increased in the middle-dose group and low-dose group. These results indicated that the mechanism of 1,8-cineole mainly attributed to the changes of these enzyme activities related to the nervous system of scabies mites. PMID:25924796

  2. [Norwegian scabies in a pediatric patient with Down syndrome, a case report].

    PubMed

    Mantero, Natalia M; Jaime, Lorena J; Nijamin, Tamara R; Laffargue, Jorge A; De Lillo, Leonardo; Grees, Susana A

    2013-12-01

    Norwegian (crusted) scabies is a rare and extreme manifestation of scabies that can be observed mainly among immunosuppressed patients. Due to the high number of scabies mites present in each lesion, crusted scabies symptoms are much more intense than in usual scabies and it is thus highly contagious. A case study of a child with Down syndrome and Norwegian scabies who shows a good response to a treatment combining keratolytics, emollients, ivermectin and topical scabicides is described. PMID:24196772

  3. Scabies Among Elderly Korean Patients with Histories of Leprosy.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyungcheol; Lee, Chaeyoung; Park, Seungkyu; Kwon, Hyeon; Kweon, Sun-Seog

    2016-07-01

    A scabies epidemic, traced by the hospital-based surveillance system, was reported in a Korean leprosarium. A total of 200 symptomatic cases were found during 2012-2014 among 570 elderly former leprosy patients. Most of cases were classic type scabies (87%) and aged 75 years and older (72%). Surveillance system for early diagnosis and prompt intervention was applied and the scabies epidemic was controlled effectively in this long-term care facility. PMID:27114302

  4. Sublethal effects of acaricides and Nosema ceranae infection on immune related gene expression in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Paula Melisa; Porrini, Martín Pablo; Antúnez, Karina; Branchiccela, Belén; Martínez-Noël, Giselle María Astrid; Zunino, Pablo; Salerno, Graciela; Eguaras, Martín Javier; Ieno, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Nosema ceranae is an obligate intracellular parasite and the etiologic agent of Nosemosis that affects honeybees. Beside the stress caused by this pathogen, honeybee colonies are exposed to pesticides under beekeeper intervention, such as acaricides to control Varroa mites. These compounds can accumulate at high concentrations in apicultural matrices. In this work, the effects of parasitosis/acaricide on genes involved in honeybee immunity and survival were evaluated. Nurse bees were infected with N. ceranae and/or were chronically treated with sublethal doses of coumaphos or tau-fluvalinate, the two most abundant pesticides recorded in productive hives. Our results demonstrate the following: (1) honeybee survival was not affected by any of the treatments; (2) parasite development was not altered by acaricide treatments; (3) coumaphos exposure decreased lysozyme expression; (4) N. ceranae reduced levels of vitellogenin transcripts independently of the presence of acaricides. However, combined effects among stressors on imagoes were not recorded. Sublethal doses of acaricides and their interaction with other ubiquitous parasites in colonies, extending the experimental time, are of particular interest in further research work. PMID:27118545

  5. An elderly long-term care resident with crusted scabies.

    PubMed

    Sandre, Matthew; Ralevski, Filip; Rau, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a highly contagious form of scabies. Altered immune response, nutritional deficiencies and modified host response are all risk factors for crusted scabies. The authors report a case involving a patient found to have a chronic maculopapular, erythematous rash with large hyperkeratotic, white and grey plaques on the soles of both feet. An ultimate diagnosis of crusted scabies was reached after a delay in diagnosis suspected to be caused by the similarity in appearance to more common skin conditions such as psoriasis. After topical permethrin was unsuccessful, intermittent dosing of oral ivermectin resulted in a rapid reduction in cutaneous plaques. PMID:25798153

  6. An elderly long-term care resident with crusted scabies

    PubMed Central

    Sandre, Matthew; Ralevski, Filip; Rau, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a highly contagious form of scabies. Altered immune response, nutritional deficiencies and modified host response are all risk factors for crusted scabies. The authors report a case involving a patient found to have a chronic maculopapular, erythematous rash with large hyperkeratotic, white and grey plaques on the soles of both feet. An ultimate diagnosis of crusted scabies was reached after a delay in diagnosis suspected to be caused by the similarity in appearance to more common skin conditions such as psoriasis. After topical permethrin was unsuccessful, intermittent dosing of oral ivermectin resulted in a rapid reduction in cutaneous plaques. PMID:25798153

  7. The elimination of scabies: a task for our generation.

    PubMed

    McLean, Florence E

    2013-10-01

    Scabies prevalence remains unacceptably high in many regions throughout the world. Infestation with scabies significantly impacts quality of life and is linked to pyoderma and consequently to severe long-term sequelae such as post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In the past, control programs using topical treatments have met with poor compliance; however, the highly effective oral agent ivermectin may offer a new paradigm in scabies management. Problems still exist with insensitive diagnostic tests, questions concerning mite reservoirs, and restrictions on who can receive ivermectin. Despite these difficulties, the elimination of scabies in communities worst affected may soon be possible. PMID:23834401

  8. The Potential for a Blood Test for Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Arlian, Larry G.; Feldmeier, Hermann; Morgan, Marjorie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies afflicts millions of people worldwide, but it is very difficult to diagnose by the usual skin scrape test, and a presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical signs such as rash and intense itch. A sensitive and specific blood test to detect scabies would allow a physician to quickly make a correct diagnosis. Objective Our objective was to profile the mite-specific antibodies present in the sera of patients with ordinary scabies. Methods Sera of 91 patients were screened for Ig, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM antibodies to S. scabiei, as well as to the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei. Results 45%, 27% and 2.2% of the patients had measurable amounts of mixed Ig, IgG and IgE that recognized scabies mite antigens. However, 73.6% of the scabies patients had serum IgM that recognized scabies proteins, and all except two of them also had IgM that recognized all of the three species of dust mites. No patient had serum antibody exclusively reactive to scabies mite antigens. Conclusions Co-sensitization or cross-reactivity between antigens from scabies and house dust mites confounds developing a blood test for scabies. PMID:26492406

  9. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected. PMID:8801016

  10. TYROSINASE INHERITANCE IN STREPTOMYCES SCABIES II.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Kenneth F.; Huang, Jay C. C.

    1964-01-01

    Gregory, Kenneth F. (Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ontario, Canada), and Jay C. C. Huang. Tyrosinase inheritance in Streptomyces scabies. II. Induction of tyrosinase deficiency by acridine dyes. J. Bacteriol. 87:1287–1294. 1964.—Growth in minimal medium containing 1 μg of acriflavine per ml resulted in a large increase (up to 62%) in the frequency of tyrosinase-deficient (tye−) mutants in all of ten strains of Streptomyces scabies and eight unidentified streptomycetes studied. This increased frequency did not result from the selection of preformed mutants, since tye− clones were usually inhibited by lower concentrations of acriflavine than were tyrosinase-producing (tye+) clones, and no significant difference in mycelial yields occurred between the two types growing in a 1 μg/ml concentration of the dye. The mutations induced by X rays and acriflavine were either allelic or closely linked. This tye− phenotype was not caused by the production of an enzyme inhibitor, lack of a cofactor, or defect in the conversion of a protyrosinase to tyrosinase. Tye− mutants formed no detectable tyrosinase under a variety of conditions, including the presence of possible inducers. Mutants were able to oxidize glucose and succinate. The S. scabies tyrosinase was heat-labile (half-life at 59 C = 1.6 min) and not particle-bound. We conclude that acriflavine induces the loss of, or alteration in, a structural gene for tyrosinase production present as an extrachromosomal factor. PMID:14188704

  11. Scabies: new future for a neglected disease.

    PubMed

    Walton, Shelley F; Holt, Deborah C; Currie, Bart J; Kemp, David J

    2004-01-01

    Scabies is a disease of global proportions in both human and animal populations, resulting from infestation of the skin with the "itch" mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy the intensely itching lesions engender significant morbidity primarily due to secondary sepsis and post-infective complications. Some patients experience an extreme form of the disease, crusted scabies, in which many hundreds of mites may infest the skin causin severe crusting and hyperkeratosis. Overcrowded living conditions and poverty have been identified as significant confounding factors in transmission of the mite in humans. Control is hindered by difficulties with diagnosis, the cost of treatment, evidence for emerging resistance and lack of effective vaccines. Historically research on scabies has been extremely limited because of the difficulty in obtaining sufficient quantities of the organism. Recent molecular approaches have enabled considerable advances in the study of population genetics and transmission dynamics of S. scabiei. However, the most exciting and promising development is the potential exploitation of newly available data from S. scabiei cDNA libraries and EST projects. Ultimately this knowledge may aid early identification of disease, novel forms of chemotherapy, vaccine development and new treatment possibilities for this important but neglected parasite. PMID:15504541

  12. 'Wake sign': an important clue for the diagnosis of scabies.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, J; Harada, T

    2009-08-01

    Japan is currently experiencing many outbreaks of scabies, occurring mainly in long-term care facilities. Scabies burrows, the only pathognomonic lesion for scabies, often occur on the creases of the palms, and are followed by a pattern of scale reminiscent of the 'wake' left on the surface of water by a moving bird or a ship (wake sign).(1-4) The wake sign is useful because (i) it is specific for scabies, (ii) it is sufficiently large to be found by the naked eye and (iii) it points towards the location of the mite and its products. Examination of patients' palms to look for this sign is a simple and efficient way to make a diagnosis of scabies throughout the course of an infestation. PMID:19077100

  13. [Pseudo-scabies transmitted by red fox].

    PubMed

    Birk, R W; Tebbe, B; Schein, E; Zouboulis, C C; Orfanos, C E

    1999-02-01

    Pseudoscabies, i.e. infestation of human skin with animal mites may occasionally occur and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pruritic and papular skin disease. We report here on a 52-year-old woman with pseudoscabies or canine scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), transmitted by indirect contact with a red fox in the urban area of Berlin. Red foxes may live in unhabited areas of metropolitan large cities, i.e. in garages, car wrecks and cellars. Full remission of the prolonged and pruritic rush was seen after topical administration of lindane together with systemic corticosteroids. PMID:10097956

  14. Intense nocturnal itching should raise suspicion of scabies.

    PubMed

    Tidman, Alice S M; Tidman, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Scabies is caused by infestation with a parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. The itch and rash appear to be largely the result of a delayed (type IV) allergic reaction to the mite, its eggs and excreta. Scabies is spread by a mite transferring to the skin surface of an unaffected person, usually by skin to skin contact with an infested person, but occasionally via contaminated bed linen, clothes or towels. In crusted scabies, mites are also dispersed within shed scales, enabling the condition to be contracted from contaminated surfaces. Patients with classical scabies usually present with an itchy non-specific rash. Often, the history alone can be 0032-6518 virtually diagnostic. An intense itch, affecting all body regions except the head, typically worse at night, appearing to be out of proportion to the physical evidence, with a close contact also itching, should prompt serious consideration of scabies. The generalised hypersensitivity rash consists of erythematous macules and papules with excoriation. Close inspection will reveal burrows usually up to 1 cm in length. The pathognomic sign of scabies is the presence of burrows. The crusted variant of scabies may not be itchy. It is characterised by areas of dry, scaly, hyperkeratotic and crusted skin, particularly on the extremities. Referral to secondary care should be considered in the following cases: diagnostic doubt; patient under two months of age; lack of response to two ourses of different insecticides; crusted scabies; or history suggests a isk of sexually transmitted infection. Outbreaks of scabies in institutions should be referred to the local health protection services. PMID:23808128

  15. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden. PMID:26088526

  16. Crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the widely accepted association between crusted scabies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, crusted scabies has not been included in the spectrum of infections associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 28-year-old Mexican individual with late HIV-infection, who had no apparent skin lesions but soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, he developed an aggressive form of crusted scabies with rapid progression of lesions. Severe infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei was confirmed by microscopic examination of the scale and skin biopsy. Due to the atypical presentation of scabies in a patient responding to antiretroviral therapy, preceded by no apparent skin lesions at initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the episode was interpreted for the first time as “unmasking crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome”. Conclusion This case illustrates that when crusted scabies is observed in HIV-infected patients responding to antiretroviral therapy, it might as well be considered as a possible manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Patient context should be considered for adequate diagnosis and treatment of conditions exacerbated by antiretroviral therapy-induced immune reconstitution. PMID:23181485

  17. Acaricide, Fungicide and Drug Interactions in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Reed M.; Dahlgren, Lizette; Siegfried, Blair D.; Ellis, Marion D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. Methodology/Principal Findings Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17) while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15). The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI) fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. Conclusions/Significance Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication appears to play an

  18. Properties and actions of bridged diphenyl acaricides.

    PubMed Central

    March, R B

    1976-01-01

    The properties and actions of the bridged diphenyl acaricides are discussed. These pesticides, which are more or less structurally related to DDT, were the first of the specific acaricides to be developed. They exhibit remarkable properties of specificity, being primarily toxic to phytophagous mites but of very low toxicity to most nontarget species, including insects, fish, birds, and mammals. Although many important facets of their broad mode of action are understood, virtually nothing is known of their primary mode of action or the underlying bases of their specificities. In most ways they are model compounds for integrated control and pest management activities and thus merit greater attention than they have received to elucidate the fundamentals underlying their unusual properties and actions. PMID:789071

  19. Crusted Scabies: Presenting as erythroderma in a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shruti; Shah, Hiral; Patel, Bharti; Bhuptani, Neela

    2016-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. It is common in patients with sensory neuropathy, mentally retarded persons and in patients who are immunosuppressed. Further, crusted scabies can rarely present as erythroderma (<0.5% cases) necessitating a high index of suspicion for its diagnosis. Because of its rare occurrence, we are reporting a case of crusted scabies presenting as erythroderma, in a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient. PMID:27190417

  20. Crusted Scabies: Presenting as erythroderma in a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Shruti; Shah, Hiral; Patel, Bharti; Bhuptani, Neela

    2016-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. It is common in patients with sensory neuropathy, mentally retarded persons and in patients who are immunosuppressed. Further, crusted scabies can rarely present as erythroderma (<0.5% cases) necessitating a high index of suspicion for its diagnosis. Because of its rare occurrence, we are reporting a case of crusted scabies presenting as erythroderma, in a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient. PMID:27190417

  1. Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Daniel; Martin, Diana L; Hay, Roderick J; Chosidow, Olivier; McCarthy, James S; Fuller, L Claire; Steer, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The recent article by Mohammed et al. demonstrates an impressive effect of ivermectin mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on the burden of scabies. Partnering scabies research within the evaluation and monitoring of Neglected Tropical Disease programmes could potentially increase our understanding of the epidemiology and control of scabies and its important bacterial complications. PMID:23594459

  2. Impetigo and scabies - Disease burden and modern treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Daniel K; Bowen, Asha C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2016-07-01

    Impetigo and scabies both present different challenges in resource-limited compared with industrialised settings. Severe complications of these skin infections are common in resource-limited settings, where the burden of disease is highest. The microbiology, risk factors for disease, diagnostic approaches and availability and suitability of therapies also vary according to setting. Taking this into account we aim to summarise recent data on the epidemiology of impetigo and scabies and describe the current evidence around approaches to individual and community based treatment. PMID:27180311

  3. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Scabies Mite Provides Insight into the Genetic Diversity of Individual Scabies Infections.

    PubMed

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Seemann, Torsten; Bahlo, Melanie; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-02-01

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is an obligate parasite of the skin that infects humans and other animal species, causing scabies, a contagious disease characterized by extreme itching. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where co-infection of epidermal scabies lesions by Group A Streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus is thought to be responsible for the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We collected and separately sequenced mite DNA from several pools of thousands of whole mites from a porcine model of scabies (S. scabiei var. suis) and two human patients (S. scabiei var. hominis) living in different regions of northern Australia. Our sequencing samples the mite and its metagenome, including the mite gut flora and the wound micro-environment. Here, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the scabies mite. We developed a new de novo assembly pipeline based on a bait-and-reassemble strategy, which produced a 14 kilobase mitochondrial genome sequence assembly. We also annotated 35 genes and have compared these to other Acari mites. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used these to infer the presence of six haplogroups in our samples, Remarkably, these fall into two closely-related clades with one clade including both human and pig varieties. This supports earlier findings that only limited genetic differences may separate some human and animal varieties, and raises the possibility of cross-host infections. Finally, we used these mitochondrial haplotypes to show that the genetic diversity of individual infections is typically small with 1-3 distinct haplotypes per infestation. PMID:26872064

  4. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Scabies Mite Provides Insight into the Genetic Diversity of Individual Scabies Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Seemann, Torsten; Bahlo, Melanie; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart J.

    2016-01-01

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is an obligate parasite of the skin that infects humans and other animal species, causing scabies, a contagious disease characterized by extreme itching. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where co-infection of epidermal scabies lesions by Group A Streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus is thought to be responsible for the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We collected and separately sequenced mite DNA from several pools of thousands of whole mites from a porcine model of scabies (S. scabiei var. suis) and two human patients (S. scabiei var. hominis) living in different regions of northern Australia. Our sequencing samples the mite and its metagenome, including the mite gut flora and the wound micro-environment. Here, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the scabies mite. We developed a new de novo assembly pipeline based on a bait-and-reassemble strategy, which produced a 14 kilobase mitochondrial genome sequence assembly. We also annotated 35 genes and have compared these to other Acari mites. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used these to infer the presence of six haplogroups in our samples, Remarkably, these fall into two closely-related clades with one clade including both human and pig varieties. This supports earlier findings that only limited genetic differences may separate some human and animal varieties, and raises the possibility of cross-host infections. Finally, we used these mitochondrial haplotypes to show that the genetic diversity of individual infections is typically small with 1–3 distinct haplotypes per infestation. PMID:26872064

  5. Increased allergic immune response to Sarcoptes scabiei antigens in crusted versus ordinary scabies.

    PubMed

    Walton, Shelley F; Pizzutto, Susan; Slender, Amy; Viberg, Linda; Holt, Deborah; Hales, Belinda J; Kemp, David J; Currie, Bart J; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn

    2010-09-01

    Scabies, a parasitic skin infestation by the burrowing "itch" mite Sarcoptes scabiei, causes significant health problems for children and adults worldwide. Crusted scabies is a particularly severe form of scabies in which mites multiply into the millions, causing extensive skin crusting. The symptoms and signs of scabies suggest host immunity to the scabies mite, but the specific resistant response in humans remains largely uncharacterized. We used 4 scabies mite recombinant proteins with sequence homology to extensively studied house dust mite allergens to investigate a differential immune response between ordinary scabies and the debilitating crusted form of the disease. Subjects with either disease form showed serum IgE against recombinant S. scabiei cysteine and serine proteases and apolipoprotein, whereas naive subjects showed minimal IgE reactivity. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater serum IgE and IgG4 binding to mite apolipoprotein occurred in subjects with crusted scabies than in those with ordinary scabies. Both subject groups showed strong proliferative responses (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) to the scabies antigens, but the crusted scabies group showed increased secretion of the Th2 cytokines interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-13 and decreased Th1 cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in response to the active cysteine protease. These data confirm that a nonprotective allergic response occurs in the crusted disease form and demonstrate that clinical severity is associated with differences in the type and magnitude of the antibody and cellular responses to scabies proteins. A quantitative IgE inhibition assay identified IgE immunoreactivity of scabies mite antigens distinct from that of house dust mite antigens, which is potentially important for specific scabies diagnosis and therapy. PMID:20631334

  6. Crusted scabies in a child with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wanke, N C; Melo, C; Balassiano, V

    1992-01-01

    A child with systemic lupus erythematosus who has been treated with prednisone for three years, developed crusted scabies. Scrapings from lesions revealed Sarcoptes scabiei adult mites mad eggs. The patient died with septicemia and renal failure soon after starting topical 20% sulfur. A marked improvement was observed in the cutaneous lesions. PMID:1308069

  7. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  8. Streptomyces scabies 87-22 Possesses a Functional Tomatinase▿

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Loria, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The actinomycete Streptomyces scabies 87-22 is the causal agent of common scab, an economically important disease of potato and taproot crops. Sequencing of the S. scabies 87-22 genome revealed the presence of a gene with high homology to the gene encoding the α-tomatine-detoxifying enzyme tomatinase found in fungal tomato pathogens. The tomA gene from S. scabies 87-22 was cotranscribed with a putative family 1 glycosyl hydrolase gene, and purified TomA protein was active only on α-tomatine and not potato glycoalkaloids or xylans. Tomatinase-null mutants were more sensitive to α-tomatine than the wild-type strain in a disk diffusion assay. Interestingly, tomatine affected only aerial mycelium and not vegetative mycelium, suggesting that the target(s) of α-tomatine is not present during vegetative growth. Severities of disease for tomato seedlings affected by S. scabies 87-22 wild-type and ΔtomA1 strains were indistinguishable, suggesting that tomatinase is not important in pathogenicity on tomato plants. However, conservation of tomA on a pathogenicity island in S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies suggests a role in plant-microbe interaction. PMID:18835993

  9. The development of protective immunity in canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

    1996-03-01

    Seven of eight dogs that had been previously infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and then cured, expressed protective immunity when experimentally reinfested with scabies. All seven dogs that expressed resistance were spontaneously cleared of scabies by 64 days after they were experimentally reinfested. Five of the eight dogs were free of scabies by 24 days. The sequential changes in the inflammatory/immune cellular infiltrate in the scabietic lesions of each dog were determined during the sensitizing infestation, cure and the subsequent experimental reinfestation (challenge). During the initial infestation and in the subsequent challenge reinfestation, dogs developed mixed cellular infiltrates in their scabietic lesions that contained mononuclear cells, neutrophils, plasma cells and mast cells. Reinfestation induced more rapid increases in the densities of these cells than had occurred during the sensitizing infestation. Mononuclear and mast cells were the most numerous infiltrating cells during the sensitizing phase. During the challenge phase the most numerous infiltrating cells were mononuclear cells and neutrophils. The sensitizing and challenge infestations induced circulating scabies-specific antibody responses, but the response was more rapid during the reinfestation challenge. Both the cell-mediated response in the skin and the circulating antibody response waned in parallel with clearing of the mites following reinfestation. PMID:8638386

  10. Treatment of Scabies: Comparison of Lindane 1% vs Permethrin 5.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Elham; Goldust, Mohamad; Alipour, Houman

    2015-01-01

    Scabies, whose etiologic agent is Sarcoptes scabiei, is a neglected parasitic disease that is a major public health problem in many resourcepoor regions. Its current therapies include benzyl benzoate, lindane, permethrin, sulfur, crotamiton, monosulfiram, and oral ivermectin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of lindane 1% lotion vs permethrin 5% in the treatment of scabies. A total of 120 patients with scabies attending a dermatology outpatient department were included. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty patients and their family contacts received 5% permethrin cream and the other 60 received 1% lindane lotion. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks. Permethrin provided improvement in 48 patients (80%) after 2 weeks, whereas lindane was effective in only 28 patients (46.6%). Permethrin (5%) cream was found to be significantly more effective in the treatment of scabies compared with lindane in this study. Adverse effects were rare in both the permethrin and lindane groups. PMID:26861425

  11. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  12. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Taotao-Wini, Betty; Satorara, Lorraine; Engelman, Daniel; Nasi, Titus; Mabey, David C.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections. Methods We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo. Results Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less. Discussion We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts. PMID:26624616

  13. Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Thérèse M.; Speare, Richard; Cheng, Allen C.; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Holt, Deborah C.; Currie, Bart J.; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Bundhala, Leanne; Mulholland, Eddie; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined disease acquisition and treatment failures. Scabies infestations were diagnosed clinically with additional laboratory investigations for crusted scabies. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 2–3 weeks if scabies was diagnosed, others followed a standard alternative algorithm. Principal Findings We saw >1000 participants at each population census. Scabies prevalence fell from 4% at baseline to 1% at month 6. Prevalence rose to 9% at month 12 amongst the baseline cohort in association with an identified exposure to a presumptive crusted scabies case with a higher prevalence of 14% amongst new entries to the cohort. At month 18, scabies prevalence fell to 2%. Scabies acquisitions six months after each MDA were 1% and 2% whilst treatment failures were 6% and 5% respectively. Conclusion Scabies prevalence reduced in the six months after each MDA with a low risk of acquisition (1–2%). However, in a setting where living conditions are conducive to high scabies transmissibility, exposure to presumptive crusted scabies and population mobility, a sustained reduction in prevalence was not achieved. Clinical Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register (ACTRN—12609000654257). PMID:26516764

  14. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

    2010-05-11

    The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. PMID:20304561

  15. Parasitic scabies mites and associated bacteria joining forces against host complement defence.

    PubMed

    Swe, P M; Reynolds, S L; Fischer, K

    2014-11-01

    Scabies is a ubiquitous and contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei Epidemiological studies have identified scabies as a causative agent for secondary skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. This is an important notion, as such bacterial infections can lead to serious downstream life-threatening complications. As the complement system is the first line of host defence that confronts invading pathogens, both the mite and bacteria produce a large array of molecules that inhibit the complement cascades. It is hypothesised that scabies mite complement inhibitors may play an important role in providing a favourable micro-environment for the establishment of secondary bacterial infections. This review aims to bring together the current literature on complement inhibition by scabies mites and bacteria associated with scabies and to discuss the proposed molecular link between scabies and bacterial co-infections. PMID:25081184

  16. Body size variability of Varroa destructor and its role in acaricide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Peralta, Luciano; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Fuselli, S; Eguaras, Martín

    2012-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been defined as the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes when exposed to distinct environments throughout its ontogeny. Morphological variability of individuals is an example of this plasticity. Taking into account that several studies have reported a wide morphological variability in Varroa destructor populations, we evaluated if the body size plasticity of the parasite constituted a key factor able to modulate mites survival when they were exposed to a drug bioassays. Drug bioassays against mites were conducted using three different Syzygium aromaticum essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5 μl/capsule) and controls. After 4 h of exposition, mite mortality was registered. The width (WS) and length (LS) of the dorsal shield were measured in dead mites. General lineal models were carried to determine if V. destructor survival to acaricides was related to the explanatory variables. Data modelling confirmed that WS and LS variables, together with time interaction, were significantly related to V. destructor survival when the parasites were exposed to acaricides. The models proposed demonstrated that for the smaller S. aromaticum essential oil concentration, the larger the parasite body, the greater the probability that it remains alive at the end of the bioassay. Such relationship was inverse for the other two concentrations tested. Possible causes explaining the body size variability in V. destructor individuals were discussed. PMID:22190127

  17. Chemistry and toxicology of quinoxaline, organotin, organofluorine, and formamidine acaricides.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, C O

    1976-01-01

    Quinoxaline, organotin, organofluorine, and formamidine compounds are among the newer pesticide chemicals used for acarine control. Included in these four classes are some of the most selective synthetic organic toxicants currently in the acaricide/insecticide arsenal. Oxythioquinox, Plictran (tricyclohexylhydroxytin), Nissol [2-fluoro-N-methyl-N-(1-naphthyl)acetamide], and chlordimeform are examples of quinoxaline, organotin, organofluorine, and formamidine acaricides, respectively. The chemistry and toxicology of these and related compounds are discussed. PMID:789072

  18. Malathion for head lice and scabies: treatment and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Shereene; Levitt, Jacob

    2009-08-01

    Malathion is an under-recognized and under-utilized therapy for head lice and scabies largely due to misperceptions about its safety profile. Specifically, its pure form as it exists in pharmaceutical preparations is non-toxic to humans in the low doses available. While labeled for ages six and up, recent studies showed no cholinesterase inhibition in head lice patients aged two-to-six treated with malathion. Flammability of malathion in isopropyl alcohol has reportedly resulted in human injury once in over one million prescriptions filled. Recent efficacy studies of malathion in United States (U.S.) head lice demonstrate efficacy rates of 97-98%. In the present era of permethrin and lindane resistance to head lice, malathion is a first-line option. For scabies, it is a reasonable alternative to permethrin 5% cream, especially when treatment of the scalp or hairy areas is desired. PMID:19663108

  19. Treatment of scabies, permethrin 5% cream vs. crotamiton 10% cream.

    PubMed

    Pourhasan, Abolfazl; Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Scabies is one of the three most common skin disorders in children, along with tinea and pyoderma. The treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of permethrin 5% cream vs. crotamiton 10% cream in the treatment of scabies. In total, 350 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups. The first group received permethrin 5% cream on two occasions with a one-week interval, while the second group received topical crotamiton 10% cream and were told to apply this twice daily for five consecutive days. The treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and the treatment was repeated if treatment failure was found at the 2-week follow-up. Two applications of permethrin 5 % cream provided a cure rate of 70% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 85% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of crotamiton 10% cream was effective in 45% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 65% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Two applications of permethrin 5% cream was as effective as single applications of crotamiton 10% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, permethrin 5 % cream was superior to crotamiton 10% cream at the 4-week follow up. PMID:24881286

  20. Nodular scabies: a classical case report in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra Reddy, Damodara; Ramachandra Reddy, Prathap

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents a classical case of nodular scabies in a 12 year boy who complained of itching for 20-21 days before presentation to the hospital. Application of Betnovate ointment (Betamethasone valerate 0.1 %) before presentation to the hospital had provided only 2-3 days of relief from itching. Dermatological examination revealed skin colored to erythematous papule of 3-4 mm on the body with predilection for web space of fingers and flexural areas and nodules on the scrotum and groin. Based on this, clinical diagnosis of scabies with nodular scabies was made on the child. The scraping obtained from the web-space of the child showed mite under the light microscope, which confirms the diagnosis. Treatment with topical permethrin 5 % lotion resulted in 50-70 % subsidence of itching within a day, and improvement in impetigo lesions of his father in 5 days. However, the scrotal and groin nodular lesion of the child persisted with severe itching. Treatment with topical steroid and tacrolimus 0.1 % ointment did not show much improvement. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone (5 mg/ml) on the nodule resulted in 30-40 % subsidence in itching and 50-60 % reduction in the size of the lesion over 2-3 weeks. PMID:26345076

  1. Lack of prolonged activity of lavender essential oils as acaricides against the poultry red mite (Dermanyssusgallinae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Callaghan, K; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2008-12-01

    Managing the poultry red mite, Dermanyssusgallinae (De Geer) by conventional means (i.e., synthetic acaricides) has become increasingly problematic. As a possible alternative, research has identified several plant essential oils that are toxic to D. gallinae. However, essential oils are highly volatile and any acaricidal effect they exert could be short-lived in practice. This study investigated the short-lived toxicity of six lavender essential oils to D. gallinae. In sealed Petri-dishes, mites were exposed to filter papers impregnated with essential oil at a concentration of 0.14mg/cm(3). When filter papers were used immediately after impregnation, 66-90% D.gallinae mortality was observed after 24h, depending upon the essential oil used. If impregnated filter papers were left in a fume cupboard for 24h prior to use, mortality rates of D.gallinae fell to 11% or less. PMID:18348893

  2. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  3. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  4. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  5. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  6. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  7. Carvacrol as a potent natural acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Barimani, Alireza; Araghi, Atefeh

    2015-10-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry production systems. Introducing novel acaricides to poultry industry today is more urgent than ever. Research in this field recently focused on plants and plant-derived compounds as acaricides. In the present study, acaricidal activity of three plant bioactive components, carvacrol, thymol, and farnesol, was assessed against D. gallinae and compared with synthetic pesticide permethrin. Mode of acaricidal action was determined by contact toxicity and fumigant toxicity bioassays. Except farnesol which did not cause any mortality, carvacrol and thymol were found to be toxic to D. gallinae with LD50 values of 1 and 3.15 μg/cm(3), respectively. Permethrin gave the LD50 value of 31.95 μg/cm(3) which was less efficient than carvacrol and thymol. In fumigant toxicity bioassay, mortality rate in carvacrol- and thymol-treated groups in closed method was significantly higher than the open one. On the other hand, permethrin exhibited poor fumigant toxicity as there was no statistically significant difference between mortality rate in open and closed methods. These findings revealed that mechanism of acaricidal activity of carvacrol and thymol but not permethrin was mainly due to fumigant action. Results of the present study suggested that carvacrol and thymol, especially carvacrol, can be developed as a novel potent bioacaricide against D. gallinae. PMID:26143865

  8. Crusted scabies misdiagnosed as erythrodermic psoriasis in a 3-year-old girl with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vanessa; Price, Harper N; Jeffries, Michelle; Alder, Steven L; Hansen, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a highly contagious infestation with the Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis mite. The variety of clinical presentations make timely, accurate diagnosis problematic. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with Down syndrome and crusted scabies initially misdiagnosed as erythrodermic psoriasis. PMID:24138478

  9. Crusted scabies is associated with increased IL-17 secretion by skin T cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Walton, S F; Murray, H C; King, M; Kelly, A; Holt, D C; Currie, B J; McCarthy, J S; Mounsey, K E

    2014-11-01

    Scabies is an ectoparasitic infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Although commonly self-limiting, a fraction of patients develop severely debilitating crusted scabies. The immune mechanisms underlying the development of crusted scabies are unclear, and undertaking longitudinal infection studies in humans is difficult. We utilized a porcine model to compare cellular immune responses in peripheral blood and skin of pigs with different clinical manifestations of scabies (n = 12), and in uninfected controls (n = 6). Although clinical symptoms were not evident until at least 4 weeks post-infestation, the numbers of peripheral IFNγ-secreting CD4(+) T cells and γδ T cells increased in infected pigs from week 1 post-infestation. γδ T cells remained increased in the blood at week 15 post-infestation. At week 15, skin cell infiltrates from pigs with crusted scabies had significantly higher CD8(+) T cell, γδ T cell and IL-17(+) cell numbers than those with ordinary scabies. Peripheral IL-17 levels were not increased, suggesting that localized skin IL-17-secreting T cells may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of crusted scabies development. Given the potential of anti-IL-17 immunotherapy demonstrated for other inflammatory skin diseases, this study may provide a novel therapeutic avenue for patients with recurrent crusted scabies. PMID:25040151

  10. Scabies and Bacterial Superinfection among American Samoan Children, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Edison, Laura; Beaudoin, Amanda; Goh, Lucy; Introcaso, Camille E.; Martin, Diana; Dubray, Christine; Marrone, James; Van Beneden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies, a highly pruritic and contagious mite infestation of the skin, is endemic among tropical regions and causes a substantial proportion of skin disease among lower-income countries. Delayed treatment can lead to bacterial superinfection, and treatment of close contacts is necessary to prevent reinfestation. We describe scabies incidence and superinfection among children in American Samoa (AS) to support scabies control recommendations. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed 2011–2012 pharmacy records from the only AS pharmacy to identify children aged ≤14 years with filled prescriptions for permethrin, the only scabicide available in AS. Medical records of identified children were reviewed for physician-diagnosed scabies during January 1, 2011–December 31, 2012. We calculated scabies incidence, bacterial superinfection prevalence, and reinfestation prevalence during 14–365 days after first diagnosis. We used log binomial regression to calculate incidence ratios for scabies by age, sex, and county. Medical record review identified 1,139 children with scabies (incidence 29.3/1,000 children aged ≤14 years); 604 (53%) had a bacterial superinfection. Of 613 children who received a scabies diagnosis during 2011, 94 (15.3%) had one or more reinfestation. Scabies incidence varied significantly among the nine counties (range 14.8–48.9/1,000 children). Children aged <1 year had the highest incidence (99.9/1,000 children). Children aged 0–4 years were 4.9 times more likely and those aged 5–9 years were 2.2 times more likely to have received a scabies diagnosis than children aged 10–14 years. Conclusions/Significance Scabies and its sequelae cause substantial morbidity among AS children. Bacterial superinfection prevalence and frequent reinfestations highlight the importance of diagnosing scabies and early treatment of patients and close contacts. Investigating why certain AS counties have a lower scabies incidence might help guide

  11. Genetically distinct dog-derived and human-derived Sarcoptes scabiei in scabies-endemic communities in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Walton, S F; Choy, J L; Bonson, A; Valle, A; McBroom, J; Taplin, D; Arlian, L; Mathews, J D; Currie, B; Kemp, D J

    1999-10-01

    Overcrowding is a significant factor contributing to endemic infection with Sarcoptes scabiei in human and animal populations. However, since scabies mites from different host species are indistinguishable morphologically, it is unclear whether people can be infected from scabies-infested animals. Molecular fingerprinting was done using three S. scabiei-specific single locus hypervariable microsatellite markers, with a combined total of 70 known alleles. Multilocus analysis of 712 scabies mites from human and dog hosts in Ohio, Panama and Aboriginal communities in northern Australia now shows that genotypes of dog-derived and human-derived scabies cluster by host species rather than by geographic location. Because of the apparent genetic separation between human scabies and dog scabies, control programs for human scabies in endemic areas do not require resources directed against zoonotic infection from dogs. PMID:10548286

  12. Scabies infestation: the effect of intervention by public health education.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. F.; Thorne, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of scabies in an infested village; to educate the residents on self-treatment and prevention by the use of 5% monosulfiram soap; to evaluate the short term effectiveness of this intervention by determining, 2 weeks later, the compliance to self-treatment and prevention; and to determine the prevalence rate on the second visit. In 59 households (96.7% of the village) containing 313 persons, an educational session was held and a leaflet distributed on the use and availability of the soap. Thirteen persons (4.2%) from eight households (13.6%) had scabies. After 2 weeks, 7 persons (2.2%) (2 persisting and 5 new cases) from 5 households (8.5%) were infested. Thus a cure rate of 85% was obtained though the prevalence rate showed no statistically significant difference. Among the under 15 year olds, the numbers infected decreased from 10 to 3 while among the over 15 years olds, the numbers infected increased from 3 to 4, neither reading significance at the 5% level. PMID:2249723

  13. Scabies and Impetigo Prevalence and Risk Factors in Fiji: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Lucia; Koroivueta, Josefa; Steer, Andrew C.; Kama, Mike; Kaldor, John M.; Wand, Handan; Hamid, Mohammed; Whitfeld, Margot J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. Conclusions As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities

  14. Genetic basis and impact of tick acaricide resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricide resistance in the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, has been studied for the last 20 years from the toxicology, metabolic, and genomic points of view, however, only few methods for molecular detection of resistance have been developed. Despite the relatively poor sensitivity for resistance...

  15. Susceptibility of laboratory-reared northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    PubMed

    Crystal, M M; DeMilo, A B

    1988-07-01

    Toxicity was determined for 15 acaricides against a laboratory strain of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). Adult females were exposed to residues on filter paper for 24 h. Three organophosphorous compounds (monocrotophos, cythioate, and famphur) were more toxic to the northern fowl mite than was carbaryl, the most commonly used pesticide in the poultry industry. The other tested compounds were less toxic to the mite than was carbaryl. Four of these, not used previously for northern fowl mite control, had low LC50's for northern fowl mites:aldicarb (0.46); pirimiphos-methyl (0.73); exo, exo-2,8-dichloro-4-thiatricyclo[3.2.1.0.]octane-4-oxide (AI3-63182) (0.87); and diazinon (2.48). PMID:3168660

  16. Effect of owner-controlled acaricidal treatment on tick infestation and immune response to tick-borne pathogens in naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Clinical disease in dogs exposed to tick-borne pathogens is rare, although a humoral immune response reflecting infection is common. More educational training for dog owners is necessary to make the application of acaricides effective regarding the prevention of tick-borne diseases. PMID:23497548

  17. Scabies: molecular perspectives and therapeutic implications in the face of emerging drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, Kate E; Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James; Currie, Bart J; Walton, Shelley F

    2008-02-01

    Limited effective treatments, coupled with recent observations of emerging drug resistance to oral ivermectin and 5% permethrin, raise concerns regarding the future control of scabies, especially in severe cases and in endemic areas where repeated community treatment programs are in place. There is consequently an urgent need to define molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in scabies mites and to develop and assess alternative therapeutic options, such as tea tree oil, in the event of increasing treatment failure. Molecular studies on scabies mites have, until recently, been restricted; however, recent advances are providing new insights into scabies mite biology and genetic mechanisms underlying drug resistance. These may assist in overcoming many of the current difficulties in monitoring treatment efficacy and allow the development of more sensitive tools for monitoring emerging resistance. PMID:18230034

  18. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C.; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Methodology Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. Principal Findings The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5–21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7–21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2–13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2–6.0) and children aged 1–4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7–3.9). Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6–34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2–29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1–4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9–5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6–2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Conclusions and Significance Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies

  19. Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

    2007-01-01

    Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity. PMID:17428886

  20. A Tractable Experimental Model for Study of Human and Animal Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, Kate; Ho, Mei-Fong; Kelly, Andrew; Willis, Charlene; Pasay, Cielo; Kemp, David J.; McCarthy, James S.; Fischer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Background Scabies is a parasitic skin infestation caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is common worldwide and spreads rapidly under crowded conditions, such as those found in socially disadvantaged communities of Indigenous populations and in developing countries. Pruritic scabies lesions facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections, particularly Group A streptococci. Streptococcal infections cause significant sequelae and the increased community streptococcal burden has led to extreme levels of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Australia's Indigenous communities. In addition, emerging resistance to currently available therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify potential targets for novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunological intervention. Scabies research has been severely limited by the availability of parasites, and scabies remains a truly neglected infectious disease. We report development of a tractable model for scabies in the pig, Sus domestica. Methodology/Principal Findings Over five years and involving ten independent cohorts, we have developed a protocol for continuous passage of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. To increase intensity and duration of infestation without generating animal welfare issues we have optimised an immunosuppression regimen utilising daily oral treatment with 0.2mg/kg dexamethasone. Only mild, controlled side effects are observed, and mange infection can be maintained indefinitely providing large mite numbers (>6000 mites/g skin) for molecular-based research on scabies. In pilot experiments we explore whether any adaptation of the mite population is reflected in genetic changes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing sets of genetic data obtained from pig mites collected from naturally infected pigs with data from pig mites collected from the most recent cohort. Conclusions/Significance A reliable pig/scabies animal model will facilitate in vivo studies on host immune responses to scabies

  1. Comparison of ivermectin and benzyl benzoate for treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Cartel, J L; Alzieu, P; Briot, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Martin, P M

    1993-12-01

    A randomized investigator-blinded trial of oral ivermectin 100 micrograms/kg single dose vs. benzyl benzoate 10% application in the treatment of scabies, was conducted in 1992 in French Polynesia. In total, 44 patients aged 5-56 years were included in the study: 23 in the group ivermectin (IVER) and 21 in the group benzyl benzoate (BB). At day 30 after treatment, the cumulative recovery rates were 70% (16/23) in the group IVER, and 48% (10/21) in the group BB, 95% confidence intervals 51-87% and 29-70% respectively. The rates of recovery were greater in the group IVER at day 7, 14 and 30, but the difference was not statistically significant. Our results show that oral ivermectin is a valuable alternative to benzyl benzoate local treatment. PMID:8134777

  2. The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. The itching is caused by an allergic reaction to the mites. The treatment of choice is still controversial. It is commonly treated with topical insecticides. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Open Grey and WHO ICTRP) up to September 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared the efficacy of ivermectin with other medications in the treatment of scabies. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. The author intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. It has been sated that ivermectin was as effective as permethrin in the treatment of scabies. In comparison to other medications such as lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton and malathion, ivermectin was more effective in the treatment of scabies. Ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection. PMID:25911032

  3. Value of the pinnal-pedal reflex in the diagnosis of canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Shipstone, M

    2001-05-19

    The potential value of the pinnal-pedal scratch reflex as an aid to diagnosing canine scabies was assessed in 588 dogs with skin disease. The reflex was assessed by vigorously rubbing the tip of one earflap on to the base of the ear for five seconds, and it was considered positive if the ipsilateral hind leg made a scratching movement. A diagnosis of scabies was based on the dog's history, a physical examination and either positive skin scrapings or the complete resolution of pruritus and dermatitis after treatment with ivermectin or milbemycin, with no relapse for at least 12 months. Scabies was diagnosed in 55 of the dogs, allergic skin disease in 463, and 70 had other miscellaneous skin diseases. There was a positive pinnal-pedal scratch reflex in 45 (82 per cent) of the 55 dogs with scabies. Forty (73 per cent) of the dogs with scabies had pinnal dermatitis, and 36 (90 per cent) of these had a positive pinnal-pedal scratch reflex. There was a positive pinnal-pedal scratch reflex in 33 (6.2 per cent) of the other 533 dogs. On the basis of these results, the specificity of testing for scabies by the pinnal-pedal scratch reflex was 93.8 per cent, and the sensitivity was 81.8 per cent The test's positive predictive value was 0.57 and its negative predictive value was 0.98. PMID:11394797

  4. Crossreacting IgG antibodies against fox mite antigens in human scabies.

    PubMed

    Haas, N; Wagemann, B; Hermes, B; Henz, B M; Heile, C; Schein, E

    2005-01-01

    Scabies continues to be an important parasitic disease of mammals. There remain, however, major gaps in the understanding of the human host immune response, and a simple diagnostic test is lacking. In contrast to human mites, red fox mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpis) can be collected easily and have been used, due to crossreactivity, for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies in dogs and pigs. We wanted to investigate the possibility that crossreactivity might also exist for the human mite, and determined titers against fox mite antigens by ELISA in 41 patients with scabies. Specific IgG was significantly higher in patients with scabies than in healthy controls (P=0.01). The sensitivity was, however, only 48%, although it increased slightly during treatment (P=0.86). A positive correlation was also noted between disease duration and severity of infestation (r=0.5), with specific IgG titers increasing in parallel with severity of symptoms (P=0.01). Patients with symptomatic scabies for more than 4 weeks had furthermore significantly higher IgG titers than patients with a shorter duration of disease (P=0.007). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate IgG antibodies in human scabies that crossreact with fox mite antigens, thus encouraging the search for improved ELISAs with more specific mite antigens to produce a more sensitive detection system for scabies in humans. PMID:15650895

  5. Detection of living Sarcoptes scabiei larvae by reflectance mode confocal microscopy in the skin of a patient with crusted scabies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Assi; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Ingber, Arieh; Enk, Claes D.

    2012-06-01

    Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The diagnosis of scabies is established clinically and confirmed by identifying mites or eggs by microscopic examination of scrapings from the skin or by surface microscopy using a dermatoscope. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy is a novel technique used for noninvasive imaging of skin structures and lesions at a resolution compatible to that of conventional histology. Recently, the technique was employed for the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of scabies. We demonstrate the first ever documentation of a larva moving freely inside the skin of a patient infected with scabies.

  6. An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival. PMID:24244770

  7. Microarray analysis of acaricide inducible gene expression in the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricide-inducible differential gene expression was studied in larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using a microarray-based approach. The acaricides used were: coumaphos, permethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz. The microarrays contained over 13,000 probes, having been derived from a previous...

  8. Clinical efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2016-01-01

    Many medications are available for scabies treatment including oral and topical ivermectin. However, studies comparing these two forms as a scabies treatment are few. This study compares efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin as scabies treatment. The study included 62 confirmed uncomplicated scabies patients, divided into: Group I (32 patients, received topical ivermectin) and Group II (30 patients, received oral ivermectin). Patients were assessed, clinically and by KOH smear at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. Treatment was repeated after one week in patients with persistent infection. Adverse events were recorded. Most patients (87.5% and 73.5% in group I and group II respectively) were symptom free after a single treatment. A second treatment was required in 4 patients of group I and 8 patients of group II. However, 2 weeks after treatment symptoms and signs completely resolved in all cases with no recurrence at 4 weeks. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin are safe and equally effective in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Single treatment, whether topical or oral, is associated with high cure rate in a week post treatment. However, repeating treatment after one week may be required to achieve 100% cure. PMID:26555785

  9. Characterization of the Coronatine-Like Phytotoxins Produced by the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Altowairish, Mead S; Li, Yuting; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2015-04-01

    Streptomyces scabies is an important causative agent of common scab disease of potato tubers and other root crops. The primary virulence factor produced by this pathogen is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A, which is essential for disease development. In addition, the genome of S. scabies harbors a virulence-associated biosynthetic gene cluster called the coronafacic acid (CFA)-like gene cluster, which was previously predicted to produce metabolites that resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine (COR) phytotoxin. COR consists of CFA linked to an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid called coronamic acid, which is derived from L-allo-isoleucine. Using a combination of genetic and chemical analyses, we show that the S. scabies CFA-like gene cluster is responsible for producing CFA-L-isoleucine as the major product as well as other minor COR-like metabolites. Production of the metabolites was shown to require the cfl gene, which is located within the CFA-like gene cluster and encodes an enzyme involved in ligating CFA to its amino acid partner. CFA-L-isoleucine purified from S. scabies cultures was shown to exhibit bioactivity similar to that of COR, though it was found to be less toxic than COR. This is the first report demonstrating the production of coronafacoyl phytotoxins by S. scabies, which is the most prevalent scab-causing pathogen in North America. PMID:25423263

  10. Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

    2010-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases. PMID:21268539

  11. Secondary bacterial infection in Ghanaian patients with scabies.

    PubMed

    Adjei, O; Brenya, R C

    1997-11-01

    From 110 patients with secondarily infected scabies lesions, 105 bacteria consisting of 66 aerobes and 39 anaerobes were isolated. A mixture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was present in 15 (13.6%). The predominant aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were staphylococcous aureus 39.1% and pepostreptococcus spp. 14.2% respectively. Organisms that resided in the mucus membranes close to or in contact with the lesions predominated in those infections. Most organisms were recovered from the finger and buttock lesions. These organisms were mainly staph. aureus, beta-haemolytic streptococci group. A and peptostreptococcus. More than 80% of staph. aureus isolated were resistant to penicillin. Less than 20% of the anaerobes were resistant to penicillin. The enteric Gram-negative, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. showed 100% sensitivity to Amoxycilin/clavulanic acid and gentamicin. Pseudomonas spp. were only susceptible to gentamicin, Amoxycillin/clavulanic acid proved to be the most active therapeutic agent in in vitro against the isolated microorganisms. PMID:9557448

  12. Parasitological and clinical studies on human scabies in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, M A; el Okbi, L M; el Sayed, M M; el Okbi, S M; el Deeb, H K

    1993-12-01

    This study is a parasitological and clinical study on human scabies. This study was carried out on 100 patients attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospitals, including 54 males and 46 females. All patients were subjected to detailed history taking, complete dermatological examination including Skin Scraping Test and Burrow Ink Test. Younger patients attended the dermatology clinic earlier than older patients, who usually delayed their visits until complications occurred. Scratching, erythematous papules and secondary infected lesions were the commonest lesions. The hands, wrist and external genitalia were the most frequently affected sites while the feet, ankles, knees and back were the least affected. Burrows could only be detected in 40% of patients. The most frequent sites were the web spaces, external genitalia, and finger sides. Burrow Ink Test was positive among 85% of patients with burrows while mites could be identified by Skin Scraping Test in 55% of patients. The most frequent clinical manifestations in the parasitologically positive patients were itching, burrows, and papules, and the most frequent sites were the web spaces, and the finger sides. Multiple sites affection was the characteristic feature among the preschool age children who represented 14% of cases. PMID:8308357

  13. Scabies Incognito Presenting as a Subcorneal Pustular Dermatosis-like Eruption.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Şemsettin; Kelekçi, Kıymet Handan; Er, Oğuz; Pektaş, Bayram; Gökmen, Ayşegül Aksoy

    2015-09-01

    Scabies is a common parasitosis of the skin caused by Sarcoptes scabiei hominis. This infestation occurs in all geographic areas and across all age groups, races, and social classes. Poor economic conditions and lack of proper hygiene are risk factors for the disease. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis is characterized by numerous relapsing pustular eruptions on normal or mildly erythematous skin. The pustular eruption typically involves the flexural sites of the trunk and proximal extremities with pruritus and irritation symptoms. The pustules are superficial and rupture easily, resulting in a superficial crust, and they form annular, circinate, or serpiginous patterns. Here we reported a case of scabies incognito in an elderly woman that presented as subcorneal pustular dermatosis-like eruption. We assumed that this case could be reported because it is an unusual event among the general population. In conclusion, the differential diagnoses of skin diseases should be considered when diagnosing scabies. Thus, unnecessary therapy and contamination among people can be prevented. PMID:26470936

  14. Acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae) against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Prerna, Mranalini; Singh, Harkirat; Dumka, V K; Sharma, S K

    2016-06-01

    Resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against synthetic pyrethroids was assessed by larval packet test which revealed level I and II resistance against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test was employed to study the acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo (sheesham) against these ticks. Mortality and fecundity of ticks exposed to sheesham leaf aqueous (SLA) and ethanolic (SLE) extracts were evaluated at concentrations of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% and controls (distilled water and 10% ethanol). Higher acaricidal activity was recorded in SLA with a lower LC50 (95% CL) value of 1.58% (0.92-2.71%) than SLE [5.25% (4.91-5.63%)]. A significant decrease in egg mass weight and reproductive index was recorded in treated ticks along with an increase in percent inhibition of oviposition. A complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with higher concentrations of SLA, whereas, SLE exhibited no effect on hatching percentage. PMID:27234528

  15. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    PubMed

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects. PMID:22508399

  16. The Cellobiose Sensor CebR Is the Gatekeeper of Streptomyces scabies Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Isolde M.; Jourdan, Samuel; Fanara, Steven; Loria, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A relatively small number of species in the large genus Streptomyces are pathogenic; the best characterized of these is Streptomyces scabies. The pathogenicity of S. scabies strains is dependent on the production of the nitrated diketopiperazine thaxtomin A, which is a potent plant cellulose synthesis inhibitor. Much is known about the genetic loci associated with plant virulence; however, the molecular mechanisms by which S. scabies triggers expression of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes, beyond the pathway-specific activator TxtR, are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that binding sites for the cellulose utilization repressor CebR occur and function within the thaxtomin biosynthetic cluster. This was an unexpected result, as CebR is devoted to primary metabolism and nutritive functions in nonpathogenic streptomycetes. In S. scabies, cellobiose and cellotriose inhibit the DNA-binding ability of CebR, leading to an increased expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic and regulatory genes txtA, txtB, and txtR. Deletion of cebR results in constitutive thaxtomin A production and hypervirulence of S. scabies. The pathogenicity of S. scabies is thus under dual direct positive and negative transcriptional control where CebR is the cellobiose-sensing key that locks the expression of txtR, the key necessary to unlock the production of the phytotoxin. Interestingly, CebR-binding sites also lie upstream of and within the thaxtomin biosynthetic clusters in Streptomyces turgidiscabies and Streptomyces acidiscabies, suggesting that CebR is most likely an important regulator of virulence in these plant-pathogenic species as well. PMID:25714708

  17. Prospective Study in a Porcine Model of Sarcoptes scabiei Indicates the Association of Th2 and Th17 Pathways with the Clinical Severity of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, Kate E.; Murray, Hugh C.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Pasay, Cielo; Holt, Deborah C.; Currie, Bart J.; Walton, Shelley F.; McCarthy, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding of scabies immunopathology has been hampered by the inability to undertake longitudinal studies in humans. Pigs are a useful animal model for scabies, and show clinical and immunologic changes similar to those in humans. Crusted scabies can be readily established in pigs by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). Methodology/ Principal Findings Prospective study of 24 pigs in four groups: a) Scabies+/Dex+, b) Scabies+/Dex-, c) Scabies-/Dex+ and d) Scabies-/Dex-. Clinical symptoms were monitored. Histological profiling and transcriptional analysis of skin biopsies was undertaken to compare changes in cell infiltrates and representative cytokines. A range of clinical responses to Sarcoptes scabiei were observed in Dex treated and non-immunosuppressed pigs. An association was confirmed between disease severity and transcription of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, and up-regulation of the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-23 in pigs with crusted scabies. Immunohistochemistry revealed marked infiltration of lymphocytes and mast cells, and strong staining for IL-17. Conclusions/ Significance While an allergic Th2 type response to scabies has been previously described, these results suggest that IL-17 related pathways may also contribute to immunopathology of crusted scabies. This may lead to new strategies to protect vulnerable subjects from contracting recurrent crusted scabies. PMID:25730203

  18. Survival and behavioural response to acaricides of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    PubMed

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José W S; Guedes, Raul N C; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Pallini, Angelo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2013-07-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is a major pest of coconut palm in the world. The control of this pest species is done through acaricide applications at short time intervals. However, the predators of this pest may also be affected by acaricides. Among the predators of A. guerreronis, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) has potential for biological control. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of acaricides on the survival and behavior of N. baraki. The survivorship of N. baraki was recorded in surface-impregnated arenas. Choice and no-choice behavioral bioassays were carried out using a video tracking system to assess the walking behavior of the predator under acaricide exposure. Although all acaricides negatively affected the survival of N. baraki, chlorfenapyr and azadirachtin caused lower effect than the other acaricides. No significant differences in walking behavior were observed under exposure to fenpyroximate, chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos on fully-contaminated arenas. Azadirachtin and chlorpyrifos caused repellence. Irritability was observed for all acaricides, except for abamectin. Chlorfenapyr was the most suitable product for managing the coconut mite because of its low effect on survival and behavior of N. baraki. PMID:23224672

  19. Possible risk factors on Queensland dairy farms for acaricide resistance in cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N; Mayer, D G; Green, P E

    2000-02-29

    A case control study was carried out within a cross-sectional survey designed to investigate the management by Queensland dairy farmers of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Although 199 farmers were surveyed, data on acaricide resistance were only obtained from 66 farms. Multiple models were used to predict the probability of acaricide resistance associated with 30 putative risk factors. The region of the state in which the farm was located and the frequency of acaricide application were consistently associated with acaricide resistance. The risk of resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids (Parkhurst strain) was highest in Central Queensland and increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, when spray races were used and when buffalo fly treatments with a synthetic pyrethroid were applied frequently. The probability of resistance to amitraz (Ulam strain) was highest in Central Queensland, increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, and decreased on farms when a hand-spray apparatus was used to apply acaricides to cattle. The probability of resistance to flumethrin (Lamington strain) was highest in the Wide Bay-Burnett region. PMID:10681025

  20. Control of scabies, skin sores and haematuria in children in the Solomon Islands: another role for ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Gregor; Leafasia, Judson; Sheridan, John; Hills, Susan; Wate, Janet; Wate, Christine; Montgomery, Janet; Pandeya, Nirmala; Purdie, David

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a 3-year programme aimed at controlling scabies on five small lagoon islands in the Solomon Islands by monitoring scabies, skin sores, streptococcal skin contamination, serology and haematuria in the island children. METHODS: Control was achieved by treating almost all residents of each island once or twice within 2 weeks with ivermectin (160-250 microg/kg), except for children who weighed less than 15 kg and pregnant women, for whom 5% permethrin cream was used. Reintroduction of scabies was controlled by treating returning residents and visitors, whether or not they had evident scabies. FINDINGS: Prevalence of scabies dropped from 25% to less than 1% (P < 0.001); prevalence of sores from 40% to 21% (P < 0.001); streptococcal contamination of the fingers in those with and without sores decreased significantly (P = 0.02 and 0.047, respectively) and anti-DNase B levels decreased (P = 0.002). Both the proportion of children with haematuria and its mean level fell (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). No adverse effects of the treatments were seen. CONCLUSION: The results show that ivermectin is an effective and practical agent in the control of scabies and that control reduces the occurrence of streptococcal skin disease and possible signs of renal damage in children. Integrating community-based control of scabies and streptococcal skin disease with planned programmes for controlling filariasis and intestinal nematodes could be both practical and produce great health benefits. PMID:15682247

  1. Recommendation for the conservation of the name Streptomyces scabies. Request for an opinion.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomic name of the pathogenic Streptomyces species that causes potato scab was changed in 1997 from Streptomyces scabies to Streptomyces scabiei in order to correct improper usage of Latin. The original species name had been in the literature since 1914 and this created confusion among resea...

  2. Comparative trial of permethrin 5% versus lindane 1% for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Babae Nejad, Shahla; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin

    2013-01-20

    Objective: Treatment of scabies is an important issue in infectious dermatology. The aim of this study was to specify whether permethrin is effective for the treatment of human scabies and to compare its effectiveness with that of 1% lindane by topical application. Methods: 220 patients with scabies with the mean age of 44 ± 12/24 attended the study. Patients were divided into two groups randomly. The first group and their family contacts received 5% permethrin cream and the other received 1% lindane lotion. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks. Results: Of 254 patients, 220 completed the study. 110 in the group treated with lindane and 110 in the group treated with permethrin. Permethrin provided an improvement rate of 92 (83.6%) after 2 weeks, whereas lindane was effective only in 54 (49%) of patients. After 4 weeks improvement rate was 96.3% (106 of 110) in permethrin group since it was only 69.1% (76 of 110) in lindane group. Conclusion: Permethrin (5%) cream was found to be significantly more effective in the treatment of scabies in comparison with lindane in this study. There were no adverse effects with either permethrin or lindane. PMID:22905702

  3. Topical (pour-on) ivermectin in the treatment of canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Paradis, M; de Jaham, C; Pagé, N

    1997-06-01

    The efficacy of a pour-on formulation of ivermectin at 500 micrograms/kg body weight applied on the dorsum on days 1 and 15 was evaluated in 90 dogs from a shelter, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. This very practical form of treatment was successful in eradicating scabies from this shelter. PMID:9187806

  4. Hopanoids Are Not Essential for Growth of Streptomyces scabies 87-22▿

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Loria, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Hopanoids are triterpenoic, pentacyclic compounds that are structurally similar to sterols, which are required for normal cell function in eukaryotes. Hopanoids are thought to be an important component of bacterial cell membranes because they control membrane fluidity and diminish passive diffusion of ions, and a few taxons modulate their hopanoid content in response to environmental stimuli. However, to our knowledge, mutational studies to assess the importance of hopanoids in bacterial physiology have never been performed. Genome sequencing of the potato scab pathogen, Streptomyces scabies 87-22, revealed a hopanoid biosynthetic gene cluster (HBGC) that is predicted to synthesize hopene and aminotrihydroxybacteriohopane products. Hopene was produced by fully sporulated cultures of S. scabies on solid ISP4 (International Streptomyces Project 4) medium as well as by submerged mycelia grown in liquid minimal medium. The elongated hopanoid aminotrihydroxybacteriohopane was not detected under either growth condition. Transcription of the S. scabies HBGC was upregulated during aerial growth, which suggests a link between hopanoid production and morphological development. Functional analysis of the S. scabies Δhop615-1 and Δhop615-7 mutant strains, the first hopanoid mutants created in any bacterial taxon, revealed that hopanoids are not required for normal growth or for tolerance of ethanol, osmotic and oxidative stress, high temperature, or low pH. This suggests that hopanoids are not essential for normal streptomycete physiology. PMID:19502399

  5. Treatment for crusted scabies: limitations and side effects of treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Kawasaki, Yushi; Morimoto, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Izumi; Kawana, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Skin eruption with mild itching of the hands and feet developed in a man in his 90s 1 month after he was hospitalized following a traffic accident. Scabies was diagnosed in an attending nurse 3 months after the patient's hospitalization, and infection from the patient was suspected. Cornification of the patient's soles and marked hypertrophy of the nails of both feet were observed. After a large number of scabies mites were detected on microscopic examination, crusted scabies was diagnosed. The patient was given oral ivermectin, 6 mg, once per week for 3 weeks, and crotamiton topical ointment containing 30% benzyl benzoate was applied on the body from the neck down. However, because a large number of scabies mites were detected again on microscopic examination, the dose of ivermectin was increased to 12 mg and administered 3 times. One week after the sixth dose of ivermectin was administered, hemorrhagic scabs around the mouth and erosion of the tongue developed. Mucosal drug eruption was suspected, and eruptions around the mouth and on the tongue resolved within 1 week after ivermectin being discontinued. 1% gamma-benzene hexachloride ointment was applied topically on the body from the neck down once a week, crotamiton ointment containing benzyl benzoate was applied daily, and the hypertrophic parts of the nails were removed. The patient subsequently achieved a full recovery. PMID:24998962

  6. Monitoring of resistance or susceptibility of adults and larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to synthetic acaricides in Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Edméia de Paula e Souza; Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio Garcia; Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Amblyomma cajennense or the Cayenne tick is a three-host ixodid tick species of low parasitic specificity that is the principal vector of Brazilian spotted fever. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the possible development of resistance by adult specimens of A. cajennense to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and the principal miticide/acaricide commercially available in the region. The second objective was to monitor the susceptibility and/or resistance of larvae of this species to 12 synthetic acaricide formulations selected from the principal pesticides available in Goiás for the control of ticks. Unfed male and female adult specimens of A. cajennense were collected from leaves of bushes along a nature trail in the municipality of Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brazil. They were submitted to immersion in the highest recommended dose of deltamethrin and subsequently, were placed in contact with filter paper impregnated with the substance. The toxicological effects caused by the insecticide were observed every 6 h over a 36 h period. To obtain larvae, engorged females of A. cajennense were collected from naturally infested horses that had been free of acaricidal residue for at least 45 days, in farms situated in five different municipalities in the state (Caldas Novas, Hidrolândia, Goiás, Terezópolis and Goiânia). The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of 12 commercially available acaricidal formulations using the larval packet test (LPT) method. The control groups were treated with distilled water alone. The bioassays were performed in quadruplicate at a temperature of 27 °C, relative air humidity > 80% and 12 h light/dark cycles. The mean percentage of mortality MX was 72.6% in the adult specimens after 24 h of exposure to the dose of deltamethrin recommended by the manufacturer, characterizing a status of resistance. MX of 82, 89, 89.6 and 90% of the larvae were obtained, respectively, for deltamethrin, cypermethrin

  7. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  8. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  9. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  10. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  11. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  12. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. PMID:23084038

  13. Scabies Mite Peritrophins Are Potential Targets of Human Host Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Deborah C.; Kemp, Dave J.; Fischer, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Background Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1) was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD). Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL), the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. Conclusions/Significance This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the lectin pathway of

  14. Acaricidal effect of an isolate from Hoslundia opposita vahl against Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Kofi; Jackson, Nora; Dickson, Rita A.; Sam, George H.; Komlaga, Gustav

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hoslundia opposita Vahl. (Lamiaceae), a common local shrub in Ghana, is traditionally known not only for its pharmacological benefits but also for its insecticidal properties. Its acaricidal property, however, has not been investigated. Objective: To test the acaricidal effects of the crude extract and fractions of H. opposita leaves as well as to isolate and characterize the acaricidal principles. Materials and Methods: The crude methanolic extract, pet. ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of the leaves of H. opposita were tested against the larvae of the cattle tick, Amblyomma variegatum, using the Larval Packet Test. A bioassay-guided isolation was carried out to identify the acaricidal principle obtained from the ethyl acetate fraction. Results: The active principle was characterised as ursolic acid, a triterpene previously isolated from the leaves of the same plant. The extract and fractions were less potent than the control, malathion (LC50 1.14 × 10-4 mg/ml). Among the plant samples however the crude methanolic extract exhibited the highest effect against the larvae (LC50 5.74 × 10-2 mg/ml), followed by the ethyl acetate fraction (LC50 8.10 × 10-2 mg/ml). Ursolic acid, pet. ether and aqueous fractions however showed weak acaricidal effects with LC50 values of 1.13 mg/ml, 8.96 × 10-1 mg/ml and 1.44 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ursolic acid was not as potent as the crude methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction from which it was isolated. The overall acaricidal effect of H. opposita may have been due to synergy with other principles having acaricidal properties. PMID:22022167

  15. Acaricide resistance and strategies to mitigate economic impact of the southern cattle fever tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) on livestock production systems in the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus microplus, is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. SCFT populations resistant to acaricides complicate efforts to enhance the productivity of livestock. Here, acaricide resistance is summ...

  16. The history of scabies in veterinary and human medicine from biblical to modern times.

    PubMed

    Roncalli, R A

    1987-07-01

    For many centuries a host of naturalists, savants, physicians and veterinarians have tried to unravel the etiology of scabies in humans and animals and to discover effective remedies to control it. After many attempts, success was achieved in the discovery of the parasitic etiology of the disease in the 15th century. Also, major advances with regard to the treatment of the disease were made during the 19th and 20th centuries. Today the prevalence of epidemic scabies in humans has diminished; on the other hand, good progress in the control of mange of livestock has been made only in a few countries including Australia, New Zealand and the U.S.A. PMID:3307123

  17. Scabies in animals and humans: history, evolutionary perspectives, and modern clinical management.

    PubMed

    Currier, Russell W; Walton, Shelley F; Currie, Bart J

    2011-08-01

    Scabies, a mite infestation frequently sexually transmitted, dates back to antiquity but remains a challenging parasite for study in clinical practice and community settings. Its history is one of centuries of slow progress to recognize the mite and to finally establish its nexus to the clinical syndrome of pruritis with several protean manifestations and different epidemiological patterns. Contemporary methods of management are briefly reviewed, with the future promise of improved evolutionary knowledge associated with the advent of molecular and genetic technology. Current information indicates that humans and earlier protohumans were most likely the source of animal scabies, first of dogs, and later of other species with subsequent spread to wildlife. Morphologically identical variants of Sarcoptes scabiei are nonetheless host specific, as determined by recent DNA studies, and invite future investigations into the dynamics of this troublesome sexually transmissible agent, with the goal of improved recognition and control. PMID:22417107

  18. The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Tirry, Luc; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Nauen, Ralf; Dermauw, Wannes

    2015-06-01

    Acaricides are one of the cornerstones of an efficient control program for phytophagous mites. An analysis of the global acaricide market reveals that spider mites such as Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Panonychus ulmi are by far the most economically important species, representing more than 80% of the market. Other relevant mite groups are false spider mites (mainly Brevipalpus), rust and gall mites and tarsonemid mites. Acaricides are most frequently used in vegetables and fruits (74% of the market), including grape vines and citrus. However, their use is increasing in major crops where spider mites are becoming more important, such as soybean, cotton and corn. As revealed by a detailed case study of the Japanese market, major shifts in acaricide use are partially driven by resistance development and the commercial availability of compounds with novel mode of action. The importance of the latter cannot be underestimated, although some compounds are successfully used for more than 30 years. A review of recent developments in mode of action research is presented, as such knowledge is important for devising resistance management programs. This includes spirocyclic keto-enols as inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the carbazate bifenazate as a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, a novel class of complex II inhibitors, and the mite growth inhibitors hexythiazox, clofentezine and etoxazole that interact with chitin synthase I. PMID:26047107

  19. The efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Human; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Human scabies is caused by an infection of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). There are different medications for the treatment of scabies. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies. In total, 420 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight, and the second group received sulfur 10% ointment and were told to apply this for three successive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 61.9% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 78.5% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of sulfur 10% ointment was effective in 45.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 59.5% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as single applications of sulfur 10% ointment at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to sulfur 10% ointment at the 4-week follow up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. . PMID:26342502

  20. Crusted scabies (sarcoptic mange) in four cats due to Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    PubMed

    Malik, Richard; McKellar Stewart, Keith; Sousa, Candace A; Krockenberger, Mark B; Pope, Sally; Ihrke, Peter; Beatty, Julia; Barrs, Vanessa R D; Walton, Shelley

    2006-10-01

    Four new cases of sarcoptic mange in cats are described. Two cats resided in areas known to be frequented by foxes, another cohabited with a dog recently diagnosed with sarcoptic mange, while the final cat lived with a mixed breed dog that had been treated for sarcoptic mange 7 months previously. Three cases were diagnosed on the basis of characteristic mite size and morphology in skin scraping from representative lesions, situated on the head (two cases) or head and distal hind limbs (one case). Mites were highly mobile and abundant in all instances, and easily detected also in skin biopsy specimens procured from two cases. Eosinophilic inflammation, hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis were prominent in the tissue sections. In the remaining case, the diagnosis was presumptive, based on characteristic lesions, cohabitation with a canine scabies patient and positive response to scabicide therapy. Pruritus was not a prominent clinical feature in any patient and was considered to be absent in three of the four cases. Lesions in three cats with long-standing disease were reminiscent of crusted scabies (synonym: Norwegian scabies, parakeratotic scabies) as seen in human patients. In three cases, in-contact human carriers developed itchy cutaneous papular lesions. Two cases responded promptly to therapy with systemic avermectin drugs, while one responded to topical treatment with lime sulphur and the remaining cat received both a lime sulphur rinse and ivermectin. Sarcoptic mange should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cats with non-pruritic crusting skin diseases, especially when there is contact with foxes or dogs, and when owners have itchy papular lesions. PMID:16950639

  1. Scabies presenting as a necrotizing vasculitis in the presence of lupus anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, P; Snow, J

    1998-10-01

    A 75-year-old man presented with a progressive eruption of 6 weeks' duration. Purpura and focal areas of cutaneous infarction were present on the legs. There were scabies burrows on the wrists and hands, and a mite was extracted. Histology of a skin biopsy showed a necrotizing leucocytoclastic vasculitis. Circulating lupus anticoagulant was detected. Treatment consisted of topical 5% permethrin cream and systemic steroids. PMID:9892918

  2. Acute morbidity associated with scabies and other ectoparasitoses rapidly improves after treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Worth, Christine; Heukelbach, Jorg; Fengler, Gernot; Walter, Birke; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Hengge, Ulrich; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    In resource-poor settings, scabies is associated with considerable morbidity. Which factors determine morbidity and how rapidly it recedes after specific treatment is not known. Patients with scabies were recruited in three urban slums in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil. Diagnosis was established according to dermatoscopy, skin scraping, or adhesive film test. Severity of scabies-associated morbidity was assessed semiquantitatively. Patients and close contacts were treated with oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg, repeated after 7 days) and followed up for 2 weeks. Ninety-five patients were included in the study. Papules were the most common lesion type (98.9%). Excoriations due to scratching were observed in 43.2% and bacterial superinfection in 24.2%. Predilection sites were the arms (82.1%) and the abdomen (81.1%). At baseline, 36.3% of patients complained about intense or severe itching. Intense or severe itch decreased to 6.3% 2 weeks after treatment (p=0.02). Whereas 37.5% of the patients complained about intense or severe itch-related sleep disturbances at baseline, only 8.8% reported the symptom 2 weeks after treatment (p=0.35). At baseline, the degree of itching was correlated with the degree of sleep disturbance (ρ=0.64; p<0.001). One week after the first dose of ivermectin, the intensity of itching and of sleep disturbance decreased significantly (p<0.001). In patients living in resource-poor setting, scabies was associated with considerable morbidity. Treatment with ivermectin rapidly reconstituted health in almost all cases. PMID:22211573

  3. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson S Y; Poon, Rosana W S; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Fung, Kitty S C; Yuen, K Y

    2015-07-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. PMID:25903566

  4. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samson S. Y.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Fung, Kitty S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. PMID:25903566

  5. Comparison of permethrin 2.5 % cream vs. Tenutex emulsion for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Scabies is a common parasitic infestation that is an important public-health problem in many resource-poor regions. It is commonly treated with the insecticides but the treatment of choice is still controversial. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of permethrin 2.5% cream vs. Tenutex emulsion for the treatment of scabies. In total, 440 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups The first group received permethrin 2.5% cream twice with one week interval and the second group received Tenutex emulsion and were told to apply this once whole-body application. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated.Two application of permethrin 2.5% cream provided a cure rate of 63.6% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 86.3% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of Tenutex emulsion was effective in 45.4% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 59.1% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated.Two application of permethrin 2.5% cream was as effective as single applications of Tenutex emulsion at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, permethrin 2.5% cream was superior to Tenutex emulsion at the 4-week follow up. PMID:23829056

  6. The efficacy of topical ivermectin versus malation 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham

    2013-05-01

    Objective: There are different medications for the treatment of scabies but the treatment of choice is still controversial. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of topical ivermectin versus malation 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies. Methods: In total, 340 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin and the second group received topical malation 0.5% lotion and were told to apply this twice with 1 week interval. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Results: Two application of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 67.6% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 85.2% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of malation 0.5% lotion was effective in 44.1% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 67.6% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Conclusion:Two application of ivermectin was as effective as single applications of malation 0.5% lotion at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to malation 0.5% lotion at the 4-week follow up. PMID:23472617

  7. Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) tick populations susceptible or resistant to acaricides in the Mexican Tropics.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Díaz, M A; Fernández-Salas, A; Martínez-Ibáñez, F; Osorio-Miranda, J

    2013-10-18

    The objectives of the present study were: (i) to identify the frequency of cattle farms with a cohabitation of Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus, (ii) to determine the status of susceptibility or resistance to acaricides used in Veracruz, Mexico, on A. cajennense populations and (iii) to identify factors associated with A. cajennense resistant to acaricides. Fifty farms were visited to determine the presence of ticks (A. cajennense and R. microplus) and to collect engorged A. cajennense individuals. From these, 24 A. cajennense populations were evaluated in resistance bioassays using discriminating doses of acaricides. The acaricides tested were organophosphates (chlorpiriphos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amidines (amitraz) and fipronil (a broad spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide). A. cajennense infesting bovines were identified in 86% (43/50) of the farms visited, and 100% of the farms sampled (43/43) had cohabitation between R. microplus and A. cajennense. Of the farm owners or managers surveyed, 87.5% could not distinguish the morphological difference between tick genera. Populations of A. cajennense were 100%, 91.7% and 12.5% resistant to diazinon, coumaphos and chlorpyriphos (organophosphates), respectively, and 12.5% to amitraz, as were those susceptible to flumethrin and fipronil. In conclusions, populations of A. cajennense showed a high frequency of resistance to the organophosphates tested and to amitraz. Factors associated with the resistance to acaricides in A. cajennense were not identified. PMID:23827041

  8. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control. PMID:25033813

  9. Photodegradation of the acaricide abamectin: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Escalada, Juan Pablo; Gianotti, José; Pajares, Adriana; Massad, Walter A; Amat-Guerri, Francisco; García, Norman A

    2008-08-27

    The acaricide abamectin is a mixture of two colorless homologues in a molar ratio of at least 4:1 with the same structure of macrocyclic lactone. The kinetics of its degradation under direct (254 nm) and dye-sensitized (>400 nm) photoirradiation in methanol solution has been studied by UV-vis spectrophotometry, potentiometric detection of dissolved oxygen, stationary fluorescence, laser flash photolysis, and time-resolved detection of singlet molecular oxygen (O2((1)Delta(g))) phosphorescence. The results indicate that the degradation is very efficient under direct irradiation with UV light (254 nm), with a quantum yield of 0.23. On the contrary, under visible-light irradiation, using the natural pigment riboflavin or the synthetic dye rose bengal as sensitizers, the degradation is very inefficient and proceeds through a O2((1)Delta(g))-mediated mechanism, with a bimolecular rate constant for the overall O2((1)Delta(g)) quenching (the sum of physical and chemical quenching) of 5.5 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). This value is similar to those reported for the rate constants of the reactions of O2((1)Delta(g)) with isolated double bonds or conjugated dienes and points to similar processes in the case of abamectin. PMID:18642837

  10. Enantioselective environmental behavior and cytotoxicity of chiral acaricide cyflumetofen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dali; Pang, Junxiao; Zhou, Zhiqin; Jiao, Bining

    2016-10-01

    Enantioselective dissipation behavior of the new acaricide cyflumetofen (CYF) in citrus and soil, and its cytotoxicity to human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells was investigated for the first time. The results of degradation experiment showed that roughly similar half-lives of (-)-CYF and (+)-CYF were achieved in citrus (16.5 and 19.8 d) and soil (6.37 and 6.99 d), respectively. EF values varied from 0.50 to 0.42 in citrus and from 0.49 to 0.48 in soil, indicating that slightly enantioselective degradation happened during experiment period. Moreover, indexes of MTT, LDH, ROS, MDA, SOD, and CAT were used to evaluate enantioselective cytotoxicity and oxidative stress of CYF enantiomers to HepG2 cells. Dose- and structure form-dependent phenomenon was observed with toxicity orders of (-)-CYF > rac-CYF > (+)-CYF. Despite the similar environmental degradation behavior, the toxicities of CYF enantiomers showed great difference, suggesting that (+)-CYF might be developed as potential substitute of rac-CYF for safety consideration. PMID:27424059

  11. Mitigation of Resistance Through Mixtures of Traditional Pesticides, Anti-tick Vaccines, and New Acaricides Developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...

  12. Acaricide-impaired functional predation response of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus baraki to the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Lima, D B; Melo, J W S; Gondim, M G C; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, J E M; Pallini, A

    2015-07-01

    Acaricides may interfere with a myriad of interactions among arthropods, particularly predator-prey interactions. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), and its phytoseiid predator, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), provide an opportunity to explore such interference because the former is a key coconut pest species that requires both predation and acaricide application for its management. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the acaricides abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the functional response of N. baraki to A. guerreronis densities. The following prey densities were tested: 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 preys. The type of functional response and prey handling time (Th) were not altered by the acaricides. However, the attack rate (a') was modified by abamectin and fenpyroximate, and the consumption peak was reduced by abamectin. All of the acaricides allowed for the maintenance of the predator in the field, but exposure to abamectin and fenpyroximate compromised prey consumption. PMID:25847106

  13. [Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil against Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2009-12-01

    Volatile oil from the clove bud was extracted by petroleum ether using Soxhlet Extractor. The acaricidal activity was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. In a filter paper contact toxicity bio-assay, at 2.5 h after treatment, clove bud oil at a dose of 12.20 microg/cm2 killed all dust mites. As judged by 24-h LD50 values, potent fumigant action was observed with clove bud oil (12.20 microg/cm2), showing an adequate acaricidal activity against indoor Dermatophagoides farinae. PMID:20232631

  14. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    PubMed

    Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and γ-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin

  15. Scabies outbreaks in residential care homes: factors associated with late recognition, burden and impact. A mixed methods study in England.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, K A; Nalabanda, A; Cassell, J A

    2015-05-01

    Scabies is an important public health problem in residential care homes. Delayed diagnosis contributes to outbreaks, which may be prolonged and difficult to control. We investigated factors influencing outbreak recognition, diagnosis and treatment, and staff experiences of outbreak control, identifying areas for intervention. We carried out a semi-structured survey of managers, affected residents and staff of seven care homes reporting suspected scabies outbreaks in southern England over a 6-month period. Attack rates ranged from 2% to 50%, and most cases had dementia (37/39, 95%). Cases were diagnosed clinically by GPs (59%) or home staff (41%), none by dermatologists. Most outbreaks were attributable to avoidably late diagnosis of the index case. Participants reported considerable challenges in managing scabies outbreaks, including late diagnosis and recognition of outbreaks; logistically difficult mass treatment; distressing treatment processes and high costs. This study demonstrates the need for improved support for care homes in detecting and managing these outbreaks. PMID:25195595

  16. Treatment of scabies: the topical ivermectin vs. permethrin 2.5% cream.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei va. hominis). It is commonly treated with topical insecticides, but the treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of topical ivermectin vs. permethrin 2.5% cream for the treatment of scabies. In total, 380 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin at a dose of 400 microg/kg, repeated once the following week, while the second group received permethrin 2.5% cream and were told to apply this twice at one week intervals. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Two applications of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 63.1% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 84.2% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications of permethrin 2.5% cream with a 1-week interval between them was effective in 65.8% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.5% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Two application of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of permethrin 2.5% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was as effective as permethrin 2.5% cream at the 4-week follow up. PMID:24171301

  17. Topical ivermectin versus crotamiton cream 10% for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghiafar, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Scabies, known colloquially as the 7-year itch, is a contagious skin infection that occurs among humans and other animals. The treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin vs. crotamiton cream 10% for the treatment of scabies. In total, 340 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups. The first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin. The dose employed was 400 μg/kg, repeated once the following week, and the second group received crotamiton 10% cream and were told to apply this twice daily for five consecutive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of two and four weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Two applications of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 64.7% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 82.3% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of crotamiton cream 10% was effective in 41.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 64.7% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Ivermectin was quite safe in our cases. Two applications of ivermectin were as effective as single applications of crotamiton 10% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to crotamiton cream 10% at the 4-week follow-up. PMID:24898622

  18. Zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in relation to knowledge level of dog owners

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Heli S.; Nayak, J. B.; Patel, B. M.; Bhadesiya, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to understand the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis with special reference to the knowledge level of dog owners in urban areas of Gujarat. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in randomly selected 120 dog owners of 3 urban cities (viz., Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara) of Gujarat state, India. Dog owners (i.e., respondents) were subjected to a detailed interview regarding the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in dogs. Ex-post-facto research design was selected because of the independent variables of the selected respondent population for the study. The crucial method used in collecting data was a field survey to generate null hypothesis (Ho1). Available data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The three independent variables, viz., extension contact (r=0.522**), mass-media exposure (r=0.205*) and management orientation (r=0.264**) had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Other independent variables, viz., education, experience in dog keeping and housing space were observed to have negative and non-significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Conclusion: Extension contact, exposure to extension mass-media, management orientation and innovation proneness among dog owners of 3 urban cities of Gujarat state had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners on zoonotic aspects of canine scabies and dermatophytosis. Data provided new insights on the present status of zoonotic disease-awareness, which would be an aid to plan preventive measures. PMID:27065644

  19. Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Simone L; Pike, Robert N; Mika, Angela; Blom, Anna M; Hofmann, Andreas; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Kemp, Dave; Fischer, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics. PMID:24854034

  20. A Scabies Mite Serpin Interferes with Complement-Mediated Neutrophil Functions and Promotes Staphylococcal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Pearl M.; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4) inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood killing of S. aureus was measured in whole blood bactericidal assays, counting viable bacteria recovered after treatment in fresh blood containing active complement and phagocytes, treated with recombinant SMSB4. SMSB4 inhibited the blood killing of various strains of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive isolates. Staphylococcal growth was promoted in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of SMSB4 on the complement-mediated neutrophil functions, namely phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylatoxin release, by flow cytometry and in enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISA). SMSB4 reduced phagocytosis of S. aureus by neutrophils. It inhibited the deposition of C3b, C4b and properdin on the bacteria surface, but did not affect the depositions of C1q and MBL. SMSB4 also inhibited C5 cleavage as indicated by a reduced C5b-9 deposition. Conclusions/Significance We postulate that SMSB4 interferes with the activation of all three complement pathways by reducing the amount of C3 convertase formed. We conclude that SMSB4 interferes with the complement-dependent killing function of neutrophils, thereby reducing opsonization, phagocytosis and further recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. As a consequence secreted scabies

  1. Acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaofei; Miao, Xiaolou; Lv, Huiping; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jiqin; He, Hua; Yang, Zhiqiang; Pan, Hu

    2014-06-01

    Usnic acid, a major active compound in lichens, was first isolated in 1884. Since then, usnic acid and its sodium salt (sodium usnic acid) have been used in medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, and other industries due to its extensive biological activities. However, its acaricidal activity has not been studied. In this paper, we investigated the acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. After evaluating the acaricidal activity and toxicity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid in vitro, the results showed that at doses of 250, 125, and 62.5 mg/ml, usnic acid and sodium usnic acid can kill mites with 91.67, 85.00, and 55.00% and 100, 100, and 60.00% mortality after treatment 24 h. The LT50 values were 4.208, 8.249, and 16.950 h and 3.712, 7.339, and 15.773 h for usnic acid and sodium usnic acid, respectively. Sodium usnic acid has a higher acaricidal activity than usnic acid, which may be related to the difference in their structures. PMID:24770718

  2. Functional Analysis of Esterase TCE2 Gene from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) involved in Acaricide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Wei, Peng; Wang, Xiangzun; Shen, Guangmao; Zhang, Jiao; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Zhifeng; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest of crops and vegetables worldwide, and it has the ability to develop resistance against acaricides rapidly. Our previous study identified an esterase gene (designated TCE2) over-expressed in resistant mites. To investigate this gene’s function in resistance, the expression levels of TCE2 in susceptible, abamectin-, fenpropathrin-, and cyflumetofen-resistant strains were knocked down (65.02%, 63.14%, 57.82%, and 63.99%, respectively) via RNA interference. The bioassay data showed that the resistant levels to three acaricides were significantly decreased after the down-regulation of TCE2, indicating a correlation between the expression of TCE2 and the acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus. TCE2 gene was then re-engineered for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The recombinant TCE2 exhibited α-naphthyl acetate activity (483.3 ± 71.8 nmol/mg pro. min−1), and the activity of this enzyme could be inhibited by abamectin, fenpropathrin, and cyflumetofen, respectively. HPLC and GC results showed that 10 μg of the recombinant TCE2 could effectively decompose 21.23% fenpropathrin and 49.70% cyflumetofen within 2 hours. This is the first report of a successful heterologous expression of an esterase gene from mites. This study provides direct evidence that TCE2 is a functional gene involved in acaricide resistance in T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26725309

  3. Effect of Various Acaricides on Hatchability of Eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Haque, M.; Jyoti; Singh, N. K.; Rath, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of commonly used acaricides (amitraz, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, and flumethrin) on the eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Ludhiana, Punjab, was evaluated by egg hatch assay (EHA). The regression graph of probit hatchability and per cent inhibition of hatching (IH%) of eggs was plotted against log values of concentration of various acaricides. All concentrations of flumethrin and amitraz caused complete inhibition of hatching, whereas a hatchability of 31.0 ± 6.1, 40.0 ± 5.2 and 19.3 ± 1.7% was only recorded at the highest concentration of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of the acaricide showed a significant effect on the IH% of eggs for cypermethrin (P < 0.01) and deltamethrin (P < 0.05) but was nonsignificant for fenvalerate. The slope of the regression curve of IH% was utilized for the calculation of the dose of various acaricides causing inhibition of hatching for 95% eggs (LC95) and the discriminating dose (DD). Results indicated that maximum DD was recorded for fenvalerate (2.136%), followed by cypermethrin (0.214%) and deltamethrin (0.118%). The results of the current study will be helpful in formulating effective control strategies against ticks. PMID:25057486

  4. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

  5. Effect of a botanical acaricide on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and nontarget arthropods.

    PubMed

    Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Staples, Joseph K; St Amand, Theodore W; Stubbs, Constance S; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Smith, Leticia B; Smith, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of the rosemary oil-based insecticide, Eco-Exempt IC2, to control all stages of Ixodes scapularis (Say) in southern Maine. We selected plots in oak-pine forest where I. scapularis is endemic and recorded the abundance of ticks and nontarget arthropods before and after applications of IC2, bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid), and water (reference treatment). Licensed applicators applied high-pressure spray treatments during the summer nymphal and fall adult seasonal peaks. Both acaricides sprayed during the summer nymphal season reduced nymphal I. scapularis/hour to zero. IC2 was as effective as bifenthrin in controlling nymphs through the rest of the nymphal season and also controlled adult ticks 9 mo postspray compared with 16 mo for bifenthrin, and both acaricides reduced larvae through 14 mo postspray. Both acaricides sprayed during the fall adult season reduced adult I. scapularis/hour to zero; IC2 controlled adult ticks 6 mo postspray compared with 1 yr for bifenthrin. Both fall-applied acaricides controlled nymphs 9 mo postspray and reduced larvae up to 10 mo postspray. Impacts on some nontarget arthropods was assessed. Colleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Collembola declined 1 wk postspray in acaricide-treated plots, and in IC2 plots all numbers rebounded by 20 d postspray. For bees and other flower-visiting insects there were no detectable reductions in nests produced, number emerged from nests, or number of foraging visits to flowering plants in IC2 or bifenthrin plots. IC2 was phytotoxic to the leafy portions of select understory plants that appeared to recover by the next growing season. PMID:23427661

  6. Acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits against stored food mites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2012-07-01

    The acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits were evaluated against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). On the basis of the 50 % lethal dose (LD(50)) values, the ethyl acetate fraction of the fractions obtained from an aqueous extract of P. ussuriensis fruits had the highest acaricidal activity (16.32 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae. The acaricidal constituent of P. ussuriensis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 1,4-benzoquinone. On the basis of the LD(50) values, 1,4-benzoquinone (1.98 μg/cm(2)) was 5.9 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (11.69 μg/cm(2)), followed by 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (3.29 μg/cm(2)), and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (5.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae in the fumigant bioassay. In a filter paper bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1,4-benzoquinone (0.07 μg/cm(2)) was 120.1 times more effective than that of benzyl benzoate (8.41 μg/cm(2)), followed by 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (0.11 μg/cm(2)) and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (0.30 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae. These results demonstrate that P. ussuriensis fruit-derived material and its derivatives have potential as new preventive agents for the control of stored food mites. PMID:22980009

  7. Efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness of four therapeutic agents for treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Talal A; Méabed, Eman M H; Nasef, Ghada A; Abdel Wahed, Wafaa Y; Rohaim, Rania M A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate four drug regimens for treatment of scabies as regard their efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness. Two hundred cases with ordinary scabies were randomized into four groups. First group received ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight single oral dose, repeated after one week. The second received benzyl benzoate 20% cream. The third received permethrin 2.5%-5% lotion, whereas the fourth group received 5-10% sulfur ointment. Topical treatments were applied for five consecutive nights. Patients were followed up for two weeks for cure rate and adverse effects. At the end of the study, permethrin provided a significant efficacy of 88% and acceptability in 100% of cases, but had higher cost to treat one case (20.25 LE). Ivermectin provided efficacy and acceptability rates of 84% and 96%, respectively, and had a cheaper cost (9.5 LE). Benzyl benzoate provided 80% for both rates and was the cheapest drug. Sulfur ointment provided the least rates, and it was the most expensive. Treatment choice will depend on the age, the general condition of cases, patient compliance to topical treatment and his ability to stick to its roles, and the economic condition of the patient. PMID:27027929

  8. Large Nosocomial Outbreak Associated with a Norwegian Scabies Index Case Undergoing TNF-α Inhibitor Treatment: Management and Control.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, Valeria; Orsi, Giovanni Battista; Del Borgo, Cosmo; Fabietti, Paolo; Ianari, Adriana; Albertoni, Francesco; Porcelli, Patricia; Potenza, Concetta; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria

    2015-11-01

    We describe a large outbreak associated with a crusted (Norwegian) scabies case in an immunocompromised patient following treatment with TNF-α inhibitor (adalimumab) for psoriasis arthritis. The increasing use of TNF-α inhibitors should induce clinicians to consider this serious parasitic infection when evaluating skin rashes in patients receiving biologic therapies. PMID:26288185

  9. The rise and fall of psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Walter M; Weisenberger, Mara E

    2005-07-01

    Between 1978 and 1997, a combination of psoroptic scabies (Psoroptes spp.), mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation, and periodic drought reduced a population of native desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the San Andres Mountains (SAM), New Mexico, from >200 individuals to a single ewe. In 1999, this ewe was captured, ensured to be Psoroptes-free, and released back into the SAM. Eleven radio-collared rams were translocated from the Red Rock Wildlife Area (RRWA) in New Mexico into the SAM range and monitored through 2002 to determine whether Psoroptes spp. mites were still in the environment. None of these sentinel rams acquired scabies during this period, and no additional native sheep were found to be present in the range. In 2002, 51 desert bighorn sheep were translocated into the SAM from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona (n = 20) and the RRWA in New Mexico (n = 31). Twenty-one bighorn sheep have died in the SAM since that time, but Psoroptes spp. mites have not been detected on any of these animals, nor have they been found on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) sampled since 2000. We conclude that psoroptic scabies is no longer present in the San Andres bighorn sheep population and that psoroptic scabies poses a minimal to nonexistent threat to the persistence of this population at this time. PMID:16244062

  10. The AraC/XylS regulator TxtR modulates Thaxtomin Biosynthesis and Virulence in Streptomyces scabies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptomyces scabies is the best studied of those streptomycetes that cause an economically important disease known as potato scab. The phytotoxin thaxtomin is made exclusively by these pathogens and is required for virulence. Here we describe regulation of thaxtomin biosynthesis by TxtR, a member...

  11. Acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana and Rajasthan states of India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-08-01

    Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks against deltamethrin and diazinon was assessed in Hisar (Haryana) and its adjoining district Churu (Rajasthan) using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). The mortality slope, LC50, LC95, 95 % confidence limit and resistance factor of field ticks were determined. Results showed that R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from Tohana (Hisar) were found resistant to both the acaricides while the ticks of Agroha (Hisar) were found to be susceptible using AIT. Similar results were observed by using standard method of LPT. Again, H. anatolicum tick isolates of Tara Nagar (Churu) were found susceptible whereas Churu tick isolates were found to be resistant using AIT for both the acaricides. LPT indicated susceptible status of H. anatolicum ticks collected from Churu as well as Tara Nagar for both the acaricides. The study warrants the need for strategic use of available acaricides to overcome the development of acaricide resistance in ticks. PMID:27100113

  12. Acaricidal activities of apiol and its derivatives from Petroselinum sativum seeds against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yun; Yang, Ji Yeon; Suh, Joo Won; Lee, Hoi Seon

    2011-07-27

    The acaricidal effects of an active constituent derived from Petroselinum sativum seeds and its derivatives were determined using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of synthetic acaricide. The acaricidal constituent of P. sativum was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and identified as apiol. On the basis of LD(50) values against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, apiol (0.81 and 0.94 μg/cm(2)) was 12.4 and 10.2 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.0 and 9.58 μg/cm(2)), respectively. In acaricidal studies of apiol derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzonitrile (0.04, 0.03, and 0.59 μg/cm(2)) was 250, 319, and 20.7 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.0, 9.58, and 12.2 μg/cm(2)) against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae. In structure-activity relationships, the acaricidal activities of apiol derivatives could be related to allyl (-C(3)H(5)) and methoxy (-OCH(3)) functional groups. Furthermore, apiol and its derivatives could be useful for natural acaricides against these three mite species. PMID:21688847

  13. Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance. PMID:24393426

  14. Toxicodynamic mechanisms and monitoring of acaricide resistance in the two-spotted spider mite.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2015-06-01

    The two-spotted spider (Tetranychus urticae) is one of the most serious pests world-wide and has developed resistance to many types of acaricides. Various mutations on acaricide target site genes have been determined to be responsible for toxicodynamic resistance, and the genotyping and frequency prediction of these mutations can be employed as an alternative resistance monitoring strategy. A quantitative sequencing (QS) protocol was reported as a population-based genotyping technique, and applied for the determination of resistance allele frequencies in T. urticae field populations. In addition, a modified glass vial bioassay method (residual contact vial bioassay, RCV) was implemented as a rapid on-site resistance monitoring tool. The QS protocol, together with the RCV, would greatly facilitate monitoring of T. urticae resistance. Recent completion of T. urticae genome analysis should facilitate the identification of additional resistance genetic markers that can be employed for molecular resistance monitoring. PMID:26047116

  15. A simulation study of the effects of acaricides and vaccination on Boophilus cattle-tick populations.

    PubMed

    Lodos, J; Ochagavia, M E; Rodriguez, M; De La Fuente, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model to evaluate different control strategies for Boophilus microplus. The model combines a dynamic life-history module for tick-population dynamics with other modules for vaccination, sterile-hybrid larval release and use of acaricide dipping vats. The tick life-history module considers the cattle's nutritional level and allows for distribution of ticks by age at all stages of growth. Appropriately, the model was sensitive to host resistance and to host-nutritional status. The validity of the life-history module--as well as that of the vaccination and acaricide dipping--vats modules--was demonstrated by comparing simulated and real data for several geographical locations in Cuba and Brazil. Optimum tick-control strategies for the first year of vaccination were designed and the effect of long-term vaccination on tick population was also studied. PMID:10022052

  16. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide. PMID:23295821

  17. Acaricide Residues in Laying Hens Naturally Infested by Red Mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    PubMed Central

    Marangi, Marianna; Morelli, Vincenzo; Pati, Sandra; Camarda, Antonio; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    In the poultry industry, control of the red mite D. gallinae primarily relies worldwide on acaricides registered for use in agriculture or for livestock, and those most widely used are carbamates, followed by amidines, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Due to the repeated use of acaricides - sometimes in high concentrations - to control infestation, red mites may become resistant, and acaricides may accumulate in chicken organs and tissues, and also in eggs. To highlight some situations of misuse/abuse of chemicals and of risk to human health, we investigated laying hens, destined to the slaughterhouse, for the presence of acaricide residues in their organs and tissues. We used 45 hens from which we collected a total of 225 samples from the following tissues and organs: skin, fat, liver, muscle, hearth, and kidney. In these samples we analyzed the residual contents of carbaryl and permethrin by LC-MS/MS. Ninety-one (40.4%) samples were positive to carbaryl and four samples (1.7%) were positive to permethrin. Concentrations of carbaryl exceeding the detection limit (0.005 ppm) were registered in the skin and fat of birds from two farms (p<0.01), although these concentrations remained below the maximum residue limit (MRLs) (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01). All organs/tissues of hens from a third farm were significantly more contaminated, with skin and muscle samples exceeding the MRL (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01) of carbaryl in force before its use was banned. Out of 45 chickens tested, 37 (82.2%) were found to be contaminated by carbaryl, and 4 (8.8%) by permethrin. The present study is the first report on the presence of pesticides banned by the EU (carbaryl) or not licensed for use (permethrin) in the organs and tissues of laying hens, which have been treated against red mites, and then slaughtered for human consumption at the end of their life cycle. PMID:22363736

  18. Repellents and acaricides as personal protection measures in the prevention of tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    A number of preventive measures for the protection of humans against tick-borne diseases were evaluated. Measures involving the avoidance of tick bites with the use of protective clothing and insect repellents are the simplest and most effective. Repellents are applied directly to the skin or clothing and other fabrics, such as bednets, tents and anti-mosquito screens. Currently, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is considered the most efficient arthropod repellent reference substance. The registered and recommended active repellent ingredients for skin and/or cloths application, among others, are: DEET, 1-methyl-propyl-2- (hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate (picaridin), p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), ethyl butylactyloaminopropionate ( IR3535), 1S,2S-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (SS220), racemic 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (AI3-37220) and synthethic pyrethroid - 3-phenoxybenzyl-cis-trans-3(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropancarboxylate (permethrin) - an acaricide with repellent properties. To achieve the protection from tick bites by avoiding attachment and/or engorgement by the arthropod, acaricides with repellent properties, such as synthetic pyrethroid-permethrin are used. This pyrethroid is an acaricide of choice used for clothing impregnation, which is effective for personal protection against all three parasitic stages of western black-legged ticks. Products based on natural compounds, e.g. eugenol from Ocimum basilicum, 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato, geraniol - a natural product extracted from plants, and many others, represent an interesting alternative to common synthetic repellents and/or acaricides. PMID:23311778

  19. [Treatment of scabies and Ascabiol(®) supply disruption: what about the pediatric population?].

    PubMed

    Berthe-Aucejo, A; Prot-Labarthe, S; Pull, L; Lorrot, M; Touratier, S; Trout, H; Bourdon, O; Dehen, L; Bourrat, E

    2014-06-01

    Scabies is a disease in steady increase in Île-de-France region. Standard treatment, Ascabiol(®) (benzyl benzoate/sulfiram), is back-order for several months and its return remains uncertain. Facing this drug shortage, French Drug Agency (ANSM) has imported a drug from Germany, Antiscabiosum 10 % (benzyl benzoate), to treat patients having contraindications for other scabicides available in France (ivermectin, esdepallethrine). However, infants less than 1 year (<15 kg) and asthmatics infants have no alternative treatment. A multidisciplinary workgroup explored the various existing therapeutic alternatives in France and worldwide. From ANSM's recommendations and group's experience, a decision algorithm was proposed for treating patients. However, pediatric context implied the use of off-label drugs. Proposed treatments widely known by practitioners, prescriptions-types, dose, modalities of use and dispensation, and flyers to patients were realized to optimize treatment efficacy. PMID:24768069

  20. Design, Synthesis, Acaricidal Activity, and Mechanism of Oxazoline Derivatives Containing an Oxime Ether Moiety.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqiang; Li, Chaojie; Zheng, Yanlong; Wei, Xingcun; Ma, Qiaoqiao; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yuxiu; Qin, Yaoguo; Yang, Na; Sun, Yufeng; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Wang, Qingmin

    2014-03-27

    Two series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing an oxime ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate N-(2-chloro-1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. The bioassay results showed that the target compounds with an oxime ether substituent at the para position of 4-phenyl exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus in the laboratory. Moreover, all of the target compounds had much higher activities than etoxazole, as the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the target compounds I-a-I-l and II-a-II-n against T. cinnabarinus were all over 90% at 0.001 mg L(-1), but etoxazole gave only 30% and 40% respectively at the same concentration. The activity order of compounds with regard to acaricidal activity in vivo was almost consistent with their affinity activity with sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of Blattella germanica in vitro, hence, it was supposed that the acaricidal mechanism of action of the target compounds was that they can bind with the site of SUR and therefore inhibit chitin synthesis. Moreover, the eminent effect of the compound II-l, [2-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde O-(4-(2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-4-yl)benzyl) oxime], against Panonychus citri and T. cinnabarinus in the field indicated that II-l exhibited a promising application prospect as a new candicate for controlling spider mites in the field. PMID:24673392

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Acaricidal/Insecticidal Activities of Oxazoline Derivatives Containing a Sulfur Ether Moiety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuling; Liu, Yuxiu; Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-11-11

    On the basis of etoxazole, a series of novel 2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4-(4-substituted phenyl)-1,3-oxazolines containing a sulfur ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate N-(1-(4-(bromomethyl)phenyl)-2-chloroethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. The bioassay results showed that most of these designed target compounds exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against both the eggs and larvae of Tetranychus cinnabarinus, especially the eggs. Among compounds with high activity against the eggs of mites, the LC50 values of 2, 11, 17, and 19 were 0.0003, 0.0002, 0.0005, and 0.0008 mg L(-1), respectively, much lower than that of etoxazole (0.0089 mg L(-1)). Compound 2 was chosen to evaluate the acaricidal activity in the field, and the results displayed that at a concentration of 22 mg kg(-1), 2 had a much better control effect than etoxazole against both T. cinnabarinus and P. latus on eggplant. Some compounds also showed good insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm and mosquito. On the basis of our research, the newly found structure-activity relationship may guide the development of new acaricides/pesticides that are required in the agriculture market. PMID:26499937

  2. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim MR; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Fayed, Sayed A; Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300µg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0µg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient. PMID:23569793

  3. In vitro acaricidal activity of Bobgunnia madagascariensis Desv. against Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal properties of Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. and Wiersema (Leguminosae) against adult Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) ticks, using Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. (Leguminosae) as a positive control. Plant extracts of both were prepared using methanol, acetone and chloroform as extraction solvents. Methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii (0.014 g) and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis (0.0062 g) gave the highest mean extraction weights among the plant parts and solvents used. In free contact bioassays, only methanol extracts of the bark and leaf material of T. vogelii and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis produced 100 % mortality of A. variegatum ticks in 24 h. The acaricidal activity of methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii persisted for up to 8 days while that of fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis persisted for only 6 days. In topical application bioassays, the toxicity of T. vogelii and B. madagascariensis extracts was found to be significantly different at 95 % confidence level, with B. madagascariensis extracts (LD50 0.030 w/v) being more toxic than T. vogelii extracts (LD50 0.555 w/v). This study has shown that plant extracts of B. madagascariensis and T. vogelii extracts have significant in vitro acaricidal activity against A. variegatum ticks and can thus be considered as alternatives for tick control. Further research is however required on persistence, safety and the required application rates. PMID:26894496

  4. Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum against the ectoparasitic cattle mite, Chorioptes texanus.

    PubMed

    Nong, Xiang; Li, Shu-Hua; Wang, Jia-Hai; Xie, Yue; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Liu, Tian-Fei; He, Ran; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of extracts obtained from the plant Eupatorium adenophorum against the common cattle mite Chorioptes texanus. The results showed that 95% ethanol extracts at concentrations of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 g/mL (w/v) were highly toxic to C. texanus in vitro, killing 100% of mites in 4 h. Similarly, petroleum ether extracts of E. adenophorum resulted in between 80 and 100% mortality of mites in vitro at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.025 mL/mL (v/v) within 4 h. In clinical trials, all infected individuals completely recovered after two treatments administered at 7-day intervals and remained disease-free at 60 days posttreatment. The clinical effect of treatment with E. adenophorum petroleum ether extracts was similar to that of treatment with the acaricide fenvalerate. These results indicated that E. adenophorum contains novel potential acaricidal compounds that can effectively control mites in livestock. PMID:24464273

  5. Scabies Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  6. Scabies: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... unsure how to use a particular medicine. Scabicide lotion or cream should be applied to all areas ... addition, when treating infants and young children, scabicide lotion or cream also should be applied to their ...

  7. Scabies: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Master Dermatologist Award Members Making a Difference Award Native American Health Service Resident Rotation PICMED Grant Professionalism Award ... Camp Discovery Diversity Mentorship Program Health Volunteers ... American Health Services Resident Rotation Resident International Grant Shade ...

  8. Mechanisms of acaricide resistance and use of synergized formulations for the control of resistant populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to acaricides in the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, remains a major problem for the successful control of this economically important ectoparasite of cattle in many countries, including Mexico and Brazil. Resistance to coumaphos and other acaricides is also a major concern to...

  9. Acaricidal activity of Palicourea marcgravii, a species from the Amazon forest, on cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Heinzen, Horacio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2011-06-30

    Leaves of Palicourea marcgravii were extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol in order to evaluate their acaricidal activity on larvae and adult stages of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest bioactivity of the tested extracts, which contained 0.12% monofluoroacetic acid. On engorged female, the ethyl acetate extract showed a lethal concentration 50% - LC(50)=30.08 mg ml(-1), inhibitory concentration 50% - IC(50)=5.79 mg ml(-1) and lethal time 50% - LT(50)=4.72 days; 100% reproduction was controlled at concentrations of 50 mg ml(-1) and on larvae the ethyl acetate extract showed a LC(50)=2.46 mg ml(-1). No alkaloids were detected in any of the extracts. This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of P. marcgravii extracts against R. microplus as well as the acaricidal properties of a plant species containing monofluoroacetic acid. PMID:21411227

  10. Factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Foil, L D; Coleman, P; Eisler, M; Fragoso-Sanchez, H; Garcia-Vazquez, Z; Guerrero, F D; Jonsson, N N; Langstaff, I G; Li, A Y; Machila, N; Miller, R J; Morton, J; Pruett, J H; Torr, S

    2004-10-28

    This manuscript provides a summary of the results presented at a symposium organized to accumulate information on factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases. This symposium was part of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), held in New Orleans, LA, USA, during August 10-14, 2003. Populations of southern cattle ticks, Boophilus microplus, from Mexico have developed resistance to many classes of acaricide including chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT), pyrethroids, organophosphates, and formamidines (amitraz). Target site mutations are the most common resistance mechanism observed, but there are examples of metabolic mechanisms. In many pyrethroid resistant strains, a single target site mutation on the Na(+) channel confers very high resistance (resistance ratios: >1000x) to both DDT and all pyrethroid acaricides. Acetylcholine esterase affinity for OPs is changed in resistant tick populations. A second mechanism of OP resistance is linked to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. A PCR-based assay to detect a specific sodium channel gene mutation that is associated with resistance to permethrin has been developed. This assay can be performed on individual ticks at any life stage with results available in a few hours. A number of Mexican strains of B. microplus with varying profiles of pesticide resistance have been genotyped using this test. Additionally, a specific metabolic esterase with permethrin-hydrolyzing activity, CzEst9, has been purified and its gene coding region cloned. This esterase has been associated with high resistance to permethrin in one Mexican tick population. Work is continuing to clone specific acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase genes that appear to be involved in resistance to organophosphates. Our ultimate goal is the design of a battery of DNA- or ELISA-based assays capable of rapidly genotyping individual ticks to

  11. Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2012-02-01

    The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite. PMID:22101075

  12. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed. PMID:26310511

  13. Acaricidal activities against house dust mites of spearmint oil and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activities of spearmint oil and carvone derivatives against house dust mites using contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays to replace benzyl benzoate as a synthetic acaricide. Based on the LD50 values, the contact toxicity bioassay revealed that dihydrocarvone (0.95 and 0.88 µg/cm2) was 7.7 and 6.8 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (7.33 and 6.01 µg/cm2) against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively, followed by carvone (3.78 and 3.23 µg/cm2), spearmint oil (5.16 and 4.64 µg/cm2), carveol (6.00 and 5.80 µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (8.23 and 7.10 µg/cm2). Results of the fumigant toxicity bioassay showed that dihydrocarvone (2.73 and 2.16 µg/cm2) was approximately 4.0 and 4.8 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (11.00 and 10.27 µg/cm2), followed by carvone (6.63 and 5.78 µg/cm2), carveol (7.58 and 7.24 µg/cm2), spearmint oil (9.55 and 8.10 µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (9.79 and 8.14 µg/cm2). Taken together, spearmint oil and carvone derivatives are a likely viable alternative to synthetic acaricides for managing house dust mites. PMID:24488719

  14. The CebE/MsiK Transporter is a Doorway to the Cello-oligosaccharide-mediated Induction of Streptomyces scabies Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Samuel; Francis, Isolde Maria; Kim, Min Jung; Salazar, Joren Jeico C; Planckaert, Sören; Frère, Jean-Marie; Matagne, André; Kerff, Frédéric; Devreese, Bart; Loria, Rosemary; Rigali, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces scabies is an economically important plant pathogen well-known for damaging root and tuber crops by causing scab lesions. Thaxtomin A is the main causative agent responsible for the pathogenicity of S. scabies and cello-oligosaccharides are environmental triggers that induce the production of this phytotoxin. How cello-oligosaccharides are sensed or transported in order to induce the virulent behavior of S. scabies? Here we report that the cellobiose and cellotriose binding protein CebE, and MsiK, the ATPase providing energy for carbohydrates transport, are the protagonists of the cello-oligosaccharide mediated induction of thaxtomin production in S. scabies. Our work provides the first example where the transport and not the sensing of major constituents of the plant host is the central mechanism associated with virulence of the pathogen. Our results allow to draw a complete pathway from signal transport to phytotoxin production where each step of the cascade is controlled by CebR, the cellulose utilization regulator. We propose the high affinity of CebE to cellotriose as possible adaptation of S. scabies to colonize expanding plant tissue. Our work further highlights how genes associated with primary metabolism in nonpathogenic Streptomyces species have been recruited as basic elements of virulence in plant pathogenic species. PMID:27250236

  15. Production of the Streptomyces scabies coronafacoyl phytotoxins involves a novel biosynthetic pathway with an F420 -dependent oxidoreductase and a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase.

    PubMed

    Bown, Luke; Altowairish, Mead S; Fyans, Joanna K; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2016-07-01

    Coronafacoyl phytotoxins are secondary metabolites that are produced by various phytopathogenic bacteria, including several pathovars of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae as well as the Gram-positive potato scab pathogen Streptomyces scabies. The phytotoxins are composed of the polyketide coronafacic acid (CFA) linked via an amide bond to amino acids or amino acid derivatives, and their biosynthesis involves the cfa and cfa-like gene clusters that are found in P. syringae and S. scabies, respectively. The S. scabies cfa-like gene cluster was previously reported to contain several genes that are absent from the P. syringae cfa gene cluster, including one (oxr) encoding a putative F420 -dependent oxidoreductase, and another (sdr) encoding a predicted short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. Using gene deletion analysis, we demonstrated that both oxr and sdr are required for normal production of the S. scabies coronafacoyl phytotoxins, and structural analysis of metabolites that accumulated in the Δsdr mutant cultures revealed that Sdr is directly involved in the biosynthesis of the CFA moiety. Our results suggest that S. scabies and P. syringae use distinct biosynthetic pathways for producing coronafacoyl phytotoxins, which are important mediators of host-pathogen interactions in various plant pathosystems. PMID:26991928

  16. The plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87-22 has a functional pyochelin biosynthetic pathway that is regulated by TetR- and AfsR-family proteins.

    PubMed

    Seipke, Ryan F; Song, Lijiang; Bicz, Joanna; Laskaris, Paris; Yaxley, Alice M; Challis, Gregory L; Loria, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    Siderophores are high-affinity iron-chelating compounds produced by bacteria for iron uptake that can act as important virulence determinants for both plant and animal pathogens. Genome sequencing of the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies 87-22 revealed the presence of a putative pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster (PBGC). Liquid chromatography (LC)-MS analyses of culture supernatants of S. scabies mutants, in which expression of the cluster is upregulated and which lack a key biosynthetic gene from the cluster, indicated that pyochelin is a product of the PBGC. LC-MS comparisons with authentic standards on a homochiral stationary phase confirmed that pyochelin and not enantio-pyochelin (ent-pyochelin) is produced by S. scabies. Transcription of the S. scabies PBGC occurs via ~19 kb and ~3 kb operons and transcription of the ~19 kb operon is regulated by TetR- and AfsR-family proteins encoded by the cluster. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of pyochelin production by a Gram-positive bacterium; interestingly regulation of pyochelin production is distinct from characterized PBGCs in Gram-negative bacteria. Though pyochelin-mediated iron acquisition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important for virulence, in planta bioassays failed to demonstrate that pyochelin production by S. scabies is required for development of disease symptoms on excised potato tuber tissue or radish seedlings. PMID:21757492

  17. The CebE/MsiK Transporter is a Doorway to the Cello-oligosaccharide-mediated Induction of Streptomyces scabies Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Jourdan, Samuel; Francis, Isolde Maria; Kim, Min Jung; Salazar, Joren Jeico C.; Planckaert, Sören; Frère, Jean-Marie; Matagne, André; Kerff, Frédéric; Devreese, Bart; Loria, Rosemary; Rigali, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces scabies is an economically important plant pathogen well-known for damaging root and tuber crops by causing scab lesions. Thaxtomin A is the main causative agent responsible for the pathogenicity of S. scabies and cello-oligosaccharides are environmental triggers that induce the production of this phytotoxin. How cello-oligosaccharides are sensed or transported in order to induce the virulent behavior of S. scabies? Here we report that the cellobiose and cellotriose binding protein CebE, and MsiK, the ATPase providing energy for carbohydrates transport, are the protagonists of the cello-oligosaccharide mediated induction of thaxtomin production in S. scabies. Our work provides the first example where the transport and not the sensing of major constituents of the plant host is the central mechanism associated with virulence of the pathogen. Our results allow to draw a complete pathway from signal transport to phytotoxin production where each step of the cascade is controlled by CebR, the cellulose utilization regulator. We propose the high affinity of CebE to cellotriose as possible adaptation of S. scabies to colonize expanding plant tissue. Our work further highlights how genes associated with primary metabolism in nonpathogenic Streptomyces species have been recruited as basic elements of virulence in plant pathogenic species. PMID:27250236

  18. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistant to acaricides and ivermectin in cattle farms of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, Róger Iván; Pérez-Cogollo, Luis Carlos; Rosado-Aguilar, José Alberto; Ojeda-Chi, Melina Maribel; Trinidad-Martinez, Iris; Miller, Robert John; Li, Andrew Yongsheng; de León, Adalberto Pérez; Guerrero, Félix; Klafke, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and the diseases they transmit cause great economic losses to livestock in tropical countries. Non-chemical control alternatives include the use of resistant cattle breeds, biological control and vaccines. However, the most widely used method is the application of different chemical classes of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. Populations of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistant to organophosphates (OP), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), amitraz and fipronil have been reported in Mexico. Macrocyclic lactones are the most sold antiparasitic drug in the Mexican veterinary market. Ivermectin-resistant populations of R. (B.) microplus have been reported in Brazil, Uruguay and especially in Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan). Although ivermectin resistance levels in R. (B.) microplus from Mexico were generally low in most cases, some field populations of R. (B.) microplus exhibited high levels of ivermectin resistance. The CHPAT population showed a resistance ratio of 10.23 and 79.6 at lethal concentration of 50% and 99%, respectively. Many field populations of R. (B.) microplus are resistant to multiple classes of antiparasitic drugs, including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amitraz and ivermectin. This paper reports the current status of the resistance of R. (B.) microplus to acaricides, especially ivermectin, in Mexican cattle. PMID:25054487

  19. [Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) with chemicals acaricides used in the control of cattle tick].

    PubMed

    Barci, Leila A G; Wenzel, Inajá M; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess compatibility between IBCB66 and IBCB21 isolates of Beauveria bassiana and acaricides: Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Deltamethrin, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis, Cypermethrin and Amitraz, utilized on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in our country. The effect of commercial products on the isolates was assayed according to observation of vegetative growth, conidia production, and viability of strains of B. bassiana fungus. With concerning about IBCB66 isolate, products Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin High Cis and Amitraz were compatible, not affecting the entomopathogen development. Product Cypermethrin was toxic, and products Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos and Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis were very toxic. In regard to IBCB21 isolate, products Flumethrin+Coumaphos, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos+Cypermethrin High Cis and Cypermethrin were very toxic and product Amitraz was toxic. From the acaricides evaluated, product Deltamethrin was the single agent that did not produce toxic effect on the entomopathogen. PMID:20040194

  20. Silencing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced acaricide resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Zhang, Jiao; Shen, Guangmao; Xu, Zhifeng; Wei, Peng; Zhang, Yichao; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are involved in metabolic resistance to insecticides and require NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to transfer electrons when they catalyze oxidation reactions. The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest mite of crop and vegetable plants worldwide, and its resistance to acaricides has quickly developed. However, the role of CPR on the formation of acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus is still unclear. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding CPR was cloned and characterized from T. cinnabarinus (designated TcCPR). TcCPR expression was detectable in all developmental stages of T. cinnabarinus, but it’s much lower in eggs. TcCPR was up-regulated and more inducible with fenpropathrin treatment in the fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain compared with the susceptible SS strain. Feeding of double-strand RNA was effective in silencing the transcription of TcCPR in T. cinnabarinus, which resulted in decreasing the activity of P450s and increasing the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in the FeR strain but not in the susceptible strain. The current results provide first evidence that the down-regulation of TcCPR contributed to an increase of the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in resistant mites. TcCPR could be considered as a novel target for the development of new pesticides. PMID:26493678

  1. Direct effect of acaricides on pathogen loads and gene expression levels in honey bees Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Boncristiani, Humberto; Underwood, Robyn; Schwarz, Ryan; Evans, Jay D; Pettis, Jeffery; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2012-05-01

    The effect of using acaricides to control varroa mites has long been a concern to the beekeeping industry due to unintended negative impacts on honey bee health. Irregular ontogenesis, suppression of immune defenses, and impairment of normal behavior have been linked to pesticide use. External stressors, including parasites and the pathogens they vector, can confound studies on the effects of pesticides on the metabolism of honey bees. This is the case of Varroa destructor, a mite that negatively affects honey bee health on many levels, from direct parasitism, which diminishes honey bee productivity, to vectoring and/or activating other pathogens, including many viruses. Here we present a gene expression profile comprising genes acting on diverse metabolic levels (detoxification, immunity, and development) in a honey bee population that lacks the influence of varroa mites. We present data for hives treated with five different acaricides; Apiguard (thymol), Apistan (tau-fluvalinate), Checkmite (coumaphos), Miteaway (formic acid) and ApiVar (amitraz). The results indicate that thymol, coumaphos and formic acid are able to alter some metabolic responses. These include detoxification gene expression pathways, components of the immune system responsible for cellular response and the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and developmental genes. These could potentially interfere with the health of individual honey bees and entire colonies. PMID:22212860

  2. Acaricidal activity of aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles from Manilkara zapota against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2012-08-01

    Traditional parasite control is primarily based on the use of chemical acaricides, which unfortunately have many negative side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Manilkara zapota to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 421 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of AgNPs. SEM supports the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. Acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of M. zapota and synthesized AgNPs were carried out against R. (B.) microplus and the results showed the LC(50) values of 16.72 and 3.44 mg/L; r(2)=0.856 and 0.783), respectively. PMID:21906765

  3. Acaricidal activity of Juglans regia leaf extracts on Tetranychus viennensis and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y N; Shi, G L; Zhao, L L; Liu, S Q; Yu, T Q; Clarke, S R; Sun, J H

    2007-08-01

    Leaf extracts of the walnut, Juglans regia L., were evaluated under laboratory conditions to determine their acaricidal activity on the mites Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) and Tetranychus viennensis Zacher (Acari: Tetranychidae). Extracts had both contact and systemic toxicity to these mites. The four solvents tested for preparing crude extracts were petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Methanol was the most efficient solvent, with an extraction rate from 17.06 + 0.80 to 20.27 +/- 0.28%. Petroleum ether was the least effective solvent, with extraction rates from 2.30 +/- 0.13 to 2.71 +/- 0.13%. However, the crude extracts with petroleum ether resulted in the highest mite mortality (79.04 +/- 0.52%) in a slide dip bioassay. Mites mortalities from the concentrated extracts prepared by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, or distilled water were significantly lower than petroleum ether. The mean lethal concentrations (LC50) of the extracts from petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and distilled water to the two mite species were 0.73 +/- 0.04, 1.66 +/- 0.28, 4.96 +/- 0.35, 7.45 +/- 0.67, and 9.91 +/- 0.32 mg/ml, respectively. After liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, the concentrated extracts of petroleum ether were separated into eight fractions and tested for acaricidal activity. Fraction 6 produced significantly higher mite mortality rates than the other groups, killing approximately 90% of both species. PMID:17849883

  4. Reduced efficacy of commercial acaricides against populations of resistant cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus from two municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 µ...

  5. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition. PMID:24221889

  6. Laboratory evaluation of verbutin as a synergist of acaricides against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synergistic effects of verbutin, a member of aryl alkynyl derivatives, to three commonly used acaricides were evaluated with the modified Food and Agricultural Organization Larval Packet Test (FAO-LPT) against both susceptible and resistant strains of the southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilu...

  7. Acaricidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root-derived compounds and hydrodistillate constitutes toward Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Lee, Ju-Hee; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Young Su; Lee, Sang-Guie

    2016-04-01

    The acaricidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root-derived principles, methyleugenol, safrole, 3-carene, α-asarone, pentadecane and A. heterotropoides root steam distillate constituents was tested against poultry red mites Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer). All active principles were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). Methyleugenol (24 h LC50 = 0.57 µg/cm(2)) and safrole (24 h LC50 = 8.54 µg/cm(2)) were the most toxic compounds toward D. gallinae, followed by 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, estragole, α-terpineol, verbenone, eucarvone, linalool, and terpinen-4-ol (LC50 = 15.65-27.88 µg/cm(2)). Methyleugenol was 16.7× and 11.0× more toxic than benzyl benzoate (LC50 = 9.52 μg/cm(2)) and DEET (LC50 = 6.28 μg/cm(2)), respectively; safrole was 1.1× and 0.73× more toxic. Asarum heterotropoides root-derived materials, particularly methyleugenol and safrole, merit further study as potential acaricides. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in indoor environments justify further studies on A. heterotropoides root extract and steam distillate preparations containing the active constituents described as potential contact-action fumigants for the control of mites. PMID:26708137

  8. Immunomodulatory impression of anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines in relation to humoral immunity in human scabies.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aal, Amany Ahmed; Hassan, Marwa Adel; Gawdat, Heba Ismail; Ali, Meran Ahmed; Barakat, Manal

    2016-06-01

    The chief manifestations of scabies are mediated through hypersensitivity-like reactions and immune responses which are so far not well understood and remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of inflammatory cytokines in relation to humoral immunity in patients with scabies. Serum levels of total IgE, specific IgG, IL-10, IL-6, INF-γ, and TNF-α were investigated in a cross-sectional study including 37 patients with manifestations suggestive of scabies and serologically positive for anti-Sarcoptes IgG, in addition to 20 healthy controls. The median value of total IgE was 209 (range, 17-1219 IU/mL), reflecting its wide range within cases. IL-10 showed significant higher levels (287 ±: 139) in cases than in controls (17.4 ± 11.32). A positive correlation was reported between total IgE and severity of manifestations (r = 0.429, P <0.005). A significant positive correlation was observed between total IgE and both IgG and IL-6. On the contrary, a negative correlation was recorded between IL-6 and TNF-α which makes us suggested anti-inflammatory rather than pro-inflammatory effect of IL-6. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and severity of manifestations, specific IgG, total IgE, and INF-γ. Therefore, the current study theorized a regulatory role of IL-10 in inflammatory responses of scabietic patients suggesting further future analysis of its therapeutic potential. PMID:26813861

  9. Comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is found worldwide among people of all groups and ages. It is curable with scabicide medications. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies. In total, 148 patients with scabies were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 sg/kg body weight, and the second was treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between applications. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 60.8% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.1% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications oflindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 47.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 72.9% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeat treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow-up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against the parasite at all stages in the life cycle. PMID:25632646

  10. First report of fluazuron resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus: a field tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza

    2014-03-17

    The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil. PMID:24560364

  11. Scabin, a Novel DNA-acting ADP-ribosyltransferase from Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Bronwyn; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Lanoue, Jason; Lugo, Miguel R; Dutta, Debajyoti; Carlin, Stephanie; Merrill, A Rod

    2016-05-20

    A bioinformatics strategy was used to identify Scabin, a novel DNA-targeting enzyme from the plant pathogen 87.22 strain of Streptomyces scabies Scabin shares nearly 40% sequence identity with the Pierisin family of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins. Scabin was purified to homogeneity as a 22-kDa single-domain enzyme and was shown to possess high NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (Km (NAD) = 68 ± 3 μm; kcat = 94 ± 2 min(-1)) activity with an RSQXE motif; it was also shown to target deoxyguanosine and showed sigmoidal enzyme kinetics (K0.5(deoxyguanosine) = 302 ± 12 μm; kcat = 14 min(-1)). Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Scabin labels the exocyclic amino group on guanine bases in either single-stranded or double-stranded DNA. Several small molecule inhibitors were identified, and the most potent compounds were found to inhibit the enzyme activity with Ki values ranging from 3 to 24 μm PJ34, a well known inhibitor of poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, was shown to be the most potent inhibitor of Scabin. Scabin was crystallized, representing the first structure of a DNA-targeting mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme; the structures of the apo-form (1.45 Å) and with two inhibitors (P6-E, 1.4 Å; PJ34, 1.6 Å) were solved. These x-ray structures are also the first high resolution structures of the Pierisin subgroup of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin family. A model of Scabin with its DNA substrate is also proposed. PMID:27002155

  12. Isolation and characterization of two types of actinophages infecting Streptomyces scabies MR13.

    PubMed

    el-Sayed, A el-S; el-Didamony, G; Mansour, K

    2002-01-01

    Two types of actinophages, phi S and phi L, were isolated from soil samples by using Streptomyces scabies MR13, a potato scab pathogen, as an indicator strain. The phages were partially characterized according to their physicochemical properties, plaques and particles morphology and their host-range. The host-range of these phages was narrow for phi S and wide for phi L. The adsorption rate constants of the phi S and phi L were 3.44 x 10(-9) and 3.18 x 10(-9) ml/min, and their burst sizes were 1.61 and 3.75 virions, respectively. One-step growth indicated that phi S and phi L have a latent period of 30 min followed by a rise period of 30 min. The temperate character of these phages was tested in other isolates of Streptomyces. Four of the phages (phi SS3, phi SS12, phi SS13 and phi SS17) were identified as temperate phages, since they were able to lysogenize SS3, SS12, SS13 and SS17. phi SS3, phi SS12 and phi SS13 were homoimmune, and they were heteroimmune with respect to phi SS17. The restriction barriers of lysogenic isolates (SS12, SS13 and SS17) interfered with the blockage of plaques formation by phages (phi SS12, phi SS13 or phi SS17) propagated on them, about 75% of lysogenic isolates had restriction systems. The exposure of the lysogenic isolates (SS12, SS13 and SS17) to UV-irradiation prevented the possible restriction barriers of these isolates, and these barriers could be overcome. PMID:12512256

  13. Isolation and characterization of two types of actinophage infecting Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    el-Sayed, el-S A; el-Didamony, G; Mansour, K

    2001-01-01

    Two types of actinophages, phi S and phi L, were isolated from soil samples by using Streptomyces scabies, a potato scab pathogen, as indicator strain. The phages were partially characterized according to their physicochemical properties, plaques and particles morphology, and their host range; this varied from narrow (for phi S) to wide (for phi L). The adsorption rate constants of the phi S and phi L were 3.44 and 3.18 pL/min, and their burst sizes were 1.61 and 3.75 virions per mL, respectively. One-step growth indicated that phi S and phi L have a latent period of 1/2 h followed by a rise period of 1/2 h. The temperate character of these phages was tested in other isolates of Streptomyces. Four of the phages (phi SS3, phi SS12, phi SS13 and phi SS17) were identified as temperate phages, since they were able to lysogenize SS3, SS12, SS13 and SS17. phi SS3, phi SS12 and phi SS13 were homoimmune, and they were heteroimmune with respect to phi SS17. The restriction barriers of lysogenic isolates (SS12, SS13 and SS17) interfered with the blockage of plaque formation by phages (phi SS12, phi SS13 or phi SS17) propagated on them, about 75% of lysogenic isolates had restriction systems. The exposure of the lysogenic isolates (SS12, SS13 and SS17) to UV-irradiation prevented the possible restriction barriers of these isolates so that these barriers could be overcome. PMID:11898342

  14. Identification of auto-antigens in skin scrapings from scabies-infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Zalunardo, M; Cargill, C F; Sandeman, R M

    2006-09-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei continues to cause major health and economic problems in a large range of animals and humans. Although the inflammatory response to the mite and its antigens is known to cause the main pathology, little work has been carried out on this response at the site of infection. This report presents an initial analysis of the proteins found in skin scrapings and their antigenic responsiveness in pigs. Skin scrapings and mite extracts were isolated from chronically infected sows while infected and uninfected sera were isolated from pigs with confirmed infections or mange-free pigs, respectively. Electrophoresis and sequencing confirmed the main components of both the skin and mite extracts to be serum proteins. Immunoblotting then suggested that transferrin was the major antigen recognised by pooled infected sera in the skin and the mite extracts. Immunoassays confirmed that a majority of infected pigs produced antibodies to transferrin while mange-free pigs did not. A pool of IgG from infected dogs was then used to isolate another antigen from pig skin scrapings which was shown to be haptoglobin. This was also found to induce high titres of antibody in infected pigs as compared with mange-free pigs. The use of albumin as a control antigen showed no reactivity in either group of sera. The finding of two iron-binding molecules as strong auto-antigens in pig scabies has implications for the importance of iron during this infection and may help to explain the persistence and magnitude of the host inflammatory response. PMID:16842794

  15. Tick repellents and acaricides of botanical origin: a green roadmap to control tick-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Arthropods are dangerous vectors of agents of deadly diseases, which may hit as epidemics or pandemics in the increasing world population of humans and animals. Among them, ticks transmit more pathogen species than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide. Thus, the effective and eco-friendly control of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. A number of novel routes have been attempted to prevent and control tick-borne diseases, including the development of (i) vaccines against viruses vectored by ticks; (ii) pheromone-based control tools, with special reference to the "lure and kill" techniques; (iii) biological control programmes relying on ticks' natural enemies and pathogens; and (iv) the integrated pest management practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock. However, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remains the two most effective and ready-to-use strategies. Unfortunately, the first one is limited by the rapid development of resistance in ticks, as well as by serious environmental concerns. On the other hand, the exploitation of plants as sources of effective tick repellents is often promising. Here, we reviewed current knowledge concerning the effectiveness of plant extracts as acaricides or repellents against tick vectors of public health importance, with special reference to Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes persulcatus, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. Eighty-three plant species from 35 botanical families were selected. The most frequent botanical families exploited as sources of acaricides and repellents against ticks were Asteraceae (15 % of the selected studies), Fabaceae (9 %), Lamiaceae (10 %), Meliaceae (5 %), Solanaceae (6

  16. Action of the insect growth regulator fluazuron, the active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak®, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; De Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fluazuron (active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak®) and its effects on Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits exposed to different doses of this insect growth regulator. Three different doses of fluazuron (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg) were applied on the back of hosts (via "pour on"), while distilled water was applied to the Control group. On the first day of treatment with fluazuron (24 h), hosts were artificially infested with R. sanguineus nymphs. Once fully engorged, nymphs were removed and placed in identified Petri dishes in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) incubator for 7 days. After this period, engorged nymphs were processed for ultramorphological analysis. The results revealed alterations in the ultramorphology of many chitinous structures (smaller hypostome and chelicerae, less sclerotized scutum, fewer sensilla, fewer pores, absence of grooves, marginal and cervical strips and festoons in the body, even the anal plaque was damaged) that play essential roles for the survivor of ticks and that can compromise the total or partial development of nymphs and emergence of adults after periodic molting. Our findings confirm the efficacy of fluazuron, a more specific and less aggressive chemical to the environment and human health, and that does not induce resistance, in nymphs of the tick R. sanguineus in artificially infested rabbits treated with this arthropod growth regulator (AGR), indicating that it could be used in the control of this stage of the biological cycle of the tick R. sanguineus. PMID:24000046

  17. Sperm viability and gene expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) following exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid and the organophosphate Acaricide Coumaphos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee population declines are a global concern. Numerous factors appear to cause the decline including parasites, pathogens, malnutrition and pesticides. Residues of the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, widely used to combat Varroa mites and for...

  18. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luciana G; Barbieri, Fábio S; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35-76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate (OP) associations (68.91-81.47%) and amidine (51.35-100%). For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the milbemycin (94.84-100%) was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21-100%) and the avermectins (81.34-100%). The phenylpyrazole (PZ) group had similar efficacy (99.90%) to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed. PMID:21547224

  19. Integrated control of acaricide-resistant Boophilus microplus populations on grazing cattle in Mexico using vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments.

    PubMed

    Redondo, M; Fragoso, H; Ortíz, M; Montero, C; Lona, J; Medellín, J A; Fría, R; Hernández, V; Franco, R; Machado, H; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-10-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, tick infestations on cattle have been controlled with chemical acaricides, typically administered by dipping or spraying. This approach can cause environmental and residue problems and has created a high incidence of acaricide resistance within tick populations in the field. Recently we developed a vaccine against Boophilus microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac), (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) which has been shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals. Here we show for the first time under field conditions a near 100% control of B. microplus populations resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates, by an integrated system employing vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments. This method effectively controls tick infestations while reducing the number of chemical acaricide treatments and consequently the rise of B. microplus populations resistant to chemical acaricides. PMID:10581714

  20. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum caribaeum against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jeane; Vinturelle, Rafaelle; Mattos, Camila; Tietbohl, Luis Armando Candido; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Junior, Itabajara Silva Vaz; Mourão, Samanta Cardozo; Rocha, Leandro; Folly, Evelize

    2014-09-01

    Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lamarck (Rutaceae) is plant species with a variety of medical applications, including insecticidal activity. This study determined the bioacaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) females using the adult immersion test. For this purpose, three serial concentrations (5.0, 2.5, and 1.25%, vol:vol, in 1% dimetilsulfoxide) of the essential oil were used. Essential oil 5% caused 65% mortality on the first day after treatment, 85% on the second day, and 100% mortality by the fifth day. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against cattle ticks. PMID:25276925

  1. Acaricidal activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from three Piper species.

    PubMed

    de B F Ferraz, Alexandre; Balbino, João Marcio; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz; Ribeiro, Vera Lucia S; Bordignon, Sérgio A L; von Poser, Gilsane

    2010-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Piper amalago, Piper mikanianum, and Piper xylosteoides was elucidated by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analyses. P. mikanianum and P. xylosteoides essential oils presented phenylpropanoids as their main compounds (67.89% and 48.53%, respectively) whereas P. amalago was rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (84.95%). The essential oils obtained were investigated for their effect on newly hatched larvae of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The essential oil of P. mikanianum (LC(50) 2.33 microL/mL) was more active than that of P. xylosteoides (LC(50) 6.15 microL/mL) against the larvae, while the oil of P. amalago was inactive. These results suggest that phenylpropanoids, mainly apiol and safrole, are responsible for the acaricidal activity. PMID:20428889

  2. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks. PMID:25199555

  3. Acaricidal effects of quinone and its congeners and color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. with quinone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2007-08-01

    Acaricidal activity of the active constituent derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus was examined and compared with that of the commercial benzyl benzoate. The LD50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the aqueous extract of P ussuriensis fruits was 9.51 and 8.59 microg/cm3 against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, respectively. The active constituent was identified as quinone by spectroscopic analyses. On the basis of LD50 values with quinone and its congeners, the compound most toxic against D. farinae was quinone (1.19 microg/cm3), followed by quinaldine (1.46), benzyl benzoate (9.32), 4-quinolinol (86.55), quinine (89.16), and 2-quinolinol (91.13). Against D. pteronyssinus, these were quinone (1.02 microg/ cm3), followed by quinaldine (1.29), benzyl benzoate (8.54), 4-quinolinol (78.63), quinine (82.33), and 2-quinolinol (86.24). These results indicate that the acaricidal activity of the aqueous extracts can be mostly attributed to quinone. Quinone was about 7.8 and 8.4 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. Additionally, quinaldine was about 6.4 and 6.6 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, respectively. Furthermore, the skin color of the dust mites was changed from colorless-transparent to dark brown-black by the treatment of quinone. These results indicate that quinone can be very useful as potential control agents, lead compounds, or the indicator of house dust mites. PMID:18051611

  4. Regulation of Coronafacoyl Phytotoxin Production by the PAS-LuxR Family Regulator CfaR in the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

  5. Regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by the PAS-LuxR family regulator CfaR in the common scab pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2015-01-01

    Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

  6. In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikant; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, K G Ajith; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-08-01

    In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed. PMID:26267092

  7. Altemicidin, a new acaricidal and antitumor substance. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and physico-chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, A; Kurasawa, S; Ikeda, D; Okami, Y; Takeuchi, T

    1989-11-01

    Screening of new insecticidal and acaricidal antibiotics was carried out with reference to anti-brine shrimp activity from actinomycete strains isolated from marine environments. Of 200 actinomycete isolates, one isolate was found to produce a new substance, altemicidin. The strain was isolated from sea mud collected at Gamo, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, and identified as Streptomyces sioyaensis SA-1758. Altemicidin was purified by Diaion CHP-20P and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. The molecular formula was determined as C13H20N4O7S by elemental analysis, MS and 13C NMR spectrum. Altemicidin showed not only acaricidal activity but also antitumor activity. The compound showed no antimicrobial activity except the inhibitory activity to Xanthomonas strains. PMID:2584137

  8. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from five endemic conifers of New Caledonia on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hue, Thomas; Hnawia, Edouard; Lesaffre, Leïla; Menut, Chantal; Nour, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from endemic conifers of New Caledonia in the context of the development of natural alternatives. Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from resin and heartwood of five endemic conifers of New Caledonia (Araucaria columnaris, Agathis moorei, Agathis ovata, Callitris sulcata, and Neocallitropsis pancheri) was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using the Larval Packal Test bioassay. A first screening with 5% dilute solution was carried out and the oils with 100% of mortality at this rate were diluted until no activity was shown. The heartwood oils of the two Cupressaceae were the most active with LC50 value of 0.65% for C. sulcata and 0.55% for N. pancheri while resin oil of A. columnaris (LC50=1.62%) was the most active of the Araucariaceae family. Negative control (ethanol) was not toxic to the larvae. The chemical composition of essential oil from resin of A. columnaris was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil was characterized by high level of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes and was composed mainly of aromadendrene (23.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (16.0%). In order to compare different plant resources in a sustainable program of natural acaricide, an "essential oil efficiency EOE" can be measured as the ratio between the yield of extraction and LC50 value. This study shows that A. columnaris (EOE=2.36) and N. pancheri (EOE=3.51) could provide valuable and effective natural acaricides for control of the cattle tick R. microplus. PMID:23371495

  9. Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.

    PubMed

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed. PMID:22020517

  10. Lethal and Sublethal Impacts of Acaricides on Tamarixia radiata (Hemiptera: Eulophidae), an Important Ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Lira, A C S; Zanardi, O Z; Beloti, V H; Bordini, G P; Yamamoto, P T; Parra, J R P; Carvalho, G A

    2015-10-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) in biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus orchards. We evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to T. radiata. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (mortality >77%) to T. radiata. Abamectin, diflubenzuron, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, propargite, spirodiclofen, and sulfur caused low acute toxicity and affected the parasitism rate and emergence rate of adults (F1 generation), and were considered slightly harmful to T. radiata. Dicofol and pyridaben did not affect the survival and action of the ectoparasitoid, and were considered harmless. In addition to its acute toxicity, carbosulfan caused mortality higher than 25% for >30 d after application, and was considered persistent. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, and sulfur caused mortalities over 25% until 24 d after application and were considered moderately persistent; abamectin was slightly persistent, and fenbutatin oxide was short lived. Our results suggest that most acaricides used to control pest mites in citrus affect the density and efficacy of T. radiata in the biological control of D. citri. However, further evaluations are needed in order to determine the effect of these products on this ectoparasitoid under field conditions. PMID:26453716