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Sample records for acaricide exposed scabies

  1. Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

    2010-01-01

    Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

  2. Scabies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Apply once daily for 5 consecutive days. Precipitated sulfur (5% or 10%) – This is prepared with petroleum ... Scabies. http://www.cdc.gov/scabies/index.html. Modified November 10, 2008. Accessed March 11, 2009. Bolognia, ...

  3. Scabies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Human scabies is caused by ... Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms of the disease... ...

  4. Scabies.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Scabies is a contagious skin infestation caused by a mite. It causes significant global morbidity, with an estimated 300 million cases annually. Although it can affect individuals at any socioeconomic level, individuals who live in poverty or in overcrowded conditions are at much higher risk for scabies. Lack of local expertise can result in failure to recognize scabies, leading to delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment of cases and contacts. Scabies disproportionately affects many Indigenous (First Nations, Inuit, Métis) communities where risk factors are present. Scabies risk is also higher in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Institutional outbreaks of scabies have also been reported. Apart from a very itchy rash, scabies can lead to secondary bacterial infections and related complications, as well as to stigmatization, depression, insomnia and significant financial costs. Topical antiscabies lotions are still the mainstay of treatment, but oral ivermectin has also proven effective under certain circumstances. Asymptomatic and symptomatic household members should all be treated at the same time. In Canada and globally, the presence of scabies is usually a symptom of poor living conditions and a sign that basic necessities need improvement. Clinicians who work with Indigenous communities can improve their ability to diagnose and treat scabies, and should advocate for better living conditions where scabies is prevalent. PMID:26527041

  5. Scabies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... live on or in the skin of a human being, and any human being will do. Scabies mites (so tiny they need ... live for 2 to 3 days away from human skin. So while it can be tempting, try ... your family is being treated for scabies, all other household members should ...

  6. Scabies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... frequent skin-to-skin contact between people. Hospitals, child-care centers, and nursing homes are examples. Scabies can easily infect sex partners and other household members. Sharing clothes, towels, ...

  7. Scabies Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Diagnosis of a scabies infestation usually is made based ... and the presence of burrows. Whenever possible, the diagnosis of scabies should be confirmed by identifying the ...

  8. Scabies Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... the top layers of skin and deposits its eggs. The rash that results from scabies is actually ...

  9. Scabies: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On this Page Suggested ... Cases Publications Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  10. Scabies: Who Gets and Causes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and treatments Q - T Scabies Who gets, causes Scabies: Who gets and causes Who gets scabies? Anyone can get scabies. Because skin-to-skin ... symptoms for 2 to 6 weeks. What causes scabies? The human itch mite causes scabies. People get ...

  11. Scabies: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for scabies. How do dermatologists treat scabies? To get rid of scabies, treatment is essential. Medicine that treats ... the redness, swelling, and itch. Outcome Treatment can get rid of the mites, eliminate symptoms such as itch, ...

  12. Scabies: Tips for Managing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sebaceous carcinoma Seborrheic dermatitis Seborrheic keratoses Shingles Skin cancer Squamous cell ... Washing clothes, bedding, and towels is necessary to get rid of the mites that cause scabies. The mite ...

  13. Scabies: Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease When a person is ... reaction) to the proteins and feces of the parasite. Severe itching (pruritus), especially at night, is the ...

  14. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control When a person ... Cases Publications Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Salmonellosis (Nontyphoidal) Chapter 3 - Schistosomiasis Scabies Diana L. Martin ... 2009 May;7(3):125–46. Chapter 3 - Salmonellosis (Nontyphoidal) Chapter 3 - Schistosomiasis File Formats Help: How ...

  16. A case of crusted scabies combined with bullous scabies

    PubMed Central

    SU, WEN-JING; FANG, SHENG; CHEN, AI-JUN; SHAN, KUI

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious skin disease that causes extremely itching. It is a parasitic disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and characterized by polymorphous lesions. Vesicular and bullous lesions in cases of scabies are rather rare. Bullous scabies has a pemphigoid presentation. Crusted scabies, also known as Norwegian scabies, is a rare and severe form of the disease. The large number of mites present in and on the skin cause scabies to be highly contagious. The present study reports a case of crusted scabies combined with bullous scabies, the clinical and histopathological manifestations of which mimicked those of bullous pemphigoid. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence test results were negative. Bullae recurred and persisted despite systemic corticosteroids and antihistamine medication. The patient was successfully treated with 10% sulfur cream and remained free of recurrence during the 12 months of follow-up. Differential diagnosis with bullous pemphigoid and the mechanism of formation of bullae are also discussed. PMID:26622520

  17. Scabies (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rid of all the mites. Also trim your child's fingernails and scrape off any dirt that's on the fingertips, and put medicine on the fingertips as well. After applying the cream, don't wash your own hands — scabies mites love the area between the fingers! You may want ...

  18. Treatment of scabies: newer perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, K

    2005-01-01

    Scabies is a common dermatological problem managed by general physicians, family physicians, and dermatologists. Scabies manifests itself in various forms in different individuals. The treatment of scabies has undergone developments with the evolution of new treatment strategies and antiectoparasitic drugs. The advent of drugs such as permethrin and ivermectin has revolutionised treatment. Management of scabies not only includes prescribing the drugs but also educating patients properly about the method of application of the drug. Treatment failures may result for various reasons and must be managed appropriately. PMID:15640423

  19. Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... one application or dose, then the 2-4 time period begins after the last application or dose), retreatment with scabicide may be necessary; seek the advice of a physician. Back To Top Did I get scabies from my pet? No. Animals do not spread human scabies. Pets can become infested with a different ...

  20. Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental in vivo evidence supporting previous assumptions that establishment of pathogens follow scabies infection. Our findings provide an explanation for a biologically important aspect of the disease pathogenesis. The methods developed from this pig trial will serve as a guide to analyze human clinical samples. Studies building on this will offer implications for development of novel intervention strategies against the mites and the secondary infections. PMID:24875186

  1. Scabies in the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Suwandhi, Pauline; Dharmarajan, T S

    2015-01-01

    Scabies infection is antediluvian and ubiquitous both in developing and developed countries, yet often neglected. Scabies has a predilection to infect vulnerable subsets of population in crowding conditions, typically applicable to residents in the nursing home. The mite incites a unique immunological response from human hosts. Scabies does not manifest as a singular skin condition and may present atypically in older adults, the majority of nursing home residents, where delay has deleterious consequences. Further, pruritus or itching, the hallmark of scabies infection, is a common complaint from a variety of causes among older adults. Hence, the diagnosis is often delayed or missed. There are several pharmacological treatment options; long-term care practitioners need to understand the characteristics of each agent before selection. Even more relevant is the importance of nonpharmacological aspects of management, crucial in the success of averting spread or outbreaks in long-term care settings. PMID:25416848

  2. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  3. [Scabies as an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-03-01

    Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). It is mainly transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact. The spread of scabies can cause major difficulties in healthcare institutions, particularly in residential homes for the elderly. The disease is characterized by intense nocturnal itching, erythematous papules arranged in a linear order, and scratching resulting in excoriations. The diagnosis is confirmed by identification of the mite or by finding one or more mite tunnels in the skin. An individually occurring case does not need to be reported. If two or more cases occur in the same institution, the company physician and the appropriate public health department are to be informed in Germany. In case of a suspected scabies infection in medical personnel due to exposure in their work setting, medical notification to the statutory occupational accidents' insurance (Nr. 3101) is to be issued in accordance with § 202, Volume VII of the German Social Code. First line treatment is topical therapy with 5?% permethrin. If scabies control is required in an institution, systemic treatment with ivermectin may be considered. In the case of a scabies outbreak, all patients, contact persons, and staff must be treated simultaneously. PMID:25676574

  4. Pediculosis and scabies: treatment update.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Karen; Pippitt, Karly; Kiraly, Bernadette; Sayler, Morgan

    2012-09-15

    Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A "no nit" policy for schools and day care centers no longer is recommended because nits can persist after successful treatment with no risk of transmission. First-line pharmacologic treatment of pediculosis is permethrin 1% lotion or shampoo. Multiple novel treatments have shown limited evidence of effectiveness superior to permethrin. Wet combing is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment option. Finding pubic lice should prompt an evaluation for other sexually transmitted infections. Body lice infestation should be suspected when a patient with poor hygiene presents with pruritus. Washing affected clothing and bedding is essential if lice infestation is found, but no other environmental decontamination is necessary. Scabies in adults is recognized as a pruritic, papular rash with excoriations in a typical distribution pattern. In infants, children, and immunocompromised adults, the rash also can be vesicular, pustular, or nodular. First-line treatment of scabies is topical permethrin 5% cream. Clothing and bedding of persons with scabies should be washed in hot water and dried in a hot dryer. PMID:23062045

  5. Policy Decisions in Scabies Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, James A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In a Kansas elementary school, an outbreak of scabies was discovered by the school nurse. Through cooperative planning with the local health department, the infected children were excluded from school pending medical treatment, and a screening program was set up for the entire student population. (JN)

  6. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in Rhipicephalus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricide resistance has become widespread in countries where cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, are a problem. Resistance arises through genetic changes in a cattle tick population that causes modifications to the target site, increased metabolism or sequestration of the acaricide, ...

  7. Dealing with Scabies in a Hospital Ward.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    A case of scabies has been diagnosed in the Medical Ward where Sophie works, and the hospital is having to take appropriate measures. Scabies mites can spread quickly, and staff who are in contact with the infected patient risk catching the parasites and contaminating their own family in turn. One of the night nurses is probably infected. PMID:26365648

  8. Acaricidal activity of extracts from Ligularia virgaurea against the Sarcoptes scabiei mite in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LUO, BIAO; LIAO, FEI; HU, YANCHUN; LIU, XI; HE, YAJUN; WU, LEI; TAN, HUI; LUO, LIJUAN; ZHOU, YANCHENG; MO, QUAN; DENG, JUNLIANG; WEI, YAHUI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the acaricidal activity of Ligularia virgaurea. An extract was prepared by refluxing with ethanol and steam distillation, and its toxic effect was tested in vitro against Sarcoptes scabiei. The data from the toxicity tests were analyzed using a complementary log-log (CLL) model. The ethanol extract exhibited strong acaricidal activity against these mites; at a concentration of 2 g/ml it killed all S. scabiei within 2 h and at 1 g/ml it killed all S. scabiei within 6 h. Similarly, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml concentrations of the extract had strong toxicity against S. scabiei, with median lethal time (LT50) values of 0.716, 1.741, 2.968 and 4.838 h, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 1.388, 0.624, 0.310 and 0.213 g/ml for Scabies mite in 1, 2, 4 and 6 h, respectively. The results indicate that the L. virgaurea extract has strong acaricidal activity and may be exploited as a novel treatment for the effective control of acariasis in animals. PMID:26170943

  9. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) ... Cases Publications Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  10. Scabies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cream is there, too. If you leave any spaces uncovered, the mites will go there and start all over. To help with the itching, the doctor may suggest certain medicines your parent can get at the drugstore. Itching ...

  11. Scabies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adult Medicine and the Division of Gynecology at Boston Children’s Hospital. The Center is an educational entity ... Youtube © 1998-2015 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  12. Scabies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resource Center Join the AAD Boards study tools Online Learning Center Meetings and events AAD publications Make a difference Career planning Residents & Fellows Community Media Relations Toolkit Dermatology issues in the news Background materials Customized press ...

  13. Efficacy of spinosad against acaricide-resistant and -susceptible Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and acaricide-susceptible Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various acaricide-resistant strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, representative of the major resistance mechanisms found in Mexico and Brazil were exposed to spinosad using the FAO-Larval Packet Test and FAO-Adult Immersion Test (AIT). Larvae of all strains tested were found to be suscep...

  14. [Crusted scabies induced by topical corticosteroids: A case report].

    PubMed

    Bilan, P; Colin-Gorski, A-M; Chapelon, E; Sigal, M-L; Mahé, E

    2015-12-01

    The frequency of scabies is increasing in France. Crusted (or Norwegian) scabies is a very contagious form of scabies because of the huge number of mites in the skin. It is observed in patients suffering from immunodepression, motor or sensory deficiency, or mental retardation. The clinical presentation, except for the classic manifestation of scabies, is characterized by crusted lesions. Treatment is not easy and requires hospitalization. Topical corticosteroids are frequently used for children's dermatological diseases. Their long-term and inappropriate application in an infested scabies child can induce crusted scabies. We report on a case of an 8-year-old boy who developed crusted scabies induced by topical corticosteroid application. We discuss the therapeutic aspects of this severe form of scabies. PMID:26459132

  15. Past, Present, and Future of Chemical Acaricides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been many different acaricides and acaricide formulations used throughout the history of tick control. Originally, various mixtures of crude oil, lard, sulfur, and kerosene were used for dipping livestock. This was followed by Beaumont crude oil. Arsenical dips were introduced in 1911 and...

  16. In vitro acaricidal activity of 1,8-cineole against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi and regulating effects on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhenzhen; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Su, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2015-08-01

    1,8-Cineole found in many essential oils is a monoterpene and acts as a repellent against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of 1,8-cineole against S. scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated and the acaricidal mechanism was also investigated by assaying enzyme activities. The results showed that the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) value (95% confidence limit (CL)) and the lethal time of 50% (LT50) value (95% CL) of 1,8-cineole were 2.77 mg/mL and 3.606 h, respectively. The pathological changes under transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the mitochondria was abnormal, the cell nuclear membrane was damaged, and the nuclear chromatin was dissoluted. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs), monoamine oxidase (MAO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were significantly changed after treatment with 1,8-cineole for 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. SOD and GSTs are associated with the protection mechanism of scabies mites. And, the activities of SOD and GSTs were increased as compared with the control group. MAO, AChE, and NOS are associated with the nervous system of scabies mites. The activity of MAO was increased whereas the AChE was suppressed. The activity of NOS was suppressed in the high-dose group whereas increased in the middle-dose group and low-dose group. These results indicated that the mechanism of 1,8-cineole mainly attributed to the changes of these enzyme activities related to the nervous system of scabies mites. PMID:25924796

  17. Control Strategies for Endemic Childhood Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Human scabies is a major global public health issue, with an estimated 300 million cases per year worldwide. Prevalence rates are particularly high in many third-world regions and within various indigenous communities in developed countries. Infestation with Sarcoptes Scabiei is associated with group-A streptococcal pyoderma which in turn predisposes to rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and their respective long-term sequelae: rheumatic heart disease and chronic renal insufficiency. The documented difficulties inherent in achieving scabies control within affected communities have motivated us to develop a network-dependent Monte-Carlo model of the scabies contagion, with the dual aims of gaining insight into its dynamics, and in determining the effects of various treatment strategies. Here we show that scabies burden is adversely affected by increases in average network degree, prominent network clustering, and by a person-to-person transmissibility of greater magnitude. We demonstrate that creating a community-specific model allows for the determination of an effective treatment protocol that can satisfy any pre-defined target prevalence. We find frequent low-density treatment protocols are inherently advantageous in comparison with infrequent mass screening and treatment regimes: prevalence rates are lower when compared with protocols that administer the same number of treatments over a given time interval less frequently, and frequent low-density treatment protocols have economic, practical and public acceptance advantages that may facilitate their long-term implementation. This work demonstrates the importance of stochasticity, community structure and the heterogeneity of individuals in influencing the dynamics of the human scabies contagion, and provides a practical method for investigating the outcomes of various intervention strategies. PMID:21283575

  18. The Potential for a Blood Test for Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Arlian, Larry G.; Feldmeier, Hermann; Morgan, Marjorie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies afflicts millions of people worldwide, but it is very difficult to diagnose by the usual skin scrape test, and a presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical signs such as rash and intense itch. A sensitive and specific blood test to detect scabies would allow a physician to quickly make a correct diagnosis. Objective Our objective was to profile the mite-specific antibodies present in the sera of patients with ordinary scabies. Methods Sera of 91 patients were screened for Ig, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM antibodies to S. scabiei, as well as to the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei. Results 45%, 27% and 2.2% of the patients had measurable amounts of mixed Ig, IgG and IgE that recognized scabies mite antigens. However, 73.6% of the scabies patients had serum IgM that recognized scabies proteins, and all except two of them also had IgM that recognized all of the three species of dust mites. No patient had serum antibody exclusively reactive to scabies mite antigens. Conclusions Co-sensitization or cross-reactivity between antigens from scabies and house dust mites confounds developing a blood test for scabies. PMID:26492406

  19. Scabies and Global Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2015-12-10

    In 1991, Taplin et al. published a seminal study from Panama showing that mass drug administration of the then newly available permethrin cream dramatically reduced the high rates of endemic scabies in island communities.(1) In this issue of the Journal, Romani and colleagues report the results of the Skin Health Intervention Fiji Trial (SHIFT),(2) which confirm the efficacy of mass administration of topical permethrin for scabies control. However, in their elegant randomized study involving island communities in Fiji, they also found that mass administration of oral ivermectin had superior effectiveness for scabies control. This study is timely, because scabies . . . PMID:26650157

  20. An elderly long-term care resident with crusted scabies

    PubMed Central

    Sandre, Matthew; Ralevski, Filip; Rau, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a highly contagious form of scabies. Altered immune response, nutritional deficiencies and modified host response are all risk factors for crusted scabies. The authors report a case involving a patient found to have a chronic maculopapular, erythematous rash with large hyperkeratotic, white and grey plaques on the soles of both feet. An ultimate diagnosis of crusted scabies was reached after a delay in diagnosis suspected to be caused by the similarity in appearance to more common skin conditions such as psoriasis. After topical permethrin was unsuccessful, intermittent dosing of oral ivermectin resulted in a rapid reduction in cutaneous plaques. PMID:25798153

  1. An elderly long-term care resident with crusted scabies.

    PubMed

    Sandre, Matthew; Ralevski, Filip; Rau, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a highly contagious form of scabies. Altered immune response, nutritional deficiencies and modified host response are all risk factors for crusted scabies. The authors report a case involving a patient found to have a chronic maculopapular, erythematous rash with large hyperkeratotic, white and grey plaques on the soles of both feet. An ultimate diagnosis of crusted scabies was reached after a delay in diagnosis suspected to be caused by the similarity in appearance to more common skin conditions such as psoriasis. After topical permethrin was unsuccessful, intermittent dosing of oral ivermectin resulted in a rapid reduction in cutaneous plaques. PMID:25798153

  2. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected. PMID:8801016

  3. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected. PMID:8801016

  4. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during transit. 73.8 Section...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a)...

  5. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during transit. 73.8 Section...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a)...

  6. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during transit. 73.8 Section...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a)...

  7. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during transit. 73.8 Section...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during transit. 73.8 Section...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a)...

  9. May/June 1999 Acaricide Residues Ebelift-Barrel Handler

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    May/June 1999 Acaricide Residues Ebelift-Barrel Handler Beeswax Acaricides UC Videos and Slides Bee Kills Imported Fire Ant Internet Apitherapy Course Acaricide Residues Beekeepers have been putting, the beeswax in the brood chambers contained the greatest residues. Some residues were found in the wax

  10. Caffeine, a naturally occurring acaricide.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W; Fernández-Caldas, E; Swanson, M C; Seleznick, M J; Trudeau, W L; Lockey, R F

    1991-01-01

    Since caffeine is a plant alkaloid that has been described as a naturally occurring insecticide, its acaricidal effect on Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) was investigated. Twelve cultures were established by adding 30 Dp to 200 mg of Tetramin fish food and brewer's yeast (8:2 ratio); six cultures were treated with 20 mg of finely ground caffeine. All 12 cultures were incubated at 75% relative humidity, 25 degrees C, and observed during 8 weeks. Live mites were then counted under a stereoscope, cultures were extracted, and supernatants were analyzed for Der p I and Der f I allergen content with a two-site monoclonal RIA. Live mite counts in untreated cultures varied from 146 to 274 (215 +/- 47.1), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 0 to 3 (1 +/- 1.2; p less than or equal to 0.0001). Der p I concentrations in untreated cultures varied from 588 to 9000 ng/gm (3138.3 +/- 2990.8 ng/gm), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 52 to 117 ng/gm (78 +/- 23.8 ng/gm; p less than or equal to 0.01). Der p I was not detected in the food media or caffeine; Der f I was not detected in any of the cultures. Results demonstrate that caffeine inhibits mite growth and allergen production. PMID:1991914

  11. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

  12. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

  13. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

  14. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

  15. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

  16. Acaricide, Fungicide and Drug Interactions in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Reed M.; Dahlgren, Lizette; Siegfried, Blair D.; Ellis, Marion D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. Methodology/Principal Findings Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17) while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15). The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI) fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. Conclusions/Significance Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication appears to play an important role. Evidence of non-transivity, year-to-year variation and induction of detoxication enzymes indicates that pesticide interactions in bees may be as complex as drug interactions in mammals. PMID:23382869

  17. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden. PMID:26088526

  18. Can house dust mite-triggered atopic dermatitis be alleviated using acaricides?

    PubMed

    Cameron, M M

    1997-07-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are the most important triggers for atopic dermatitis. Reducing exposure to these allergens may alleviate clinical symptoms. Chemicals with acaricidal activity have been used to treat upholstered furniture, carpets and bedding with the aim to reduce HDM allergen exposure. These chemicals, by reducing HDM, can decrease the concentration of mite allergens in dust but improvements in clinical symptoms are not always apparent. Clinical improvement is more likely to occur if bedding has been treated rather than carpets and upholstery. Future control strategies should be aimed at treating bedding. Permethrin is a very efficient killer of mites. It is used topically to treat scabies and head lice and is impregnated in bed nets to prevent mosquito bites. Even when applied to the skin in high concentrations, it has a very low toxicity in humans and other mammals. Permethrin-impregnated bedding may prove to be the best control method in the treatment of HDM allergen-triggered atopic conditions. PMID:9274618

  19. Ecological Modelling 166 (2003) 4152 A spatial stochastic model simulating a scabies

    E-print Network

    Dhindsa, Rajinder

    2003-01-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei is an ectoparasitic mite that causes the disease scabies and affects many species, includ of drug treatments on combat- ing scabies in domesticated animals and humans (e.g. Clarke et al., 1992

  20. Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The recent article by Mohammed et al. demonstrates an impressive effect of ivermectin mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on the burden of scabies. Partnering scabies research within the evaluation and monitoring of Neglected Tropical Disease programmes could potentially increase our understanding of the epidemiology and control of scabies and its important bacterial complications. PMID:23594459

  1. COMPARISON OF THE REPORDUCTIVE BIOLOGY BETWEEN ACARICIDE-RESISTANT AND ACARICIDE-SUSCEPTIBLE RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPLILUS) MICROPLUS (ACARI:IXODIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive dynamics of an acaricide-susceptible strain (SUS) of Boophilus microplus were compared to strains of ticks resistant to organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid (P), or formamidine (F) acaricides to determine whether the acquisition of resistance caused a reduction in fitness. The SUS stra...

  2. High Burden of Impetigo and Scabies in a Tropical Country

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Andrew C.; Jenney, Adam W. J.; Kado, Joseph; Batzloff, Michael R.; La Vincente, Sophie; Waqatakirewa, Lepani; Mulholland, E. Kim; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Impetigo and scabies are endemic diseases in many tropical countries; however the epidemiology of these diseases is poorly understood in many areas, particularly in the Pacific. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted three epidemiological studies in 2006 and 2007 to determine the burden of disease due to impetigo and scabies in children in Fiji using simple and easily reproducible methodology. Two studies were performed in primary school children (one study was a cross-sectional study and the other a prospective cohort study over ten months) and one study was performed in infants (cross-sectional). The prevalence of active impetigo was 25.6% (95% CI 24.1–27.1) in primary school children and 12.2% (95% CI 9.3–15.6) in infants. The prevalence of scabies was 18.5% (95% CI 17.2–19.8) in primary school children and 14.0% (95% CI 10.8–17.2) in infants. The incidence density of active impetigo, group A streptococcal (GAS) impetigo, Staphylococcus aureus impetigo and scabies was 122, 80, 64 and 51 cases per 100 child-years respectively. Impetigo was strongly associated with scabies infestation (odds ratio, OR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.6–3.7) and was more common in Indigenous Fijian children when compared with children of other ethnicities (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.7–4.7). The majority of cases of active impetigo in the children in our study were caused by GAS. S. aureus was also a common cause (57.4% in school aged children and 69% in infants). Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that the impetigo and scabies disease burden in children in Fiji has been underestimated, and possibly other tropical developing countries in the Pacific. These diseases are more than benign nuisance diseases and consideration needs to be given to expanded public health initiatives to improve their control. PMID:19547749

  3. Body size variability of Varroa destructor and its role in acaricide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Peralta, Luciano; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Fuselli, S; Eguaras, Martín

    2012-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been defined as the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes when exposed to distinct environments throughout its ontogeny. Morphological variability of individuals is an example of this plasticity. Taking into account that several studies have reported a wide morphological variability in Varroa destructor populations, we evaluated if the body size plasticity of the parasite constituted a key factor able to modulate mites survival when they were exposed to a drug bioassays. Drug bioassays against mites were conducted using three different Syzygium aromaticum essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5 ?l/capsule) and controls. After 4 h of exposition, mite mortality was registered. The width (WS) and length (LS) of the dorsal shield were measured in dead mites. General lineal models were carried to determine if V. destructor survival to acaricides was related to the explanatory variables. Data modelling confirmed that WS and LS variables, together with time interaction, were significantly related to V. destructor survival when the parasites were exposed to acaricides. The models proposed demonstrated that for the smaller S. aromaticum essential oil concentration, the larger the parasite body, the greater the probability that it remains alive at the end of the bioassay. Such relationship was inverse for the other two concentrations tested. Possible causes explaining the body size variability in V. destructor individuals were discussed. PMID:22190127

  4. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

    2010-05-11

    The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. PMID:20304561

  5. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  6. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  7. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Taotao-Wini, Betty; Satorara, Lorraine; Engelman, Daniel; Nasi, Titus; Mabey, David C.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections. Methods We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo. Results Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less. Discussion We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts. PMID:26624616

  8. Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Thérèse M.; Speare, Richard; Cheng, Allen C.; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Holt, Deborah C.; Currie, Bart J.; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Bundhala, Leanne; Mulholland, Eddie; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is endemic in many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with 69% of infants infected in the first year of life. We report the outcomes against scabies of two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured scabies prevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined disease acquisition and treatment failures. Scabies infestations were diagnosed clinically with additional laboratory investigations for crusted scabies. Non-pregnant participants weighing ?15 kg were administered a single 200 ?g/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 2–3 weeks if scabies was diagnosed, others followed a standard alternative algorithm. Principal Findings We saw >1000 participants at each population census. Scabies prevalence fell from 4% at baseline to 1% at month 6. Prevalence rose to 9% at month 12 amongst the baseline cohort in association with an identified exposure to a presumptive crusted scabies case with a higher prevalence of 14% amongst new entries to the cohort. At month 18, scabies prevalence fell to 2%. Scabies acquisitions six months after each MDA were 1% and 2% whilst treatment failures were 6% and 5% respectively. Conclusion Scabies prevalence reduced in the six months after each MDA with a low risk of acquisition (1–2%). However, in a setting where living conditions are conducive to high scabies transmissibility, exposure to presumptive crusted scabies and population mobility, a sustained reduction in prevalence was not achieved. Clinical Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register (ACTRN—12609000654257). PMID:26516764

  9. Lack of prolonged activity of lavender essential oils as acaricides against the poultry red mite (Dermanyssusgallinae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Callaghan, K; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2008-12-01

    Managing the poultry red mite, Dermanyssusgallinae (De Geer) by conventional means (i.e., synthetic acaricides) has become increasingly problematic. As a possible alternative, research has identified several plant essential oils that are toxic to D. gallinae. However, essential oils are highly volatile and any acaricidal effect they exert could be short-lived in practice. This study investigated the short-lived toxicity of six lavender essential oils to D. gallinae. In sealed Petri-dishes, mites were exposed to filter papers impregnated with essential oil at a concentration of 0.14mg/cm(3). When filter papers were used immediately after impregnation, 66-90% D.gallinae mortality was observed after 24h, depending upon the essential oil used. If impregnated filter papers were left in a fume cupboard for 24h prior to use, mortality rates of D.gallinae fell to 11% or less. PMID:18348893

  10. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  11. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  12. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  13. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  14. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  15. [Treatment of scabies with special consideration of the approach in infancy, pregnancy and while nursing].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Rufli, T; Christophers, E

    2000-01-01

    Infestation of human skin with scabies mites remains an persistent problem in daily dermatological practice. There are several therapeutic regiments against scabies which have been proven effective and without major side effects. Because of known neurotoxicity of lindane as well as intoxication/problems following systemic absorption of benzyl alcohol (the metabolite of benzyl benzoate), these two compounds have to be considered with caution in early childhood scabies as well as during pregnancy and nursing. The pharmacology and spectrum of clinical side effects of the approved anti-scabies preparations (lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton) as well as permethrin (not available in Germany) are reviewed. PMID:10663033

  16. Nodular scabies: a classical case report in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra Reddy, Damodara; Ramachandra Reddy, Prathap

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents a classical case of nodular scabies in a 12 year boy who complained of itching for 20-21 days before presentation to the hospital. Application of Betnovate ointment (Betamethasone valerate 0.1 %) before presentation to the hospital had provided only 2-3 days of relief from itching. Dermatological examination revealed skin colored to erythematous papule of 3-4 mm on the body with predilection for web space of fingers and flexural areas and nodules on the scrotum and groin. Based on this, clinical diagnosis of scabies with nodular scabies was made on the child. The scraping obtained from the web-space of the child showed mite under the light microscope, which confirms the diagnosis. Treatment with topical permethrin 5 % lotion resulted in 50-70 % subsidence of itching within a day, and improvement in impetigo lesions of his father in 5 days. However, the scrotal and groin nodular lesion of the child persisted with severe itching. Treatment with topical steroid and tacrolimus 0.1 % ointment did not show much improvement. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone (5 mg/ml) on the nodule resulted in 30-40 % subsidence in itching and 50-60 % reduction in the size of the lesion over 2-3 weeks. PMID:26345076

  17. Carvacrol as a potent natural acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Barimani, Alireza; Araghi, Atefeh

    2015-10-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry production systems. Introducing novel acaricides to poultry industry today is more urgent than ever. Research in this field recently focused on plants and plant-derived compounds as acaricides. In the present study, acaricidal activity of three plant bioactive components, carvacrol, thymol, and farnesol, was assessed against D. gallinae and compared with synthetic pesticide permethrin. Mode of acaricidal action was determined by contact toxicity and fumigant toxicity bioassays. Except farnesol which did not cause any mortality, carvacrol and thymol were found to be toxic to D. gallinae with LD50 values of 1 and 3.15 ?g/cm(3), respectively. Permethrin gave the LD50 value of 31.95 ?g/cm(3) which was less efficient than carvacrol and thymol. In fumigant toxicity bioassay, mortality rate in carvacrol- and thymol-treated groups in closed method was significantly higher than the open one. On the other hand, permethrin exhibited poor fumigant toxicity as there was no statistically significant difference between mortality rate in open and closed methods. These findings revealed that mechanism of acaricidal activity of carvacrol and thymol but not permethrin was mainly due to fumigant action. Results of the present study suggested that carvacrol and thymol, especially carvacrol, can be developed as a novel potent bioacaricide against D. gallinae. PMID:26143865

  18. Scabies and Bacterial Superinfection among American Samoan Children, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Edison, Laura; Beaudoin, Amanda; Goh, Lucy; Introcaso, Camille E.; Martin, Diana; Dubray, Christine; Marrone, James; Van Beneden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies, a highly pruritic and contagious mite infestation of the skin, is endemic among tropical regions and causes a substantial proportion of skin disease among lower-income countries. Delayed treatment can lead to bacterial superinfection, and treatment of close contacts is necessary to prevent reinfestation. We describe scabies incidence and superinfection among children in American Samoa (AS) to support scabies control recommendations. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed 2011–2012 pharmacy records from the only AS pharmacy to identify children aged ?14 years with filled prescriptions for permethrin, the only scabicide available in AS. Medical records of identified children were reviewed for physician-diagnosed scabies during January 1, 2011–December 31, 2012. We calculated scabies incidence, bacterial superinfection prevalence, and reinfestation prevalence during 14–365 days after first diagnosis. We used log binomial regression to calculate incidence ratios for scabies by age, sex, and county. Medical record review identified 1,139 children with scabies (incidence 29.3/1,000 children aged ?14 years); 604 (53%) had a bacterial superinfection. Of 613 children who received a scabies diagnosis during 2011, 94 (15.3%) had one or more reinfestation. Scabies incidence varied significantly among the nine counties (range 14.8–48.9/1,000 children). Children aged <1 year had the highest incidence (99.9/1,000 children). Children aged 0–4 years were 4.9 times more likely and those aged 5–9 years were 2.2 times more likely to have received a scabies diagnosis than children aged 10–14 years. Conclusions/Significance Scabies and its sequelae cause substantial morbidity among AS children. Bacterial superinfection prevalence and frequent reinfestations highlight the importance of diagnosing scabies and early treatment of patients and close contacts. Investigating why certain AS counties have a lower scabies incidence might help guide recommendations for improving scabies control among counties with a higher incidence. We recommend interventions targeting infants and young children who have frequent close family contact. PMID:26458270

  19. Genetic basis and impact of tick acaricide resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricide resistance in the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, has been studied for the last 20 years from the toxicology, metabolic, and genomic points of view, however, only few methods for molecular detection of resistance have been developed. Despite the relatively poor sensitivity for resistance...

  20. Monitoring of resistance or susceptibility of adults and larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to synthetic acaricides in Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Edméia de Paula e Souza; Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio Garcia; Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Amblyomma cajennense or the Cayenne tick is a three-host ixodid tick species of low parasitic specificity that is the principal vector of Brazilian spotted fever. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the possible development of resistance by adult specimens of A. cajennense to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and the principal miticide/acaricide commercially available in the region. The second objective was to monitor the susceptibility and/or resistance of larvae of this species to 12 synthetic acaricide formulations selected from the principal pesticides available in Goiás for the control of ticks. Unfed male and female adult specimens of A. cajennense were collected from leaves of bushes along a nature trail in the municipality of Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brazil. They were submitted to immersion in the highest recommended dose of deltamethrin and subsequently, were placed in contact with filter paper impregnated with the substance. The toxicological effects caused by the insecticide were observed every 6 h over a 36 h period. To obtain larvae, engorged females of A. cajennense were collected from naturally infested horses that had been free of acaricidal residue for at least 45 days, in farms situated in five different municipalities in the state (Caldas Novas, Hidrolândia, Goiás, Terezópolis and Goiânia). The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of 12 commercially available acaricidal formulations using the larval packet test (LPT) method. The control groups were treated with distilled water alone. The bioassays were performed in quadruplicate at a temperature of 27 °C, relative air humidity > 80% and 12 h light/dark cycles. The mean percentage of mortality MX was 72.6% in the adult specimens after 24 h of exposure to the dose of deltamethrin recommended by the manufacturer, characterizing a status of resistance. MX of 82, 89, 89.6 and 90% of the larvae were obtained, respectively, for deltamethrin, cypermethrin + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), amitraz and permethrin, characterizing a status of probable resistance of the larvae to these acaricides. No significant mortality was found in the control groups. PMID:20976616

  1. Scabies and Impetigo Prevalence and Risk Factors in Fiji: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Lucia; Koroivueta, Josefa; Steer, Andrew C.; Kama, Mike; Kaldor, John M.; Wand, Handan; Hamid, Mohammed; Whitfeld, Margot J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. Conclusions As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities. PMID:25738499

  2. Acaricide resistance in cattle ticks and approaches to its management: the state of play.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Rao Z; Zaman, Muhammad Arfan; Colwell, Douglas D; Gilleard, John; Iqbal, Zafar

    2014-06-16

    Cattle ticks are an important constraint on livestock production, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Use of synthetic acaricides is the primary method of tick control; therefore, it would be imperative to develop strategies to preserve the efficacy of existing acaricides. This paper summarizes the status of acaricide resistance in cattle ticks from different parts of the world and reviews modes of action of currently used acaricides, mechanism of resistance development, contributory factors for the development and spread of resistance, management of resistant strains and strategies to prolong the effect of the available acaricides. Use of vaccines, synthetic and botanical acaricides and educating farmers about recommended tick control practices are discussed, along with the integration of currently available options for the management of drug resistance and, ultimately, the control of cattle ticks. PMID:24709006

  3. The eradication of a large scabies outbreak using community-wide health education.

    PubMed Central

    Kanaaneh, H A; Rabi, S A; Badarneh, S M

    1976-01-01

    The successful experience in eradicating a large outbreak of scabies in an underdeveloped Arabic village community in Western Galilee of about 3,000 people is reviewed. In this village the number of cases of scabies increased over a five-year period to a maximum of 22 per cent of the entire village population, representing 66 per cent of all the families. A seven-person health team with a strong background in health education was entrusted with the task of eradicating scabies in the community. A plan, conceived and carried out by the team, consisted of four phases: data gathering, information giving, treatment, and evaluation and summary. The goal of eradicating scabies in this community was achieved. The strategy of the campaign emphasized the following points: the entire community was the target group and was involved maximally throughout the campaign; the professional responsibility was concentrated in the hands of the team. PMID:937602

  4. Scabies in a 2-month-old Infant Successfully Treated with Lindane

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seon Pil; Choi, Ji Eun; Won, Chong-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of scabies in young children can be challenging since the morphology and distribution of skin lesions may differ from adults. Therefore, clinicians should keep scabies in mind in their differential diagnosis in a child who presents with severe pruritic, polymorphic skin lesions. Regarding the treatment of scabies, the reported clinical experience with gamma benzene hexachloride (lindane) in young children is quite limited because of its neurotoxicity. However, a recent review suggests that lindane is an excellent alternative drug with minimal risk. We report the case of a 2-month-old male infant with pruritic, erythematous macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and pustules from the top of the head to the tip of the toes. Initially, he was thought to have impetigo and antibiotics were prescribed. After obtaining a careful history and with the use of skin scraping, he was diagnosed with scabies. He was successfully treated with lindane with no adverse reactions. PMID:20523787

  5. Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

    2007-01-01

    Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity. PMID:17428886

  6. Scabies among primary schoolchildren in Egypt: sociomedical environmental study in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area

    PubMed Central

    Hegab, Doaa Salah; Kato, Abdullah Mahfouz; Kabbash, Ibrahim Ali; Dabish, Ghada Maged

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Scabies is a major global public health issue that might affect people from all socioeconomic levels. The primary contributing factors in contracting scabies seem to be poverty and overcrowded living conditions. Scabies often spreads among schoolchildren quite rapidly, owing to their close contact and overcrowding within the schools. However, limited information is available about its risk factors and the socioeconomic correlates among schoolchildren in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area, Egypt. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on primary schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection from the randomly selected 2,104 children, and clinical dermatological examination was done for them. Results Out of 2,104 children studied, there were 92 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 4.4%. The prevalence of scabies infestation in male students was 3.9%, while it was 4.8% in females, with no statistical significance. The results showed significant variations in the risk of scabies infestation by factors such as residence, paternal education and occupation, maternal education, sleeping with others, having animals at home, dealing with animals outside the house, type of building for living, family history of itchy rash, and sharing clothes with others. Conclusion In our community, scabies is still an important health problem affecting schoolchildren, especially in rural areas. It is characterized by a complex web of causation, particularly poor living conditions and low level of parents’ education. PMID:25759594

  7. The effectiveness of benzyl benzoate and different chemicals as acaricides.

    PubMed

    Kalpaklio?lu, A F; Ferizli, A G; Misirligil, Z; Demirel, Y S; Gürbüz, L

    1996-03-01

    Several observations have indicated that house-dust mites (HDM) play an important role in allergic diseases. Thus, the primary form of treatment should aim at reducing exposure to HDM for these patients. Allergen-avoidance measures in homes have been demonstrated to be beneficial in decreasing the risk of sensitization, severity of symptoms, bronchial reactivity, and basophil sensitivity. Various chemical methods, as well as physical measures, have been tried to eliminate mite allergens from house dust. However, none have gained wide acceptance because of the lack of effectiveness and safety, and the high cost. It is clear that new approaches are required for effective long-term control of HDM allergens. This study compared the acaricidal activities of phenyl salicylate, tea leaf extract (high tannic acid content), and essential oils (eucalyptus and laurel) with that of benzyl benzoate. The contact, short-duration persistence, and residual effects of various concentrations of these chemicals and benzyl benzoate were assessed in laboratory conditions with specially designed wells. Our data suggest that benzyl benzoate may not be effective when applied according to the manufacturer's instructions, but may be effective when applied more frequently (i.e., three to four times a year) and for longer periods (up to 24 h) even with lower concentrations (0.4%). Essential oils were shown to have little acaricidal activity, but virtually no effect was observed with tea. Among the chemicals used, phenyl salicylate seems to be promising as an alternative acaricide. PMID:8781670

  8. A diagnostic test for scabies: IgE specificity for a recombinant allergen of Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, Rama; Hales, Belinda; Viberg, Linda; Pizzuto, Susan; Holt, Deborah; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Currie, Bart J; Walton, Shelley F

    2011-12-01

    Scabies infestations are difficult to diagnose clinically and current serologic tests have less than 50% accuracy. To develop more reliable diagnosis of scabies, specific IgE antibodies to a major scabies antigen recombinant Sar s 14.3 (rSar s 14.3) were measured in 140 plasma samples from scabies-infested and control subject groups using dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays (DELFIA). Levels of rSar s 14.3-specific IgE were quantified, and cross-reactivity with its house dust mite homologue, Der p 14, was assessed. The rSar s 14.3 DELFIA showed excellent diagnostic capability, with 100% sensitivity and 93.75% specificity for distinguishing subjects with current scabies infestation from control, uninfested subjects. Recombinant Der p 14 preparation was ineffective at inhibiting IgE binding to rSar s 14.3. This study shows that quantification of levels of IgE antibody to rSar s 14.3 is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of scabies infestation in clinical practice. PMID:22018936

  9. The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. The itching is caused by an allergic reaction to the mites. The treatment of choice is still controversial. It is commonly treated with topical insecticides. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Open Grey and WHO ICTRP) up to September 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared the efficacy of ivermectin with other medications in the treatment of scabies. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. The author intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. It has been sated that ivermectin was as effective as permethrin in the treatment of scabies. In comparison to other medications such as lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton and malathion, ivermectin was more effective in the treatment of scabies. Ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection. PMID:25911032

  10. An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival. PMID:24244770

  11. Detection of living Sarcoptes scabiei larvae by reflectance mode confocal microscopy in the skin of a patient with crusted scabies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Assi; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Ingber, Arieh; Enk, Claes D.

    2012-06-01

    Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The diagnosis of scabies is established clinically and confirmed by identifying mites or eggs by microscopic examination of scrapings from the skin or by surface microscopy using a dermatoscope. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy is a novel technique used for noninvasive imaging of skin structures and lesions at a resolution compatible to that of conventional histology. Recently, the technique was employed for the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of scabies. We demonstrate the first ever documentation of a larva moving freely inside the skin of a patient infected with scabies.

  12. Microarray analysis of acaricide inducible gene expression in the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acaricide-inducible differential gene expression was studied in larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using a microarray-based approach. The acaricides used were: coumaphos, permethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz. The microarrays contained over 13,000 probes, having been derived from a previous...

  13. Stage-Specific Expression of Resistance to Different Acaricides in Four Field Populations of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Youjun; Wu, Qingjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli

    2014-10-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide crop pest. The resistance to commonly applied acaricides (in this report, "acaricide" refers to both acaricides and insecticides that are toxic to mites) has seriously impaired T. urticae control in the field. Here, the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory and field populations of T. urticae to various acaricides was investigated. Based on data obtained with an acaricide-sensitive laboratory strain collected in 2009, abamectin was the most toxic of the tested acaricides. For each acaricide, susceptibility was greatest for larvae, least for adults, and intermediate for eggs. The egg was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, bifenazate, and hexythiazox; the larva was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, hexythiazox, bifenazate, propargite, and chlorfenapyr; and the adult was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, bifenazate, and chlorfenapyr. Based on the results obtained with the acaricide-sensitive laboratory strain, acaricides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field populations of T. urticae from Beijing, China. Although the field populations differed in their resistance to the acaricides in laboratory bioassays, the eggs, larvae, and adults of the four populations were sensitive to bifenazate and highly resistant to abamectin. Field trials for control of T. urticae in Beijing, China, should be conducted with bifenazate and other acaricides rather than with abamectin. PMID:26309280

  14. Characterization of the Coronatine-Like Phytotoxins Produced by the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Altowairish, Mead S; Li, Yuting; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2015-04-01

    Streptomyces scabies is an important causative agent of common scab disease of potato tubers and other root crops. The primary virulence factor produced by this pathogen is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A, which is essential for disease development. In addition, the genome of S. scabies harbors a virulence-associated biosynthetic gene cluster called the coronafacic acid (CFA)-like gene cluster, which was previously predicted to produce metabolites that resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine (COR) phytotoxin. COR consists of CFA linked to an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid called coronamic acid, which is derived from L-allo-isoleucine. Using a combination of genetic and chemical analyses, we show that the S. scabies CFA-like gene cluster is responsible for producing CFA-L-isoleucine as the major product as well as other minor COR-like metabolites. Production of the metabolites was shown to require the cfl gene, which is located within the CFA-like gene cluster and encodes an enzyme involved in ligating CFA to its amino acid partner. CFA-L-isoleucine purified from S. scabies cultures was shown to exhibit bioactivity similar to that of COR, though it was found to be less toxic than COR. This is the first report demonstrating the production of coronafacoyl phytotoxins by S. scabies, which is the most prevalent scab-causing pathogen in North America. PMID:25423263

  15. Parasitological and clinical studies on human scabies in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, M A; el Okbi, L M; el Sayed, M M; el Okbi, S M; el Deeb, H K

    1993-12-01

    This study is a parasitological and clinical study on human scabies. This study was carried out on 100 patients attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospitals, including 54 males and 46 females. All patients were subjected to detailed history taking, complete dermatological examination including Skin Scraping Test and Burrow Ink Test. Younger patients attended the dermatology clinic earlier than older patients, who usually delayed their visits until complications occurred. Scratching, erythematous papules and secondary infected lesions were the commonest lesions. The hands, wrist and external genitalia were the most frequently affected sites while the feet, ankles, knees and back were the least affected. Burrows could only be detected in 40% of patients. The most frequent sites were the web spaces, external genitalia, and finger sides. Burrow Ink Test was positive among 85% of patients with burrows while mites could be identified by Skin Scraping Test in 55% of patients. The most frequent clinical manifestations in the parasitologically positive patients were itching, burrows, and papules, and the most frequent sites were the web spaces, and the finger sides. Multiple sites affection was the characteristic feature among the preschool age children who represented 14% of cases. PMID:8308357

  16. Scabies Incognito Presenting as a Subcorneal Pustular Dermatosis-like Eruption.

    PubMed

    Karaca, ?emsettin; Kelekçi, K?ymet Handan; Er, O?uz; Pekta?, Bayram; Aksoy Gökmen, Ay?egül

    2015-09-01

    Scabies is a common parasitosis of the skin caused by Sarcoptes scabiei hominis. This infestation occurs in all geographic areas and across all age groups, races, and social classes. Poor economic conditions and lack of proper hygiene are risk factors for the disease. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis is characterized by numerous relapsing pustular eruptions on normal or mildly erythematous skin. The pustular eruption typically involves the flexural sites of the trunk and proximal extremities with pruritus and irritation symptoms. The pustules are superficial and rupture easily, resulting in a superficial crust, and they form annular, circinate, or serpiginous patterns. Here we reported a case of scabies incognito in an elderly woman that presented as subcorneal pustular dermatosis-like eruption. We assumed that this case could be reported because it is an unusual event among the general population. In conclusion, the differential diagnoses of skin diseases should be considered when diagnosing scabies. Thus, unnecessary therapy and contamination among people can be prevented. PMID:26470936

  17. Prospective Study in a Porcine Model of Sarcoptes scabiei Indicates the Association of Th2 and Th17 Pathways with the Clinical Severity of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, Kate E.; Murray, Hugh C.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Pasay, Cielo; Holt, Deborah C.; Currie, Bart J.; Walton, Shelley F.; McCarthy, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding of scabies immunopathology has been hampered by the inability to undertake longitudinal studies in humans. Pigs are a useful animal model for scabies, and show clinical and immunologic changes similar to those in humans. Crusted scabies can be readily established in pigs by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). Methodology/ Principal Findings Prospective study of 24 pigs in four groups: a) Scabies+/Dex+, b) Scabies+/Dex-, c) Scabies-/Dex+ and d) Scabies-/Dex-. Clinical symptoms were monitored. Histological profiling and transcriptional analysis of skin biopsies was undertaken to compare changes in cell infiltrates and representative cytokines. A range of clinical responses to Sarcoptes scabiei were observed in Dex treated and non-immunosuppressed pigs. An association was confirmed between disease severity and transcription of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, and up-regulation of the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-23 in pigs with crusted scabies. Immunohistochemistry revealed marked infiltration of lymphocytes and mast cells, and strong staining for IL-17. Conclusions/ Significance While an allergic Th2 type response to scabies has been previously described, these results suggest that IL-17 related pathways may also contribute to immunopathology of crusted scabies. This may lead to new strategies to protect vulnerable subjects from contracting recurrent crusted scabies. PMID:25730203

  18. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  19. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  20. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  1. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  2. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  3. ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck) `Valencia' ACARICIDAL CONTROL OF CITRUS RUST MITE, 2005

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    (D17) ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck) `Valencia' ACARICIDAL CONTROL OF CITRUS RUST MITE, 2005-old `Valencia' orange trees planted at 15 × 22 ft spacing on double-row beds running north-south. Plot rows were

  4. ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, `Valencia' ACARICIDAL CONTROL OF CITRUS RUST MITE, 2007

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    (D14) ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, `Valencia' ACARICIDAL CONTROL OF CITRUS RUST MITE, 2007 of Florida Southwest Research and Education Center in Immokalee, Florida, on 12-yr-old `Valencia' orange

  5. Topical (pour-on) ivermectin in the treatment of canine scabies.

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, M; de Jaham, C; Pagé, N

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of a pour-on formulation of ivermectin at 500 micrograms/kg body weight applied on the dorsum on days 1 and 15 was evaluated in 90 dogs from a shelter, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. This very practical form of treatment was successful in eradicating scabies from this shelter. PMID:9187806

  6. Thaxtomin A production and virulence are controlled by several bld gene global regulators in Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Bignell, Dawn R D; Francis, Isolde M; Fyans, Joanna K; Loria, Rosemary

    2014-08-01

    Streptomyces scabies is the main causative agent of common scab disease, which leads to significant annual losses to potato growers worldwide. The main virulence factor produced by S. scabies is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A, which functions as a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. Thaxtomin A production is controlled by the cluster-situated regulator TxtR, which activates expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes in response to cello-oligosaccharides. Here, we demonstrate that at least five additional regulatory genes are required for wild-type levels of thaxtomin A production and plant pathogenicity in S. scabies. These regulatory genes belong to the bld gene family of global regulators that control secondary metabolism or morphological differentiation in Streptomyces spp. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes was significantly downregulated in all five bld mutants and, in four of these mutants, this downregulation was attributed to the reduction in expression of txtR. Furthermore, all of the mutants displayed reduced expression of other known or predicted virulence genes, suggesting that the bld genes may function as global regulators of virulence gene expression in S. scabies. PMID:24678834

  7. Recommendation for the conservation of the name Streptomyces scabies. Request for an opinion.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomic name of the pathogenic Streptomyces species that causes potato scab was changed in 1997 from Streptomyces scabies to Streptomyces scabiei in order to correct improper usage of Latin. The original species name had been in the literature since 1914 and this created confusion among resea...

  8. [The remarkable debate during the beginning of the nineteenth century concerning the aetiology of scabies].

    PubMed

    Thyresson, N

    1994-01-01

    The scabies mite (acarus or sarcoptes scabiei) was known already to Aristoteles, to the Arabic medicine during the early and to European physicians as well as laymen during the later Middle Ages, depicted in 1687 by Bonomo in Italy and by Schwiebe in Germany during the beginning of the eighteenth century. Later in the middle of the century three pupils to Linnaeus in their doctor's theses stated that the scabies mite (Acarus humanus subcutaneus) was the cause of scabies. The best pictures of the scabies-mite as well as of the flour- and cheese-mite was given by the Swedish entomologist Charles de Geer in 1778. In spite of all these facts the real aetiology of scabies seemed to be unknown in France and in most parts of Europe. This was probably due to the fact that no one had learned the rather simple method to extract the mite from the skin with a needle and thereby verify its existence. In the beginning of the twentieth century scabies was a real problem for the health authorities. In Paris l'Académie de Médecine even offered a reward to the person who could solve the enigma of the itch. Jean Chrysanthe Galés was the pharmacist at l'Hôpital St. Louis, the famous skin hospital in Paris, where at this time about 65 percent of the beds were occupied by patients suffering from scabies. Galés also studied medicine and wanted to write a doctor's thesis. As the theme of a dissertation he was given the cause of the itch. In 1812 he published his thesis ("Essai sur la Gale") including a plate with sketches of mites that he claimed to have extracted from vesicules on the skin of his scabies patients. His findings could not be verified by other investigators. Galés however refused to take part in any control experiments and left the hospital. The debate concerning the supposed cause of the itch continued for two decades both inside and outside the hospital. F.C. Raspail, a famous natural scientist, was interested. After having studied the literature and especially the drawings by de Geer he was convinced that the mites depicted by Galés were similar to de Geers' flour-and cheese mite and that they had no resemblence to his picture of scabies-mite. In a control experiment Raspail could show how Galés had cheated by contaminating his slide with cheese-mites. However, a Corsican student at l'Hôpital St. Louis named S.F. Renucci knew the answer to the riddle. He had long ago been taught by peasant women of his home island how to extract the mite and he could now show the method to the doctors at l'Hôpital St. Louis. this was on August 13 in 1834, which usually in the literature is looked upon as the day when the discovery of the aethiology of scabies was made. Maybe we have a different view in Sweden. PMID:11640410

  9. Enhancing the acaricide effect of thymol on larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) by solubilization in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Daemon, Erik; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Maturano, Ralph

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to propose a new method of solubilizing thymol for use as an acaricide and to evaluate the resulting product's efficacy on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae. Two experiments were performed, both employing the larval packet test to evaluate the potential of the solutions formulated. In the first experiment, R. microplus larvae were exposed to three new formulations: formulation 1-distilled water (70%) + ethanol (30%) + thymol (10.0 mg/ml); formulation 2-distilled water (50%) + ethanol (50%) + thymol (10.0 mg/ml); and formulation 3-distilled water (55%) + ethanol (40%) + DMSO (5%) + thymol (10.0 mg/ml). A control was prepared for each formulation (same formulations except thymol), and another control group was formed where the larvae did not receive any treatment. From the results obtained in the first experiment, the formulation with the best performance and cost-benefit relation was chosen and was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on larvae of this tick. In the first experiment, the mortality of the groups treated with thymol was greater than 95% for all three formulations, with significant differences (p?acaricide activity on cattle tick larvae. PMID:21779863

  10. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ACARICIDES FOR CONTROL OF THE AFRICAN TORTOISE TICK (AMBLYOMMA MARMOREUM) ON LEOPARD TORTOISES (GEOCHELONE PARDALIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine acaricides (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, fipronil, lindane, permethrin, phenothrin and pyrethrins) were studied for the efficacy in killing the African tortoise tick (Amblyomma marmoreum). Only four of the acaricides (chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, lindane and permethrin) produced 1...

  11. Acaricidal effect of an isolate from Hoslundia opposita vahl against Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Kofi; Jackson, Nora; Dickson, Rita A.; Sam, George H.; Komlaga, Gustav

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hoslundia opposita Vahl. (Lamiaceae), a common local shrub in Ghana, is traditionally known not only for its pharmacological benefits but also for its insecticidal properties. Its acaricidal property, however, has not been investigated. Objective: To test the acaricidal effects of the crude extract and fractions of H. opposita leaves as well as to isolate and characterize the acaricidal principles. Materials and Methods: The crude methanolic extract, pet. ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of the leaves of H. opposita were tested against the larvae of the cattle tick, Amblyomma variegatum, using the Larval Packet Test. A bioassay-guided isolation was carried out to identify the acaricidal principle obtained from the ethyl acetate fraction. Results: The active principle was characterised as ursolic acid, a triterpene previously isolated from the leaves of the same plant. The extract and fractions were less potent than the control, malathion (LC50 1.14 × 10-4 mg/ml). Among the plant samples however the crude methanolic extract exhibited the highest effect against the larvae (LC50 5.74 × 10-2 mg/ml), followed by the ethyl acetate fraction (LC50 8.10 × 10-2 mg/ml). Ursolic acid, pet. ether and aqueous fractions however showed weak acaricidal effects with LC50 values of 1.13 mg/ml, 8.96 × 10-1 mg/ml and 1.44 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ursolic acid was not as potent as the crude methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction from which it was isolated. The overall acaricidal effect of H. opposita may have been due to synergy with other principles having acaricidal properties. PMID:22022167

  12. The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Tirry, Luc; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Nauen, Ralf; Dermauw, Wannes

    2015-06-01

    Acaricides are one of the cornerstones of an efficient control program for phytophagous mites. An analysis of the global acaricide market reveals that spider mites such as Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Panonychus ulmi are by far the most economically important species, representing more than 80% of the market. Other relevant mite groups are false spider mites (mainly Brevipalpus), rust and gall mites and tarsonemid mites. Acaricides are most frequently used in vegetables and fruits (74% of the market), including grape vines and citrus. However, their use is increasing in major crops where spider mites are becoming more important, such as soybean, cotton and corn. As revealed by a detailed case study of the Japanese market, major shifts in acaricide use are partially driven by resistance development and the commercial availability of compounds with novel mode of action. The importance of the latter cannot be underestimated, although some compounds are successfully used for more than 30 years. A review of recent developments in mode of action research is presented, as such knowledge is important for devising resistance management programs. This includes spirocyclic keto-enols as inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the carbazate bifenazate as a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, a novel class of complex II inhibitors, and the mite growth inhibitors hexythiazox, clofentezine and etoxazole that interact with chitin synthase I. PMID:26047107

  13. Mass Drug Administration for Scabies Control in a Population with Endemic Disease.

    PubMed

    Romani, Lucia; Whitfeld, Margot J; Koroivueta, Josefa; Kama, Mike; Wand, Handan; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Tuicakau, Meciusela; Koroi, Aminiasi; Andrews, Ross; Kaldor, John M; Steer, Andrew C

    2015-12-10

    Background Scabies is an underrecognized cause of illness in many developing countries. It is associated with impetigo, which can lead to serious systemic complications. We conducted a trial of mass drug administration for scabies control in Fiji. Methods We randomly assigned three island communities to one of three different interventions for scabies control: standard care involving the administration of permethrin to affected persons and their contacts (standard-care group), mass administration of permethrin (permethrin group), or mass administration of ivermectin (ivermectin group). The primary outcome was the change in the prevalence of scabies and of impetigo from baseline to 12 months. Results A total of 2051 participants were enrolled; 803 were in the standard-care group, 532 in the permethrin group, and 716 in the ivermectin group. From baseline to 12 months, the prevalence of scabies declined significantly in all groups, with the greatest reduction seen in the ivermectin group. The prevalence declined from 36.6% to 18.8% in the standard-care group (relative reduction in prevalence, 49%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37 to 60), from 41.7% to 15.8% in the permethrin group (relative reduction, 62%; 95% CI, 49 to 75), and from 32.1% to 1.9% in the ivermectin group (relative reduction, 94%; 95% CI, 83 to 100). The prevalence of impetigo also declined in all groups, with the greatest reduction seen in the ivermectin group. The prevalence declined from 21.4% to 14.6% in the standard-care group (relative reduction, 32%; 95% CI, 14 to 50), from 24.6% to 11.4% in the permethrin group (relative reduction, 54%; 95% CI, 35 to 73), and from 24.6% to 8.0% in the ivermectin group (relative reduction, 67%; 95% CI, 52 to 83). Adverse events were mild and were reported more frequently in the ivermectin group than in the permethrin group (15.6% vs. 6.8%). Conclusions Mass drug administration, particularly the administration of ivermectin, was efficacious for the control of scabies and impetigo. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12613000474752 .). PMID:26650152

  14. Mitigation of Resistance Through Mixtures of Traditional Pesticides, Anti-tick Vaccines, and New Acaricides Developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...

  15. [Experiences with ivermectin in exotic animals: scabies in camelids (Camelus bactrianus, Lama guanicoe, L. glama) and scabies and roundworms in bears (Thalarctos maritimus and Ursus arctos)].

    PubMed

    Kuntze, A; Kuntze, O

    1991-02-01

    For the control of scabies in tylopodes (L. bactrianus, L. guanicoe, L. glama) and brown bears 0.2 mg/kg body weight (1 ml/50 kg body weight) of Ivermectin subcutaneously injected proved to be remedy of choice. In Kodiak-bears the oral application of Ivomec-solution was effective against ascariasis, not, however, in polar bears. Sufficient effect was reached only once, whereas Equalan-paste proved to be highly effective. Despite of strong hygienic measures continous follow-up treatment for the prevention of re-invasion is indispensible. PMID:2025214

  16. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control. PMID:25033813

  17. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samson S. Y.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Fung, Kitty S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. PMID:25903566

  18. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson S Y; Poon, Rosana W S; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Fung, Kitty S C; Yuen, K Y

    2015-07-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. PMID:25903566

  19. The efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Human; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Human scabies is caused by an infection of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). There are different medications for the treatment of scabies. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies. In total, 420 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 ?g/kg body weight, and the second group received sulfur 10% ointment and were told to apply this for three successive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 61.9% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 78.5% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of sulfur 10% ointment was effective in 45.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 59.5% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as single applications of sulfur 10% ointment at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to sulfur 10% ointment at the 4-week follow up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. . PMID:26342502

  20. Structure/activity relationship of some natural monoterpenes as acaricides against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Perrucci, S; Macchioni, G; Cioni, P L; Flamini, G; Morelli, I

    1995-08-01

    The pharmacological activity of many essential oils on a large number of human and animal pathogens, as used in folk medicine, has been confirmed world-wide by several laboratory investigations. Unfortunately, the biological properties of essential oils can be extremely inconsistent because of the variability of their chemical composition. The acaricidal activities of some natural terpenoids, which are the main constitutents of several essential oils, were evaluated in vitro against the mange mite (Psoroptes cuniculi) of the rabbit, by direct contact and by inhalation. Because the test components represent different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, alcohols, and phenols, with free and esterified or etherified functional groups), it was also possible to discern in a preliminary fashion a correlation between chemical structure and acaricidal activity. The results obtained suggest that molecules possessing free alcoholic or phenolic groups showed the most potent acaricidal activity. PMID:7595592

  1. Acaricidal activity of constituents derived from peppermint oil against Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Hwan; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-10-01

    The acaricidal activities of peppermint oil and menthol isomers against mites in stored food were evaluated using fumigant and contact bioassays and were compared with the activity of benzyl benzoate as a synthetic acaricide. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against Tyrophagus putrescentiae in the fumigant bioassay, menthol (0.96 ?g/cm(2)) was approximately 12.18 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (11.70 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (+)-neomenthol (1.33 ?g/cm(2)), (-)-menthol (1.60 ?g/cm(2)), and (+)-menthol (1.90 ?g/cm(2)). In the filter paper bioassay, menthol (0.55 ?g/cm(2)) was about 15.18 times more active than benzyl benzoate (8.35 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (-)-menthol (0.84 ?g/cm(2)), (+)-menthol (0.92 ?g/cm(2)), and (+)-neomenthol (1.72 ?g/cm(2)). However, (+)-isomenthol did not exhibit any acaricidal activity against T. putrescentiae in the fumigant and filter paper bioassays. These results indicate that peppermint oil and menthol isomers could be effective natural acaricides for managing mites in stored food. PMID:25285505

  2. Functional Analysis of Esterase TCE2 Gene from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) involved in Acaricide Resistance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Wei, Peng; Wang, Xiangzun; Shen, Guangmao; Zhang, Jiao; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Zhifeng; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest of crops and vegetables worldwide, and it has the ability to develop resistance against acaricides rapidly. Our previous study identified an esterase gene (designated TCE2) over-expressed in resistant mites. To investigate this gene's function in resistance, the expression levels of TCE2 in susceptible, abamectin-, fenpropathrin-, and cyflumetofen-resistant strains were knocked down (65.02%, 63.14%, 57.82%, and 63.99%, respectively) via RNA interference. The bioassay data showed that the resistant levels to three acaricides were significantly decreased after the down-regulation of TCE2, indicating a correlation between the expression of TCE2 and the acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus. TCE2 gene was then re-engineered for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The recombinant TCE2 exhibited ?-naphthyl acetate activity (483.3?±?71.8?nmol/mg pro. min(-1)), and the activity of this enzyme could be inhibited by abamectin, fenpropathrin, and cyflumetofen, respectively. HPLC and GC results showed that 10??g of the recombinant TCE2 could effectively decompose 21.23% fenpropathrin and 49.70% cyflumetofen within 2?hours. This is the first report of a successful heterologous expression of an esterase gene from mites. This study provides direct evidence that TCE2 is a functional gene involved in acaricide resistance in T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26725309

  3. ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, `Valencia' ACARICIDAL CONTROL OF CITRUS RUST MITE, 2010

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    (D) ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, `Valencia' ACARICIDAL CONTROL OF CITRUS RUST MITE, 2010 and Education Center in Immokalee, #12;Florida, on 15-yr-old `Valencia' orange trees planted at 15 X 22 ft.05) #12;Part II: Materials Tested for Arthropod Management Orange: Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck.) `Valencia

  4. STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF ACARICIDE RESISTANCE IN BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boophilus microplus is an economically significant tick parasite of cattle, responsible for severe negative impacts on animal health and cattle producer profitability in many regions of the world. We have begun the development of molecular-based assays for specific acaricide resistance-associated g...

  5. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

  6. VETPAR-3893; No of Pages 12 Spatial distribution of acaricide profiles (Boophilus microplus

    E-print Network

    Chowell, Gerardo

    , the agent, and the environment. In parasitology, this paradigm translates as the ability of the agent to be susceptible or resistant to acaricides, outcome that may www.elsevier.com/locate/vetpar Veterinary Parasitology xxx (2007) xxx­xxx * Corresponding author at: Universidad Auto´noma de Yucata´n, Facultad de

  7. Acaricidal activities of bicyclic monoterpene ketones from Artemisia iwayomogi against Dermatophagoides spp.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-03-01

    The acaricidal properties of 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one isolated from Artemisia iwayomogi and its structural analogues were evaluated against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and their effects were compared with that of the commercial acaricide benzyl benzoate. Based on the 50 % lethal dose (LD50) values against D. farinae, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one (0.82 ?g/cm(2)) was 9.71 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (7.96 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (1R)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one (1.03 ?g/cm(2)), (1S)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one (1.58 ?g/cm(2)), and (1R)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one oxime (3.05 ?g/cm(2)) in a filter paper bioassay. The acaricidal activities of 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and its structural analogues against D. pteronyssinus were similar to those against D. farinae. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring A. iwayomogi-isolated 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and its structural analogues are suitable for the production of natural acaricides against house dust mites. PMID:24114336

  8. Scabies outbreaks in residential care homes: factors associated with late recognition, burden and impact. A mixed methods study in England.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, K A; Nalabanda, A; Cassell, J A

    2015-05-01

    Scabies is an important public health problem in residential care homes. Delayed diagnosis contributes to outbreaks, which may be prolonged and difficult to control. We investigated factors influencing outbreak recognition, diagnosis and treatment, and staff experiences of outbreak control, identifying areas for intervention. We carried out a semi-structured survey of managers, affected residents and staff of seven care homes reporting suspected scabies outbreaks in southern England over a 6-month period. Attack rates ranged from 2% to 50%, and most cases had dementia (37/39, 95%). Cases were diagnosed clinically by GPs (59%) or home staff (41%), none by dermatologists. Most outbreaks were attributable to avoidably late diagnosis of the index case. Participants reported considerable challenges in managing scabies outbreaks, including late diagnosis and recognition of outbreaks; logistically difficult mass treatment; distressing treatment processes and high costs. This study demonstrates the need for improved support for care homes in detecting and managing these outbreaks. PMID:25195595

  9. Scabies in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Adalimumab - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Markovi?, Ivan; Pukši?, Silva; Gudelj Gra?anin, Ana; ?ulo, Melanie Ivana; Mitrovi?, Joško; Morovi?-Vergles, Jadranka

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by synovitis, erosions, and destruction of affected joints. If untreated, it leads to severe disability and premature mortality. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors are biological drugs used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Possible side effects include skin allergic reactions, which, if generalized, are the reason for discontinuation of the drug. We report the case of a 46-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with pruritus and erythematous papular exanthema after administration of the second dose of adalimumab. At first, we suspected a drug hypersensitivity reaction. As the signs and symptoms persisted for 2 months after discontinuation of adalimumab and despite continuous administration of antihistamines and glucocorticoids, further work-up was performed, and scabies was diagnosed. The patient was treated with topical 10% crotamiton. The symptoms were persistent and additional applications of the preparation were needed. After clinical remission of scabies, treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with adalimumab was restarted without any complications. PMID:26476903

  10. The AraC/XylS regulator TxtR modulates Thaxtomin Biosynthesis and Virulence in Streptomyces scabies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptomyces scabies is the best studied of those streptomycetes that cause an economically important disease known as potato scab. The phytotoxin thaxtomin is made exclusively by these pathogens and is required for virulence. Here we describe regulation of thaxtomin biosynthesis by TxtR, a member...

  11. Large Nosocomial Outbreak Associated with a Norwegian Scabies Index Case Undergoing TNF-? Inhibitor Treatment: Management and Control.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, Valeria; Orsi, Giovanni Battista; Del Borgo, Cosmo; Fabietti, Paolo; Ianari, Adriana; Albertoni, Francesco; Porcelli, Patricia; Potenza, Concetta; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria

    2015-11-01

    We describe a large outbreak associated with a crusted (Norwegian) scabies case in an immunocompromised patient following treatment with TNF-? inhibitor (adalimumab) for psoriasis arthritis. The increasing use of TNF-? inhibitors should induce clinicians to consider this serious parasitic infection when evaluating skin rashes in patients receiving biologic therapies. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1358-1360. PMID:26288185

  12. Insecticide and acaricide molecules and/or combinations to prevent pet infestation by ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Franc, Michel

    2012-07-01

    External antiparasitic drugs used in cats and dogs have evolved in terms of active ingredients but also regarding formulations. Old chemical groups have been supplanted by phenylpyrazoles, neonicotinoids, oxadiazines, spinosyns or others which are entering the veterinary market. In addition to insecticides-acaricides, insect and mite growth inhibitors (IGRs) have emerged. These IGRs are used in animals or in the environment, either alone or in combination with insecticides-acaricides. The notion of antiparasitic treatment has evolved to the concept of prevention of ectoparasite infestation but also of transmitted diseases through the introduction of formulations providing long-lasting activity. At the same time, ease-of-use has been improved with the development of spot-on formulations. Progress has also been achieved through the development of antiparasitic drugs providing control of both external and internal parasites. PMID:22627116

  13. Determination of acaricides in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Martel, Anne-Claire; Zeggane, Sarah

    2002-04-19

    Rapid analytical methods are described to control quality of honeys, concerning residues of acaricides applied in hives to prevent Varroa jacobsoni infestation. A liquid-liquid extraction with hexane-propanol-2-ammonia (60 ml:30 ml:0.28%) was used for the simultaneous analysis of coumaphos, bromopropylate, amitraz and fluvalinate. For thymol, one clean up on a solid-phase extraction C18 (500 mg, 6 ml) column was performed; for rotenone, a liquid extraction with dichloromethane was realised. Quantitative recoveries obtained with honey were satisfactory and were superior to 80%. All acaricides are identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Quantification limits obtained were below maximal residue limits when these exist. PMID:12058901

  14. Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance. PMID:24393426

  15. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide. PMID:23295821

  16. Acaricide residues in laying hens naturally infested by red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Marangi, Marianna; Morelli, Vincenzo; Pati, Sandra; Camarda, Antonio; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    In the poultry industry, control of the red mite D. gallinae primarily relies worldwide on acaricides registered for use in agriculture or for livestock, and those most widely used are carbamates, followed by amidines, pyrethroids and organophosphates. Due to the repeated use of acaricides--sometimes in high concentrations--to control infestation, red mites may become resistant, and acaricides may accumulate in chicken organs and tissues, and also in eggs. To highlight some situations of misuse/abuse of chemicals and of risk to human health, we investigated laying hens, destined to the slaughterhouse, for the presence of acaricide residues in their organs and tissues. We used 45 hens from which we collected a total of 225 samples from the following tissues and organs: skin, fat, liver, muscle, hearth, and kidney. In these samples we analyzed the residual contents of carbaryl and permethrin by LC-MS/MS.Ninety-one (40.4%) samples were positive to carbaryl and four samples (1.7%) were positive to permethrin. Concentrations of carbaryl exceeding the detection limit (0.005 ppm) were registered in the skin and fat of birds from two farms (p<0.01), although these concentrations remained below the maximum residue limit (MRLs) (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01). All organs/tissues of hens from a third farm were significantly more contaminated, with skin and muscle samples exceeding the MRL (0.05 ppm) (p<0.01) of carbaryl in force before its use was banned. Out of 45 chickens tested, 37 (82.2%) were found to be contaminated by carbaryl, and 4 (8.8%) by permethrin. The present study is the first report on the presence of pesticides banned by the EU (carbaryl) or not licensed for use (permethrin) in the organs and tissues of laying hens, which have been treated against red mites, and then slaughtered for human consumption at the end of their life cycle. PMID:22363736

  17. Repellents and acaricides as personal protection measures in the prevention of tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zaj?c, Violetta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    A number of preventive measures for the protection of humans against tick-borne diseases were evaluated. Measures involving the avoidance of tick bites with the use of protective clothing and insect repellents are the simplest and most effective. Repellents are applied directly to the skin or clothing and other fabrics, such as bednets, tents and anti-mosquito screens. Currently, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is considered the most efficient arthropod repellent reference substance. The registered and recommended active repellent ingredients for skin and/or cloths application, among others, are: DEET, 1-methyl-propyl-2- (hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate (picaridin), p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), ethyl butylactyloaminopropionate ( IR3535), 1S,2S-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (SS220), racemic 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (AI3-37220) and synthethic pyrethroid - 3-phenoxybenzyl-cis-trans-3(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropancarboxylate (permethrin) - an acaricide with repellent properties. To achieve the protection from tick bites by avoiding attachment and/or engorgement by the arthropod, acaricides with repellent properties, such as synthetic pyrethroid-permethrin are used. This pyrethroid is an acaricide of choice used for clothing impregnation, which is effective for personal protection against all three parasitic stages of western black-legged ticks. Products based on natural compounds, e.g. eugenol from Ocimum basilicum, 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato, geraniol - a natural product extracted from plants, and many others, represent an interesting alternative to common synthetic repellents and/or acaricides. PMID:23311778

  18. Effects of an acaricide on mite allergen levels in the homes of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Chew, F T; Goh, D Y; Lee, B W

    1996-10-01

    Previous study by the current authors has shown that treating homes with D'Allergen, an acaricidal agent, can reduce bronchial hyper-reactivity in asthmatic children with house dust mite allergy. In the present study, the effects of a single D'Allergen treatment on the levels of major dust mite allergens, Der p I and Der f I was evaluated, and the duration of its effectiveness in the environment determined. Twenty randomly selected homes were treated with the acaricide and ten remained untreated. Dust samples were collected from mattresses, upholstered sofas and carpets of these homes before and 1, 2 and 4 months after treatment. The samples were then assayed for Der p I and Der f I allergens using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that D'Allergen was effective in reducing dust mite allergen levels in all three niches by 1.5-22.3 times below baseline values. This effect, however, was only present for 2 months, and the dust mite allergen levels increased to those of the baseline by the fourth month after treatment. These results indicated that repeated applications of the acaricide were required at 2-3 monthly intervals to obtain optimal effectiveness. PMID:8942008

  19. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim MR; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Fayed, Sayed A; Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300µg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0µg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient. PMID:23569793

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Acaricidal/Insecticidal Activities of Oxazoline Derivatives Containing a Sulfur Ether Moiety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuling; Liu, Yuxiu; Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-11-11

    On the basis of etoxazole, a series of novel 2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4-(4-substituted phenyl)-1,3-oxazolines containing a sulfur ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate N-(1-(4-(bromomethyl)phenyl)-2-chloroethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. The bioassay results showed that most of these designed target compounds exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against both the eggs and larvae of Tetranychus cinnabarinus, especially the eggs. Among compounds with high activity against the eggs of mites, the LC50 values of 2, 11, 17, and 19 were 0.0003, 0.0002, 0.0005, and 0.0008 mg L(-1), respectively, much lower than that of etoxazole (0.0089 mg L(-1)). Compound 2 was chosen to evaluate the acaricidal activity in the field, and the results displayed that at a concentration of 22 mg kg(-1), 2 had a much better control effect than etoxazole against both T. cinnabarinus and P. latus on eggplant. Some compounds also showed good insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm and mosquito. On the basis of our research, the newly found structure-activity relationship may guide the development of new acaricides/pesticides that are required in the agriculture market. PMID:26499937

  1. [Treatment of scabies and Ascabiol(®) supply disruption: what about the pediatric population?].

    PubMed

    Berthe-Aucejo, A; Prot-Labarthe, S; Pull, L; Lorrot, M; Touratier, S; Trout, H; Bourdon, O; Dehen, L; Bourrat, E

    2014-06-01

    Scabies is a disease in steady increase in Île-de-France region. Standard treatment, Ascabiol(®) (benzyl benzoate/sulfiram), is back-order for several months and its return remains uncertain. Facing this drug shortage, French Drug Agency (ANSM) has imported a drug from Germany, Antiscabiosum 10 % (benzyl benzoate), to treat patients having contraindications for other scabicides available in France (ivermectin, esdepallethrine). However, infants less than 1 year (<15 kg) and asthmatics infants have no alternative treatment. A multidisciplinary workgroup explored the various existing therapeutic alternatives in France and worldwide. From ANSM's recommendations and group's experience, a decision algorithm was proposed for treating patients. However, pediatric context implied the use of off-label drugs. Proposed treatments widely known by practitioners, prescriptions-types, dose, modalities of use and dispensation, and flyers to patients were realized to optimize treatment efficacy. PMID:24768069

  2. Acaricidal activity of Satureja thymbra L. essential oil and its major components, carvacrol and gamma-terpinene against adult Hyalomma marginatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Cilek, J E; Oz, E; Aydin, L; Deveci, O; Yanikoglu, A

    2010-06-24

    The acaricidal activity of a volatile essential oil hydrodistillate of Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiaceae) and its major constituents, carvacrol and gamma-terpinene, were evaluated against field-collected unfed adult Hyalomma marginatum. The distillate was tested against this tick species at 5, 10, 20, and 40 microL/L while the two major components were each tested at 10 microL/L. Generally, tick mortality to the S. thymbra distillate increased with concentration and exposure time. Ticks exposed to vapors from cotton wicks containing at least 40 microL/L resulted in complete (100%) mortality at 3h. The lower concentrations provided >or=90% mortality at 3h post treatment with complete mortality at 24h. Knockdown was observed only in the carvacrol and gamma-terpinene treatments. Ticks exposed to carvacrol-treated wicks produced >93% knockdown at 3h but at 24h approximately 57% were dead. The gamma-terpinene treatment produced >or=90% knockdown at 105 min through 3h but at 24h only about 87% of the ticks were dead. PMID:20303667

  3. Composition and acaricidal activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil against two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch).

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, S C H; Niculau, E dos S; Blank, A F; Câmara, C A G; Araújo, I N; Alves, P B

    2010-01-01

    The essential oils from accessions of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) were characterized by GC and GC/MS and investigated for their acaricidal activity against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Twenty-nine compounds were identified with potential acaricidal activity. Glass receptacles were used as test chambers. For each dose and exposure time combination, three replicates were used. Each replicate consisted of 30 adult females of T. urticae, 10 mites in each leaf disk of Canavalia ensiformis placed in a Petri dish. Increasing amounts of oil or terpene were applied on a blotting paper strip, fixed on the inner surface of the glass recipient cover, corresponding to 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 microL/L of air, respectively. Exposure periods were 24, 48, and 72 h. Data obtained in these experiments were submitted to probit analysis. The essential oil of L. sidoides, thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:19758799

  4. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed. PMID:26310511

  5. Acaricidal activities against house dust mites of spearmint oil and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activities of spearmint oil and carvone derivatives against house dust mites using contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays to replace benzyl benzoate as a synthetic acaricide. Based on the LD50 values, the contact toxicity bioassay revealed that dihydrocarvone (0.95 and 0.88?µg/cm2) was 7.7 and 6.8 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (7.33 and 6.01?µg/cm2) against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively, followed by carvone (3.78 and 3.23?µg/cm2), spearmint oil (5.16 and 4.64?µg/cm2), carveol (6.00 and 5.80?µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (8.23 and 7.10?µg/cm2). Results of the fumigant toxicity bioassay showed that dihydrocarvone (2.73 and 2.16?µg/cm2) was approximately 4.0 and 4.8 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (11.00 and 10.27?µg/cm2), followed by carvone (6.63 and 5.78?µg/cm2), carveol (7.58 and 7.24?µg/cm2), spearmint oil (9.55 and 8.10?µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (9.79 and 8.14?µg/cm2). Taken together, spearmint oil and carvone derivatives are a likely viable alternative to synthetic acaricides for managing house dust mites. PMID:24488719

  6. Silencing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced acaricide resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Zhang, Jiao; Shen, Guangmao; Xu, Zhifeng; Wei, Peng; Zhang, Yichao; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are involved in metabolic resistance to insecticides and require NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to transfer electrons when they catalyze oxidation reactions. The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest mite of crop and vegetable plants worldwide, and its resistance to acaricides has quickly developed. However, the role of CPR on the formation of acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus is still unclear. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding CPR was cloned and characterized from T. cinnabarinus (designated TcCPR). TcCPR expression was detectable in all developmental stages of T. cinnabarinus, but it's much lower in eggs. TcCPR was up-regulated and more inducible with fenpropathrin treatment in the fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain compared with the susceptible SS strain. Feeding of double-strand RNA was effective in silencing the transcription of TcCPR in T. cinnabarinus, which resulted in decreasing the activity of P450s and increasing the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in the FeR strain but not in the susceptible strain. The current results provide first evidence that the down-regulation of TcCPR contributed to an increase of the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in resistant mites. TcCPR could be considered as a novel target for the development of new pesticides. PMID:26493678

  7. Silencing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced acaricide resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Zhang, Jiao; Shen, Guangmao; Xu, Zhifeng; Wei, Peng; Zhang, Yichao; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are involved in metabolic resistance to insecticides and require NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to transfer electrons when they catalyze oxidation reactions. The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest mite of crop and vegetable plants worldwide, and its resistance to acaricides has quickly developed. However, the role of CPR on the formation of acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus is still unclear. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding CPR was cloned and characterized from T. cinnabarinus (designated TcCPR). TcCPR expression was detectable in all developmental stages of T. cinnabarinus, but it’s much lower in eggs. TcCPR was up-regulated and more inducible with fenpropathrin treatment in the fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain compared with the susceptible SS strain. Feeding of double-strand RNA was effective in silencing the transcription of TcCPR in T. cinnabarinus, which resulted in decreasing the activity of P450s and increasing the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in the FeR strain but not in the susceptible strain. The current results provide first evidence that the down-regulation of TcCPR contributed to an increase of the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in resistant mites. TcCPR could be considered as a novel target for the development of new pesticides. PMID:26493678

  8. Acaricidal activity of aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles from Manilkara zapota against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2012-08-01

    Traditional parasite control is primarily based on the use of chemical acaricides, which unfortunately have many negative side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Manilkara zapota to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 421 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of AgNPs. SEM supports the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. Acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of M. zapota and synthesized AgNPs were carried out against R. (B.) microplus and the results showed the LC(50) values of 16.72 and 3.44 mg/L; r(2)=0.856 and 0.783), respectively. PMID:21906765

  9. Evaluation acaricidal efficacy of botanical extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Nong, Xiang; Tan, Yong-Jian; Wang, Jia-Hai; Xie, Yue; Fang, Chun-Lin; Chen, Lin; Liu, Tian-Fei; Yang, De-Ying; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Peng, Xue-Rong; Wang, Shu-Xian; Yang, Guang-You

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of a botanical extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. This could result in developing effective extracts of E. adenophorum as a source of natural, low-toxicity plant-based acaricidal drugs. Adult engorged females of H. longicornis were collected from naturally infected goats. The engorged females were reared in the laboratory and their offspring (larvae and nymphs) were used as test ectoparasites. The toxic effects of botanical extracts from E. adenophorum against larvae and nymphs of H. longicornis were evaluated. The results showed that the extracts with 1.5 and 1.0g/ml (w/v) concentrations were toxic for H. longicornis, comparable to a toxic effect of 2% chlorpyrifos (positive control). The median lethal time (LT50) for larval and nymphal ticks with 1.5g/ml (w/v) concentration of extract were 0.790 (LT99=1.065) and 1.018 (LT99=10.608) hours, respectively, whereas the LT50 of 1.0g/ml (w/v) concentration were 1.445 (LT99=6.047) and 1.313 (LT99=29.932) hours for larval and nymphal ticks, respectively. At a concentration of 1.5g/ml (w/v), an acaricidal effect of 100% was achieved for both larval and nymphal ticks, while a concentration of 1.0g/ml (w/v) resulted in 100% (for larvae) and 93% (for nymphs) within a 6h period. In additional, we found that the relatively low concentration (0.5g/ml) also obtained a good acaricidal effect during the short experimental period, with 2.22 and 2.651h LT50 for larval and nymphal ticks, respectively. These results indicate that E. adenophorum contains potent acaricidal ingredients against the hard tick H. longicornis. PMID:24051345

  10. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Luciana G.; Barbieri, Fábio S.; Rocha, Rodrigo B.; Oliveira, Márcia C. S.; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate (OP) associations (68.91–81.47%) and amidine (51.35–100%). For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the milbemycin (94.84–100%) was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21–100%) and the avermectins (81.34–100%). The phenylpyrazole (PZ) group had similar efficacy (99.90%) to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed. PMID:21547224

  11. Acaricidal activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from three Piper species.

    PubMed

    de B F Ferraz, Alexandre; Balbino, João Marcio; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz; Ribeiro, Vera Lucia S; Bordignon, Sérgio A L; von Poser, Gilsane

    2010-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Piper amalago, Piper mikanianum, and Piper xylosteoides was elucidated by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analyses. P. mikanianum and P. xylosteoides essential oils presented phenylpropanoids as their main compounds (67.89% and 48.53%, respectively) whereas P. amalago was rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (84.95%). The essential oils obtained were investigated for their effect on newly hatched larvae of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The essential oil of P. mikanianum (LC(50) 2.33 microL/mL) was more active than that of P. xylosteoides (LC(50) 6.15 microL/mL) against the larvae, while the oil of P. amalago was inactive. These results suggest that phenylpropanoids, mainly apiol and safrole, are responsible for the acaricidal activity. PMID:20428889

  12. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum caribaeum against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jeane; Vinturelle, Rafaelle; Mattos, Camila; Tietbohl, Luis Armando Candido; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Junior, Itabajara Silva Vaz; Mourão, Samanta Cardozo; Rocha, Leandro; Folly, Evelize

    2014-09-01

    Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lamarck (Rutaceae) is plant species with a variety of medical applications, including insecticidal activity. This study determined the bioacaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) females using the adult immersion test. For this purpose, three serial concentrations (5.0, 2.5, and 1.25%, vol:vol, in 1% dimetilsulfoxide) of the essential oil were used. Essential oil 5% caused 65% mortality on the first day after treatment, 85% on the second day, and 100% mortality by the fifth day. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against cattle ticks. PMID:25276925

  13. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks. PMID:25199555

  14. Acaricidal effect of herbal extracts against cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, J P; Ghosh, S; Patel, K K; Singh, Veer

    2014-05-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Datura stramonium, Azadirachta indica, and Calotropis procera leaves, Allium sativum (AS) cloves, and Carica papaya (CP) seeds collected from Banaskanta, Gujarat (India) was tested for its acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The percent adult mortality within 15 days, reproductive index, percentage inhibition of oviposition, hatching of laid ova, and percentage larval mortality were studied at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml. At the highest concentration (100 mg/ml), the adult tick mortality was 66.67, 73.33, 80.00, and 93.33% for C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extracts, respectively, and it was statistically significant (P?acaricidal properties and could be a potential component of alternative R. (B.) microplus tick control strategy. PMID:24633906

  15. In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikant; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, K G Ajith; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-08-01

    In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed. PMID:26267092

  16. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-01-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC 50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC 50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus. PMID:17111463

  17. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from five endemic conifers of New Caledonia on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hue, Thomas; Hnawia, Edouard; Lesaffre, Leïla; Menut, Chantal; Nour, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from endemic conifers of New Caledonia in the context of the development of natural alternatives. Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from resin and heartwood of five endemic conifers of New Caledonia (Araucaria columnaris, Agathis moorei, Agathis ovata, Callitris sulcata, and Neocallitropsis pancheri) was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using the Larval Packal Test bioassay. A first screening with 5% dilute solution was carried out and the oils with 100% of mortality at this rate were diluted until no activity was shown. The heartwood oils of the two Cupressaceae were the most active with LC50 value of 0.65% for C. sulcata and 0.55% for N. pancheri while resin oil of A. columnaris (LC50=1.62%) was the most active of the Araucariaceae family. Negative control (ethanol) was not toxic to the larvae. The chemical composition of essential oil from resin of A. columnaris was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil was characterized by high level of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes and was composed mainly of aromadendrene (23.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (16.0%). In order to compare different plant resources in a sustainable program of natural acaricide, an "essential oil efficiency EOE" can be measured as the ratio between the yield of extraction and LC50 value. This study shows that A. columnaris (EOE=2.36) and N. pancheri (EOE=3.51) could provide valuable and effective natural acaricides for control of the cattle tick R. microplus. PMID:23371495

  18. Rotenoid content and in vitro acaricidal activity of Tephrosia vogelii leaf extract on the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus.

    PubMed

    Kalume, M K; Losson, B; Angenot, L; Tits, M; Wauters, J N; Frédérich, M; Saegerman, C

    2012-11-23

    This study aimed to determine the rotenoid content of leaf extracts of the white (TVW) and purple (TVP) varieties of Tephrosia vogelii, both collected in North-Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo and to evaluate their in vitro acaricidal efficacy on the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of rotenoid compounds from those extracts revealed that the contents of rotenone and deguelin were respectively higher in the leaves of TVW (0.044% and 1.13%) than in TVP (0.014% and 0.66%). Batches of 20 live adult ticks were immersed for 15 min in six different doses of each plant extract (0.625; 1.25; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20mg/mL of distilled water) and in the solution of Milbitraz(®) (12.5%m/v emulsifiable concentrate of amitraz) as a positive control. Additionally 9.5% ethanol and distilled water control groups were included. Tick mortalities were recorded every 24h for 5 days. The results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the acaricidal effect of Milbitraz(®) and the plant material used at a dose of at least 2.5 or 5mg/mL for TVW and TVP respectively. However, the dose response relationship determined at the fifth day after treatment showed a similar acaricidal effect for the two plant varieties with similar lethal dose 50 (LD(50)) of 0.83 and 0.81 mg/mL for TVW and TVP respectively. It is concluded that T. vogelii leaves may be used for the control of R. appendiculatus in areas where synthetic acaricides are either not available or affordable. However, T. vogelii extract should be sprayed in order to limit the potential risks of ecotoxicity linked to rotenoid compounds. PMID:22795670

  19. Lethal and Sublethal Impacts of Acaricides on Tamarixia radiata (Hemiptera: Eulophidae), an Important Ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Lira, A C S; Zanardi, O Z; Beloti, V H; Bordini, G P; Yamamoto, P T; Parra, J R P; Carvalho, G A

    2015-10-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) in biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus orchards. We evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to T. radiata. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (mortality >77%) to T. radiata. Abamectin, diflubenzuron, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, propargite, spirodiclofen, and sulfur caused low acute toxicity and affected the parasitism rate and emergence rate of adults (F1 generation), and were considered slightly harmful to T. radiata. Dicofol and pyridaben did not affect the survival and action of the ectoparasitoid, and were considered harmless. In addition to its acute toxicity, carbosulfan caused mortality higher than 25% for >30?d after application, and was considered persistent. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, and sulfur caused mortalities over 25% until 24?d after application and were considered moderately persistent; abamectin was slightly persistent, and fenbutatin oxide was short lived. Our results suggest that most acaricides used to control pest mites in citrus affect the density and efficacy of T. radiata in the biological control of D. citri. However, further evaluations are needed in order to determine the effect of these products on this ectoparasitoid under field conditions. PMID:26453716

  20. Acaricidal Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alston against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, T. P. Adarsh; Krishna, T. P. Ajeesh; Chithra, N. D.; Deepa, P. E.; Darsana, U.; Sreelekha, K. P.; Juliet, Sanis; Nair, Suresh N.; Ajith Kumar, K. G.; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2014-01-01

    The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alston (family: Vitaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (AIT). The per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. The extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. Peak mortality rate was observed after day 5 of treatment. Mortality of engorged female ticks, inhibition of fecundity, and hatching of eggs were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of the extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 10.46%. The HPTLC profiling of the petroleum ether extract revealed the presence of at least seven polyvalent components. In the petroleum ether extract, nicotine was identified as one of the components up to a concentration of 5.4%. However, nicotine did not reveal any acaricidal activity up to 20000 ppm (2%). Coconut oil, used as diluent for dissolving the extract, did not reveal any acaricidal effects. The results are indicative of the involvement of synergistic or additive action of the bioactive components in the tick mortality and inhibition of the oviposition. PMID:25436226

  1. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner. PMID:25717008

  2. Production of date palm fruits free of acaricides residues by ozone technology as post-harvest treatment.

    PubMed

    Osman, Khaled A

    2015-06-01

    Distilled water and ozonated water as postharvest wash treatments for 15-60 min as dipping times were tested to remove two acaricides namely, dicofol and amitraz from different varieties of date fruits. Recovered amount of the acaricides was extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dicofol removal percentages in the presence of ozone increased in the order of Nabtet Aly?>?Nabout Seif?>?Khalas?>?Sakay, while amitraz removal increased in the order of Nabtet Aly?>?Nabout Seif?>?Sakay?>?Khalas, respectively, and the percentages of residues on date fruits depended on the dipping time. Kinetic studies revealed that dicofol and amitraz were easily removable from date fruits treated with ozonated water. Ozone-treated date palm fruits were not associated with significant changes in antioxidant capacity, and phenolic and sugar contents. Due to the large amount of dates consumed by Saudi residents, a higher risk of exposure to pesticides, especially in children and other vulnerable individuals may occur and the search for safety methods to remove pesticides with negligible residual deposits has always been preferred. Therefore, the present study validated that ozone technology as wash treatments is safe and promising processes for the removal of acaricides from date fruits surface under domestic conditions to reduce the impact over consumer's health. PMID:26028713

  3. Toxicity of acaricides to Raoiella indica and their selectivity for its predator, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis, Carla P O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2013-07-01

    Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is considered a pest of coconut palm in Asia and the Middle East. This mite was recently introduced in the Americas, where it spread to several countries and expanded its range of hosts, causing heavy losses to coconut and banana production. The phytoseiid mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) is one of the predators most often encountered in coconut palms. Because the current prospects for the control of R. indica in the New World indicate the use of acaricides and the management of their natural enemies, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of selected acaricides to R. indica and the selectivity (i.e., toxicity to the predator relative to toxicity to the prey) for A. largoensis. Assays were performed by the immersion of banana leaf discs in acaricide solutions, followed by the placing of adult females of the pest or predator on the discs. Mortality of the mites was evaluated after 24 h, and the data obtained were subjected to probit analysis. Abamectin, fenpyroximate, milbemectin and spirodiclofen were the products most toxic to R. indica adults, whereas fenpyroximate and spirodiclofen were the most selective for A. largoensis. PMID:23229493

  4. Toxicity of plant essential oils to acaricide-susceptible and -resistant Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Gyeu; Kim, Soon Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-08-01

    The toxicity of 10 plant essential oils to adults of acaricide-susceptible, chlorfenapyr-resistant (CRT-53), fenpropathrin-resistant (FRT-53), pyridaben-resistant (PRT-53), and abamectin-resistant (ART-53) strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and to female Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined using spray or vapor-phase mortality bioassays. In bioassay with the susceptible adults, lemon eucalyptus (19.3 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, followed by peppermint, citronella Java, thyme red, caraway seed, clove leaf, and pennyroyal oils (LC50, 20.6-23.7 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these oils was almost identical against adults from either of the susceptible and resistant strains, even though CRT-53, FRT-53, PRT-53, and ART-53 adults exhibited high levels of resistance to chlorfenapyr (resistance ratio [RR], > 9,140), fenpropathrin (RR, 94), pyridaben (RR, > 390), and abamectin (RR, 85), respectively. Against female N. californicus, lemon eucalyptus (LC50, 21.4 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, whereas the LC50 values of the other nine oils ranged from 23.2 to 72.6 microg/cm3. N. californicus was 1-2 times more tolerant than T. urticae to the test essential oils. Thus, these essential oils merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of acaricide-resistant T. urticae populations as fumigants. PMID:20857739

  5. Regulation of Coronafacoyl Phytotoxin Production by the PAS-LuxR Family Regulator CfaR in the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

  6. Regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by the PAS-LuxR family regulator CfaR in the common scab pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2015-01-01

    Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

  7. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  8. Functional characterization of the Tetranychus urticae CYP392A11, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates the METI acaricides cyenopyrafen and fenpyroximate.

    PubMed

    Riga, M; Myridakis, A; Tsakireli, D; Morou, E; Stephanou, E G; Nauen, R; Van Leeuwen, T; Douris, V; Vontas, J

    2015-10-01

    Cyenopyrafen is a Mitochondrial Electron Transport Inhibitor (METI) acaricide with a novel mode of action at complex II, which has been recently developed for the control of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a pest of eminent importance globally. However, some populations of T. urticae are cross-resistant to this molecule, and cyenopyrafen resistance can be readily selected in the lab. The cytochrome P450s genes CYP392A11 and CYP392A12 have been strongly associated with the phenotype. We expressed the CYP392A11 and the CYP392A12 genes with T. urticae cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) in Escherichia coli. CYP392A12 was expressed predominately as an inactive form, witnessed by a peak at P420, despite optimization efforts on expression conditions. However, expression of CYP392A11 produced a functional enzyme, with high activity and preference for the substrates Luciferin-ME EGE and ethoxycoumarin. CYP392A11 catalyses the conversion of cyenopyrafen to a hydroxylated analogue (kcat = 2.37 pmol/min/pmol P450), as well as the hydroxylation of fenpyroximate (kcat = 1.85 pmol/min/pmol P450). In addition, transgenic expression of CYP392A11 in Drosophila melanogaster, in conjunction with TuCPR, confers significant levels of fenpyroximate resistance. The overexpression of CYP392A11 in multi-resistant T. urticae strains, not previously exposed to cyenopyrafen, which had been indicated by microarray studies, was confirmed by qPCR, and it was correlated with significant levels of cyenopyrafen and fenpyroximate cross-resistance. The implications of our findings for insecticide resistance management strategies are discussed. PMID:26363294

  9. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  10. Gene Replacement for the Generation of Designed Novel Avermectin Derivatives with Enhanced Acaricidal and Nematicidal Activities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Chen, An-Liang; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Zhen; Li, Mei-Hong; Li, Na; Lin, Jia-Tan; Bai, Hua; Wang, Ji-Dong; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-08-15

    Avermectin (AVM) and ivermectin (IVM) are potent pesticides and acaricides which have been widely used during the past 30 years. As insect resistance to AVM and IVM is greatly increasing, alternatives are urgently needed. Here, we report two novel AVM derivatives, tenvermectin A (TVM A) and TVM B, which are considered a potential new generation of agricultural and veterinary drugs. The molecules of the TVMs were designed based on structure and pharmacological property comparisons among AVM, IVM, and milbemycin (MBM). To produce TVMs, a genetically engineered strain, MHJ1011, was constructed from Streptomyces avermitilis G8-17, an AVM industrial strain. In MHJ1011, the native aveA1 gene was seamlessly replaced with milA1 from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The total titer of the two TVMs produced by MHJ1011 reached 3,400 mg/liter. Insecticidal tests proved that TVM had enhanced activities against Tetranychus cinnabarinus and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, as desired. This study provides a typical example of exploration for novel active compounds through a new method of polyketide synthase (PKS) reassembly for gene replacement. The results of the insecticidal tests may be of use in elucidating the structure-activity relationship of AVMs and MBMs. PMID:26025902

  11. Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

    2012-06-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), ?-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and ?-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 ?l/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 ?l/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, ?-humulene and ?-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to ?-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed. PMID:22415244

  12. Acaricidal efficacy against cattle ticks and acute oral toxicity of Lippia javanica (Burm F.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Nyahangare, Emmanuel T; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Hove, Thokozani; Stevenson, Philip C; Belmain, Steve R; Mvumi, Brighton M

    2011-02-01

    In search for low-cost, safe and environmentally benign plant-based alternatives to commercial pesticides, the efficacy of Lippia javanica aqueous leaf extracts in controlling ticks on cattle, acute oral toxicity in mice and phytochemistry were evaluated. L. javanica aqueous leaf extracts at 10% and 20% w/v were effective at controlling cattle ticks but not as good as an amitraz-based acaricide Tickbuster. However, they can provide an effective tick control option where synthetic products are unavailable or unaffordable, particularly in remote parts of southern Africa. Peripheral blood samples collected showed no haemoparasites in treated cattle implying that animals did not suffer from clinical tick-borne diseases. The leaf aqueous extracts of L. javanica were tested for toxicity in BALB/c mice. While anecdotal evidence suggests L. javanica has low mammalian toxicity, within 48 h all mice fed with the L. javanica leaf aqueous extract at 12.5-37.5% v/v were lethargic, and overall mortality was 37.5% (n = 24). Thus, despite their apparent safety, water extracts of L. javanica leaves may have deleterious health implications on humans and animals if consumed at very high doses. Many compounds have been identified from L. javanica including an array of phenolic glycosides, flavonoids and essential oils but none of these are known to have acute toxic properties. PMID:20978842

  13. Variation in chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Dermanyssus gallinae of four eucalyptus essential oils.

    PubMed

    George, David R; Masic, Dino; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Guy, Jonathan H

    2009-06-01

    The results of this study suggest that certain eucalyptus essential oils may be of use as an alternative to synthetic acaricides in the management of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. At a level of 0.21 mg/cm(2), the essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora achieved 85% mortality in D. gallinae over a 24 h exposure period in contact toxicity tests. A further two essential oils from different eucalyptus species, namely E. globulus and E. radiata, provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower mite mortality (11 and 19%, respectively). Notable differences were found between the eucalyptus essential oils regarding their chemical compositions. There appeared to be a trend whereby the essential oils that were composed of the fewer chemical components were the least lethal to D. gallinae. It may therefore be the case that the complexity of an essential oil's chemical make up plays an important role in dictating the toxicity of that oil to pests such as D. gallinae. PMID:19089590

  14. Effectiveness of house dust mite acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate on carpets, fabrics and mattress foam: a standardization of methodology.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Satiko; Franzolin, Marcia Regina; Chiesa, Soledad; Moreira, Débora; Gambale, Walderez; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate, industrially applied to samples of carpets, mattress foam, and fabrics used for furniture upholstery, soft toys and shoe uppers. Approximately 100 adult house dust mites of the species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were inoculated into a Petri dish containing the sample (a piece of carpet, mattress foam, or fabric), treated with the acaricide, randomly collected. Mite-maintenance culture medium was added on top of each sample. After one, two, three, seven and 30 days of incubation at 25 degrees C and 75% relative humidity, each dish was examined using a 40X stereoscopic microscope (40X). One hundred percent acaricide effectiveness was obtained in treated materials by the end of the 30th-day postinoculation period, under optimal conditions for mite maintenance. PMID:16847508

  15. EXPOSE-R cosmic radiation time profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Horneck, Gerda; Häder, Donat-Peter; Schuster, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the time profile of cosmic radiation exposure obtained by the radiation risks radiometer-dosimeter (R3DR) during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-R mission (EXPOSE-R) in the EXPOSE-R facility outside the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS). Another aim is to make the obtained results available to other EXPOSE-R teams for use in their data analysis. R3DR is a low mass and small dimensions automated device, which measures solar radiation in four channels and in addition cosmic ionizing radiation. The main results of cosmic ionizing radiation measurements are: three different radiation sources were detected and quantified: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), energetic protons from the inner radiation belt (IRB) in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly and energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (ORB). The highest daily averaged absorbed dose rate of 506 ?Gy day-1 came from IRB protons; GCR delivered much smaller daily absorbed dose rates of 81.4 ?Gy day-1 on average, and ORB source delivered on average a dose rate of 89 ?Gy day-1. The IRB and ORB daily averaged absorbed dose rates were higher than those observed during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-E mission (EXPOSE-E), whereas the GCR rate was smaller than that measured during the EXPOSE-E mission. The reason for this difference is much less surrounding constructions shielding of the R3DR instrument in comparison with the R3DE instrument.

  16. Acaricidal toxicities of 1-hydroxynaphthalene from Scutellaria barbata and its derivatives against house dust and storage mites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2013-07-01

    The essential oil of Scutellaria barbata was extracted using a steam distillation and then evaluated via fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. The acaricidal toxicities of 1-hydroxynaphthalene from S. barbata oil and its derivatives were determined and compared with those of benzyl benzoate. Based on the LD50 values of 1-hydroxynaphthalene derivatives against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae, obtained using a fumigant toxicity bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1-hydroxynaphthalene (2.11, 2.37, and 4.50 µg/cm2) was 4.76, 6.00, and 2.68 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate (10.05, 9.50, and 12.50 µg/cm2) in the corresponding order, which was followed by that of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (9.50, 9.00, and 11.50 µg/cm2). On the contact toxicity bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1-hydroxynaphthalene (0.79, 0.92, and 2.50 µg/cm2) was 9.49, 6.52, and 3.76 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate (7.50, 6.00, and 9.41 µg/cm2), which was followed by that of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (4.21, 4.80, and 6.50 µg/cm2). In conclusion, our results indicate that S. barbata oil and 1-hydroxynaphthalene derivatives might be effective natural agents for the management of house dust and storage mites. PMID:23757178

  17. Spectroscopic evaluation of thymol dissolved by different methods and influence on acaricidal activity against larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Calmon, Fernanda; Faza, Aline; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Georgopoulos, Stéfanos Leite; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa

    2012-11-01

    The acaricidal activity of three thymol formulations was investigated at five concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mg/ml) on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae, and the behavior of its solubility in these formulations was analyzed. The thymol was dissolved in distilled water plus 1 % dimethylsulfoxide as adjuvant under two heating regimes (water bath in formulation 1 and hot plate in formulation 2) as well as without heating in 50 % ethanol and 50 % water (v/v). The acaricidal activity was assessed by the modified larval packet test, and the solubilization behavior was investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, based on the Beer-Lambert law. With formulations 1 and 2, the mortality was greater than 95 % starting at the thymol concentrations of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/ml, respectively, while with formulation 3, this mortality level was reached starting at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml, showing that the addition of ethanol in the solution enhanced the acaricidal action of thymol. This result was supported by the LC 90 values, which were 3.3, 2.4, and 1.6 mg/ml of thymol for formulations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This result is related to the better solubility of thymol in the hydroethanolic formulation, since the spectroscopic analysis revealed that the thymol dissolved more completely in this formulation. This fact was evident once the R (2) obtained from the linear regression analysis of the relation absorbance × concentration of the formulations 1, 2, and 3 approached the optimal value (R (2)?=?1) in the following sequence: 1, 2, and 3 (0.717, 0.901, and 0.968, respectively). PMID:22797607

  18. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from three Lamiaceae plant species on Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Ayd?n, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-10-01

    Acaricidal effects of three Labiatae essential oils extracted from ariel parts of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus, Mentha longifolia L., and Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 1-0.1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae. PMID:22581297

  19. Evaluation of selected acaricides against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse cotton using multispectral data.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel E; Latheef, Mohamed A; López, Juan D

    2015-06-01

    Twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an early season pest of cotton in the mid-southern USA and causes reduction in yield, fiber quality and impaired seed germination. Objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of abamectin and spiromesifen with two divergent LC50 values against TSSM in a computer-operated spray table which simulated aerial application parameters. Combined with a pressure of 276 kPa and a speed of 8 km/h, a 650033 nozzle delivered a spray rate of 18.7 L/ha. The active ingredient rates were 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 and the lowest label recommended rates for early season cotton. The intent was to study efficacy relative to deposition characteristics at active ingredient rates equal to and lower than those recommended by the label. Spectral reflectance values from a multispectral optical sensor were used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index which numerically described the surface reflectance characteristics of cotton canopies concomitant to damage caused by T. urticae in the greenhouse. Water sensitive paper samplers described spray droplet spectra parameters (Dv0.1, Dv0.5 and Dv0.9, µm) and percent spray coverage. The volume median diameter (Dv0.5, µm) for abamectin and spiromesifen were respectively, 218 and 258 at one-half rate of the lowest label rate. These spray droplets were well above the driftable portions of the spray volume (<141 µm) for both abamectin and spiromesifen. Efficacy evaluations indicated that spiromesifen was more effective than abamectin in controlling T. urticae on early season cotton at one-half rate of the lowest label rate. Results reported herein demonstrate that the multispectral optical sensor in lieu of manually counting T. urticae appears to be a promising tool for efficacy evaluations against acaricides for early season plants grown in greenhouses. PMID:25863789

  20. Verbenone structural analogues isolated from Artemesia aucheri as natural acaricides against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2013-12-18

    The acaricidal activities of Artemisia aucheri oil and (1S)-(-)-verbenone structural analogues were evaluated using a fumigant method against Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and then compared to those of benzyl benzoate. On the basis of the LD50 values against D. farinae , (1S)-(-)-verbenone (1.38 ?g/cm(2)) was about 7.4 times more active than benzyl benzoate (10.15 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (+)-trans-myrtanol (2.27 ?g/cm(2)), (-)-trans-myrtanol (2.30 ?g/cm(2)), and A. aucheri oil (8.75 ?g/cm(2)). (1S)-(-)-Verbenone (1.25 ?g/cm(2)) was approximately 7.8 times more effective against D. pteronyssinus than benzyl benzoate (9.80 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (+)-trans-myrtanol (2.18 ?g/cm(2)), (-)-trans-myrtanol (2.22 ?g/cm(2)), and A. aucheri oil (8.46 ?g/cm(2)). In the case of T. putrescentiae , (1S)-(-)-verbenone (3.75 ?g/cm(2)) was roughly 3.5 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (13.25 ?g/cm(2)), followed by (+)-trans-myrtanol (12.57 ?g/cm(2)), (-)-trans-myrtanol (12.95 ?g/cm(2)), and A. aucheri oil (11.55 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that A. aucheri oil and (1S)-(-)-verbenone structural analogues may be effective natural agents to control house dust and storage mites. PMID:24295367

  1. Laboratory assessment of acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera extracts against deltamethrin resistant Hyalomma anatolicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-07-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, in the multi-host tick Hyalomma anatolicum collected from district Moga, Punjab (India). Results indicated the presence of level I resistance against deltamethrin (RF = 2.81), whereas the tick isolate was susceptible to cypermethrin (RF = 0.2). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera along with roots of Vitex negundo were assessed for their acaricidal activity against the larvae of deltamethrin resistant H. anatolicum. The efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent larval mortality and determination of LC50 values. The various ethanolic extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in larval tick mortality, whereas the aqueous extracts exhibited a much lower mortality. The highest mortality (93.7 ± 0.66 %) was observed at the 5.0 % concentration of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus and the lowest LC50 value (0.011 %) was recorded for ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo. The results indicated that these plant extracts have potential to be developed as herbal acaricides. PMID:24647800

  2. Biofunctional constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and structure-activity relationships of its analogues show acaricidal and insecticidal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-27

    The acaricidal and insecticidal potential of the active constituent isolated from Citrullus colocynthis fruits and its structurally related analogues was evaluated by performing leaf disk, contact toxicity, and fumigant toxicity bioassays against Tetranychus urticae, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitophilus zeamais adults. The active constituent of C. colocynthis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and was identified as 4-methylquinoline on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, 4-methylquinoline and its structural analogues were tested against mites and two insect pests. On the basis of the LC50 values, 7,8-benzoquinoline was the most effective against T. urticae. Quinoline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methylquinoline, 4-methylquinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 8-methylquinoline, and 7,8-benzoquinoline showed high insecticidal activities against S. oryzae and S. zeamais regardless of the application method. These results indicate that introduction of a functional group into the quinoline skeleton and changing the position of the group have an important influence on the acaricidal and insecticidal activities. Furthermore, 4-methylquinoline isolated from C. colocynthis fruits, along with its structural analogues, could be effective natural pesticides for managing spider mites and stored grain weevils. PMID:25110971

  3. Acaricidal properties of Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) essential oils obtained by three methods of extraction.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, H; Bélanger, A; Bostanian, N; Vincent, C; Poliquin, A

    2001-02-01

    Essential oils of Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum vulgare L. were extracted by three methods, a microwave assisted process (MAP), distillation in water (DW) and direct steam distillation (DSD), and tested for their relative toxicity as contact acaricides to the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. All three extracts of A. absinthium and of T. vulgare were lethal to the spider mite but to variable degrees. The LC50 obtained from the DSD oil of A. absinthium was significantly lower (0.04 mg/cm2) than that of the MAP (0.13 mg/cm2) and DW (0.13 mg/cm2) oil of this plant species. DSD and DW extracts of T. vulgare were more toxic (75.6 and 60.4% mite mortality, respectively, at 4% concentration) to the spider mite than the MAP extract (16.7% mite mortality at 4% concentration). Chromatographic analysis indicated differences in composition between the more toxic DSD oil of A. absinthium and the other two extracts of this plant, indicating that a sesquiterpene (C15H24) compound present in the DSD oil and absent in the other two may enhance the toxicity of the DSD oil. Chemical analysis of the T. vulgare extracts indicated that beta-thujone is by far the major compound of the oil (>87.6%) and probably contributes significantly to the acaricidal activity of the oil. PMID:11233109

  4. Effect of plant essential oils as acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, with special focus on exposure time.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Olatunji, G; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-19

    Essential oils from thyme and cade have been shown to be effective acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) when tested over a 24h period. Data on the actual rate of knock-down achieved with these products is lacking and potentially important as essential oils are likely to display only short-term toxicity. When tested over periods of less than 24h, thyme essential oil killed D. gallinae relatively quickly and so may make for an effective acaricide even if the residual toxicity of this product is low. However, cade essential oil did not display such a high level of mite knock-down, suggesting it may hold less promise in D. gallinae management. Comparison of the results with those obtained elsewhere using alternative D. gallinae products further confirms the possibility that thyme essential may be useful in control of this pest. This might be especially true if thyme essential oil were employed as part of an integrated pest management approach. PMID:20071087

  5. A survey of fipronil- and ivermectin-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected in Northern Mexico and the options for the management of acaricide-resistant ticks with pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from northern Mexico were surveyed for resistance to 5 classes of acaricide. All were resistant to permethrin. Two strains were resistant to amitraz and 3 were found to be resistant to coumaphos. Two strains were resistant to fipronil incl...

  6. Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

  7. Topical Treatment of White-Tailed Deer with an Acaricide for the Control of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme Borreliosis Hyperendemic Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distrib...

  8. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5?minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0?mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5?minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus. PMID:23244493

  9. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    PubMed Central

    Rim, In-Sook

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

  10. Reduced Efficacy of Commercial Acaricides Against Populations of Resistant Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus from Two Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Villar-Argaiz, David; Chaparro-Gutierrez, Jenny J; Miller, Robert J; Perez de Leon, Adalberto A

    2014-01-01

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 ?g/kg). Injections were made at 3-month intervals on animals at each farm to evaluate the therapeutic and persistent efficacy of ivermectin against R. microplus. Body tick counts and reproductive parameters of semi- or fully engorged females (?5 mm) were assessed at 10-day intervals, and since no negative control group could be included, values were compared against those for day 0. Although there was an overall reduction of 50%-75% in tick numbers that persisted for 30-40 days, it was not significantly different at one of the farms and not enough to afford protection from severe infestations. The engorgement weight and egg mass weight of ticks from treated animals were significantly lower throughout the 50-day posttreatment period. Egg hatch was not significantly reduced posttreatment and remained at levels of 80%-90%. A random selection of 9 out of 28 commercial formulations of ivermectin sold in Colombia were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). All were within the expected labeled concentration (±15% deviation) of 1% and 3.15% ivermectin except for one. A popular unregistered injectable widely used in both farms and labeled as "natural pyrethrin", was found to contain 10.5% ivermectin. An adult immersion test was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of topical acaricides to recommended concentrations of five commercial products and/or their combinations. Efficacy was determined by comparing the reproductive index of each treated group to that of the control group. Cypermethrin (150 ppm) was completely ineffective at both farms. Amitraz (208 ppm) exhibited low and intermediate efficacies of 14% and 56%. The combination of amitraz (100 ppm) and cypermethrin (150 ppm) was less efficacious than the amitraz alone. A generic product based on amitraz + citronella (208 ppm + 10 ppm, respectively) was shown to be less efficacious than the name-brand amitraz product. Products containing the organophosphate chlorpyrifos or trichlorfon exhibited intermediate efficacies of approximately 60% at the Tarso farm. We conclude that at these two locations, there is a high degree of resistance to many of the acaricides available in Colombia and confirm suspicions that ivermectin is no longer able to eliminate tick infestations. PMID:25987840

  11. Reduced Efficacy of Commercial Acaricides Against Populations of Resistant Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus from Two Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Villar-Argaiz, David; Chaparro-Gutierrez, Jenny J; Miller, Robert J; Perez de Leon, Adalberto A

    2014-01-01

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 ?g/kg). Injections were made at 3-month intervals on animals at each farm to evaluate the therapeutic and persistent efficacy of ivermectin against R. microplus. Body tick counts and reproductive parameters of semi- or fully engorged females (?5 mm) were assessed at 10-day intervals, and since no negative control group could be included, values were compared against those for day 0. Although there was an overall reduction of 50%–75% in tick numbers that persisted for 30–40 days, it was not significantly different at one of the farms and not enough to afford protection from severe infestations. The engorgement weight and egg mass weight of ticks from treated animals were significantly lower throughout the 50-day posttreatment period. Egg hatch was not significantly reduced posttreatment and remained at levels of 80%–90%. A random selection of 9 out of 28 commercial formulations of ivermectin sold in Colombia were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). All were within the expected labeled concentration (±15% deviation) of 1% and 3.15% ivermectin except for one. A popular unregistered injectable widely used in both farms and labeled as “natural pyrethrin”, was found to contain 10.5% ivermectin. An adult immersion test was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of topical acaricides to recommended concentrations of five commercial products and/or their combinations. Efficacy was determined by comparing the reproductive index of each treated group to that of the control group. Cypermethrin (150 ppm) was completely ineffective at both farms. Amitraz (208 ppm) exhibited low and intermediate efficacies of 14% and 56%. The combination of amitraz (100 ppm) and cypermethrin (150 ppm) was less efficacious than the amitraz alone. A generic product based on amitraz + citronella (208 ppm + 10 ppm, respectively) was shown to be less efficacious than the name-brand amitraz product. Products containing the organophosphate chlorpyrifos or trichlorfon exhibited intermediate efficacies of approximately 60% at the Tarso farm. We conclude that at these two locations, there is a high degree of resistance to many of the acaricides available in Colombia and confirm suspicions that ivermectin is no longer able to eliminate tick infestations. PMID:25987840

  12. Acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; de Lima, Edson Luiz; de Cosmo, Fábio Antunes; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) is a well-known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of T. riparia essential oil (EO) against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae). For this purpose, nine serial concentrations (12.50%, 6.25%, 3.75%, 1.80%, 0.90%, 0.45%, 0.22%, 0.11%, and 0.056% w/v) of T. riparia were used for the adult immersion test (AIT). For the larval packet test (LPT), we used 14 serial concentrations (100.00%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25%, 3.65%, 1.82%, 0.91%, 0.45%, 0.228%, 0.114%, 0.057%, 0.028%, and 0.014% w/v). The results for AIT showed 100.00% and 2.05% mortality, 19.00 and 90.20% for the total number of eggs, egg-laying inhibition of 0.00% and 90.20%, hatchability inhibition of 0.00% and 70.23%, and product effectiveness of 100.00% and 2.89%, respectively. The AIT indicated that the LC(50) and LC(99.9), calculated using the Probit test, were for mortality (%) 0.534g/mL (0.436-0.632) and 1.552g/mL (1.183-1.92); for total number of eggs were 0.449g/mL (0.339-0.558) and 1.76g/mL (1.27-2.248); and for hatchability inhibition were 0.114g/mL (0.0-0.31) and 2.462g/mL (1.501-3.422), respectively. Larvae between 14 and 21days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27°±1°C, RH?80%. Larval mortality was observed 24h after treatment and showed 10.60-100% mortality in the LPT bioassay. The LPT showed that the LC(50) and LC(99.9) were 1.222g/mL (0.655-1.788) and 11.382g/mL (7.84-14.91), respectively. A positive correlation between T. riparia EO concentration and tick control, was observed by the strong acaricidal effects against R. (B.) microplus, and the mortality rate of ticks was dose-dependent. Our results showed that T. riparia is a promising candidate as an acaricide against resistant strains of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:21762693

  13. In-Vitro Assessment of the Acaricidal Properties of Artemisia annua and Zataria multiflora Essential Oils to Control Cattle Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, KH; Teixeira da Silva, JA

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect’ of Zataria multiflora and Artemisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Methods This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3) of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus) annulatus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were recorded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi). Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, and comparison of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure. Results The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3) to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3) and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively) by the end of the experiment (36 hpi). No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. annua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essential oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged female ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent. Conclusion Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro. PMID:22347275

  14. Acaricidal activity of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella against the ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Arachinida: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Veeramani, V; Sakthivelkumar, S; Tamilarasan, K; Aisha, S O; Janarthanan, S

    2014-09-01

    The ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected at various cattle farms in and around Chennai was subjected to treatment of different crude solvent extracts of leaves of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella for acaricidal activity. Among various solvent extracts of leaves of O. basilicum and S. acmella used, chloroform extract of O. basilicum at concentrations between 6% and 10% exhibited 70% and 100% mortality of ticks when compared to control. The LC50 and LC90 values of the chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum treatment on the ticks after 24 h were observed as 5.46% and 7.69%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of ?- and ?- carboxylesterase enzymes in the whole gut homogenate of cattle tick, R. microplus treated with chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum revealed higher level of activities for the enzymes. This indicated that there was an induced response in the tick, R. microplus against the toxic effects of the extract of O. basilicum. PMID:25382467

  15. Acaricidal activity of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae) essential oil and its major component, carvacrol against adults Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Aydin, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2013-03-31

    The acaricidal activity of an essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae), an endemic species in Turkey, and its major constituents, carvacrol was evaluated against unfed adults Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Kepez, Antalya. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. The major compound identified in the oil was carvacrol (93.02%). Generally, tick mortalities to the O. bilgeri distillate and carvacrol increased with concentrations. O. bilgeri oil produced >83% mortality at 48h at a concentration of 0.8% and mortality was higher than 63% at a carvacrol concentration of 0.4%. Our results have shown that O. bilgeri essential oil and its major component, carvacrol, may have potential as acaricidal agents against R. turanicus. PMID:23218220

  16. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae. PMID:20640444

  17. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Santana Campos, Roseane Nunes de; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. PMID:26359641

  18. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus. PMID:23086445

  19. The acaricidal efficacy of aqueous neem extract and ivermectin against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in experimentally infested rabbits.

    PubMed

    Seddiek, Shaker A; Khater, Hanem F; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

    2013-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi is one of the most important veterinary ectoparasites in rabbits and results in considerable loss of weight, productivity, and wool quality. The acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of neem (CAN) and ivermectin (IVR) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Rabbits were classified into four groups (ten rabbits each). The first group (group 1) was designated as the negative control group. Each rabbit of the other groups was experimentally infested with 50 mites. One month post-infestation, the second group (group 2) was not treated and taken into account as the positive control group. The third group (group 3) was subcutaneously injected with 1 % IVR (200 ?g/kg body weight, three times within a week interval). The fourth group (group 4) was treated topically with CAN (25 %) every 3 days for three consecutive weeks. Index scoring of lesions was described weekly. The number of live mites (larvae, nymphs, and adults) on each rabbit was counted on the 14th, 28th, and 42th day post-treatment (PT). Blood samples were taken 28 and 42 days PT for estimation of some chemical parameters. The body weight and cumulative body weight gain were recoded 14, 28, and 42 days PT. CAN (40 %) was highly efficacious against larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi as 100 % mortality was reached 24 h PT. On the other hand, all treated mites with CAN (20 %) and IVR died 48 h PT. The lethal values of CAN (LC50, LC90, LC95, and LC99) were 7.496, 14.67, 17.75, and 25.37 %, respectively, 48 h PT. Lesion scoring in groups 3 and 4 were significantly decreased (P???0.05), reaching 0.20 and 0.40, respectively, when compared with that of group 2 (4.00), 42 days PT. Twenty-eight days PT, the reduction percentages of mites infesting rabbits were 93.38 and 93.09 % for IVR and CAN, respectively. However, complete mite reduction was reached 42 days PT. Rabbits treated with CAN did not show signs of restlessness or irritation, respiratory signs, or inflammation on the eye and/or skin at the time of application or afterwards. Regarding biochemical analysis, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, and total cholesterol in rabbits treated with CAN were decreased significantly (P???0.05) than those of rabbits of the positive control group and those treated with IVR. On the other hand, the levels of total protein, albumin, and globulin of rabbits in group 4 were significantly (P???0.05) increased when compared with the corresponding values of groups 2 and 3. The body weight and cumulative body weight gain of rabbits treated with CAN were significantly increased (P???0.05) when compared with such values of groups 2 and 3, 28 and 42 days PT. The present data indicated that CAN had in vitro and in vivo acaricidal efficiency similar to that of IVR and improved the performance of rabbits without inducing adverse effects on treated rabbits; consequently, CAN could be suitable as a promising alternative acaricide for veterinary use. PMID:23572045

  20. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from Lippia alba genotypes and its major components carvone, limonene, and citral against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Magna Galvão; Costa-Júnior, Livio Martins; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Lima, Aldilene da Silva; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Bacci, Leandro; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2015-05-30

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal potential of Lippia alba essential oil, citral chemotypes (LA-10 and LA-44 genotypes) and carvone chemotypes (LA-13 and LA-57 genotypes), as well as purified citral and enantiomers of carvone and limonene. Efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. Citral chemotypes had greater larvicidal activity than carvone chemotypes, and this was further supported by larvicidal and adulticidal activity of purified citral with LC50 values of 7.0 and 29.8 mg/mL, respectively. While purified enantiomers of carvone exhibited greater larvicidal activity than those of limonene, enantioselectivity of limonene was observed with R-(+) displaying significantly higher efficacy (LC50 of 31.2mg/mL) than S-(-) (LC50 of 54.5mg/mL). The essential oils and purified compounds were much less toxic toward engorged adult females, with the exception of citral, and this may be due to limited cuticular penetration. PMID:25837783

  1. Syringe test (modified larval immersion test): a new bioassay for testing acaricidal activity of plant extracts against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Iqbal, Zafar

    2012-09-10

    We report a new bioassay "syringe test" (modified larval immersion test) for in vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of crude plant extracts. Prepared syringes, containing eggs of tick, were incubated until 14 d after hatching of eggs, when the bioassay was performed on the larvae. Lethal concentrations for 50% of larvae (LC(50)), LC(90) and LC(99) values were calculated for each tested product. 95% confidence intervals for LC(50) were very narrow, indicating a high degree of repeatability for the new bioassay on larvae of R. microplus. Bioassays were applied to six crude aqueous-methanol extracts from five plants (Acacia nilotica, Buxus papillosa, Fumaria parviflora, Juniperus excelsa, and Operculina turpethum), of which three showed discernible effects. Twenty-four hours post exposure, LC(99) values were 11.9% (w/v) for F. parviflora, 20.8% (w/v) and 29.2% (w/v) for B. papillosa and A. nilotica, respectively. After six days of exposure these values were; 9.1% (w/v), 9.2% (w/v) and 15.5 (w/v) for F. parviflora, A. nilotica and B. papillosa, respectively. PMID:22516644

  2. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  3. Acaricidal activity of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its major constituents on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Elizangela Mércia de Oliveira; Costa, Livio Martins; Pinto, Jessika Andreza Oliveira; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; de Araujo, Sandra Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Bacci, Leandro; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil obtained from different L. gracilis genotypes and their major components, carvacrol and thymol against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (cattle tick) larvae and engorged females. The larval test was performed parallel to the adult immersion test for engorged females for four L. gracilis genotypes. Similar tests were further performed for their major compounds carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol (LC50 of 0.22 and 4.46 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively) was more efficient than thymol (LC50 of 3.86 and 5.50 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively). The lethal concentrations obtained for the isolated essential oil from genotypes LGRA-201 against larvae (1.31 mg/mL) and LGRA-106 against engorged females (4.66 mg/mL) confirmed the acaricidal activity of L. gracilis essential oil and its effectiveness in controlling the southern cattle tick. PMID:23337330

  4. Scabies: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

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  5. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of essential oil from Lippia sidoides on larvae of Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) and larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; Zeringota, Viviane; Calmon, Fernanda; Matos, Renata da Silva; Daemon, Erik; Gois, Roberto Wagner da Silva; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the compounds and to investigate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Lippia sidoides on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In total, 15 compounds comprising 99.97 % of the total peak area were identified. The main constituent of the essential oil was thymol (67.60 %). The acaricidal activity was assessed by the modified larval packet test, with oil concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 ?l/ml, and by the female immersion test with concentrations of 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, 60.0, and 80.0 ?l/ml. The mortality of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae was greater than 95 % starting at concentrations of 10.0 and 20.0 ?l/ml, respectively. In the test with the engorged females, the L. sidoides essential oil starting at a concentration of 40.0 ?l/ml caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the values of the egg mass weight and egg production index. The viability of the eggs was affected in all the treated groups, with significantly lower hatching rates (p < 0.05) in relation to the control group. The control percentages at concentrations of 10.0, 20.0, and 30.0 ?l/ml were 54, 57, and 72 %, and reached 100 % at the highest two concentrations (60.0 and 80.0 ?l/ml). Therefore, it can be concluded that the essential oil from the leaves of L. sidoides has acaricidal activity on R. microplus and D. nitens. PMID:22983219

  6. Acaricidal activity of essential oil from Lippia sidoides on unengorged larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Julião, Lisieux de Santana; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Zeringóta, Viviane; Calmon, Fernanda; Matos, Renata da Silva; Daemon, Erik; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this work were to identify the compounds and to investigate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Lippia sidoides for unengorged larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma cajennense. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In total, 22 compounds comprising 98.5% of the total peak area were identified. The major constituent of the essential oil was thymol (69.9%). The acaricidal activity against larvae and nymphs was assessed using a modified larval packet test. In all experiments, oils were tested at concentrations of 2.35, 4.70, 9.40 14.10 and 18.80 mg/mL. The mortalities of larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus were 20.6, 47.8, 73.6, 99.5 and 99.0% and 12.0, 50.0, 76.3, 96.0 and 96.1%, respectively. For larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense the rates of mortality were 41.9, 63.3, 77.8, 82.5 and 100.0% and 0.0, 32.8, 64.8, 71.1 and 94.0%, respectively. The LC 90 values of the L. sidoides oil were 11.56 and 12.97 mg/mL for larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus and 15.70 and 18.52 mg/mL for larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense, respectively. The essential oil from L. sidoides has acaricidal activity on unengorged larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus and A. cajennense. PMID:24333789

  7. Evaluation of benzaldehyde derivatives from Morinda officinalis as anti-mite agents with dual function as acaricide and mite indicator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Park, Jun-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus with 12–30% fatality rate. Despite severity of the disease, any medication or treatment for SFTS has not developed yet. One approach to prevent SFTS spreading is to control the arthropod vector carrying SFTS virus. We report that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues from M. officinalis have a dual function as acaricide against Dermatophagoides spp. and Haemaphysalis longicornis and indicator (color change) against Dermatophagoides spp. Based on the LD50 values, 2,4,5–trimethylbenzaldehyde (0.21, 0.19, and 0.68??g/cm3) had the highest fumigant activity against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and H. longicornis, followed by 2,3–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.46, 0.44, and 0.79??g/cm3), 2,4–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.66, 0.59, and 0.95??g/cm3), 2,5–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.65, 0.68, and 0.88??g/cm3), 2–methylbenzaldehyde (0.95, 0.87, and 1.28??g/cm3), 3–methylbenzaldehyde (0.99, 0.93, and 1.38??g/cm3), 4–methylbenzaldehyde (1.17, 1.15, and 3.67??g/cm3), and M. officinalis oil (7.05, 7.00, and 19.70??g/cm3). Furthermore, color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. was shown to be induced, from colorless to dark brown, by the treatment of 2,3–dihydroxybenzaldehyde. These finding indicated that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues could be developed as functional agent associated with the arthropod vector of SFTS virus and allergen. PMID:25434408

  8. Acaricidal activity and sublethal effects of an oxymatrine-based biopesticide on two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Mar?i?, Dejan; Me?o, Irena

    2014-11-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of the biopesticide Kingbo (oxymatrine 0.2 % + psoralen 0.4 %) on the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were investigated in laboratory bioassays. The biopesticide was applied to bean leaf discs or primary leaves by using a Potter spray tower. Acute toxicity tests showed no significant ovicidal action: toxic effect (LC50 = 55.49 ?l/l) was the result of a residual activity against larvae that hatched from the treated eggs. Preovipositional females and female teleiochrysales showed similar susceptibility (LC50 = 52.68 and 59.03 ?l/l, respectively), whereas larvae, protonymphs and female deutonymphs were the most susceptible stages (LC50 = 6.88, 13.03, and 8.80 ?l/l, respectively). In a choice test, females preferred the untreated halves of leaves over the halves treated with 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ?l/l in the first 24 h, and their oviposition in those treatments was significantly greater on the untreated halves after 24 and 48 h, as well as the summed oviposition over 72 h. Viability and reproduction of survivors, as well as population growth, were strongly affected after the treatments of preovipositional females and female teleiochrysales with 100, 50 and 25 ?l/l. On the other hand, sublethal effects on the females that survived treatment at the egg stage or reached adulthood from the eggs laid on the treated surface (treatments with 50 and 25 ?l/l) were significantly weaker. Acaricidal and sublethal effects of the biopesticide Kingbo were discussed as a starting point for further research aimed to improve management of T. urticae populations. Regulatory issues and safety concerns regarding further commercialization of this biopesticide are addressed as well. PMID:24948329

  9. Erratum to: the acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

    2013-10-01

    The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5%) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC?? and LC?? were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT?? and LT?? were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25%). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC?? and LC?? values were 0.0033 and 0.0052% (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT?? and LT?? values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.0025% DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5%), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.005 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42% after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28%) when compared with that of DMT (52%). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT. PMID:23955563

  10. The acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

    2013-01-01

    The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5 %) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC(50) and LC(95) were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT(50) and LT(95) were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25 %). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC(50) and LC(95) values were 0.033 and 0.052 % (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT(50) and LT(95) values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.025 % DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5 %), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.05 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42 % after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28 %) when compared with that of DMT (52 %). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT. PMID:23090722

  11. Disease at the wildlife-livestock interface: acaricide use on domestic cattle does not prevent transmission of a tick-borne pathogen with multiple hosts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Josephine G; Klein, Eili Y; Levin, Simon A

    2014-01-31

    Several prominent and economically important diseases of livestock in East Africa are caused by multi-host pathogens that also infect wildlife species, but management strategies are generally livestock focused and models of these diseases tend to ignore the role of wildlife. We investigate the dynamics of a multi-host tick-borne disease in order to assess the efficacy of tick control from an ecological perspective. We examined the efficacy of a widespread measure of tick control and developed a model to explore how changes in the population of ticks due to control measures on cattle impact dynamics of Theileria parva infection in a system with two primary host species, cattle and Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We show that the frequency of acaricide application has a significant impact on the tick population both on the host and in the environment, which can greatly reduce the pathogen load in cattle. We also demonstrate that reducing the tick population through cattle-related control measures is not sufficient to diminish disease transmission in buffalo. Our results suggest that under current control strategies, which target ticks on cattle only, T. parva is likely to remain a significant problem in East Africa, and require the continued use of acaricides, which has significant economic and ecological consequences. PMID:24315187

  12. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), ?-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides. PMID:20865426

  13. Assessment of the acaricidal activity of carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and linalool on larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringóta, Viviane; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Calmon, Fernanda; Maturano, Ralph; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Faza, Aline; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The acaricidal activity of carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and linalool was studied on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens larvae. All the substances were tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 ?l/ml, with 10 repetitions per treatment. The modified larval packet technique was employed in the tests and the mortality was evaluated after 24 h. In the groups treated with carvacrol, the lowest concentration (2.5 ?l/ml) was sufficient to cause 100% death of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae. The same concentration of (E)-cinnamaldehyde resulted in death of approximately 99% of the larvae of both tick species and reached 100% at the other concentrations. For trans-anethole, mortality rates above 90% of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae were only observed starting at the concentration of 15.0 ?l/ml and reached 100% at the highest concentration (20.0 ?l/ml). Finally, the mortality rates of the groups treated with linalool were low, only reaching 8.4 and 14.5% at the highest concentration (20.0 ?l/ml) for larvae of D. nitens and R. microplus, respectively. These results show that carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and trans-anethole have acaricidal activity, particularly carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, both of which resulted in high mortality rates for the larvae of these two tick species even at the lowest concentration. PMID:23354938

  14. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatement of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three I. scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the ‘4-Poster’ device and from control a...

  15. Acaricidal activity against Tetranychus urticae and essential oil composition of four Croton species from Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ilzenayde Araújo; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Volatile components of essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton jacobinensis, C. rhamnifolius, C. muscicapa and C. micans, which are medicinal plants found in the Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil, were analyzed using GC and GC/MS. The acaricidal activity of these oils against Tetranychus urticae was evaluated using the fumigation method. Oil yields from the Croton species ranged from 1.1 +/- 0.0 to 0.6 +/- 0.0%, w/w, for leaves and 0.7 +/- 0.0 to 0.1 +/- 0.0% for stems. Sesquiterpenoids were dominant in all oils, except the stem oil from C. rhamnifolius, which exhibited a high monoterpene content, and the leaf and stem oils from C. muscicapa, which were rich in phenylpropanoids. The major volatile components of the leaf and stem oils from C. jacobinensis were (Z)-alpha-atlantone (24.3 +/- 0.4%) and trans-isolongifolanone (22.8 +/- 0.5%), respectively. The most abundant constituents detected in C. rhamnifolius were alpha-cedrene epoxide (23.3 +/- 0.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (21.9 +/- 0.0%) in the leaf oil, and camphor (16.6 +/- 0.5%) and tricyclene (12.8 +/- 0.1%) in the stem oil. Foenicolin was the main compound identified in the leaf (50.6 +/- 0.2%) and stem (72.7 +/- 0.6%) oils of C. muscicapa, while alpha-bulnesene (32.9 +/- 0.2%) and guaiol (17.9 +/- 0.7%) were the principal components of C. micans oils. These oils exhibited a high degree of toxicity in the fumigation assay. The stem oils from C. jacobinensis and C. rhamnifolius exhibited high lethality rates, with LC50 values of 0.3 and 0.2 microL/L of air after 24 h, respectively. The results suggest the potential use of stem essential oil, especially from C. rhamnifolius and C. jacobinensis, for the integrated control of Tetranychus urticae. PMID:21815434

  16. Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina, with an analysis of tick distribution among cattle.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Canevari, José T; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2015-03-15

    Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina were evaluated for one year. In addition, tick distribution among cattle was analyzed to evaluate if partial selective treatment or culling the small proportion of most heavily infested animals were feasible options to control R. (B.) microplus. Two different treatments schemes based on two applications of fluazuron and one application of 3.15% ivermectin were performed. Treatments were made in late winter and spring so as to act on the small 1st spring generation of R. (B.) microplus, in order to preclude the rise of the larger autumn generation. The overall treatment effect was positively significant in both schemes. The number of ticks observed in the control group was significantly higher than in the treated groups on all post-treatment counts. Group 2 exhibited more than 80% of efficacy almost throughout the study period, whereas Group 1 exhibited an efficacy percentage higher than 80% in September, October, December, February, April and May, but not in November (73.4%), January (58.3%), March (45.2%) or June (53.4%). Absolute control was observed in Group 2 in the counts of September and October, and in Group 1 in the count of February. The control strategies evaluated in this work provide an acceptable control level with only three applications of acaricides; at the same time, they prevent the occurrence of the autumn peak of tick burdens, which is characteristic of R. (B.) microplus in northwestern Argentina. Tick distribution was markedly aggregated in all counts. Although ticks were not distributed evenly among calves, the individual composition of the most heavily infested group was not consistent throughout the study period. In addition, the level of aggregation varied with tick abundance. These results suggest that applying acaricides to a portion of the herd or culling the most infested individuals at a given moment of the year may not be proper methods to achieve a significant control of R. (B.) microplus in northwestern Argentina. PMID:25670006

  17. Molecular analysis of resistance to acaricidal spirocyclic tetronic acids in Tetranychus urticae: CYP392E10 metabolizes spirodiclofen, but not its corresponding enol.

    PubMed

    Demaeght, Peter; Dermauw, Wannes; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Khajehali, Jahangir; Nauen, Ralf; Tirry, Luc; Vontas, John; Lümmen, Peter; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Spirodiclofen is one of the most recently developed acaricides and belongs to the new family of spirocyclic tetronic acids (ketoenols). This new acaricidal family is an important chemical tool in resistance management strategies providing sustainable control of spider mites such as Tetranychus urticae. Spirodiclofen targets lipid biosynthesis mediated by direct inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase). In this study, we investigated two genetically distant spider mite strains with high resistance to spirodiclofen. Despite the strong resistance levels to spirodiclofen (up to 680-fold), only limited cross-resistance with other members of this group such as spiromesifen and spirotetramat could be detected. Amplification and sequencing of the ACCase gene from resistant and susceptible strains did not reveal common non-synonymous mutations, and expression levels of ACCase were similar in both resistant and susceptible strains, indicating the absence of target-site resistance. Furthermore, we collected genome-wide expression data of susceptible and resistant T. urticae strains using microarray technology. Analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed a broad response, but within the overlap of two resistant strains, several cytochrome P450s were prominent. Quantitative PCR confirmed the constitutive over-expression of CYP392E7 and CYP392E10 in resistant strains, and CYP392E10 expression was highly induced by spirodiclofen. Furthermore, stage specific expression profiling revealed that expression levels were not significantly different between developing stages, but very low in eggs, matching the age-dependent resistance pattern previously observed. Functional expression of CYP392E7 and CYP392E10 confirmed that CYP392E10 (but not CYP392E7) metabolizes spirodiclofen by hydroxylation as identified by LC-MS/MS, and revealed cooperative substrate binding and a Km of 43 ?M spirodiclofen. CYP392E10 also metabolizes spiromesifen, but not spirotetramat. Surprisingly, no metabolism of the hydrolyzed spirodiclofen-enol metabolite could be detected. These findings are discussed in the light of a likely resistance mechanism. PMID:23523619

  18. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities (PSI) of DLR, Cologne: the space parameters (vacuum, temperature and extra-terrestrial UV-radiation) as delivered from the ISS are simulated. An overview over the EXPOSE mission from the EXPOSE-R Experiment Verification Test (EVT) Program to the flight sample preparation is presented.

  19. Biochemical stress response in tetradifon exposed Daphnia magna and its relationship to individual growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M J; Sancho, E; Andreu-Moliner, E; Ferrando, M D

    2009-10-15

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals toxicity requires the use of costly and labor-intensive chronic data and short-term tests provide additional information. Energy budget is used by the animals for their growth, reproduction, and metabolism and it is reduced in case of toxic stress. Tetradifon acaricide is frequently used in the European Mediterranean region and it is implicated in aquatic environmental pollution. Previous studies showed that the EC(50)-24 h of tetradifon on Daphnia magna was 8.92 mg/L. Based on that, D. magna were exposed to sublethal tetradifon concentrations of 0.10, 0.18, 0.22 and 0.44 mg/L for five days in order to investigate their effect on intermediate metabolism. Caloric content was determined as biomarker of tetradifon toxicity. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's significant difference test was used to find differences between groups (alpha was set at p=0.05). Daphnids energy content decreased as tetradifon concentration increased. At 120-h caloric content was depleted >51% at pesticide concentrations of 0.18 mg/L and higher. In order to determine a possible link between the 5-d test and the 21-d chronic test, animals under short-term test were exposed to the same pesticide concentrations known to cause adverse effects on reproduction, growth and survival. Results from the present study indicated a good correlation between the proposed 5-day test and daphnid energy budget. Comparison between both, caloric content results and the chronic effect values obtained using life-table studies, suggested a good fit between them. These studies can be used as earlier, predictive and useful tests with comparable results to the classic chronic ones. Our results indicate that caution must be done about the use of tetradifon in the aquatic environment. PMID:19651429

  20. Window contamination on Expose-R , M. Bertrand2

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station transparency, contamination, outgassing, International Space Station. Introduction `Expose' is the short name of astrobiological and astrochemical experi- ments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International

  1. Acaricidal and oviposition deterring effects of santalol identified in sandalwood oil against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Lim, Eu Gene; Kim, Jinwoo; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2011-12-01

    Thirty-four plant essential oils were screened for their acaricidal and oviposition deterrent activities against two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), in the laboratory using a leaf-dip bioassay. From initial trials, sandalwood and common thyme oils were observed to be the most effective against TSSM adult females. Subsequent trials confirmed that only sandalwood oil was significantly active (87.2 ± 2.9% mortality) against TSSM adult females. Sandalwood oil also demonstrated oviposition deterring effects based on a 89.3% reduction of the total number of eggs on leaf disks treated with the oil. GC-MS analysis revealed that the main components of the sandalwood oil were ?-santalol (45.8%), ?-santalol (20.6%), ?-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-?-santalol (3.3%). A mixture of ?- and ?-santalol (51.0:22.9, respectively) produced significantly higher mortality (85.5 ± 2.9%) and oviposition deterrent effects (94.7% reduction in the number of eggs) than the control. Phytotoxicity was not shown on rose shoots to which a 0.1% solution of sandalwood oil was applied. PMID:22162959

  2. Chemical characterization and acaricide potential of essential oil from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806).

    PubMed

    Politi, Flávio Augusto Sanches; de Souza-Moreira, Tatiana Maria; Rodrigues, Edvânio Ramos; de Queiroz, Geisiany Maria; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Januário, Ana Helena; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus, commonly known as the brown dog tick, is one of the most widely distributed species of tick. In dogs, it can cause anemia and provide the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma platys, and Mycoplasma haemocanis. To man, it can transmit the intracellular parasites Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, the causative agents of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the Americas and Mediterranean and spotted fever in Europe and North Africa. Its control is performed by applying synthetic formulations composed of pyrethroids; however, continued use of these products results in environmental damage and acquisition of resistance. Alternatively, studies with botanical insecticides have been increasingly recurrent. Therefore, this study aimed to test the efficacy of essential oil of Tagetes patula, a ruderal species widely described in the literature for its insecticidal properties, in engorged females of R. sanguineus by the adults immersion test (AIT) and impregnated paper disk test (IPDT). The essential oil used, through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, revealed the presence of 55 compounds, being the 4-vinyl guaiacol and gamma terpinene the majority ones. The AIT compared to the IPDT was more efficient in inhibiting oviposition of tick; however, the eggs laid by the females submitted to saturated atmosphere with essential oil, from IPDT, not hatched, interrupted their development cycle. Besides being a pioneer work, the results presented here contributes to new researches, aiming the incorporation of essential oil in an acaricide for use in the environment. PMID:23508761

  3. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil and precocene II obtained from Calea serrata (Asteraceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Vera Lucia Sardá; dos Santos, Jaqueline Campiol; Martins, João Ricardo; Schripsema, Jan; Siqueira, Ionara R; von Poser, Gilsane L; Apel, Miriam A

    2011-06-30

    Calea serrata Less. (Asteraceae), an endemic species of south Brazil known as "quebra-tudo", is used in Afro-Brazilian religious rituals and in folk medicine for treating liver disorders. Phytochemical studies of the n-hexane extract of this plant demonstrated the presence of precocene II, a benzopyran derivative known for its insecticidal activity. The aim of this work was to isolate this benzopyran and determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. serrata and further to evaluate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil and precocene II against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The LC(99.9) and LC(50) values obtained with the oil, which presents precocene II and sesquiterpenes, were 3.94 ?L/mL and 0.28 ?L/mL, respectively. For precocene II this values were 4.25mg/mL and 1.78 mg/mL, respectively. The results indicate a synergistic interaction between the components of the oil and precocene II. PMID:21402447

  4. Chemical composition and acaricidal properties of Deverra scoparia essential oil (Araliales: Apiaceae) and blends of its major constituents against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Attia, S; Grissa, K L; Lognay, G; Heuskin, S; Mailleux, A C; Hance, T

    2011-08-01

    The essential oil of Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu was investigated for its acaricidal activity against the worldwide pest twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The essential oil was analyzed by fast gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The activities of its individual and blended constituents were determined. Our study showed that female mortality increased with increasing D. scoparia oil concentrations, with LD50 and LD90 values at 1.79 and 3.2 mg liter(-1), respectively. A reduction in fecundity had already been observed for concentrations of 0.064, 0.08, and 0.26 mg liter(-1) D. scoparia essential oil. Ten major components, comprising 98.52% of the total weight, were identified; a-pinene was the most abundant constituent (31.95%) followed by sabinene (17.24%) and delta3-carene (16.85%). The 10 major constituents of D. scoparia oil were individually tested against T. urticae females. The most potent toxicity was found with alpha-pinene, delta3-carene, and terpinen-4-ol. The presence of all constituents together in the artificial mixture caused a significant decrease in the number of eggs laid by females, at 0.26 mg liter(-1) (11 eggs), compared with the control (50 eggs). The toxicity of blends of selected constituents indicated that the presence of all constituents was necessary to reproduce the toxicity level of the natural oil. PMID:21882686

  5. Rock Interior Exposed Near 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic of four images from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the freshly exposed interior of a rock dubbed 'Lion Stone' after the rover's rock abrasion tool ground away a circular patch of the rock's surface. The circle is 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Opportunity took the images during its 108th sol (martian day) on Mars, on May 13, 2004.

  6. Salvaging the Exposed Cochlear Implant.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bommie Florence; Park, Sang Wook; Han, Hyun Ho; Moon, Suk-Ho; Oh, Deuk Young; Rhie, Jong Won

    2015-11-01

    Cochlear implant exposure is an uncommon occurrence that may imperil the fate of the implant. Insertion of this costly device is a delicate procedure, and reimplantation with another implant after removal is expensive and emotionally stressful for patients. Salvage of the original implant can be quite successful with a fully vascularized scalp-nape of the neck rotation flap. The authors review the literature and report their experience in salvaging exposed implants in 2 patients, who had risk factors that compromised healing. PMID:26594996

  7. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

    2011-07-01

    Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control. PMID:21845941

  8. New method using quantitative PCR to follow the tick blood meal and to assess the anti-feeding effect of topical acaricide against Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, J J; Joubert, A; Labuschagné, M; Beugnet, F

    2014-05-01

    A 28-day study was conducted to assess the dynamic of blood feeding by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on dogs treated or not with a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene. Dogs were infested weekly through exposure to ticks in crates for 4h. Ticks were then counted in the crates at 2h and 4h post dog exposure. Ticks were also counted and removed from the dogs at 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and 24h post tick exposure. The inhibition of blood feeding was assessed by both tick quantification and designing and performing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) to detect the canine hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) gene in ticks. The percentage of repellency sensu lato based on the ticks collected in crates at 2h varied from 4.7% at day 28 to 48.3% at day 7. The immediate mortality rate of the ticks expelled at 2h varied from 1.5% at day 21 to 31.7% at day 7. The efficacy calculation showed that the acaricidal combination started to kill ticks in as little as 2h. The average efficacy reached 90.0% at 12h post crate challenges and 100% at 24h post exposure in crates. The inclusion of an internal amplification control was used to ensure that no significant template-derived PCR inhibition (? 6.2%) affected the overall results. The reduction of blood feeding was significant at 4h (>80.0%) and >99.0% at 24h post tick exposure in the crate. The high repellency rate and the lethal efficacy of CERTIFECT(®) resulted in significantly fewer live attached ticks, consequently reducing blood intake and fluid exchanges. PMID:24656063

  9. Loss of in vitro Efficacy of Topical Commercial Acaricides on Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) From Antioquian Farms, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Puerta, Jonathan M; Chaparro, Jenny J; Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Arroyave, Sara Arias; Villar, David

    2015-11-01

    In Antioquia, the problems to control Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) tick infestations have spread and ranchers claim conventional treatments are no longer effective. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of commercial topical products was tested with ticks obtained from two dairy farms in Antioquia with severe repeated infestations. About 800 engorged ticks were collected directly from animals in two separate visits at the beginning and end of the same month. The adult immersion test was used, which exposed groups of 40 ticks from each collection at the recommended concentration for five commercial products and combinations for 5?min. Efficacy was determined by comparing the reproductive index (fecundity?×?fertility) of each treated group to that of the control group. The values of all reproductive parameters obtained with ticks from the two collection dates were very similar. Cypermethrin (150?ppm) and amitraz (208?ppm) separately showed very low efficacies of only 10-20% at one farm, and zero at the other. The combination of chlorpyrifos?+?cypermethrin was the only product with an efficacy >50% at both farms and field observations corroborated to be still capable of eliminating infestations. Exposure to fluazuron at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 500?ppm for 1?min reduced fertility in all groups by ?99%, as would be expected for very susceptible strains. However, reduction of oviposition only occurred at the 500?ppm concentration. In conclusion, there is a high degree of resistance to all products tested except for fluazuron. PMID:26336268

  10. [Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

  11. Advances in treating exposed fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose. PMID:26229904

  12. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and...

  13. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and...

  14. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and...

  15. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and...

  16. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and...

  17. Exposing Digital Forgeries in Complex Lighting Environments

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    1 Exposing Digital Forgeries in Complex Lighting Environments Micah K. Johnson, Student Member describe a technique for exposing such fakes by detecting inconsistencies in lighting. We show how to approximate complex lighting environments with a low-dimensional model and, further, how to estimate the model

  18. Comparative Speed of Kill, Repellent (anti-feeding) and Acaricidal Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and a Fipronil/(S)-Methoprene/Eprinomectin/Praziquantel Spot-on (Broadline®) against Ixodes ricinus (Linné, 1758) on Cats.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; de Vos, Christa; Deuster, Katrin; Schunack, Bettina

    2015-08-01

    Speed of kill, repellent (anti-feeding) and acaricidal efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) /flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) and a spot-on formulation of fipronil 8.3 % (w/v) /(S)-methoprene 10 % (w/v) /eprinomectin 0.4 % (w/v) /praziquantel 8.3 % (w/v) (Broadline(®), Merial) against artificiallyinduced infestations with Ixodes ricinus on cats, were assessed in a parallel group design, randomised, controlled study. Twenty-four cats were included and randomly allocated to treatment groups or a non-treated control group. Starting on Day (D) 7 after treatment until D28, cats were each infested with 50 I. ricinus at weekly intervals. Ticks were counted in situ on the cats at 6, 12 and 24 h and upon removal 48 h after each infestation. Based on arithmetic means, Seresto(®) proved to be 100 % effective against adult I. ricinus at all assessment times (6, 12, 24 and 48 h after infestation) throughout the month-long study. Broadline(®) was 0 % to 16.7 % effective at 6 h, 26.8 % to 50.0 % effective at 12 h, while at 24 h after infestation efficacy peaked at 81.5 % on D15 declining to 31.5 % on D29. Based on the 48 h tick counts, the efficacy of Broadline(®) peaked at 100 % on D16 after treatment and decreased to 83.2 % by D30. The Seresto(®) collar provided significantly faster speed of kill and better persistent acaricidal effectiveness against Ixodes ricinus on cats compared to Broadline(®) spot-on. The additional repellent (anti-feeding) effect of Seresto(®) prevents parasites from taking a blood meal and thereby reduces the risk of vector-borne disease pathogen transmission. PMID:26152412

  19. Acaricidal effects of fluazuron (2.5?mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (1.6?mg/kg)?+?ivermectin (0.63?mg/kg), administered at different routes, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian G; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Ruivo, Maycon A; Alcantara Colli, Marcos Henrique; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Martinez, Antonio Campanha; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of fluazuron (2.5?mg/kg), administered as a pour-on, in comparison to an injectable formulation containing fluazuron (1.6?mg/kg)?+?ivermectin (0.63?mg/kg), against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in naturally and experimentally infested cattle. Two studies were conducted with different tick strains, one with artificial infestations (Stall Test, using leight animals per group) and one with natural infestations (utilizing ten animals per group). In both studies, the animals were randomized, according to average tick counts performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into four groups: T01, negative control (saline solution); T02, pour-on fluazuron (2.5?mg/kg); T03: subcutaneous fluazuron (1.6?mg/kg)?+?ivermectin (0.63?mg/kg); and T04 subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63?mg/kg). Based on obtained results, and considering the utilized tick strains, it was possible to conclude that the pour-on fluazuron (2.5?mg/kg) formulation demonstrated high acaricidal efficacy, with protection periods ranging from 49 to 77 days against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. On the other hand, for the injectable fluazuron (1.6?mg/kg)?+?ivermectin (0.63?mg/kg) formulation, it was not possible to observe elevated anti-R. (B.) microplus effect on both artificial and experimental infestation studies. Results observed for this combination were similar or inferior to those obtained by subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63?mg/kg). Future studies with this formulation containing fluazuron (1.6?mg/kg)?+?ivermectin (0.63?mg/kg), regarding pharmacokinetic and/or bioavailability profiles, or even studies analyzing both this active principles separately, are needed, seeking to better understand the effects of such combination against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle. PMID:25728230

  20. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B.?dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), ?-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0?mg?mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0?mg?mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B.?dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R.?microplus larvae and engorged females. PMID:25448290

  1. 9 CFR 73.1 - Interstate movement prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1 Interstate movement prohibited. (a) Cattle affected with scabies. No cattle affected with... provided in this part. (b) Cattle affected with or exposed to scabies. No cattle which, just prior...

  2. 9 CFR 73.1 - Interstate movement prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1 Interstate movement prohibited. (a) Cattle affected with scabies. No cattle affected with... provided in this part. (b) Cattle affected with or exposed to scabies. No cattle which, just prior...

  3. 9 CFR 73.1 - Interstate movement prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1 Interstate movement prohibited. (a) Cattle affected with scabies. No cattle affected with... provided in this part. (b) Cattle affected with or exposed to scabies. No cattle which, just prior...

  4. 9 CFR 73.1 - Interstate movement prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1 Interstate movement prohibited. (a) Cattle affected with scabies. No cattle affected with... provided in this part. (b) Cattle affected with or exposed to scabies. No cattle which, just prior...

  5. 9 CFR 73.1 - Interstate movement prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1 Interstate movement prohibited. (a) Cattle affected with scabies. No cattle affected with... provided in this part. (b) Cattle affected with or exposed to scabies. No cattle which, just prior...

  6. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances...treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies...dip for the eradication of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that...

  7. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances...treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies...dip for the eradication of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that...

  8. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances...treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies...dip for the eradication of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that...

  9. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances...treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies...dip for the eradication of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that...

  10. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances...treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies...dip for the eradication of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that...

  11. ERYTHROCYTE SURVIVAL IN SHEEP EXPOSED TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone has been reported to produce a variety of extrapulmonary effects including changes in the specific activity of some erythrocyte enzymes. Buckley et al. (1975) reported statistically significant extrapulmonary changes in a number of human volunteers experimentally exposed to...

  12. TREATMENT OF LEAD EXPOSED CHILDREN TRIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) clinical trial compared the effect of lead chelation with succimer to placebo therapy. Outcomes included IQ, neuropsychological function, behavior, physical growth and blood pressure three years after initiation of treatment. Residenti...

  13. The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

  14. Formaldehyde risk assessment for occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D M; Frankos, V H; Schneiderman, M A

    1983-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been shown to be carcinogenic in animals and should be considered potentially carcinogenic in humans. The mechanism of action is unknown but formaldehyde is weakly genotoxic and also may act as a late stage carcinogen or promoter. An estimated 1.3 million workers are potentially exposed to formaldehyde through their occupation. Of those exposed workers, about 3.5% were found to be exposed to formaldehyde air concentrations greater than the 3 ppm set by OSHA as a permissible exposure level. Fewer than 12% were exposed to concentrations greater than 1 ppm, but over 88% were exposed to concentrations of 0.5 ppm or more. A quantitative risk assessment, using the multistage low-dose extrapolation model, found the (maximum likelihood) estimate of lifetime risk for excess cancers to be 620 per 100,000 at the OSHA permissible exposure level. The estimated risk is 23 per 100,000 at 1 ppm and 2.8 per 100,000 at 0.5 ppm. Reduction of the OSHA permissible exposure level to 1 ppm would significantly decrease risk with minor economic disruption for most industries involved. However, reduction of risk to levels which have been generally regarded by other regulatory agencies as acceptable, i.e., 10(-5) to 10(-6), would require increased control by all the industries reviewed. PMID:6658031

  15. Auditory dysfunction in occupational noise exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Sallustio, V; Portalatini, P; Soleo, L; Cassano, F; Pesola, G; Lasorsa, G; Quaranta, N; Salonna, I

    1998-01-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is well known to be an epidemiologically relevant problem. The subjects affected with NIHL show alteration of hearing thresholds as well as a worsening of the cochlear analysis functions and, usually, an impaired speech discrimination in presence of background noise. The study has evaluated the relationships between hearing threshold and equivalent exposure lever per day (Lepd), age and working seniority in a homogeneous sample of occupationally noise exposed workers. Three subgroups were also selected to study the most important cochlear functions as well as nerve and central functions. The first subgroup (Nn) contained normal hearing workers exposed to non-hazardous noise, while the second (Bn) contained workers exposed to high level continuous noise during their work day without clinical evidence of NIHL. The third subgroup (Bd) included subjects affected with the typical 4 kHz notch exposed to the same noise conditions than subgroup Bn. The results show that the hearing impaired subjects have the worst overall cochlear performance; however also the normal hearing workers exposed to hazardous noise have worse performance than subgroup Nn, relatively to high frequency thresholds, frequency resolution, TEOAEs, DPOAEs, stapedial acoustic reflex dynamic parameters. The results suggest that these measures could be used in the monitoring of the NIHL as indicators of subtle alterations of the hearing function. PMID:9505302

  16. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  17. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  18. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  19. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  20. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    EXPOSE is an exposure platform developed by ESA which permits scientists to install test samples for 1 to 2 years at the outer surface of the ISS. In that way, the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical sample materials can be explored. This environment, featuring full-spectrum solar light, near-vacuum, cosmic radiation, wide temperature variations and near-weightlessness, is impossible to reproduce in its entirety in the lab. As such, EXPOSE offers astrochemists and astrobiologists a chance to acquire novel scientific data. Astrochemists are interested in Low Earth Orbit conditions due to the fact that photochemistry in space is quite different from photochemistry on Earth, where the high-energy UV compounds of the solar spectrum are filtered away by our atmosphere. As for the astro biologists, EXPOSE offers an attractive opportunity to expand earlier results obtained during short-duration LEO flights, which have shown that particular microbes and, amazingly, even some multi-cellular macroscopic organisms were able to cope with a two-week exposure to space. The open space environment, often described as harsh and hostile, can apparently be tolerated by some robust inhabitants of our Earth - unprotected, in the absence of a space suit! The first mission of EXPOSE, as an external payload on the European Columbus module, happened during 2008-2009 with the test samples provided by five separate research teams. Three additional teams were involved in the monitoring of space environment. The results were published collectively in 2012 in a special issue of the monthly journal Astrobiology. Several organisms survived, having spent 1.5 years in space. The second mission was called EXPOSE-R, the R referring to ‘Russian segment’, the location where the EXPOSE instrument was installed this time. The EXPOSE-R mission took place in 2009-2011, ten science teams were involved. The publication of the results, again as a collection, is currently in preparation. A follow-on mission, EXPOSE-R2, is planned for 2014-2016. The upload of the new sample trays to the ISS will have occurred just before COSPAR 2014. In this presentation the new EXPOSE-R2 experiments are introduced, with an overview of the test samples and the scientific goals. The main characteristics of the EXPOSE platform are addressed including the sensors used to monitor the space environment. The envisaged operational flow in flight and on ground are explained. Moreover, a brief overview of the key lessons learnt from the past EXPOSE missions is provided.

  1. Anesthetic gases and occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Schifano, Maria Pia; Capozzella, Assunta; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate whether the occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could cause alterations of blood parameters in health care workers. 119 exposed subjects and 184 not exposed controls were included in the study. Each worker underwent the complete blood count test (CBC), proteinaemia, leukocyte count, serum lipids, liver and kidney blood markers. The liver blood markers show statistically significant differences in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05), a statistically significant decrease in neutrophils and an increase of lymphocytes in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05). The prevalence of values outside the range for GPT, GGT, total bilirubin, lymphocytes and neutrophils was statistically significant in health care workers compared with controls (p<0.05). The results suggest that occupational exposure to low dose anesthetic gases could influence some haematochemical hepatic and hematopoietic parameters in exposed health care workers. PMID:24374387

  2. Cosmic radiation exposure of biological test systems during the EXPOSE-R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the EXPOSE-R mission outside the Russian Zvezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The dose measured beneath the sample carriers varied between 317 +/- 10 and 230 +/- 2 mGy, which amount to an average dose rate of 381 +/- 12 and 276 +/- 2 ?Gy d-1. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the ISS and reflect the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-R facility. As a consequence of the high shielding (several g cm-2), the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions and trapped protons in the Earth's radiation belts, whereas the trapped electrons did not reach the samples.

  3. The Cocaine-Exposed Children Are Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorchik, Lameece Atallah

    1992-01-01

    If the medical profession has been caught off guard by the climbing number of cocaine-exposed babies, educators are stupefied. Teachers must become ware of some classic symptoms of drug-damaged children, such as hyperactivity, inability to concentrate, unpredictability, and poor coordination, so that they can alter their teaching strategies. (MLH)

  4. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  5. Cocaine Babies: Florida's Substance-Exposed Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpring, Jayme

    This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…

  6. Exterior Exposed Ductwork: Delivery Effectiveness and Efficiency*

    E-print Network

    for Energy Efficiency, under Contract B93-05A, and the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, direct solar radiation effects and solar reflection effects. In addition to impacting the energy1 of 41 Exterior Exposed Ductwork: Delivery Effectiveness and Efficiency* Wm. Woody Delp, Nance E

  7. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSES OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromosome damage was studied in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) by subcutaneous or inhalation treatments. o increase in either the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow cells was observed after a singl...

  8. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  9. Are You Exposed? Conveying Information Exposure

    E-print Network

    Kapadia, Apu

    Are You Exposed? Conveying Information Exposure Sameer Patil, Apu Kapadia School of Informatics-1-4503-0556-3/12/02. Abstract We explore the design space of interfaces for conveying and managing `exposure' ­ the actual in a quickly interpretable form and to enable lightweight interactions to manage exposure, if needed. Toward

  10. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  11. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P.

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was the most significant factor for all the contaminants generally detected at less than 1 atom percent, or detected only occasionally (i.e., all but Si, O, and C). Flight control surfaces, including sample backsides not exposed to space radiation or atomic oxygen flux, have accumulated some contamination on flight (compared to laboratory controls), but experimentally, the LDEF exposed surface contamination levels are generally higher for the contaminants Si and O. For most materials analyzed, Si contamination levels were higher on the leading edge surfaces than on the trailing edge surfaces. This was true even for the composite samples where considerable atomic oxygen erosion of the leading edge surfaces was observed by SEM. It is probable that the return flux associated with atmospheric backscatter resulted in enhanced deposition of silicones and other contaminants on the leading edge flight surfaces relative to the trailing edge. Although the Si concentration data suggested greater on-flight deposition of contaminants on the leading edge surfaces, the XPS analyses did not conclusively show different relative total thicknesses of flight deposited contamination for leading and trailing edge surfaces. It is possible that atomic oxygen reactions on the leading edge resulted in greater volatilization of the carbon component of the deposited silicones, effectively 'thinning' the leading edge deposited overlayer. Unlike other materials, exposed polymers such as Kapton and FEP-type Teflon had very low contamination on the leading edge surfaces. SEM evidence showed that undercutting of the contaminant overlayer and damaged polymer layers occurred during atomic oxygen erosion, which would enhance loss of material from the exposed surface.

  13. Work ability in vibration-exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Hagberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand–arm vibration exposure may cause hand–arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) including sensorineural disturbances. Aims To investigate which factors had the strongest impact on work ability in vibration-exposed workers. Methods A cross-sectional study in which vibration-exposed workers referred to a department of occupational and environmental medicine were compared with a randomized sample of unexposed subjects from the general population of the city of Gothenburg. All participants underwent a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including measurements of hand and finger muscle strength and vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds. Results The vibration-exposed group (47 subjects) showed significantly reduced sensitivity to cold and warmth in digit 2 bilaterally (P < 0.01) and in digit 5 in the left hand (P < 0.05) and to warmth in digit 5 in the right hand (P < 0.01), compared with the 18 referents. Similarly, tactilometry showed significantly raised vibration perception thresholds among the workers (P < 0.05). A strong relationship was found for the following multiple regression model: estimated work ability = 11.4 ? 0.1 × age ? 2.3 × current stress level ? 2.5 × current pain in hands/arms (multiple r = 0.68; P < 0.001). Conclusions Vibration-exposed workers showed raised vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds, compared with unexposed referents. Multiple regression analysis indicated that stress disorders and muscle pain in hands/arms must also be considered when evaluating work ability among subjects with HAVS. PMID:25145484

  14. Epitopes exposed on hepatitis delta virus ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Bichko, V V; Lemon, S M; Wang, J G; Hwang, S; Lai, M M; Taylor, J M

    1996-09-01

    A total of 17 antibodies, raised in several nonhuman species and specific for different regions on the delta antigen (delta Ag), were used to map, via immunoprecipitation, those domains exposed on the surface of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP). These studies showed that the domains for the nuclear localization signal and the C-terminal extension, unique to the large form of delta Ag, are exposed. Also exposed is the C-terminal region of the small form of delta Ag. In contrast, reactivity was not found with the coiled-coil domain needed for protein dimerization. When the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA was released by treatment of viral RNP with vanadyl ribonucleoside complexes, no change in the pattern of delta Ag epitope presentation was detected, consistent with the interpretation that a multimeric protein structure persists in the absence of RNA. These RNP studies have implications not only for understanding of the process of HDV assembly but also for evaluation of the immune responses of an infected host to HDV replication. PMID:8709197

  15. Acaricidal activity of extracts from the leaves and aerial parts of Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Dantas, A C S; Machado, D M R; Araujo, A C; Oliveira-Junior, R G; Lima-Saraiva, S R G; Ribeiro, L A A; Almeida, J R G S; Horta, M C

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Neoglaziovia variegata against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The mortality and fecundity of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of ethanol, hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the leaves and aerial parts of N.?variegata were evaluated, using three treatments with concentrations of 5, 10 e 25?mg/ml; two controls (distilled water and distilled water with drops of cremophor); with three replicates. The hexane extract of the leaves demonstrated significant results, presenting 94.1% inhibition of oviposition; 0.33% the average percentage of eclosion of eggs; and 99.8% of effectiveness. These results indicate N.?variegata, particularly the hexane extract of leaves, as potential alternative control agents of R. (B.) microplus. Pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism responsible for this effect. PMID:25979315

  16. Rescue of fish exposed to a lethal dose of pathogen, by signals from sublethally exposed survivors.

    PubMed

    Mothersill, Carmel; Austin, Dawn; Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Seymour, Colin; Auchinachie, Niall; Austin, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were challenged intraperitoneally with a sublethal dose of Vibrio anguillarum VIB1 and allowed to recover. Then, after 7 days, naïve fish, (designated as 'bystander' fish) which had never been exposed to the pathogen, were introduced to the same tank. These swam with the adapted (recovered) fish for 7 days before both groups and a control (never exposed directly to the pathogen or to recovered fish) group were exposed to a lethal dose of VIB1. Mortality records were 100% in the control group within 3 days, 47% in the adapted group and 60% in the unchallenged bystander group, which swam with the adapted group. In both the latter groups, the time to death of the non-surviving fish was attenuated. This inter-animal communication of signals has previously been documented for animals exposed to ionizing radiation. Assays of tissues from control, challenged and 'bystander fish exposed to the pathogen showed that a signal as yet unidentified but similar to that seen in bystanders to irradiated fish was being produced. This signal caused a sharp and transient increase in intracellular calcium and a decrease in clonogenicity in a well-characterized reporter assay. PMID:25757731

  17. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (?<200 nm) to UVA (315 nm

  18. Experimental investigations on freely exposed ducted radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linke, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with the relation between the open areas, the drag, and the air flow as observed on freely exposed, ducted radiators - the air conductivity being modified from zero to one unit. In conjunction with theoretical results, the individual components of the drag of ducted radiators are discussed and general rules established for low-loss ducts. The influence of the wall thickness of the ducts, of the length ratio of the exit, and the effects of sonic velocity on diffusers are dealt with by special measurement.

  19. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  20. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  1. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  2. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  3. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  4. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  5. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison. Brucellosis exposed bison may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  6. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison. Brucellosis exposed bison may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  7. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison. Brucellosis exposed bison may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  8. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison. Brucellosis exposed bison may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  9. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison. Brucellosis exposed bison may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  10. An exploratory study to assess the activity of the acarine growth inhibitor, fluazuron, against Sarcoptes scabei infestation in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The most common treatments for scabies in human and veterinary settings are topical 5% permethrin or systemic treatment with ivermectin. However, these treatments have very little activity against arthropod eggs, and therefore repeated treatment is frequently required. In-vitro, biochemical and molecular studies have demonstrated that human mites are becoming increasingly resistant to both acaricides. To identify alternate acaricides, we undertook a pilot study of the in vivo activity of the benzoylphenyl urea inhibitor of chitin synthesis, fluazuron, in pigs with sarcoptic mange. Findings Pigs (n = 5) were infested with S. scabei var suis, and randomised to treatment at the start of peak infestation with fluazuron at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day per os for 7 days (n = 3) or no treatment (n = 2). Clinical scores, skin scrapings for mite counts and blood sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis were undertaken. Fluazuron was well absorbed in treated pigs with measureable blood levels up to 4 weeks post treatment. No adverse effects were observed. Modest acaricidal activity of the compound was observed, with a reduction in severity of skin lesions in treated pigs, as well as a reduction in number of scabies mite's early life stages. Conclusions The moderate efficacy of fluazuron against scabies mites indicates a lead to the development of alternate treatments for scabies, such as combination therapies that maybe applicable for human use in the future. PMID:22336283

  11. First results of the ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, K. L.; Salama, F.; Elsaesser, A.; Peeters, Z.; Ricco, A. J.; Foing, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ORGANIC experiment on EXPOSE-R spent 682 days outside the International Space Station, providing continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar- and trapped-particle radiation background for fourteen samples: 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three fullerenes. The thin films of the ORGANIC experiment received, during space exposure, an irradiation dose of the order of 14 000 MJ m-2 over 2900 h of unshadowed solar illumination. Extensive analyses were performed on the returned samples and the results compared to ground control measurements. Analytical studies of the returned samples included spectral measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared range and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Limited spectral changes were observed in most cases pointing to the stability of PAHs and fullerenes under space exposure conditions. Furthermore, the results of these experiments confirm the known trend in the stability of PAH species according to molecular structure: compact PAHs are more stable than non-compact PAHs, which are themselves more stable than PAHs containing heteroatoms, the last category being the most prone to degradation in the space environment. We estimate a depletion rate of the order of 85 +/- 5% over the 17 equivalent weeks of continuous unshadowed solar exposure in the most extreme case tetracene (smallest, non-compact PAH sample). The insignificant spectral changes (below 10%) measured for solid films of large or compact PAHs and fullerenes indicate a high stability under the range of space exposure conditions investigated on EXPOSE-R.

  12. Exposed polyurethane seen as fire hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.

    1982-11-29

    Improperly exposed polyurethane insulation is a fire hazard. Recent fire tragedies underscore the importance of installing approved thermal barriers over the foam. Vendors warn of the need to follow building codes and manufacturer's guidelines, and stress the absence of hazards if this is done. Polyurethane foam requires a high temperature to ignite but, once ignited, flashes intensely. The foam smolders at lower temperatures, however, and gives off combustible gases. The risk is higher in warehouses and other buildings where the foam is often sprayed on the walls and left uncovered and in upholstered furniture. Lawsuits resulted over claims that the material is self-extinguishing. Vendors list commercially available thermal barriers and factors customers should consider before investing in foam. (DCK)

  13. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, David A.; Barrios, Christy S.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Straus, David C.; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Fink, Jordan N.

    2009-01-01

    Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms. PMID:20054481

  14. Population exposed to landslide risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Munafò, Michele; Baiocco, Fabio; Marinosci, Ines; Chiocchini, Raffaella; Mugnoli, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides counting over 486,000 mass movements with a total area of 20,700 square kilometres equal to 6.9% of the national territory. Moreover Italy is a densely urbanized country: 8101 municipalities, about 200 inhabitants per sq. km, 16,000 km of rail network and 180,000 km of road network. Landslides caused more than 5000 fatalities in the last century and considerable damage to urban areas, transport infrastructure and facilities, environmental and cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to estimate the population exposed to landslide risk in Italy. The input data are: the Italian Landslide Inventory, the Italian Population Census data and the high-resolution Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer (Geoland2). The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) realised by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-governing Provinces, identifies landslides occurred in the national territory in accordance with standardized methods and using a detailed landslide mapping (1:10,000 scale). The 14th Population Census, made by ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) in 2001, contains data of resident population for the 382,534 census tracts in which Italy is divided. The pan-European high-resolution (HR) Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer, realized using remote sensing data within the GMES initiative (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) by European Commission and European Space Agency, contains the degree of imperviousness (between 0 and 100%). GIS overlay of this information layer (20 x 20 m grid) with census tracts has allowed the spatialization of population within urban settlements of each census tract. This methodology has been particularly useful in the case of rural census tracts characterized by large surface area and low population density. The methodology could be also applied to estimate the population exposed to other natural, environmental or technological risks.

  15. Comparative genomic hybridization study of arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed urinary transitional cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.-I; Chiu, Allen W.; Pu, Y.-S.; Wang, Y.-H.; Huan, Steven K.; Hsiao, C.-H.; Hsieh, F.-I; Chen, C.-J.

    2008-03-01

    To compare the differences in DNA aberrations between arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), we analyzed 19 arsenic-exposed and 29 non-arsenic-exposed urinary TCCs from Chi-Mei Hospital using comparative genomic hybridization. DNA aberrations were detected in 42 TCCs including 19 arsenic-exposed and 23 non-arsenic-exposed TCCs. Arsenic-exposed TCCs had more changes than unexposed TCCs (mean {+-} SD, 6.6 {+-} 2.9 vs. 2.9 {+-} 2.2). Arsenic exposure was significantly associated with the number of DNA aberrations after adjustment for tumor stage, tumor grade and cigarette smoking in multiple regression analysis. The most frequent DNA gains, which were strikingly different between arsenic-exposed and non-arsenic-exposed TCCs, included those at 1p, 4p, 4q and 8q. A much higher frequency of DNA losses in arsenic-exposed TCCs compared with non-arsenic-exposed TCCs was observed in 10q, 11p and 17p. Chromosomal loss in 17p13 was associated not only with arsenic exposure, but also with tumor stage and grade. The p53 immunohistochemistry staining showed that chromosome 17p13 loss was associated with either p53 no expression (25%) or p53 overexpression (75%). The findings suggest that long-term arsenic exposure may increase the chromosome abnormality in TCC, and 17p loss plays an important role in arsenic-induced urinary carcinogenesis.

  16. The SPORES experiment of the EXPOSE-R mission: Bacillus subtilis spores in artificial meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Moeller, Ralf; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The experiment SPORES `Spores in artificial meteorites' was part of European Space Agency's EXPOSE-R mission, which exposed chemical and biological samples for nearly 2 years (March 10, 2009 to February 21, 2011) to outer space, when attached to the outside of the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station. The overall objective of the SPORES experiment was to address the question whether the meteorite material offers enough protection against the harsh environment of space for spores to survive a long-term journey in space by experimentally mimicking the hypothetical scenario of Lithopanspermia, which assumes interplanetary transfer of life via impact-ejected rocks. For this purpose, spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 were exposed to selected parameters of outer space (solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation at ?>110 or >200 nm, space vacuum, galactic cosmic radiation and temperature fluctuations) either as a pure spore monolayer or mixed with different concentrations of artificial meteorite powder. Total fluence of solar UV radiation (100-400 nm) during the mission was 859 MJ m-2. After retrieval the viability of the samples was analysed. A Mission Ground Reference program was performed in parallel to the flight experiment. The results of SPORES demonstrate the high inactivating potential of extraterrestrial UV radiation as one of the most harmful factors of space, especially UV at ?>110 nm. The UV-induced inactivation is mainly caused by photodamaging of the DNA, as documented by the identification of the spore photoproduct 5,6-dihydro-5(?-thyminyl)thymine. The data disclose the limits of Lithopanspermia for spores located in the upper layers of impact-ejected rocks due to access of harmful extraterrestrial solar UV radiation.

  17. Thyroid hormones in chronic heat exposed men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertner, A.; Israeli, R.; Lev, A.; Cassuto, Y.

    1983-03-01

    Previous reports have indicated that thyroid gland activity, is depressed in the heat. Total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) serum levels in 17 workers of the metal work shop at a plant near the Dead Sea and 8 workers in Beer Sheva, Israel were examined. The metal workshop of the plant near the Dead Sea is part of a large chemical plant. The one in Beer Sheva is part of a large construction company. Maintenance work, as well as metal work projects are performed in both workshops. During the work shifts, the workers of the Dead Sea plant were exposed to temperatures ranging from 30 36°C (May Oct.) and 14 21°C (Dec. Feb). In Beer Sheva the range was 25 32°C (June Sept.) and 10 17°C (Dec. Feb.). Total T4 was measured by competitive protein binding and total T3 by radioimmunoassay in blood drawn before work (0700) in July and January. In summer. T4 was higher and T3 was lower for both groups than in winter. The observed summer T3 decrease may result from depressed extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3. We conclude that the regulation of energy metabolism in hot climates may be related to extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3.

  18. In vitro and in vivo acaricide action of juvenoid analogs produced from the chemical modification of Cymbopogon spp. and Corymbia citriodora essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Domingues, Luciana F; Fantatto, Rafaela R; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Oliveira, Daniela H; Mano, Renata A; Jacob, Raquel G

    2014-09-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal action of the chemically modified essential oil of Cymbopogon spp. and Corymbia citriodora on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Citronellal was converted into N-butylcitronellylamine and in N-prop-2-inylcitronellylamine, analogs of juvenoids, by reductive amination using butylamine (N1 to N3) and propargylamine (N4 to N7). In vitro assays included the adult immersion, and larval packet tests. Engorged females were weighed in groups of 10 and tested in three replicates for six concentrations. They were immersed in the modified oils or control solution and incubated. In the larval packet test, the same substances and concentrations were evaluated in three replicates. In the in vivo test, six pastured heifers naturally infested with R. (B.) microplus were used per treatment: negative control, positive control (amitraz, Triatox(®)), original oil of C. citriodora at 1.5%, and modified oil containing 0.9% N-prop-2-inylcitronellylamine (N7). Ticks were counted in the right side of the body in 24 animals from day D-3 to D21. LC50 and LC90 were obtained by Probit analysis, while the in vivo results were log transformed and compared using the Tukey test. Among the nitrocellylamines tested in vitro, N6 was most effective on the engorged females (100% efficacy at 50mg/mL) and N7 on the larvae (100% efficacy at 6.25mg/mL). In the test with larvae, the original oil of C. citriodora was less effective than the counterpart modified oil (N7), proving that the chemical modification optimized its effect. In the in vivo test, no significant difference was observed between N7 and the negative control. The average numbers of ticks on the animals' right side were 32.8, 8.1, 37.9 and 35.4 for the negative control, positive control, original oil and N7, respectively. The chemical modification improved the efficacy in vitro, but it was not observed in vivo, perhaps due to the low stability of the amines under field conditions. The evaluation carried out here has not been previously studied, so this concept expands the horizon for research into chemically modified substances for parasite control and shed light on the challenges to find effective formulations and application methods. PMID:25085774

  19. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed...

  20. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed...

  1. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed...

  2. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed...

  3. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed...

  4. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

    1994-07-11

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3{mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  5. 31. VIEW OF ROOM 212 LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXPOSED STUD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF ROOM 212 LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXPOSED STUD WALL THAT SERVES AS DIVIDER TO ROOM 211. EXPOSED TRUSSWORK VISIBLE THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM. WOOD PANELED WALLS ARE PAINTED; FLOORS ARE WOOD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Neurobehavioral Syndromes in Cocaine-Exposed Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The effects of fetal cocaine exposure on newborn cry characteristics were studied in 80 cocaine-exposed and 80 control infants. Findings were consistent with the notion that two neurobehavioral syndromes, excitable and depressed, can be described in cocaine-exposed infants and that these two syndromes are a result of direct neurotoxic effects and…

  7. 46 CFR 108.223 - Guards on exposed equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guards on exposed equipment. 108.223 Section 108.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.223 Guards on exposed equipment. Each unit must have hand covers, guards, or rails...

  8. Dust release from surfaces exposed to plasma T. M. Flanagana

    E-print Network

    Goree, John

    Dust release from surfaces exposed to plasma T. M. Flanagana and J. Goree Department of Physics exposed to plasma. In an experiment with a glass surface coated with lunar-simulant dust, it was found that particle release requires exposure to both plasma and an electron beam. The dust release rate diminishes

  9. CEREBELLAR HISTOGENESIS IN RATS EXPOSED TO 2450 MHZ MICROWAVE RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnant rats were either exposed or sham exposed from day 13 of gestation until birth to 2450 MHz linearly polarized microwaves at 10 mW/sq cm. A third matching group served as cage control. After birth, the pups were kept with their mothers for 21 days without any treatment, an...

  10. Behavioral Treatment of Drug Exposed Infants: Analyzing and Treating Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Mary R.

    1992-01-01

    Some children who are exposed to cocaine prenatally or in infancy exhibit neurological and behavioral difficulties or developmental delays in preschool. The causes and treatment of aggression in one child in a preschool program who had been prenatally exposed to cocaine is described. (SM)

  11. Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

  12. 46 CFR 108.223 - Guards on exposed equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards on exposed equipment. 108.223 Section 108.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.223 Guards on exposed equipment. Each unit...

  13. 46 CFR 108.223 - Guards on exposed equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guards on exposed equipment. 108.223 Section 108.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.223 Guards on exposed equipment. Each unit...

  14. Wheat flour exposed to ethanol yields dough with unexpected properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour may be exposed to ethanol solutions in such a way as to alter the subsequent transformation of the flour into dough. Here, a number of types of wheat flour were exposed to small amounts of ethanol solutions so as to be "wetted" but without the appearance of a separate liquid phase. The...

  15. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  16. Arrhythmias in Rat Hearts Exposed to Pulsed Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Arrhythmias in Rat Hearts Exposed to Pulsed Ultrasound After Intravenous Injection of a Contrast arrhythmias in hearts exposed to ultrasound after injection of a microbubble contrast agent. Methods rats. When ultrasound exposure was halted, arrhythmias ceased but reoccurred in 4 of the 10 rats when

  17. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Kanoun-Boulé, Myriam; Vicente, Joaquim A F; Nabais, Cristina; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, Helena

    2009-01-18

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25microM) to the highest (100microM), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r(2)=0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r(2)=0.999 and r(2)=0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25microM) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100microM-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50microM-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100microM-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50microM-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with increasing concentrations of Cu, with a very similar trend between the three populations of duckweed. However, due to the facts that enzyme activity is expressed as units of activity per gram of protein and that protein content decreased with Cu exposure, the increase in SOD activity might partly result from a relative increase of this enzyme inside the pool of proteins. Consequently, the results obtained in our experimental conditions strongly suggest that duckweed species from the uranium-polluted area have developed mechanisms to cope with metal toxicity and that this tolerance is based on the existence of protective mechanism to limit the metal uptake rather than on an enhancement of the antioxidative metabolism. PMID:19027182

  18. Non-disjunction mutations in Drosophila exposed to magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levengood, W. C.

    1987-09-01

    The frequency of XO mutations in Drosophila melanogaster was significantly higher than normal in magnetic field exposed, immature males, than in exposed, mature males. Mutation levels increased with magnetic field strength. Intercellular rings of black magnetic particles were formed in the high magnetic flux region of dorsally exposed, early stage pupae and to a lesser degree in the abdomen of young adult females. Orientation of minute, chromosome associated, magnetic domains within the microenvironment of the developing organism was believed to alter oxidative processes within maturing X+ sperm which during fertilization were incompatible with and destructive to an Xw chromosome in the zygote.

  19. Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, M; Zadig, E; Digernes, V; Abeler, V; Reith, A

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic to man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer. Images PMID:2310715

  20. Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Crack: Implications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Jeff B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers the major consequences of prenatal exposure to cocaine, including physiological effects and characteristics of exposed infants and then goes on to discuss the education of these children, noting various behavioral approaches and the importance of assessment. (DB)

  1. 20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL WITH PLASTER REMOVED TO EXPOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR WALL WITH PLASTER REMOVED TO EXPOSE STUDS AND BRICKWORK A. C. Eschete, photographer, July 7, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  2. 11. Southwest view interior, grounds room 18 showing exposed concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Southwest view interior, grounds room 18 showing exposed concrete ceiling - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  3. Detail of upper portion of southeast corner showing exposed rafters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of upper portion of southeast corner showing exposed rafters at eaves; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Cancer in People Exposed to Nuclear Weapons Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... payment of $100,000. Onsite participants People (including military personnel) who were present onsite during above-ground nuclear ... be entitled to a payment of $75,000. (Military personnel exposed to radiation at Hiroshima or Nagasaki are ...

  5. Cytogenetic study on workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Sarto, F.; Cominato, I.; Pinton, A.M.; Brovedani, P.G.; Merler, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Bianchi, V.; Levis, A.G.

    1984-06-01

    A cytogenetic study was performed on 22 healthy workers engaged in benzene production and exposed to low concentrations of benzene, ranging from 0.2 to 12.4 p.p.m. (threshold limit value 10 p.p.m.). Workers were divided into two groups according to the different levels of exposure, inferrable also from the concentration of benzene in the alveolar air and the levels of urinary phenols. Each exposed subject was paired with a suitable control, living in the same area and of similar smoking habits and age. No statistically significant increase of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency was observed in the exposed groups. In controls, SCE frequency was positively correlated with age and smoking habits. Among structural chromosomal aberrations, only the chromosome-type ones were significantly higher in exposed than in control subjects, and their increase was still significant when gaps were discarded.

  6. VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

  7. TERATOGENESIS, TOXICITY, AND BIOCONCENTRATION IN FROGS EXPOSED TO DIELDRIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Teratogenesis, acute and chronic toxicity, and bioconcentration were investigated in various like stages of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) exposed to aqueous dieldrin in static-renewal and continuous-flow tests...

  8. Detail view of the exposed polychromatic aggregate ceiling designed and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the exposed polychromatic aggregate ceiling designed and cast by John Joseph Earley for the vehicular entrance portals to the courtyard - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 13. DETAIL SHOWING EXPOSED VERTICAL LOG CONSTRUCTION WITH MEASURING TAPE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL SHOWING EXPOSED VERTICAL LOG CONSTRUCTION WITH MEASURING TAPE, WEST ROOM AT REAR OF HOUSE, FIRST FLOOR - Pierre Delassus DeLuziereHouse, U.S. Route 61, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  10. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed-uninfected children versus those not exposed to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Stephen J.; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Vibol, Ung; Aurpibul, Linda; Vonthanak, Sophan; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Ratanadilok, Kattiya; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Pruksakaew, Kanchana; van der Lugt, Jasper; Paul, Robert; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative children born to HIV-infected mothers may exhibit differences in neurodevelopment (ND) compared to age- and gender-matched controls whose lives have not been affected by HIV. This could occur due to exposure to HIV and antiretroviral agents in utero and perinatally, or differences in the environment in which they grow up. This study assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children enrolled as controls in a multicenter ND study from Thailand and Cambodia. One hundred sixty HEU and 167 HUU children completed a neurodevelopmental assessment using the Beery Visual Motor Integration (VMI) test, Color Trails, Perdue Pegboard, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Thai children (n = 202) also completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (IQ) and Stanford-Binet II memory tests. In analyses adjusted for caregiver education, parent as caregiver, household income, age, and ethnicity, statistically significant lower scores were seen on verbal IQ (VIQ), full-scale IQ (FSIQ), and Binet Bead Memory among HEU compared to HUU. The mean (95% CI) differences were ?6.13 (?10.3 to ?1.96), p = 0.004; ?4.57 (?8.80 to ?0.35), p = 0.03; and ?3.72 (?6.57 to ?0.88), p = 0.01 for VIQ, FSIQ, and Binet Bead Memory, respectively. We observed no significant differences in performance IQ, other Binet memory domains, Color Trail, Perdue Pegboard, Beery VMI, or CBCL test scores. We conclude that HEU children evidence reductions in some neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to HUU; however, these differences are small and it remains unclear to what extent they have immediate and long-term clinical significance. PMID:24878112

  11. Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to inorganic germanium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Swennen, B; Mallants, A; Roels, H; Buchet, J; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess occupational exposure to inorganic germanium (Ge) in workers from a producing plant, and to assess the health of these workers, with a special focus on respiratory, kidney, and liver functions.?METHODS—Cross sectional study of 75 workers exposed to Ge and 79 matched referents. Exposure was characterised by measuring air and urine concentrations of the element during a typical working week, and health was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, lung function testing, chest radiography, and clinical chemistry in serum and urine, including high and low molecular weight urinary proteins.?RESULTS—Airborne concentrations of Ge (inhalable fraction) ranged from 0.03 to 300 µg/m, which was reflected by increased urinary excretion of Ge (0.12-200 µg/g creatinine, after the shift at the end of the working week). Lung, liver, and haematological variables were not significantly different between referents and workers exposed to Ge. A slightly higher urinary concentration of high molecular weight proteins (albumin and transferrin) was found in workers exposed to Ge, possibly reflecting subclinical glomerular changes. No relation was found between the intensity or duration of exposure and the urinary concentration of albumin. No difference between referents and workers exposed to Ge was found for other renal variables.?CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of urinary Ge can detect occupational exposure to inorganic Ge and its compounds. It is prudent to recommend the monitoring of renal variables in workers exposed to Ge.???Keywords: inorganic germanium; occupational exposure; biological monitoring PMID:10810110

  12. Effects on LDEF exposed copper film and bulk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.; Christl, Ligia C.; Raikar, Ganesh N.

    1991-01-01

    Two forms of copper were exposed to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Mission 1 environment: a copper film, initially 74.2 plus or minus 1.1 nm thick sputter coated on a fused silica flat and a bulk piece of oxygen-free, high conductivity (OFHC) copper. The optical density of the copper film changed from 1.33 to 0.70 where exposed, and the film thickness increased to 106.7 plus or minus 0.5 nm where exposed. The exposed area appears purple by reflection and green by transmission for the thin film and maroon color for the bulk copper piece. The exposed areas increased in thickness, but only increase in the thickness of the thin film sample could be readily measured. The increase in film thickness is consistent with the density changes occurring during conversion of copper to an oxide. However, we have not been able to confirm appreciable conversion to an oxide by x-ray diffraction studies. We have not yet subjected the sample to e-beams or more abusive investigations out of concern that the film might be modified.

  13. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  14. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  15. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  16. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  17. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IN CATTLE § 73.10 Permitted dips; substances allowed. (a) The dips at present permitted by the Department for the treatment, as required in this part, of cattle affected with or exposed to scabies, are as... of scabies in cattle, the APHIS 3 will require that the product be registered under the provisions...

  18. Analysis of a space-exposed thermoplastic resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Davis, Judith R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical characterization of a thermoplastic resin exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment for 10 months and for 5.8 years is reported. The resin, processed as a thick film and as a matrix for a graphite fiber reinforced composite, few exposed in the RAM direction on the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Differences attributable to environmental exposure were detected in infrared spectra and in various molecular weight parameters of film after 10 months in LEO. Those effects were not as apparent in composites after 5.8 years in LEO. Increased exposure to atomic oxygen toward the end of the LDEF mission probably scrubbed these effects from specimens exposed for 5.8 years. The intent of this study is to increase our fundamental understanding of space environmental effects on polymeric materials and to develop a benchmark for enhancing our methodology for and understanding of the ground-based simulation of space environmental effects.

  19. An XPS study of space-exposed polyimide film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Myung; Rooney, William; Whiteside, James

    1993-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to assess changes induced in the surface chemistry of Kapton H (Du Pont Trademark) polyimide strips exposed to the low Earth orbit environment at the space-end of the LDEF satellite on Experiment A0133. Results from flight specimens are compared to material cut from the same lot and stored at room temperature under standard atmospheric conditions. One notable difference was a nearly two-fold increase in surface oxygen (atom-percent composition) for specimens exposed to the direct space environment as compared to controls. In addition, space exposed specimens contained distinct silicon peaks (2p 103.2 eV and 2s 154.2 eV) in their spectra. These peaks were absent in control spectra. It is likely that the increase in oxygen is associated with the silicon. This is in agreement with reports of widespread silicon contamination throughout the LDEF satellite.

  20. Assessing resilience in preschool children exposed to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Howell, Kathryn H; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Czyz, Ewa; Lilly, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined why some preschool-age children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) showed deleterious outcomes and others appeared more resilient. Resilience, conceptualized as strengths in emotion regulation and prosocial skills, was evaluated using the Social Competence Scale developed by the Conduct Problem Prevention Research Group. The sample consisted of 56 mothers and their 4- to 6-year-old children exposed to IPV within the past 2 years. After controlling for relevant demographic factors, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that better parenting performance, fewer maternal mental health problems, and less severe violence exposure predicted better emotion regulation and prosocial skill scores, which in turn were negatively correlated with maladaptive child behaviors. These findings can be used to inform and enhance clinical services for children exposed to IPV. PMID:20514814

  1. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area. PMID:25663236

  2. The EXPOSE-E Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Guenther

    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for ex-periments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation, extraterrestrial UV and ionizing radiation. For 1.5 years the astrobiological experimental ESA facility EXPOSE-E was accommodated on the EuTEF Platform on one of the external balconies of the Columbus Module with 5 exobio-logical and 3 radiation experiments, exposing the chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment. The main interest of the experiments was to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigated resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens and plant seeds to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biologi-cal specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation were regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. The exposure facility EXPOSE-E itself and the accommodated experiments and samples are introduced. A complete Mission overview of this recent long term astrobiological experiment is presented: from the sample preparation and launch to the landing and sample retrieval. Mission data and an assessment of the impacting space parameters during the mission are given. After EXPOSE-E, the sister facility EXPOSE-R was launched and still is in space. A short status information and outlook on this second astrobiological Mission will be included.

  3. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at ? > 110 nm or ? > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  4. Fibrin Sealant-Assisted Revision of the Exposed Ahmed Tube

    PubMed Central

    Choudhari, Nikhil S.; Neog, Aditya; Latka, Supriya; Srinivasan, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Tube exposure is a known complication of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Repair of the exposed tube is not easy. A 42-year-old monocular aphakic male had undergone retinal detachment repair with placement of an episcleral-encircling band followed by implantation of AGV. He presented to the clinic on routine review with exposure of the shunt tube. The complication was managed by placing scleral and conjunctival grafts over the exposed tube using a fibrin adhesive (Tisseel kit; Baxter AG, Vienna, Austria). The novel use of the fibrin sealant in the repair of AGV tube exposure was for better graft-integration. PMID:25624685

  5. Fibrin sealant-assisted revision of the exposed Ahmed tube.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Nikhil S; Neog, Aditya; Latka, Supriya; Srinivasan, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Tube exposure is a known complication of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Repair of the exposed tube is not easy. A 42-year-old monocular aphakic male had undergone retinal detachment repair with placement of an episcleral-encircling band followed by implantation of AGV. He presented to the clinic on routine review with exposure of the shunt tube. The complication was managed by placing scleral and conjunctival grafts over the exposed tube using a fibrin adhesive (Tisseel kit; Baxter AG, Vienna, Austria). The novel use of the fibrin sealant in the repair of AGV tube exposure was for better graft-integration. PMID:25624685

  6. Semantic Technology to Exploit Digital Content Exposed as Linked Data

    E-print Network

    Albertoni, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the research result of the application of semantic technology to ease the use and reuse of digital contents exposed as Linked Data on the web. It focuses on the specific issue of explorative research for the resource selection: a context dependent semantic similarity assessment is proposed in order to compare datasets annotated through terminologies exposed as Linked Data (e.g. habitats, species). Semantic similarity is shown as a building block technology to sift linked data resources. From semantic similarity application, we derived a set of recommendations underlying open issues in scaling the similarity assessment up to the Web of Data.

  7. Organic samples produced by ion bombardment of ices for the EXPOSE-R2 mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, G. A.; Chaput, D.; Cottin, H.; Fernandez Cascales, L.; Palumbo, M. E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization (by UV-vis-IR spectroscopy) of a set of organic samples, stable at room temperature and above, that are part of the experiment "Photochemistry on the Space Station (PSS)" planned to be enclosed in the EXPOSE-R2 mission, which will be conducted on the EXPOSE-R facility. The core facility is placed outside the International Space Station (ISS) on the Universal Platform D (URM-D platform) of the Russian module Zvezda. The organic materials are prepared in the Catania laboratory after 200 keV He+ irradiation of icy mixtures, namely N2:CH4:CO deposited at 16 K on MgF2 windows furnished by the European Space Agency. It is widely accepted that such a kind of materials produced by energetic processing are representative of organic material in some astrophysical environments as comets. Once expelled from comets these materials are exposed to solar radiation during their interplanetary journey before they eventually land on Earth and other planetary objects where they might give a contribution to the chemical and pre-biotical evolution. In particular our residues contain different chemical groups, including triple CN bonds that are considered relevant to pre-biotic chemistry. Therefore the samples will be exposed, for several months, to the solar ultraviolet photons that are a major source of energy to initiate chemical evolution in the solar system. This will allow analysis of their destruction or modification and evaluation of their lifetime in the interplanetary medium. The samples have three different thicknesses that will allow estimation of the depth profile of destruction. This experiment overcomes the limits of ground tests which do not reproduce exactly the space parameters.

  8. Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: exposed common ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: exposed common bond brick wall, arched brick lintels over a two single-light casement window with brick sills, arched brick lintel over door cornice; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  9. Cardiovascular response of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 to 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of (1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; (2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and (3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.

  10. Here's Help for Young Children Exposed to Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Susan; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This article presents instructional strategies for use with primary children who have been prenatally exposed to drugs. Recommendations are made for providing a secure and stable classroom environment, for improving the children's organization of information and attentiveness during classroom activities, and for developing security and…

  11. Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel frame is the central of three bridges crossing Brush Street between east Baltimore and Piquette. The bridge links Old Lake Shore and Michigan Central Main Line on the western side to a New York Central siding on the eastern side - Railroad Overpass, East Milwaukee & Hastings Avenues, Detroit, Wayne County, MI

  12. CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

  13. 18. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EXPOSED VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EXPOSED VIEW OF LOWER PULLEYS OF LEFT-HAND MILL. LOWER LEFT IS BAND SAW PULLEY. UPPER LEFT IS TENSION WHEEL. LARGE PULLEY ON RIGHT IS DRIVE WHEEL FROM POWER SOURCE. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  14. Exposing Pliocene Lignite Bed Near a BEN Village

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Nikola Pavlovic, a kidney specialist and a USGS collaborator on Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) studies from Serbia, is shown exposing a small Pliocene lignite bed near a BEN village in the Vratza area of Bulgaria. The Pliocene lignite seams vary greatly in size and extent. BEN villages are always ...

  15. Exposing Digital Forgeries in Interlaced and De-Interlaced Video

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    1 Exposing Digital Forgeries in Interlaced and De-Interlaced Video Weihong Wang, Student Member, IEEE, and Hany Farid, Member, IEEE Abstract With the advent of high-quality digital video cameras and sophisticated video editing software, it is becoming increasingly easier to tamper with digital video. A growing

  16. LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

  17. Embryo- and fetotoxicity of chromium in pregestationally exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Junaid, M.; Murthy, R.C.; Saxena, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Chromium, an essential element in the human body required for proper carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, is reported to impair gestational development of offspring of workers chronically exposed to this metal in the work place. Workers in chromium based industries can be exposed to concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the general population. Among the general population, residents living near chromate production sites may be exposed to high levels of chromium (VI) in air or to elevated levels (40 - 50,000 ppm) of chromium in effluents. Shmitova reported afterbirth and puerperal hemorrhages in women industrially exposed to this metal and observed high chromium levels in blood and urine of pregnant women and in fetal and cord blood. Chromium readily passes the placental barrier and reaches the growing fetus. Exposure of mice to chromium during various gestational periods resulted in embryo and fetotoxic effects. This study looks at the role of body chromium accumulated pregestationally on embryo and fetal development and its subsequent transfer to feto-placental sites. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. 12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. VIEW TO WEST, TOWARD SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. Macrophages exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi induce Lyme arthritis in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Du Chateau, B K; England, D M; Callister, S M; Lim, L C; Lovrich, S D; Schell, R F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which Lyme arthritis is induced has not been elucidated. In this study, we showed that macrophages have a direct, effector role in the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis. Severe destructive arthritis was induced in recipients of macrophages obtained from Borrelia burgdorferi-vaccinated and nonvaccinated hamsters exposed to Formalin-inactivated B. burgdorferi in vitro and then challenged with the Lyme spirochete. Swelling of the hind paws was detected within 8 h of infection, increased rapidly, and peaked at 21 h. This initial swelling decreased, and by day 4 only slight swelling was detected. Severe swelling of the hind paws was detected 8 days after infection and increased rapidly, with peak swelling occurring on day 11. Histopathologic examination affirmed that macrophages exposed to Formalin-inactivated spirochetes induced a severe destructive Lyme arthritis. The onset and severity of the severe destructive arthritis were dependent on the number of macrophages transferred. By contrast, macrophages not exposed to Formalin-inactivated B. burgdorferi failed to induce severe destructive arthritis in recipients after challenge with B. burgdorferi. Similarly, severe destructive arthritis was not detected in recipients of macrophages injected with spirochetal growth medium. Our results also showed that transferred macrophages could not protect hamsters from infection with B. burgdorferi, as spirochetes were readily recovered from their tissues when cultured. These findings demonstrate that macrophages exposed to B. burgdorferi are directly involved in the induction of Lyme arthritis. PMID:8698477

  20. Frequency discrimination in rats exposed to noise as juveniles.

    PubMed

    Šuta, Daniel; Rybalko, Natalia; Shen, Da-Wei; Popelá?, Ji?í; Poon, Paul W F; Syka, Josef

    2015-05-15

    Sound exposure during the early postnatal period can significantly influence the function of the auditory system in rats during adulthood. In the present study, rat pups (strain Long-Evans) were exposed to broad-band noise at 125dB SPL for 8, 12 or 25min on postnatal day 14 and then at the age of 3-5months their frequency discrimination at 4 and 16kHz was assessed using a modified method of the prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. In all groups of exposed rats, an altered frequency discrimination of the tonal stimuli was observed, in comparison with controls, at 70dB SPL. A worsening of frequency discrimination was observed even in animals exposed for 8min, the auditory thresholds of which were almost identical to that of control animals. The individual auditory thresholds did not correlate with frequency discrimination. The difference in frequency discrimination between the exposed and control animals disappeared at 85-90dB SPL. Our data suggests that brief noise exposure during the critical period of development results in the altered frequency discrimination at moderate sound intensities in adult rats, which may appear even in individuals with normal hearing thresholds. PMID:25747769

  1. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES OF MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transcriptional responses of mouse embryo cultures exposed to bromochloroacetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductive Tox...

  2. Biological responses of marine flatfish exposed to municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Baker, Michael E; Hardiman, Gary; Reyes, Jesus A; Kelley, Kevin M; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing concern over the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents, yet knowledge of potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. The present study used laboratory exposures to examine estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with 2 degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 d to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone, and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. Contaminants of emerging concern were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems. PMID:24273037

  3. Exposing Digital Forgeries in Color Filter Array Interpolated Images

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    1 Exposing Digital Forgeries in Color Filter Array Interpolated Images Alin C. Popescu and Hany editing software, digital images can be easily manipulated and altered. Although good forgeries may leave of an image. Most digital cameras, for example, employ a single sensor in conjunction with a color filter

  4. Exposing Digital Forgeries From 3-D Lighting Environments

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Exposing Digital Forgeries From 3-D Lighting Environments Eric Kee 1 , Hany Farid 2 Department@cs.dartmouth.edu Abstract--When creating a photographic composite, it can be difficult to match lighting conditions. We describe a technique for measuring lighting conditions in an image, and describe its use in detecting

  5. Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting Micah K. Johnson Department the lighting conditions from the individual photographs. Light- ing inconsistencies can therefore be a useful of computer vision, we describe how the di- rection of a point light source can be estimated from only

  6. 'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Schoental, R

    1983-05-01

    A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain. PMID:6190269

  7. CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF MICE EXPOSED TO STYRENE BY INHALATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The published data for the in vivo genotoxicity of styrene (STY) are equivocal. o evaluate the clastogenicity and sister chromatid exchange (SCE)-inducing potential of STY in vivo under carefully controlled conditions, 36C3F1 female mice were exposed by inhalation for 6 hours/day...

  8. Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological,…

  9. A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

  10. BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF BOBWHITE ACUTELY EXPOSED TO CHLORPYRIFOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, were orally dosed with the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos to examine effects on brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity. wo-week-old quail were acutely exposed and euthanized at selected times following gavage-dosing, ranging from 1...

  11. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

  12. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2014-06-24

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  13. Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed roof sections of buildings 934 (center) and 933 (left), 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 3, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  14. Exposing Digital Forgeries from JPEG Ghosts Hany Farid, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    1 Exposing Digital Forgeries from JPEG Ghosts Hany Farid, Member, IEEE Abstract-- When creating's head onto another person's body. If these images were originally of different JPEG compression quality, Ye, et. al developed a technique to estimate the local JPEG compression blocking artifacts [12

  15. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  16. Exposing Behavioral Differences in Cross-Language API Mapping Relations

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    Exposing Behavioral Differences in Cross-Language API Mapping Relations Hao Zhong1 , Suresh translation of many call sites of API elements (i.e., classes, methods, and fields of API libraries). API source API elements and their equiv- alent target API elements. However, in an API mapping relation

  17. LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

  18. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  19. How Permanent Is Permanent Placement for Substance-Exposed Infants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Jean E.; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a study of families in the Family Drug Treatment Court (FTDC), an effort to promote permanent placement for substance-exposed infants within time requirements mandated by the 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA). The purpose of the study was to evaluate parent functioning after FTDC involvement, infant developmental…

  20. BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC THERMOREGULATION IN MICE EXPOSED TO MICROWAVE RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preferred ambient temperature (T) and breathing rate were measured in free-moving mice exposed to 2,450-MHz microwaves. A waveguide-exposure system was imposed with a longitudinal temperature gradient that permitted mice to select their preferred T. Breathing rate was determined ...

  1. 29. VIEW WEST TOWARDS KALAWAO OF PIPELINE, EXPOSED AT LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW WEST TOWARDS KALAWAO OF PIPELINE, EXPOSED AT LOWER LEFT. CAT TRACKS, MADE BY THE CONSTRUCTION/MAINTENANCE VEHICLES, CAN BE SEEN ALONG BOULDER BEACH - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  2. Psychosocial Problems in Refugee Children Exposed to War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Laura Ann; Southwick, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Describes features of psychological distress observed in children exposed to war, including withdrawal, aggression/conduct disorders, school problems, hyperactivity, and posttraumatic stress. Notes the high incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found in all refugee groups studied. Notes teacher efforts to work with traumatized…

  3. WATER RELATIONS OF DIFFERENTIALLY IRRIGATED COTTON EXPOSED TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to be sore susceptible to drought because typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios implants. otton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside,...

  4. Exposing Image Forgery with Blind Noise Estimation Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Siwei

    Exposing Image Forgery with Blind Noise Estimation Xunyu Pan Computer Science Department University at Albany, SUNY Albany, NY 12222, USA lsw@cs.albany.edu ABSTRACT Noise is unwanted in high quality images, but it can aid image tam- pering. For example, noise can be intentionally added in image to conceal tampered

  5. Identifying Redundancy and Exposing Provenance in Crowdsourced Data Analysis

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, James F.

    Identifying Redundancy and Exposing Provenance in Crowdsourced Data Analysis Wesley Willett, Shiry the visual anal- ysis of large data sets across a wide range of different disciplines. Prior work by Willett for analysts · Wesley Willett is with INRIA. E-mail: wesley.willett@inria.fr. · Shiry Ginosar is with UC

  6. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  7. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  8. Exposing Digital Forgeries in Video by Detecting Double MPEG Compression

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Exposing Digital Forgeries in Video by Detecting Double MPEG Compression Weihong Wang Department video. Specifically, we show how a doubly- compressed MPEG video sequence introduces specific static]). Specifically, we show here how a doubly-compressed MPEG video sequence introduces specific static and tempo

  9. FLOW CYTOMETRY ANALYSIS OF WHITE TAILED DEER EXPOSED TO BVDV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two groups of four deer each, 2 to 4 weeks in age, were exposed to one of two bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains: type 1b or type 2a, originally isolated from two different whitetail deer in southeast South Dakota in the fall of 2003. Two control age-matched deer were also used. Flow cytomet...

  10. Neurobehavioural effects among workers occupationally exposed to organophosphorous pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Farahat, T; Abdelrasoul, G; Amr, M; Shebl, M; Farahat, F; Anger, W

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To identify neurobehavioural deficits among workers exposed to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in their occupation. Methods: This study was conducted during the period when pesticides were applied to cotton crops in the fields in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt. Fifty two occupationally exposed male workers were compared to 50 unexposed male controls who were similar in age, socioeconomic class, and years of education (?12 years). All participants completed a questionnaire (assessing personal, occupational, and medical histories), general and neurological clinical examination, neurobehavioural test battery (including tests for verbal abstraction, problem solving, attention, memory, and visuomotor speed), personality assessment, and serological analysis for serum acetylcholinesterase. Results: After correcting for confounders of age and education, the exposed participants exhibited significantly lower performance than controls on six neurobehavioural tests (Similarities, Digit Symbol, Trailmaking part A and B, Letter Cancellation, Digit Span, and Benton Visual Retention). A longer duration of work with pesticides was associated with lower performance on most neurobehavioural tests after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Although serum acetylcholinesterase was significantly lower in the exposed than the control participants, it was not significantly correlated with either neurobehavioural performance or neurological abnormalities. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to OP pesticides was associated with deficits in a wider array of neurobehavioural functions than previously reported, perhaps because of higher exposure in this population. Moderate chronic OP exposure may not only affect visuomotor speed as reported previously, but also verbal abstraction, attention, and memory. PMID:12660376

  11. DNA BARCODING DNA barcoding exposes a case of mistaken identity

    E-print Network

    Schuettpelz, Eric

    DNA BARCODING DNA barcoding exposes a case of mistaken identity in the fern horticultural trade 93312, USA Abstract Using cheilanthoid ferns, we provide an example of how DNA barcoding approaches can identification errors in the international trade. Keywords: Cheilanthes, cheilanthoids, cultivated, DNA barcoding

  12. 18. INTERIOR OF ROOM 106 LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED BEAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF ROOM 106 LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED BEAM AT CEILING IS PAINTED. FLOOR IS VINYL COMPOSITION TILE. WALLS AND CEILING ARE PAINTED GYPSUM BOARD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 24. VIEW OF NORTHWEST WALL IN ROOM 209, RESTROOM. EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF NORTHWEST WALL IN ROOM 209, RESTROOM. EXPOSED BEAM RUNS ALONG NORTHWEST WALL. 3X3 LITE WINDOW IS IN THE NORTHEAST WALL. FLOOR TREATMENT IS WOOD, WALLS ARE GYPSUM BOARD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 26. ROOM 210, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED TIE BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. ROOM 210, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED TIE BEAMS AT CEILING ARE BOXED IN PLYWOOD. WAINSCOTING IS PLYWOOD PANELING. CEILING AND UPPER WALL TREATMENT IS GYPSUM BOARD. CLERESTORY WINDOWS LINE BOTH LONG SIDES OF ROOM. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN NONOCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED U.S. RESIDENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews the manner in which chemical contaminants found in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents enter the environment and subsequently human tissue. Approximately 100 contaminants are treated. Sources of literature used in the survey covered a 30-year period, the b...

  16. [Characterization of chemically exposed groups by immunotoxicological methods].

    PubMed

    Biró, Anna; Pállinger, Eva; Falus, András; Tompa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    At the National Institute of Chemical Safety we have surveyed the immunological status of donors from the oil industry, health services, and metallurgy exposed to different immunotoxic compounds. Their data were compared to those of healthy, non-exposed controls. Our aim was to study the relationship between immunotoxic exposure and immune function, and to establish a system of immunological parameters by which chemical exposure can be specifically monitored. Subpopulations and activation of lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry, using immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the groups exposed to immunotoxic compounds we found an increase in helper, and a decrease in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, leading to a shift in Th/Tc ratios. These phenomena are not substance specific, but relate to chemical exposure. The lymphocytes of exposed groups showed a higher proportion of activated cells, but there was a difference in the expressed activation markers. Our results suggest that characterizing lymphocyte subpopulations and activation markers on PBL of donors is a useful tool in tracking environmental immunotoxic effects. PMID:15351808

  17. RESPIRATORY DAMAGE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO URBAN POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are chronically exposed to complex mixtures of air pollutants. In a cross-sectional arm of our study, we investigated the association between exposure to SWMMC atmosphere and nasal abnormalities, hyperinflation, and intersti...

  18. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rezaul Karim, Mohammad; Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method. Results: The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49%) in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%). Stunting (p < 0.01), wasting (p < 0.05) and underweight (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children. Conclusion: In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status. PMID:25530768

  19. Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P

    1985-01-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop colour-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies. Performance on behavioural tests was analysed using multiple linear regression with solvent concentration as an independent variable. Other relevant demographic variables were also considered for inclusion. No significant (p greater than 0.05) relation between solvent concentration and impairment on any of the 10 behavioural variables was observed after controlling for confounding variables. Exposed/non-exposed comparisons showed a significantly poorer digit span among those exposed, but this has not been generally reported in the Scandinavian studies. The medical examination showed no abnormalities of clinical significance. The inability to replicate the findings of the Scandinavian studies could have been due to the shortness of the duration of workers' exposure, the type of solvents in the mixtures, use of different behavioural tests, or to selection factors. PMID:3876109

  20. Exposed Ice in the Northern Mid-Latitudes of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2007-01-01

    Ice-Rich Layer: Polygonal features with dimensions of approximately 100 meters, bounded by cracks, are commonly observed on the martian northern plains. These features are generally attributed to thermal cracking of ice-rich sediments, in direct analogy to polygons in terrestrial polar regions. We mapped polygons in the northern mid-latitudes (30 to 65 N) using MOC and HiRISE images. Polygons are scattered across the northern plains, with a particular concentration in western Utopia Planitia. This region largely overlaps the Late Amazonian Astapus Colles unit, characterized by polygonal terrain and nested pits consistent with periglacial and thermokarst origins. Bright and Dark Polygonal Cracks: An examination of all MOC images (1997 through 2003) covering the study area demonstrated that, at latitudes of 55 to 65 N, most of the imaged polygons show bright bounding cracks. We interpret these bright cracks as exposed ice. Between 40 and 55 N, most of the imaged polygons show dark bounding cracks. These are interpreted as polygons from which the exposed ice has been removed by sublimation. The long-term stability limit for exposed ice, even in deep cracks, apparently lies near 55 N. Bright and Dark Spots: Many HiRISE and MOC frames showing polygons in the northern plains also show small numbers of bright and dark spots, particularly in western Utopia Planitia. Many of the spots are closely associated with collapse features suggestive of thermokarst. The spots range from tens to approximately 100 meters in diameter. The bright spots are interpreted as exposed ice, due to their prevalence on terrain mapped as ice rich. The dark spots are interpreted as former bright spots, which have darkened as the exposed ice is lost by sublimation. The bright spots may be the martian equivalents of pingos, ice-cored mounds found in periglacial regions on Earth. Terrestrial pingos from which the ice core has melted often collapse to form depressions similar to the martian dark spots. Future Observations: The SHARAD radar should be able to confirm the presence and measure the depth of the interpreted ice-rich layer that forms the Astapus Colles unit. If this layer is confirmed it will strengthen the interpretation of bright polygon cracks and bright spots as exposed ice. HiRISE images of the northern plains are showing unprecedented details of the polygonal cracks. Future HiRISE images that include bright spots, compared to MOC images taken years earlier, will illustrate the temporal stability of the spots. The CRISM spectrometer, with multiple spectral bands and a spatial resolution around 20 meters, should allow mineralogical identification of the material exposed in the polygonal bounding cracks and in the bright spots.

  1. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    SciTech Connect

    Daligcon, B.C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-07-22

    The role of gluconeogenesis on the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G (radial acceleration) stress was determined. Overnight-fasted, male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were injected i.p. with uniformly labeled /sup 14/C lactate, alanine, or glycerol (5 ..mu..Ci/rat) and immediately exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. /sup 14/C incorporation of the labeled substrates into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured and compared to noncentrifuged control rats injected in a similar manner. Significant increases in /sup 14/C incorporation of all three labeled substrates into plasma glucose were observed in centrifuged rats at all exposure periods; /sup 14/C incorporation into liver glycogen was significantly increased only at 0.50 and 1.0 hr. The i.p. administration (5 mg/100-g body wt) of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a potent gluconeogenesis inhibitor, prior to centrifugation blocked the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen during the first hour of centrifugation. The increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen was also abolished in adrenodemedullated rats exposed to centrifugation for 1.0 hr. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, suppressed the increase in plasma glucose of rats exposed to centrifugation for 0.25 hr. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the initial, rapid rise in plasma glucose as well as the increase in liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress can be attributed to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine plays a dominant role during the early stages of exposure to centrifugation. 11 references, 3 tables.

  2. Interaction of Al with O2 exposed Mo2BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-03-01

    A Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O2. The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O2 adsorption whereby Mosbnd O, Osbnd Mosbnd O and Mo2sbnd Csbnd O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo2BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO2 and MoO3 bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O2 exposed Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O2 exposed Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Alsbnd Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Alsbnd O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Alsbnd Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations.

  3. The AMINO experiment: a laboratory for astrochemistry and astrobiology on the EXPOSE-R facility of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, H.; Saiagh, K.; Guan, Y. Y.; Cloix, M.; Khalaf, D.; Macari, F.; Jérome, M.; Polienor, J.-M.; Bénilan, Y.; Coll, P.; Fray, N.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Raulin, F.; Stalport, F.; Carrasco, N.; Szopa, C.; Bertrand, M.; Chabin, A.; Westall, F.; Vergne, J.; Da Silva, L. A.; Maurel, M.-C.; Chaput, D.; Demets, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the evolution of organic matter subjected to space conditions, and more specifically to Solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet range (120-200 nm) has been undertaken in low-Earth orbit since the 1990s, and implemented on various space platforms. This paper describes a photochemistry experiment called AMINO, conducted during 22 months between 2009 and 2011 on the EXPOSE-R ESA facility, outside the International Space Station. Samples with relevance to astrobiology (connected to comets, carbonaceous meteorites and micrometeorites, the atmosphere of Titan and RNA world hypothesis) have been selected and exposed to space environment. They have been analysed after return to the Earth. This paper is not discussing the results of the experiment, but rather gives a general overview of the project, the details of the hardware used, its configuration and recent developments to enable long-duration exposure of gaseous samples in tight closed cells enabling for the first time to derive quantitative results from gaseous phase samples exposed in space.

  4. Trace metals in occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D E; Tillery, J B; Prevost, R J

    1975-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in Houston, Texas on five trace metals in policemen, parking garage attendants, women living near freeways and three control groups of subjects. The controls were matched with the exposed groups for covariate information such as age, sex, smoking habits, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, hair color, and education. Each subject was sampled four times for blood, urine, hair, and feces, and these samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, manganese, and copper. Lead and cadmium were correlated with airborne exposures but zinc, manganese and copper were not. The second part of this paper deals with a market study of platinum and palladium markets and a design of an epidemiology survey of individuals occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed to these two metals. The market survey shows that although the catalytic muffler will have a major impact on the market, it is predicted that producers can meet these demands. PMID:1157784

  5. Temperature increase in the fetus exposed to UHF RFID readers.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Liorni, Ilaria; Samaras, Theodoros; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has prominently increased during the last decades due to the rapid development of new technologies. Among the various devices emitting EMFs, those based on Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies are used in all aspects of everyday life, and expose people unselectively. This scenario could pose a potential risk for some groups of the general population, such as pregnant women, who are expected to be possibly more sensitive to the thermal effects produced by EMF exposure. This is the first paper that addresses the estimation of temperature rise in two pregnant women models exposed to ultrahigh frequency RFID by computational techniques. Results show that the maximum temperature increase of the fetus and of the pregnancy-related tissues is relatively high (even about 0.7 °C), not too far from the known threshold of biological effects. However, this increase is confined to a small volume in the tissues. PMID:24956619

  6. Hierarchical structures of rutile exposing high-index facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kato, Hideki; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kakihana, Masato

    2015-05-01

    Recently, shape-controlled synthesis of crystals exposing high-index facets has attracted much research interest due to their importance for both fundamental studies and technological applications. Herein, crystals of rutile-type TiO2 with hierarchical structures exposing high-index facets have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method using water-soluble titanium complex as a precursor and picolinic acid as structure-directing and shape-controlling agents. The synthesized particles were composed of several branches of pyramidal crystals with relatively smooth surface. On the basis of investigation results, it was speculated that the mutual ?-stacking and selective adsorption of picolinic acid on specific {111} facets resulted in the formation of rutile crystals bound by high-index surfaces such as {331}.

  7. Physiological disturbances in Atlantic salmon exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, M.M.; Holdway, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    In Southern Australia, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming is undertaken in marine areas where extensive oil exploration, exploitation and transport are taking place. Pen-reared juvenile fish are at high risk of oil exposure through frequent small spills or major accidents. When exposed, commercial fisheries have to face million-dollar loses due to potential tainting of their stocks. In this study, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to Bass Strait light crude oil in a fashion simulating an accidental oil spill at sea i.e. exposure to crude oil followed by a deputation period. Temporal trends in enzymatic bioindicators of exposure were investigated through exposure and deputation periods, as well as several biochemical and chemical measurements. The main objective of the study was to relate tainting with easily measured biological indicators of exposure to crude oil. Good correlations between bioindicators of exposure and tainting could assist fish farming industry to decide on the fate of fish stocks affected by oil taint.

  8. Gene expression changes in plants and microorganisms exposed to nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, Benoit

    2015-06-01

    Unique properties of nanomaterials allow them to interact unexpectedly with biological systems. Analysis of the transcriptional response (change in gene expression) in exposed organisms constitutes a powerful approach for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and molecular responses in cells exposed to nanomaterials. Transcriptional analyses have been conducted to study the effects of nanomaterials on humans, mammalian models, and other organisms important for the ecosystem. The present article reviews recent gene expression studies conducted to understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants and bacteria. As plants and bacteria are essential components of the food chain and/or play a central role in nutrient cycling and biodegradation, their interactions with nanomaterials have important implications for the environment and public health. PMID:25827116

  9. Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Kolasinski; D. F. Cowgill; D. C. Donovan; M. Shimada

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

  10. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6?mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4?weeks (6?h/day, 5?days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4?weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1?week, 4?weeks or 13?weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ?6.8?mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8?mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats. PMID:24102467

  11. [Lymphocyte subpopulations in workers exposed occupationally to styrene].

    PubMed

    Mutti, A; Buzio, C; Perazzoli, F; Bergamaschi, E; Bocchi, M C; Selis, L; Mineo, F; Franchini, I

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 32 workers occupationally exposed to styrene, the distribution of lymphocyte subsets was investigated by automated flow cytometry. The group under study consisted of 22 male and 10 female workers aged 39.7, D.S. = 10 years and employed for 6.8 years in factories manufacturing glass fibre-reinforced plastics. A control group (12 males and 7 females) recruited according to the same selection criteria was simultaneously examined. Environmental and biological monitoring was used to characterize styrene exposure. In styrene-exposed workers, phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood revealed a reduced proportion of T helper lymphocytes and a relative increase in the T suppressor subset, leading to a significant inversion of the helper/suppressor ratio (0.92) among heavily exposed workers (greater than 50 ppm, 8h-TWA) as compared to less exposed workers and controls (1.37 and 1.43 respectively). The proportion of natural killer (NK) T lymphocytes was significantly increased among styrene workers. The proportion of B lymphocytes was unchanged as compared to the control group. Dose-response relationships were clearly apparent for the observed increases in the prevalence of abnormalities: none of control subjects showed more than 2 (out of 8) abnormal values as compared to 20 and 40% of styrene workers belonging respectively to the low and high exposure group (p less than 0.007). Only a minority of controls exhibited abnormally high levels of both NK and suppressor T lymphocytes (0-5%), the corresponding figures for styrene workers being 7-10% (low exposure) and 45% (high exposure). As a whole, the findings support the hypothesis of the immunotoxicity of styrene, which could be due either to direct effects on lymphocytes or to indirect mechanisms possibly mediated by neuroendocrine changes. PMID:1630405

  12. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A.; Hunter, Robert L.; McCluskey, Richard A.; Chen, Bean T.; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E.; Gardner, Donald E.; McClellan, Roger O.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, David S.; Marshall, Linda; James, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m3 of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ?6.8 mg/m3. This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m3 was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats. PMID:24102467

  13. Photodegradation of riboflavin in milks exposed to fluorescent light.

    PubMed

    Allen, C; Parks, O W

    1979-09-01

    Photodegradation of riboflavin in 50-ml samples of fluid milks exposed to fluorescent light (2690 lux) followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the reaction rate (s-1) averaged 1.86 x 10(-5) in skim milk and 1.47 x 10(-5) in whole milk. Additional evidence led us to conclude that photodegradation of riboflavin proceeds prior to the appearance of a light-induced off-flavor. PMID:512136

  14. 16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF ROOM 105 LOOKING TOWARD SOUTHEAST WALL. EXPOSED POST EXISTS IN MIDDLE OF ROOM. A SMALL OPENING HAS BEEN CUT INTO THE UPPER PORTION OF THE SOUTHEAST WALL THROUGH TO THE ADJOINING ROOM (106). GYPSUM BOARD ON WALLS WITH WOOD TRIM, FLUORESCENT LIGHTING, AND VINYL COMPOSITION TILE ON FLOORS ARE ALL LATER ADDITIONS. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. Viscoelastic Properties of Vascular Endothelial Cells Exposed to Stretch

    E-print Network

    Kathryn Osterday; Thomas Chew; Phillip Loury; Jason Haga; Manuel Gomez-Gonzalez; Juan C. del Alamo; Shu Chien

    2013-09-10

    In this paper, we study how cytoskeletal remodeling is correlated to changes in subcellular microrheology. We analyze the changes in the magnitude and directionality of the shear and elastic moduli of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) exposed to cyclical, uniaxial stretch. We find that, when stretched, BAECs stiffen and align their softest direction of mechanical polarization perpendicular to stretch. We hypothesize that the response of VECs to stretch acts to minimize intracellular strain in response to stress.

  16. Pseudohyphal variations of yeasts exposed to specific space flight parameters.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Hunter, R L

    1998-01-01

    Phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotorula rubra exposed to specific parameters of space flight, which were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively, produced variations in pseudohyphal formation. Both the length of the parent and branch psuedohyphal filaments varied according to specific wavelengths and energy levels of UV light exposures when phenotypic isolates were compared with the parent or ground control isolate of each yeast species. PMID:9881461

  17. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a smelter exposed to zinc fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ameille, J.; Brechot, J.M.; Brochard, P.; Capron, F.; Dore, M.F. )

    1992-03-01

    A smelter exposed to zinc fumes reported severe recurrent episodes of cough, dyspnea and fever. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed a marked increase in lymphocytes count with predominance of CD8 T-lymphocytes. Presence of zinc in alveolar macrophages was assessed by analytic transmission electron microscopy. This is the first case of recurrent bronchoalveolitis related to zinc exposure in which the clinical picture and BAL results indicate a probable hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  18. Expose : procedure and results of the joint experiment verification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Baglioni, P.

    The International Space Station will carry the EXPOSE facility accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D located outside the Russian Service Module. The launch will be affected in 2005 and it is planned to stay in space for 1.5 years. The tray like structure will accomodate 2 chemical and 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Response of Organisms to Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. The either vented or sealed experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by the use of individual shutters. To test the compatibility of the different biological systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. The procedure and first results of this joint Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) will be presented. The results will be essential for the success of the EXPOSE mission and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results of the mission will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.

  19. Improving antenatal risk assessment in women exposed to high risks.

    PubMed

    Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. PMID:23982989

  20. Altered amygdala connectivity in urban youth exposed to trauma.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Moriah E; Marusak, Hilary A; Tocco, Maria A; Vila, Angela M; McGarragle, Olivia; Rosenberg, David R

    2015-11-01

    Early life trauma exposure represents a potent risk factor for the development of mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, deleterious consequences of trauma are exacerbated in youth living in impoverished, urban environments. A priori probability maps were used to examine resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the amygdala in 21 trauma-exposed, and 21 age- and sex-matched urban children and adolescents (youth) without histories of trauma. Intrinsic FC analyses focused on amygdala-medial prefrontal circuitry, a key emotion regulatory pathway in the brain. We discovered reduced negative amygdala-subgenual cingulate connectivity in trauma-exposed youth. Differences between groups were also identified in anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate to amygdala connectivity. Overall, results suggest a model in which urban-dwelling trauma-exposed youth lack negative prefrontal to amygdala connectivity that may be critical for regulation of emotional responses. Functional changes in amygdala circuitry might reflect the biological embedding of stress reactivity in early life and mediate enhanced vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25836993

  1. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of glucogenesis on the plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress is investigated. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats are injected with C-14 lactate, alanine, of glycerol, and six of the rats are exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. The plasma glucose and liver glycogen of the centrifuged and noncentrifuged rats are analyzed. A significant increase in the C-14 incorporation of the substrate into the plasma glucose and liver glycogen is observed in the centrifuged rats. The injection of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis inhibitor, results in a blocked increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen. The role of epinephrine on the hyperglycemic and liver glycogen responses of centrifuged rats is studied. It is concluded that the initial increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen in rats exposed to hyper-G stress is the result of an increased rate of gluconeogenesis.

  2. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  3. Hepatitis A in workers exposed to sewage: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Glas, C; Hotz, P; Steffen, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess whether the scientific literature supports the hypothesis that workers exposed to sewage are at higher risk of hepatitis A (HA).?METHODS—All original papers reporting epidemiological studies published in English, French, or German which reported on the risk of HA infection in workers exposed to sewage were eligible. They were identified by several methods and each original paper was assessed independently with a checklist by two people. Studies were classified according to the strength of their design. Non-eligible studies were also examined to assess the impact of publication bias. If the risk estimates diverged widely, causes for heterogeneity were assessed. A distinction was made between seroprevalence studies based on subclinical HA (defined only by the presence of anti-HA antibodies) and clinical HA.?RESULTS—17 eligible studies were identified. No indication of an increased risk of clinical HA could be found. For seroprevalence the studies with the strongest design suggested a slightly increased risk of subclinical HA with an odds ratio (OR) <2.5. Heterogeneity was considerable and precluded a meta-analysis. Considering non-eligible studies would still decrease the OR.?CONCLUSIONS—The systematic review does not confirm an increased risk of clinical HA in workers exposed to sewage. An increased risk of subclinical HA cannot be excluded but the association between seropositivity and exposure to sewage was not strong and became still weaker if publication bias was taken into account.???Keywords: hepatitis A; sewage; systematic review PMID:11706141

  4. Risk management among benzene-exposed oil refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Tompa, Anna; Jakab, Mátyás G; Major, Jeno

    2005-01-01

    Ten benzene-exposed oil refinery workers were genotoxicologically monitored in an annual follow-up study between 1990 and 2003 and compared with 87 industrial and 26 matched controls. Each of the exposed subjects suffered from several intercurrent non-infectious diseases such as joint, rheumatic, gastric and dental problems, as well as kidney and liver dysfunctions. The structural chromosome aberration (CA) yields of the exposed donors suggested a dose-dependent response to the mean peak benzene concentrations in the ambient air. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE), high-frequency SCE, DNA repair, and cell proliferation data also indicated the presence of genotoxic exposure at the workplace. The results of the biological and genotoxicological monitoring indicated the need of intervention (primary prevention of occupational exposure-related chronic non-infectious diseases) including the introduction of zero tolerance of benzene emission, health control, and education with motivation to change life-styles. The decrease in CA frequencies considered as the most established genotoxicological effect markers indicated the positive changes due to the achieved zero tolerance at the workplaces. The results also demonstrated the effectiveness of a trilateral co-operation between the health services, the employer and the employee in order to reduce the risk of the exposure-related intercurrent non-infectious diseases and to prevent further deterioration of the health state of the workers. PMID:16325561

  5. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. All the species successfully survived but at higher scale in more deep (protected from direct affect of UV radiation) layers. The experiments gave direct confirmation that dried resting stages of aquatic organisms can be transported to other planets by space vehicles in harsh open space conditions that had both negative (interplanetary quarantine) and positive (outside Earth artificial ecosystem creation) sides. This study was supported by several national RFBR, international RFBR-Japan and travel grant from Malaysia grants.

  6. Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, K; Dick, R B; Howell, R J; Chrislip, D W; Hines, C J; Reid, T M; Lehman, E; Laber, P; Krieg, E F; Knott, C

    2000-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide. Houses and lawns in the United States receive a total of approximately 20 million annual chlorpyrifos treatments, and 82% of U.S. adults have detectable levels of a chlorpyrifos metabolite (3,5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; TCP) in the urine. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that there are 5,000 yearly reported cases of accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning, and approximately one-fourth of these cases exhibit symptoms. Organophosphates affect the nervous system, but there are few epidemiologic data on chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity. We studied neurologic function in 191 current and former termiticide applicators who had an average of 2.4 years applying chlorpyrifos and 2.5 years applying other pesticides, and we compared them to 189 nonexposed controls. The average urinary TCP level for 65 recently exposed applicators was 629.5 microg/L, as compared to 4.5 microg/L for the general U.S. population. The exposed group did not differ significantly from the nonexposed group for any test in the clinical examination. Few significant differences were found in nerve conduction velocity, arm/hand tremor, vibrotactile sensitivity, vision, smell, visual/motor skills, or neurobehavioral skills. The exposed group did not perform as well as the nonexposed group in pegboard turning tests and some postural sway tests. The exposed subjects also reported significantly more symptoms, including memory problems, emotional states, fatigue, and loss of muscle strength; our more quantitative tests may not have been adequate to detect these symptoms. Eight men who reported past chlorpyrifos poisoning had a pattern of low performance on a number of tests, which is consistent with prior reports of chronic effects of organophosphate poisoning. Overall, the lack of exposure effects on the clinical examination was reassuring. The findings for self-reported symptoms raise some concern, as does the finding of low performance for those reporting prior poisoning. Although this was a relatively large study based on a well-defined target population, the workers we studied may not be representative of all exposed workers, and caution should be exercised in generalizing our results. PMID:10753086

  7. Exposed Ice in the Northern Mid-Latitudes of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. C.

    2007-12-01

    Ice-Rich Layer: Polygonal features with dimensions of approximately 100 meters, bounded by cracks, are commonly observed on the martian northern plains. These features are generally attributed to thermal cracking of ice-rich sediments, in direct analogy to polygons in terrestrial polar regions [1,2]. We mapped polygons in the northern mid-latitudes (30 to 65 N) using MOC and HiRISE images [3]. Polygons are scattered across the northern plains, with a particular concentration in western Utopia Planitia. This region largely overlaps the Late Amazonian Astapus Colles unit, characterized by polygonal terrain and nested pits consistent with periglacial and thermokarst origins [4]. Bright and Dark Polygonal Cracks: An examination of all MOC images (1997 through 2003) covering the study area demonstrated that, at latitudes of 55 to 65 N, most of the imaged polygons show bright bounding cracks. We interpret these bright cracks as exposed ice. Between 40 and 55 N, most of the imaged polygons show dark bounding cracks [5]. These are interpreted as polygons from which the exposed ice has been removed by sublimation. The long-term stability limit for exposed ice, even in deep cracks, apparently lies near 55 N. Bright and Dark Spots: Many HiRISE and MOC frames showing polygons in the northern plains also show small numbers of bright and dark spots, particularly in western Utopia Planitia. Many of the spots are closely associated with collapse features suggestive of thermokarst. The spots range from tens to approximately 100 meters in diameter. The bright spots are interpreted as exposed ice, due to their prevalence on terrain mapped as ice rich. The dark spots are interpreted as former bright spots, which have darkened as the exposed ice is lost by sublimation. The bright spots may be the martian equivalents of pingos, ice-cored mounds found in periglacial regions on Earth [6,7,8,9, 10]. Terrestrial pingos from which the ice core has melted often collapse to form depressions similar to the martian dark spots. Future Observations: The SHARAD radar should be able to confirm the presence and measure the depth of the interpreted ice-rich layer that forms the Astapus Colles unit. If this layer is confirmed it will strengthen the interpretation of bright polygon cracks and bright spots as exposed ice. HiRISE images of the northern plains are showing unprecedented details of the polygonal cracks. Future HiRISE images that include bright spots, compared to MOC images taken years earlier, will illustrate the temporal stability of the spots. The CRISM spectrometer, with multiple spectral bands and a spatial resolution around 20 meters, should allow mineralogical identification of the material exposed in the polygonal bounding cracks and in the bright spots. References: [1] Seibert N.M. and Kargel J.S. (2001) GRL, 28, 899-902. [2] Mangold N. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E08001. [3] Kanner L.C. et al. (2004) LPS XXXV, Abstract #1982. [4] Tanaka K.L. et al. (2005) Map 2888, USGS. [5] Kanner L. (2004) Geology Comprehensives Paper, Carleton College (unpublished). [6] Soare R.J. et al. (2005) Icarus, 174, 373-382. [7] Osinski G.R. and Soare R.J. (2007) LPS XXXVIII, Abstract #1609. [8] Ferrand W.H. and Lane M.D. (2007) LPS XXXVIII, Abstract #1972. [9] Dundas C.M. et al. (2007) 7th Intl. Conf. Mars, Abstract #3214. [10] Allen C.C. and Kanner L.C. (2007) 7th Int. Conf. Mars, Abstract #3065.

  8. Long term health and neurodevelopment in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs before birth

    PubMed Central

    Dean, J; Hailey, H; Moore, S; Lloyd, D; Turnpenny, P; Little, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the frequency of neonatal and later childhood morbidity in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero. Design: Retrospective population based study. Setting: Population of the Grampian region of Scotland. Participants: Mothers taking antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy between 1976 and 2000 were ascertained from hospital obstetric records and 149 (58% of those eligible) took part. They had 293 children whose health and neurodevelopment were assessed. Main outcome measures: Frequencies of neonatal withdrawal, congenital malformations, childhood onset medical problems, developmental delay, and behaviour disorders. Results: Neonatal withdrawal was seen in 20% of those exposed to antiepileptic drugs. Congenital malformations occurred in 14% of exposed pregnancies, compared with 5% of non-exposed sibs, and developmental delay in 24% of exposed children, compared with 11% of non-exposed sibs. After excluding cases with a family history of developmental delay, 19% of exposed children and 3% of non-exposed sibs had developmental delay, 31% of exposed children had either major malformations or developmental delay, 52% of exposed children had facial dysmorphism compared with 25% of those not exposed, 31% of exposed children had childhood medical problems (13% of non-exposed sibs), and 20% had behaviour disorders (5% of non-exposed). Conclusion: Prenatal antiepileptic drug exposure in the setting of maternal epilepsy is associated with developmental delay and later childhood morbidity in addition to congenital malformation. PMID:11950853

  9. Histopathological study of ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to different thymol concentrations.

    PubMed

    da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Thymol is a monoterpene with proven acaricide action for several tick species. In addition to killing these ectoparasites, thymol can also reduce oviposition and egg hatch rate. However, the effects of thymol on the morphophysiology of tick ovaries are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphophysiological changes caused by this active principle in ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus after a 6-day feeding period, through the application of morphohistochemical techniques. After the feeding period, a total of 50 females were divided into five groups and immersed in the following solutions: (I) distilled water (control), (II) 30% ethanol (control), (III) 1.25 mg/mL thymol, (IV) 2.5 mg/mL thymol, and (V) 5.0 mg/mL thymol. The experimental groups were kept in a climatic chamber (27?±?1 °C; RH 80?±?10%) for 5 days. After this period, morphological (hematoxylin/eosin) and histochemical (von Kossa) techniques were applied after remotion of the ovaries. The morphological results revealed large vacuoles in germ cells at different developmental stages and invaginations that represent deformations in the chorionic membrane. From the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that thymol interfered with the development of oocytes, which showed degeneration signs. The treatment containing 5.0 mg/mL thymol affected more accentuately the morphological development. Moreover, thymol also altered the calcium content of yolk granules, which generally showed an intense staining for this element. PMID:25300417

  10. Petroleum films exposed to sunlight produce hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-05-01

    Sunlight exposed oil films on seawater or pure water produced substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical as a result of irradiation. Oil was collected from the surface of the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon spill and exposed to simulated sunlight in thin films over water. Photochemical production of hydroxyl radical was measured with benzoic acid as a selective chemical probe in the aqueous layer. Total hydroxyl radical formation was studied using high benzoic acid concentrations and varying exposure time. The total amount of hydroxyl radical produced in 24 h irradiations of thin oil films over Gulf of Mexico water and pure water were 3.7×10(-7) and 4.2×10(-7) moles respectively. Steady state concentrations of hydroxyl radical were measured using a competition kinetics approach. Hydroxyl radical concentrations of 1.2×10(-16) to 2.4×10(-16) M were observed for seawater and pure water under oil films. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials were added to the system in an effort to determine if the photocatalyst would enhance oil photodegradation. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles dramatically changed the observed formation rate of hydroxyl radical in the systems with NP water at pH 3, showing increased formation rate in many cases. With photocatalyst, the steady state concentration of radical decreased, predominantly due to an increase in the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate with oxide present. This study illustrates that oil is a strong and important source of hydroxyl radical when exposed to sunlight. The fate of oil and other dissolved species following oil spills will be heavily dependent on the formation and fate of hydroxyl radical. PMID:24405967

  11. Study of electronic transport in gamma ray exposed nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlawat, Devender Chauhan, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A sharp decline in the I–V characteristics of Cu (and Cd) nanowires was experimentally observed after the gamma ray exposure of nanowires. Irradiation induced transformations in the granular properties and the resonance state of electron–phonon coupling beyond a particular value of external field may be accountable for observed shape of I–V characteristics in gamma ray exposed nanowires. - Highlights: • Cu and Cd nanowires were synthesized by technique of electrodeposition in templates. • The nanowires were exposed to different doses of gamma ray photons. • A sharp decline in the current in I–V characteristics (IVC) was observed. • Structural deviation in terms of granular orientations was also analysed. • The electron–phonon coupling may be responsible for observed sharp decline in IVC. - Abstract: One dimensional nanostructures provide the most restricted and narrow channel for the transport of charge carriers and therefore 1D structures preserve their significance from the viewpoint of electronic devices. The net radiation effect on nanomaterials is expected to be more (due to their increased reactivity and lesser bulk volume) than their bulk counterparts. Radiation often modifies the structure and simultaneously the other physical properties of materials. In this manner, the irradiation phenomenon could be counted as a strong criterion to induce changes in the structural and electrical properties of nanowires. We have studied the effect of gamma rays on the electronic flow through Cu and Cd nanowires by plotting their I–V characteristics (IVC). The IVC of gamma ray exposed nanowires was found to be a combination of the linear and nonlinear regions and a decreasing pattern in the electrical conductivity (calculated from the linear portion of IVC) was observed as we increased the dose of gamma rays.

  12. Susuk - black magic exposed "white" by dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    F, Arishiya Thapasum; Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-07-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was "exposed" by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a "hidden secret" thereby avoiding misdiagnosis. PMID:25177646

  13. Dermatitis in workers exposed to antimony in a melting process.

    PubMed

    White, G P; Mathias, C G; Davin, J S

    1993-04-01

    An employee at a brazing rod manufacturing plant developed a generalized eruption of follicular papules and pustules. His job tasks included breaking up antimony ingots and melting the pieces in a crucible; he was exposed to antimony metal dust and to antimony trioxide fumes. Two fellow employees who later performed the same job tasks developed similar eruptions. The clinical and workplace evaluations suggested that the fumes from melting antimony were the cause of the dermatoses, and that the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit is not adequate to prevent cutaneous effects of antimony exposure. PMID:8487117

  14. Spectrum of alveolitis in quartz-exposed human subjects.

    PubMed

    Bégin, R O; Cantin, A M; Boileau, R D; Bisson, G Y

    1987-12-01

    To characterize silica-induced alveolitis in human subjects, we studied 22 workers in the granite stone cutting industry of Quebec and compared results with those of 22 manual workers without quartz exposure (group 1). All were nonsmokers and were of comparable age. On the basis of chest roentgenogram, seven were without disease (group 2), nine had silicosis without coalescence/conglomeration (group 3), and six had silicosis with coalescence/conglomeration (group 4). The alveolitis in subsets of silica-exposed workers with distinct clinical stages of disease was found to have distinct biologic characteristics. PMID:2824136

  15. Nonlinear photooxidation of diamond surface exposed to femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, V. V.; Gololobov, V. M.; Komlenok, M. S.; Konov, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    We present an experimental investigation of photooxidation of a diamond surface exposed to femtosecond laser pulses that induce transient high concentrations of free carriers (>1022cm-3) while the lattice stays cold. Etching rate measurements and a laser-induced plasma study indicated that the rate of desorption of carbon species is proportional to the square of the induced plasma density, which contrasts with previous investigations of diamond etching by nanosecond pulses. We discuss how laser-induced ionization of diamond occurs and how it affects the photoreaction mechanism.

  16. Susuk - Black Magic Exposed “White” by Dental Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was “exposed” by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a “hidden secret” thereby avoiding misdiagnosis. PMID:25177646

  17. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  18. Final results of space exposed experiment developed for students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.

    1993-01-01

    SEEDS was a cooperative endeavor of NASA Headquarters, the NASA Langley Research Center, and the George W. Park Seed Company. Approximately 132,000 SEEDS kits containing Rutger's tomato seeds that had flown on LDEF, as well as similar seeds that had been stored in a climate-controlled warehouse for the same time period, were sent to schools in every state and 30 foreign countries. Student researchers from kindergarten through university compared germination and growth characteristics of the space-exposed and Earth-based seeds and returned data to NASA for analysis. Important scientific information was gained as students reported very little difference between the two seed groups.

  19. Characterization of Specimens Exposed in a Li Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Kinga A; Lance, Michael J; Pint, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    A monometallic V-4Cr-4Ti thermal convection loop was run for 2,350 h with a peak temperature of 700 C and Li flow rate of 2-3 cm/s. Specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti exposed in the hot and cold leg were tensile tested in vacuum at 500 C showing an increase in the 0.2% yield and ultimate tensile strengths and a decrease in the serration amplitude with decreasing exposure temperature in the loop. However, only minor changes in ductility were measured. With the higher temperature exposures, there was a decrease in Vickers hardness measured but little change in the grain size. Characterization of the microstructure after exposure at 627 C in the loop showed an increase in the density of Ti- and N-rich grain boundary and matrix precipitates near the specimen surface after exposure corresponding to an increase in the hardness in the near-surface region. Two-layer V/Y2O3 coatings on V-4Cr-4Ti substrates also were exposed in the loop and initial room temperature characterization has been conducted.

  20. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Helena F.; Veiga, Diogo F.; Freire, Pablo R.; Weinstein, John N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. PMID:20851208

  1. Protection of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria exposed to simulated Mars environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we studied the viability of two microorganisms under different conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. An acidophilic chemolithotroph isolated from Río Tinto belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus and Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation resistant microorganism, were exposed to simulated Mars conditions under the protection of a layer of ferric oxides and hydroxides, a Mars regolith analogue. Samples of these microorganisms were exposed to UV radiation in Mars atmospheric conditions at different time intervals under the protection of 2 and 5 mm layers of oxidized iron minerals. Viability was evaluated by inoculation on fresh media and characterization of their growth cultures. Here we report the survival capability of both bacteria to simulated Mars environmental conditions.

  2. Role of exposed metal sites in hydrogen storage in MOFs.

    PubMed

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Regli, Laura; Chavan, Sachin; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Dietzel, Pascal D C; Bordiga, Silvia; Zecchina, Adriano

    2008-07-01

    The role of exposed metal sites in increasing the H2 storage performances in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been investigated by means of IR spectrometry. Three MOFs have been considered: MOF-5, with unexposed metal sites, and HKUST-1 and CPO-27-Ni, with exposed Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), respectively. The onset temperature of spectroscopic features associated with adsorbed H2 correlates with the adsorption enthalpy obtained by the VTIR method and with the shift experienced by the H-H stretching frequency. This relationship can be ascribed to the different nature and accessibility of the metal sites. On the basis of a pure energetic evaluation, it was observed that the best performance was shown by CPO-27-Ni that exhibits also an initial adsorption enthalpy of -13.5 kJ mol(-1), the highest yet observed for a MOF. Unfortunately, upon comparison of the hydrogen amounts stored at high pressure, the hydrogen capacities in these conditions are mostly dependent on the surface area and total pore volume of the material. This means that if control of MOF surface area can benefit the total stored amounts, only the presence of a great number of strong adsorption sites can make the (P, T) storage conditions more economically favorable. These observations lead to the prediction that efficient H2 storage by physisorption can be obtained by increasing the surface density of strong adsorption sites. PMID:18533719

  3. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l?¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l?¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l?¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l?¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98). PMID:24479959

  4. Recall bias in exposed subjects following a toxic exposure incident

    SciTech Connect

    Hopwood, D.G.; Guidotti, T.L.

    1988-05-01

    Attempts to reconstruct health effects following toxic exposure incidents may be subject to bias from distorted or incomplete recollection. The authors examined recall in 22 of 31 subjects exposed to fumes from ruptured drums containing nitric acid during a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-supervised hazardous waste site clean up operation in August 1983. Exposed subjects were interviewed by emergency room staff immediately after the episode and the next morning by telephone by a public health epidemiologists. Six months later, the subjects were again interviewed by telephone and asked to report the symptoms they had experienced during the incident. For each respondent, symptoms recalled at 6 mo were compared to symptoms reported at the time. They found a low level of agreement compared to that expected by chance, associated with significant nonrandom differences in the distribution of responses consistently favoring selective recall on the later interview. They conclude that allowing time to elapse before obtaining data on individual symptoms following exposure may lead to a significant bias in response.

  5. White Matter Compromise in Veterans Exposed to Primary Blast Forces

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Katherine H.; Hurley, Robin A.; Haswell, Courtney C.; Rowland, Jared A.; Hurt, Susan D.; Lamar, Cory D.; Morey, Rajendra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Use Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter alterations associated with blast exposure with or without acute symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants Forty-five veterans of the recent military conflicts included twenty-three exposed to primary blast without TBI symptoms, six having primary blast mild TBI, and sixteen unexposed to blast. Design Cross-sectional case control study. Main Measures Neuropsychological testing and DTI metrics that quantified the number of voxel clusters with altered fractional anisotropy (FA) radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD), regardless of their spatial location. Results Significantly lower FA and higher RD was observed in veterans exposed to primary blast with and without mild TBI relative to blast unexposed veterans. Voxel clusters of lower FA were spatially dispersed and heterogeneous across affected individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of clear TBI symptoms following primary blast exposure may not accurately reflect the extent of brain injury. If confirmed, our findings would argue for supplementing the established approach of making diagnoses based purely on clinical history and observable acute symptoms with novel neuroimaging-based diagnostic criteria that “look below the surface” for pathology. PMID:24590156

  6. Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

  7. Benefit-cost analysis of moist exposed burn ointment.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Dham, Ruwayda; Kadry, Mohammaed; Abdallah, Abdel Fattah; Al-Oteify, Mahmoud; Fathi, Osman; Samir, Ahmed

    2002-11-01

    Burn injury is one of the most devastating injuries that may affect a patient. Even in economically deprived areas, burn care is largely driven by relatively plentiful resources equating quality of care with generous monitoring and clinical attention with little concern to management cost. Burn care costs have been the subject of very few investigations and are among the least studied by health services researchers. Nevertheless, it can be stated that local care of burn wounds accounts for a large proportion of the cost per day for treating patients. As economic times are changing and as market penetration of managed care contracts and stiff competition in the health care industry gains momentum, ways to reduce expenditures without adversely affecting the quality of care have become of primary importance. We report a randomized prospective comparative study analyzing the benefit-cost value of moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) application, an exposed method for burn wound care without the need for a secondary covering dressing, as compared to conventional closed methods. PMID:12417161

  8. Urinary nickel and prolactin in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Caciari, Tiziana; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Di Giorgio, Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Scala, Barbara; Giubilati, Roberto; Capozzella, Assunta; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our study is to verify whether the exposure to low Ni doses in urban air may have some effects on the prolactin values of outdoor workers exposed to urban pollutants. 334 workers have been included in the study and divided on the basis of gender, job, age, length of service and smoking habits. Each worker underwent urinary Ni and prolactin sampling. The t-test for independent samples, the Mann-Whitney U test for two mode variables (gender, smoking habit), the univariate ANOVA test and the Kruskal Wallis test for the variables in more than two modes (age, length of service and job duties) were performed on the total sample. Pearson's correlation coefficient (p two-tailed) among the parameters was evaluated both in the total sample and after the stratification by gender, smoking habit and job. Multiple linear regression was performed after taking account of the major confounding factors on the total sample and on the subcategories. The statistical tests showed a significant correlation between urinary Ni and prolactin both in the total sample and in the subcategories. We believe that the occupational exposure to low doses of Ni present in urban pollution may influence the prolactin values in exposed workers. PMID:24081300

  9. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gluconeogenesis on the levels of plasma glucose and liver glycogen was studied in rats exposed to hyper-G stress. Incorporation of lactate, alanine, or glycerol, labeled with C-14, into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats centrifuged at 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0-hr periods, and was compared to noncentrifuged controls injected with appropriate glycogen precursors. It was found that exposure to G-stress leads to increased incorporation from all three substrates into both plasma glucose and liver glycogen. These early incorporation increases were blocked upon pre-G administration of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis inhibitor, or propanolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, as well as by adrenodemedullation. Results indicate that the rapid rise in plasma glucose, as well as in liver glycogen in rats exposed to hyper-G stress is due to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine, released in response to hyper-G-induced activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system, plays a dominant role during the early stages of hyper-G stress.

  10. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-08-07

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship.

  11. HIV Exposed Infants: Rethinking care for a lifelong condition

    PubMed Central

    Sugandhi, N; Rodrigues, J; Kim, MH; Ahmed, S; Amzel, A; Tolle, M; Dzubien, E; Rivadeneira, E; Kellerman, S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Each year over a million infants are born to HIV infected mothers though with scale up of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions, only 210,000 of the 1.3 million infants born to mothers with HIV/AIDS in 2012 became infected. Current programmatic efforts directed at infants born to HIV-infected mothers are primarily focused on decreasing their risk of infection, but this emphasis on maternal interventions has meant follow-up of exposed infants has been poor. Programs are struggling to retain this population in care until the end of exposure, typically at the cessation of breastfeeding, between 12 and 24 months of age. But HIV exposure is a life-long condition that continues to impact the health and well-being of a child long after exposure has ended. A better understanding of the impact of HIV on exposed infants is needed and new programs and interventions must take into consideration the long-term health needs of this growing population. The introduction of lifelong treatment for all HIV-infected pregnant women is an opportunity to rethink how we provide services adapted for the long-term retention of mother-infant pairs. PMID:24361628

  12. Turning Rate Dynamics of Zebrafish Exposed to Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice in alcohol-related pharmacological studies. In these studies, zebrafish are often exposed to acute ethanol treatments and their activity scored during behavioral assays. Computational modeling of zebrafish behavior is expected to positively impact these efforts by offering a predictive toolbox to plan hypothesis-driven studies, reduce the number of subjects, perform pilot trials, and refine behavioral screening. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the recently proposed jump persistent turning walker to model the turning rate dynamics of zebrafish exposed to acute ethanol administration. This modeling framework is based on a stochastic mean reverting jump process to capture the sudden and large changes in orientation of swimming zebrafish. The model is calibrated on an available experimental dataset of 40 subjects, tested at different ethanol concentrations. We demonstrate that model parameters are modulated by ethanol administration, whereby both the relaxation rate and jump frequency of the turning rate dynamics are influenced by ethanol concentration. This effort offers a first evidence for the possibility of complementing zebrafish pharmacological research with computational modeling of animal behavior.

  13. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  14. 76 FR 67761 - Establishment of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...Establishment of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence AGENCY: Office...SUMMARY: The Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (the Task Force) is established in accordance with the...

  15. 77 FR 12881 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence AGENCY: Office...of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (the ``task force''). The task force is chartered to...

  16. 42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements. Each applicant shall...construction of component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure are safe and compatible for their intended...

  17. 42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements. Each applicant shall...construction of component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure are safe and compatible for their intended...

  18. 42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements. Each applicant shall...construction of component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure are safe and compatible for their intended...

  19. 42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements. Each applicant shall...construction of component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure are safe and compatible for their intended...

  20. 42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements. Each applicant shall...construction of component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure are safe and compatible for their intended...

  1. 30 CFR 817.13 - Casing and sealing of exposed underground openings: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and sealing of exposed underground openings: General requirements... OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817...and sealing of exposed underground openings: General...

  2. Biochemical Adaptations in Pseudomonas fluorescens Exposed to Nitric Oxide, an Endogenous Antibacterial Agent

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    Biochemical Adaptations in Pseudomonas fluorescens Exposed to Nitric Oxide, an Endogenous supérieures Title of Thesis Titre de la thèse BIOCHEMICAL ADAPTATIONS IN PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS EXPOSED. fluorescens engineers an elaborate metabolic network to generate ATP whilst withstanding the injurious effects

  3. 42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures... component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure are safe and compatible for...

  4. 42 CFR 84.86 - Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.86 Component parts exposed to oxygen pressures... component parts exposed to oxygen pressures above atmospheric pressure are safe and compatible for...

  5. Mortality of Mallards Exposed to Gamma Radiation Author(s): Richard L. Abraham

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    ) mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).Birds were exposed to whole- body gamma irradiationfrom a cesium-137Mortality of Mallards Exposed to Gamma Radiation Author(s): Richard L. Abraham Reviewed work) Mortalityof MallardsExposed to Gamma Radiation RICHARD L. ABRAHAM Department of Ecology and Behavioral Biology

  6. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 Section 75.521 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire...

  7. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 Section 75.521 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire...

  8. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 Section 75.521 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire...

  9. Comparisons of metal accumulation and excretion kinetics in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated

    E-print Network

    Hopkin, Steve

    Comparisons of metal accumulation and excretion kinetics in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed, copper, lead and zinc were studied for Eisenia fetida exposed to mixtures of these metals in ®eld for both metals. A previous study of the effects of metals on worms exposed in OECD and ®eld soils had

  10. Biomarkers in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Binkova, B.; Topinka, J.; Mrackova, G.

    1997-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been identified as a major source of carcinogenic risk in the coke-oven industry. This study evaluates following markers: personal exposure to PAH, DNA adducts, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms. 23 top side coke-oven workers and 13 unexposed workers employed in the same plant at Kosice, Slovakia were studied. Personal monitors were used to measure carcinogenic PAH exposure during 8 h of working shift prior the collection of blood and urine samples. Personal exposure to eight carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 0.6 to 632 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and from 0.07 to 0.62 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for exposed and control groups, respectively. Based on the values of individual persons, the positive significant correlations were found between DNA adducts detected in WBC and LYM (Spearman r=0.451, p=0.044), between DNA adducts and SCE (r=0.363, p=0.034) and between AB.C. and SCE-H (SCE evaluated as the index of heterogeneity H-variance/mean: r=0.381, p=0.024). Using individual PAH exposure data the following significant correlations between exposure and biomarkers were found: WBC-DNA adducts (r=0.325;p=0.058);SCE-H (r=0.467, p=0.007). Groupwise comparison of the exposed and control groups (Mann-Whitney U-test) showed significantly increased values of SCE (6.71{+-}1.20 vs. 5.20 {+-}1.16, respectively) and DNA adducts in WBC and LYM (2.70{+-}0.74 vs 1.94{+-}0.51 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides; 2.46{+-}0.83 vs. 1.60{+-}0.32 adducts/10{sup 8}nucleotides, respectively). No influence of the smoking habits on the biomarkers was detectable in exposed or unexposed individuals. Multifactor analysis of variance taking into account confounding factors such as GSTM1, NAT2, diet and adjusting the data for age and smoking clearly showed the effect of exposure on DNA adducts, AB.C and SCE-H.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Mice Skin Exposed by Hyper-Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Rika; Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    In the space environment, physiological alterations, such as low bone density, muscle weakness and decreased immunity, are caused by microgravity and cosmic radiation. On the other hand, it is known that the leg muscles are hypertrophy by 2G-gravity. An understanding of the effects on human body from microgravity to hyper-gravity is very important. Recently, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has started a project to detect the changes on gene expression and mineral metabolism caused by microgravity by analyzing the hair of astronauts who stay in the international Space Station (ISS) for a long time. From these results of human hair’s research, the genetic effects of human hair roots by microgravity will become clear. However, it is unclear how the gene expression of hair roots was effected by hypergravity. Therefore, in this experiment, we analyzed the effect on mice skin contained hair roots by comparing microgravity or hypergravity exposed mice. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the genetic effects on mice skin by microgravity or 2G-gravity. The samples were taken from mice exposed to space flight (FL) or hypergravity environment (2G) for 3-months, respectively. The extracted and amplified RNA from these mice skin was used to DNA microarray analysis. in this experiment, we analyzed the effect of gravity by using mice skin contained hair roots, which exposed space (FL) and hyper-gravity (2G) for 3 months and each control. By DNA microarray analysis, we found the common 98 genes changed in both FL and 2G. Among these 98 genes, the functions and pathways were identified by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software. Next, we focused the one of the identified pathways and compared the effects on each molecules in this pathways by the different environments, such as FL and 2G. As the results, we could detect some interesting molecules, which might be depended on the gravity levels. In addition, to investigate the relationships between genes and protein expression, the proteome analysis was performed. From the result of 2-dimentional electrophoresis, we could detect the some different spots between FL and 2G. These identifications are now in progress using by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. These results suggested that many genes or proteins on the mice skin might be effected by the different gravity levels.

  12. Developmental arrest in grass shrimp embryos exposed to selected toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.E.H.

    1998-12-31

    Excised embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to single pulse concentrations of selected pollutants for 4 days. The following toxicity endpoints were monitored: rate of embryonic development, embryo mortality, and types of embryo malformation. Each endpoint exhibited concentration--response relationships which were modified by the embryonic age at which exposure commenced. Developmental retardation of up to 3 days was effected by phenol at 0.01% (V/V) and complete developmental arrest occurred at 0.05% and 0.1% (V/V). Similarly for methylene chloride, developmental retardation of 1003 days were observed at 0.1% (V/V) depending on the age of the embryos at the start of the tests. The morphological abnormalities of the embryos are described. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for the development of short-term toxicity tests using grass shrimp embryos are discussed.

  13. Mothers and infants exposed to intimate partner violence compensate.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Morris, Catherine Young; Secco, Loretta; Stewart, Miriam; Hughes, Jean; Critchley, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Reasons for the developmental variability in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are unclear and under studied. This article presents exploratory findings on (a) the potential impact of IPV on mother-child relationships and child development and (b) the association between these maternal-child relationship impacts and child development. The fit of findings with compensatory, spillover, and compartmentalization hypotheses was explored. Participants were 49 mothers and 51 children younger than 3 years of age affected by IPV. Data were collected on maternal-child interactions, child development, social support, difficult life circumstances, family functioning, child temperament, and parental depression. The findings suggested developmental impacts on children in the sample, along with children's high sensitivity and responsiveness to their caregivers. Although some spillover effects were observed, the predominant observation was of mothers and infants compensating for exposure to IPV in their interactions. PMID:24047040

  14. Insulin response to secretogogues in sheep exposed to cold.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Y; Takahashi, H

    1983-01-01

    1. The effects of cold exposure on insulin secretion in response to intravenous injections of glucose, butyrate, arginine, glucagon and tolbutamide were examined in ten sheep exposed to a temperature of 0 degree C for 4-13 days. 2. Cold exposure produced a marked decrease in insulin responses to glucose and butyrate to a level similar to that caused by arginine administration. Cold exposure brought about a significant but only slight decrease in the insulin response to arginine. 3. Glucagon injection resulted in a markedly lower secretion of insulin in the cold than in the warm environment. 4. In the warm environment tolbutamide caused a significant increase in insulin secretion, but in the cold environment did not produce any statistically significant increase in plasma insulin. 5. It is concluded that cold exposure decreases insulin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli. PMID:6345757

  15. Subsurface Materials Exposed at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D.; Archer, D.; Arvidson, R.; Cull, S.; Ellehoj, M.; Fisher, D.; Hecht, M.; Lemmon, M.; Mellon, M.; Morris, R.; Pike, T.; Stoker, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Phoenix Mission excavated materials at the Phoenix Landing site using the Robotic Arm (RA) while materials in the trenches and in the talus piles were documented with the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) using 15 filters with bands from 485-1005 nm. Two polygons (Humpty Dumpty and Wonderland) are in the workspace and have frozen ice/soils mixtures that were exposed and monitored. Samples collected from the trenches were also delivered by the MECA Optical Microscope (OM) providing information on the optical properties and grain size/texture of these materials at microscopic scales. Excavations in Humpty Dumpty (Dodo-Goldilocks and Upper Cupboard trenches) revealed a high albedo deposit consistent with a relatively pure ice spectrally. Dodo-Goldilocks was first exposed on Sol 9 with digging stopping on Sol 21. The ice in Dodo-Goldilocks was left undisturbed till Sol 99. The sublimation process monitored using 15 filter observations. Over time the ice signature decreased in the deposit and became consistent with the surface soils seen at the landing site. Sublimation was not uniform with some high albedo patches prominent on Sol 102. On Sol 99 the robotic arm scraped the sublimation lag from Dodo-Goldilocks and delivered the sample to the MECA OM. Collection of the sample exposed fresh high albedo ice. High albedo materials at the Dodo-Goldilocks and Upper Cupboard trenches were generally hard based on interactions with the Robotic Arm. During the initial excavation, clods of ice/soil mixtures were produced that sublimated away over within 4 sols. These ice clods could have been formed by brittle fracture of very cold pure ice or be a small deposit of weaker ice soil/layer on top of the Dodo-Goldilocks deposit. Excavation in Wonderland (Snow White trench) revealed an ice/soil mixture with significantly more soil than at Dodo-Goldilocks based on spectral characteristics. After exposing a harder, spectrally different layer with the RA secondary blade, sublimation of these materials rapidly produced a lag deposit. The Snow White area was selected to be the site where TEGA would collect an icy sample which required periodic scraping and rasping. This produced visible amounts of material that could be measured spectrally from the soil/ice boundary and from inside the ice layer. These soils are consistent spectrally with other soils at the site. This talk will present key observations of these two deposits and contrast their characteristics. Possible modes of formation for these deposits will be discussed with evidence both for and against presented. For the Wonderland deposits, vapor diffusion is the leading candidate. For Humpty Dumpty various mechanisms are under investigation including burial of snow/ice by geologic processes, vapor diffusion, and processes involving salts.

  16. Integrated biomarker responses in zebrafish exposed to sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Shilin; Chen, Yanqiu; Chen, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Dispersed pharmaceuticals such as sulfonamides pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated potential biomarkers of sulfonamide exposure using an extended zebrafish (Danio rerio) toxicity test. The tested sulfonamides induced obvious effects on spontaneous swimming activity and heartbeat rate in zebrafish. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined to reflect the biomarker response of zebrafish exposed to three sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfadimidine). Both GST and MDA showed time-dependent responses to sulfonamide exposure. GST activity was significantly increased after exposure to sulfonamides for 3 days, while MDA concentration reached a maximum during the first day and then declined. These results suggest that MDA may be a more sensitive biomarker of sulfonamide toxicity than GST. These investigations demonstrated that SDZ was a typical inducer of metabolic enzymes, suggesting that it poses a potential ecotoxicological risk to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25136777

  17. Liner materials exposed to toxic and hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Haxo, H.E.; Haxo, R.S.; Nelson, N.A.; Haxo, P.D.; White, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage and disposal facilities. The materials studied included compacted soil, polymer-treated bentonite-sand mixtures, soil cement, hydraulic asphalt concrete, sprayed-on asphalt, and 31 flexible polymeric membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, ethylene propylene rubber, neoprene, butyl rubber, elasticized polyolefin, and polyester elastomer. Four semicrystalline polymeric sheetings (polybutylene, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, and polypropylene), though not compounded for use as liners, were included in the study because of their known chemical resistance and use in applications requiring good chemical and aging resistance.

  18. DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms. PMID:25152054

  19. Efficacy of moist exposed burn ointment on burns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Qi; Yip, Tsui-Pik; Hui, Irene; Lai, Vincy; Wong, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we sought to test the medical efficacy of a Chinese medical herb product, moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), on wound healing rate and infection control in burn injury. Standardized deep burn wounds were created on the back skin of rats by applying a hot brass bar for 12 to 18 seconds. MEBO was applied four times per day and compared with petroleum jelly, silver sulfadiazine, and dry exposure therapy. Under such a controlled setting, although MEBO had a better wound healing rate than the dry exposure treatment, it did not show the medical advantage statistically, as has been claimed, over the other two treatments (P > .05), either in terms of wound healing rate or bacterial control. We conclude that the MEBO is not suitable for deep burn wound treatment, particularly when infection is a concern. PMID:15879746

  20. Apparatus for exposing cell membranes to rapid temperature transients.

    PubMed

    Steel, B; Bilek, M M; dos Remedios, C G; McKenzie, D R

    2004-04-01

    We seek to determine whether cell membranes contain sensors that trigger a downstream response to temperature excursions. To do this, we have developed a novel apparatus for exposing a cell membrane to an extremely rapid temperature excursion in the nanosecond range. Cells are plated on a gold surface that is back-heated by a pulsed laser and cooled by conduction of heat into the glass substrate and the liquid medium. Analysis using the heat diffusion equation shows that the greatest temperature rise is localized within a region tens of nanometres thick, suitable for specifically heating a cell membrane without heating the remainder of a cell. We refer to this device as a nanosecond hotplate. PMID:14508614

  1. Reproductive adaptation in Drosophila exposed to oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloek, G.; Winkle, L.

    1979-01-01

    Ten successive generations of a Drosophila melanogaster population were exposed to an atmospheric mix of 50% oxygen/50% nitrogen at standard pressure. This atmospheric mix has been shown to be toxic to this species and causes significantly shortened life span. By the fifth generation, survivorship and life span for the first 25-30 days were identical to control populations and total life span was shorter by only a few days. Egg-laying rates were stable in the experimental populations but below those of the controls. Hatching success was identical between experimental and control populations. Even though the egg-laying rates were lower in 50% oxygen, it was concluded that the population had adapted and could maintain a stable population in these conditions. The near-normal life spans, normal hatching rates, and overall population stability, exhibited following five generations of adaptation, were considered sufficient to allow continued reproduction in spite of a reduced egg-laying rate.

  2. Lack of exposed ice inside lunar south pole Shackleton Crater.

    PubMed

    Haruyama, Junichi; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Morota, Tomokatsu; Honda, Chikatoshi; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Pieters, Carle M; Hara, Seiichi; Hioki, Kazuyuki; Saiki, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Iwasaki, Akira; Abe, Masanao; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Shirao, Motomaro; Yamaji, Atsushi; Josset, Jean-Luc

    2008-11-01

    The inside of Shackleton Crater at the lunar south pole is permanently shadowed; it has been inferred to hold water-ice deposits. The Terrain Camera (TC), a 10-meter-resolution stereo camera onboard the Selenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE) spacecraft, succeeded in imaging the inside of the crater, which was faintly lit by sunlight scattered from the upper inner wall near the rim. The estimated temperature of the crater floor, based on the crater shape model derived from the TC data, is less than approximately 90 kelvin, cold enough to hold water-ice. However, at the TC's spatial resolution, the derived albedo indicates that exposed relatively pure water-ice deposits are not on the crater floor. Water-ice may be disseminated and mixed with soil over a small percentage of the area or may not exist at all. PMID:18948501

  3. Neurobehavioral changes among shipyard painters exposed to solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Valciukas, J.A.; Lilis, R.; Singer, R.M.; Glickman, L.; Nicholson, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Painters in three shipyards, exposed to a wide variety of solvents, were examined. A short battery of performance tests, a detailed occupational history, and a special questionnaire to assess acute (prenarcotic, transitory) and chronic (persistent) neurologic symptoms was administered. The results of the neurobehavioral performance tests demonstrated decrements in central nervous system function in painters when compared with a control group matched for age, sex, race, and education. The prevalence of reported acute neurological symptoms among painters was increased significantly compared to other occupational groups in the same yards; for chronic, persistent symptoms the difference was not statistically significant. Performance test scores were significantly, negatively correlated with chronic symptoms but not with acute symptoms. No significant correlations between performance test scores and duration of solvent exposure or between symptoms and duration of solvent exposure were observed. The reversibility of such symptoms and of decrements in central nervous system function after cessation of exposure is still uncertain.

  4. Deciphering Genome Environment Wide Interactions Using Exposed Subjects Only.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lue Ping; Fan, Wenhong; Goodman, Gary; Radich, Jerry; Martin, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The recent successes of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have renewed interest in genome environment wide interaction studies (GEWIS) to discover genetic factors that modulate penetrance of environmental exposures to human diseases. Indeed, gene-environment interactions (G × E), which have not been emphasized in the GWAS era, could be a source contributing to the missing heritability, a major bottleneck limiting continuing GWAS successes. In this manuscript, we describe a design and analytic strategy to focus on G × E using only exposed subjects, dubbed as e-GEWIS. Operationally, an e-GEWIS analysis is equivalent to a GWAS analysis on exposed subjects only, and it has actually been used in some earlier GWAS without being explicitly identified as such. Through both analytics and simulations, e-GEWIS has been shown better efficiency than the usual cross-product-based analysis of G × E interaction with both cases and controls (cc-GEWIS), and they have comparable efficiency to case-only analysis of G × E (c-GEWIS), with potentially smaller sample sizes. The formalization of e-GEWIS here provides a theoretical basis to legitimize this framework for routine investigation of G × E, for more efficient G × E study designs, and for improvement of reproducibility in replicating GEWIS findings. As an illustration, we apply e-GEWIS to a lung cancer GWAS data set to perform a GEWIS, focusing on gene and smoking interaction. The e-GEWIS analysis successfully uncovered positive genetic associations on chromosome 15 among current smokers, suggesting a gene-smoking interaction. Although this signal was detected earlier, the current finding here serves as a positive control in support of this e-GEWIS strategy. PMID:25694100

  5. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to emissions from petroleum plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Hughes, J.A.; Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents some of the results from the Commission of the European Communities collaborative research program (contract number EV5V-CT92-0221), whose aim is to investigate the relationship between exposure to petroleum emissions, benzene, and induction of genetic damage in human cells. Twenty-four workers form petroleum plants in Poland and 35 unexposed controls were examined for cytogenetic effects and ras oncoprotein levels and their relationship to confounding factors (e.g., smoking habit, sex, family cancer history, and seasonal influence). Preliminary data of chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) showed differences among sampling subgroups. In this present study, the levels of ras p21 proteins were determined and further analyses of CA, SCE, high frequency cells (HFC), and proliferative rate index (PRI) have been undertaken. Results show that the exposed group has statistically significant increases in CA, and percent of aberrant cells. There were no differences between exposed and unexposed groups in SCE, HFC, PRI, or the levels of ras p21 proteins. Smoking was found to statistically significantly affect levels of CA, percent of aberrant cells, SCE, HFC, and ras proteins. Sister chromatid exchanges were also statistically significantly sex dependent (7.5 breaks/cell for females and 6.8 breaks/cell for males). There were no statistically significant differences for CA, percent aberrant cells, SCE, HFC, or ras p21 protein levels in subgroups characterized according to cancer cases reported in the immediate family. A seasonal variability was shown with statistically significant increases in various biomarkers in the winter. Unexposed groups also showed increases due to smoking and season. The nonsmoking group individuals also showed statistically significant increases in cytogenetic damage with exposure. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Biological monitoring of a worker acutely exposed to MBOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Osorio, A.M.; Clapp, D.; Ward, E.; Wilson, H.K.; Cocker, J. )

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year-old male polyurethane worker was exposed to an accidental spill of 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline (MBOCA) at a plant producing MBOCA-cured plastic products. Exposure to MBOCA is significant in that this compound is a known animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. The employee was sprayed over his upper body and extremities with molten MBOCA while cleaning out a clogged hose from a MBOCA and polymer mixing machine. The subsequent environmental and medical evaluation of this episode included serial urinary MBOCA samples from the worker over a 2 week period to allow the calculation of a biological half-life for this compound. This worker experienced a very high dose of MBOCA as judged by his urinary MBOCA levels (peak value of 1,700 ppb 4 hours after exposure). There were no acute symptoms or other laboratory abnormalities noted. The kinetic evaluation resulted in a biological half-life for MBOCA in urine of approximately 23 hours. Assuming a one-compartment model, approximately 94% of an initial MBOCA dose will be eliminated within four days. This is the first report of kinetic analysis on urinary MBOCA excretion in humans. This information suggests that biological monitoring of the urine MBOCA concentrations in exposed workers may miss peak levels following an acute exposure unless the analyses of the urinary MBOCA are performed in a timely fashion. Recommendations to the company included: (1) installation of a warning system or lock-out device on the mixing machine to prevent the opening of the MBOCA hose prior to the release of pressure; and (2) annual medical surveillance of this individual for bladder cancer with urinalysis and urine cytology.

  7. Chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes exposed to energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, Ms Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and are therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/µm. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy range the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction products such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are energy dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  8. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone is not a sufficient measure for potential impact on biocontrol efficacy as other characters such as virulence may be severely affected even when viability remains high. PMID:26527839

  9. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone is not a sufficient measure for potential impact on biocontrol efficacy as other characters such as virulence may be severely affected even when viability remains high. PMID:26527839

  10. Toxicokinetics of captan and folpet biomarkers in dermally exposed volunteers.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Aurélie; Bouchard, Michèle; Vernez, David

    2012-03-01

    To better assess biomonitoring data in workers exposed to captan and folpet, the kinetics of ring metabolites [tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), phthalimide (PI) and phthalic acid] were determined in urine and plasma of dermally exposed volunteers. A 10? mg kg(-1) dose of each fungicide was applied on 80 ?cm(2) of the forearm and left without occlusion or washing for 24 ?h. Blood samples were withdrawn at fixed time periods over the 72? h following application and complete urine voids were collected over 96 ?h post-dosing, for metabolite analysis. In the hours following treatment, a progressive increase in plasma levels of THPI and PI was observed, with peak levels being reached at 24 ?h for THPI and 10 ?h for PI. The ensuing elimination phase appeared monophasic with a mean elimination half-life (t(½) ) of 24.7 and 29.7?h for THPI and PI, respectively. In urine, time courses PI and phthalic acid excretion rate rapidly evolved in parallel, and a mean elimination t(½) of 28.8 and 29.6 ?h, respectively, was calculated from these curves. THPI was eliminated slightly faster, with a mean t(½) of 18.7 ?h. Over the 96? h period post-application, metabolites were almost completely excreted, and on average 0.02% of captan dose was recovered in urine as THPI while 1.8% of the folpet dose was excreted as phthalic acid and 0.002% as PI, suggesting a low dermal absorption fraction for both fungicides. This study showed the potential use of THPI, PI and phthalic acid as key biomarkers of exposure to captan and folpet. PMID:21381058

  11. Water relations of differentially irrigated cotton exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to O{sub 3} may be more susceptible to drought because O{sub 3} typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants. Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside, CA. Plants were grown under three irrigation regimes: Optimum water for lint production (OW), suboptimum or moderate drought stress (SO), and severely drought stressed (SS) and were exposed to seasonal 12 h (0800-2000) O{sub 3} centrations of 0.015, 0.074, 0.094, or 0.111/microLL. Leaf xylem pressure potentials Psi(sub 1) and soil water content Theta(sub v) were measured weekly from June to October. Mean seasonal Psi(sub 1) increased from -1.89 MPa to -1.72 MPa in low to high O{sub 3} treatments, averaged across soil water regimes. Ozone had no effect on seasonal water use of cotton, but water use efficiency was significantly reduced by O{sub 3} in OW and SO, but not in SS treatments. Drought-stressed plants extracted proportionally greater amounts of water from deeper in the soil profile than OW cotton, and O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on this redistribution of roots in the soil. Since O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on the ability of drought-stressed cotton to maintain Psi(sub 1) and to increase root growth relative to shoot growth, this suggests that O{sub 3} may have little or no effect on the potential of cotton to adapt to or tolerate drought.

  12. Altered glutathione homeostasis in animals prenatally exposed to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuangui; Carvey, Paul M.; Ling, Zaodung

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into gravid female rats at embryonic day 10.5 resulted in a birth of offspring with fewer than normal dopamine (DA) neurons along with innate immunity dysfunction and many characteristics seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The LPS-exposed animals were also more susceptible to secondary toxin exposure as indicated by an accelerated DA neuron loss. Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in the brain. A disturbance in glutathione homeostasis has been proposed for the pathogenesis of PD. In this study, animals prenatally exposed to LPS were studied along with an acute intranigral LPS injection model for the status of glutathione homeostasis, lipid peroxidation, and related enzyme activities. Both prenatal LPS exposure and acute LPS injection produced a significant GSH reduction and increase in oxidized GSH (GSSG) and lipid peroxide (LPO) production. Activity of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo GSH synthesis, was up-regulated in acute supranigral LPS model but was reduced in the prenatal LPS model. The GCS light subunit protein expression was also down-regulated in prenatal LPS model. GSH redox recycling enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, GPx and glutathione reducdase, GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT) activities were all increased in prenatal LPS model. Prenatal LPS exposure and aging synergized in GSH level and GSH related enzyme activities except for those (GR, GST, and ?-GT) with significant regional variations. Additionally, prenatal LPS exposure produced a reduction of DA neuron count in the substantia nigra (SN). These results suggest that prenatal LPS exposure may cause glutathione homeostasis disturbance in offspring brain and render DA neurons susceptible to the secondary neurotoxin insult. PMID:17291629

  13. [Seminal profile in workers exposed to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides].

    PubMed

    Mármol-Maneiro, Lenys; Fernández-D'Pool, Janice; Sánchez, Betty J; Sirit, Yadira

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical, chemical and cytomorphologic characteristics of semen obtained from workers exposed to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides and compare them with samples of the same nature obtained from unexposed subjects, and in addition, to correlate those findings with blood levels of cholinesterase. The study group consisted of 29 adult males, age range 20-54, that were exposed to cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides during 4 hours per day for a variable lapse (one year minimum), whereas the control group consisted of 30 unexposed individuals of the same gender, and similar age range. A thorough medical examination was performed in every individual. It consisted of an occupational medical history and complete physical exam. A blood sample was obtained in all the subjects in order to determine total cholinesterase levels by the modified S. Hestrin Hydroxamate method. Semen analysis was done in specimens collected after recent masturbation following a 3-day abstinence period. The data was processed and analyzed by the SAS computerized statistics program. The results revealed significant differences between both groups (p < 0.05) for the following variables: sperm count per mL., percentage of fast, mobile and immobile, live and dead spermatozoids. Spermatozoa morphology was found to be within normal limits as established by the WHO. Nevertheless, the differences related to the percentage of big head and amorphous spermatozoids was significant (p < 0.05). The results indicate that cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides affect certain variables of the semen analysis and hence the quality of the semen. PMID:12815841

  14. Chromosome Aberration in Human Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Energetic Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to a space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/micrometer. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction produces such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are LET dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  15. Fish exposed to BP oil spill 'swim slower' Study finds the speed of mahi-mahi exposed to BP's Gulf of

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    Fish exposed to BP oil spill 'swim slower' Study finds the speed of mahi-mahi exposed to BP's Gulf of Mexico oil spill has fallen 37pc The 87-day-long spill dumped an estimated 4.9m barrels of oil in the gulf shortly after the spill, which oil company BP disputed. "The study does not provide any evidence

  16. Mutagenesis in bacterial spores exposed to space and simulated martian conditions: data from the EXPOSE-E spaceflight experiment PROTECT.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Reitz, Günther; Nicholson The Protect Team, Wayne L; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    As part of the PROTECT experiment of the EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station (ISS), the mutagenic efficiency of space was studied in spores of Bacillus subtilis 168. After 1.5 years' exposure to selected parameters of outer space or simulated martian conditions, the rates of induced mutations to rifampicin resistance (Rif(R)) and sporulation deficiency (Spo(-)) were quantified. In all flight samples, both mutations, Rif(R) and Spo(-), were induced and their rates increased by several orders of magnitude. Extraterrestrial solar UV radiation (>110?nm) as well as simulated martian UV radiation (>200?nm) led to the most pronounced increase (up to nearly 4 orders of magnitude); however, mutations were also induced in flight samples shielded from insolation, which were exposed to the same conditions except solar irradiation. Nucleotide sequencing located the Rif(R) mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the ?-subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutations isolated from flight and parallel mission ground reference (MGR) samples were exclusively localized to Cluster I. The 21 Rif(R) mutations isolated from the flight experiment showed all a C to T transition and were all localized to one hotspot: H482Y. In mutants isolated from the MGR, the spectrum was wider with predicted amino acid changes at residues Q469K/L/R, H482D/P/R/Y, and S487L. The data show the unique mutagenic power of space and martian surface conditions as a consequence of DNA injuries induced by solar UV radiation and space vacuum or the low pressure of Mars. PMID:22680692

  17. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  18. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor.

    PubMed

    Sancini, A; Fioravanti, M; Ciarrocca, M; Palermo, P; Fiaschetti, M; Schifano, M P; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2010-07-01

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM(10), NO2 and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid suspicious lung nodules. In conclusion, the use of chest LD-CT in workers at risk helps identify suspicious solid lung nodules at early stage. PMID:20430373

  19. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    SciTech Connect

    Sancini, A.; Fioravanti, M.; Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P.; Tomei, G.; Tomei, F.

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid suspicious lung nodules. In conclusion, the use of chest LD-CT in workers at risk helps identify suspicious solid lung nodules at early stage.

  20. Engineering a robotic approach to mapping exposed volcanic fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Parness, A.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Field geology provides a framework for advanced computer models and theoretical calculations of volcanic systems. Some field terrains, though, are poorly preserved or accessible, making documentation, quantification, and investigation impossible. Over 200 volcanologists at the 2012 Kona Chapman Conference on volcanology agreed that and important step forward in the field over the next 100 years should address the realistic size and shape of volcanic conduits. The 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption of K?lauea provides a unique opportunity to document volcanic fissure conduits, thus, we have an ideal location to begin addressing this topic and provide data on these geometries. Exposed fissures can be mapped with robotics using machine vision. In order to test the hypothesis that fissures have irregularities with depth that will influence their fluid dynamical behavior, we must first map the fissure vents and shallow conduit to deci- or centimeter scale. We have designed, constructed, and field-tested the first version of a robotic device that will image an exposed volcanic fissure in three dimensions. The design phase included three steps: 1) create the payload harness and protective shell to prevent damage to the electronics and robot, 2) construct a circuit board to have the electronics communicate with a surface-based computer, and 3) prototype wheel shapes that can handle a variety of volcanic rock textures. The robot's mechanical parts were built using 3d printing, milling, casting and laser cutting techniques, and the electronics were assembled from off the shelf components. The testing phase took place at Mauna Ulu, K?lauea, Hawai'i, from May 5 - 9, 2014. Many valuable design lessons were learned during the week, and the first ever 3D map from inside a volcanic fissure were successfully collected. Three vents had between 25% and 95% of their internal surfaces imaged. A fourth location, a non-eruptive crack (possibly a fault line) had two transects imaging the textures of the walls with depth to compare to the fissure vents. The vent surface irregularity documented by Parcheta et al., (accepted) continues with depth into the fissure; depths are variable depending on the amount of talus filling them. We will show and discuss data from the main field vent location, and movies of descents in to the other vents.