Note: This page contains sample records for the topic acaricide exposed scabies from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgoundHuman scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to

Cielo Pasay; Kate Mounsey; Graeme Stevenson; Rohan Davis; Larry Arlian; Marjorie Morgan; Diann Vyszenski-Moher; Kathy Andrews; James McCarthy; Cesar V. Munayco

2010-01-01

2

Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites  

PubMed Central

Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies.

Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

2010-01-01

3

The Effect of Insecticide Synergists on the Response of Scabies Mites to Pyrethroid Acaricides  

PubMed Central

Background Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide), DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) and DEM (diethyl maleate) were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001). Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%); inhibition of GST activity (73%) with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81%) with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites. Conclusions These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.

Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Gunning, Robin; Rossiter, Louise; Holt, Deborah; Walton, Shelley; Beckham, Simone; McCarthy, James

2009-01-01

4

Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

... among people who share the same infected bed, linens, or towels. Scabies spreads more easily in crowded ... It's also possible to get scabies from infected linens and clothing since scabies can live for 2 ...

5

Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

S cabies Remember Scabies is a mite (tiny insect) that burrows into the skin. Scabies are spread through close physical contact or the ... blankets, clothes, and towels of an infected person. Scabies can be cured with oral and topical prescription ...

6

Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. It is common all over the world, and can affect anyone. Scabies spreads quickly in crowded conditions where there is ...

7

Scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies is highly contagious and is usually transmitted by direct personal contact. It typically presents as an intensely pruritic eruption. Atypical presentations are common in Norwegian scabies and in childhood scabies. Infestation is documented by visualizing the mite, its eggs or scybala on low-power microscopy. The treatment of choice is 5 percent permethrin cream, used in a single application at bedtime and removed the next morning. PMID:1384301

Sterling, G B; Janniger, C K; Kihiczak, G; Schwartz, R A; Fox, M D

1992-10-01

8

Scabies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Scabies is a common public health problem, with an estimated prevalence of 300 million cases worldwide, the majority in resource-poor countries. In industrialised countries, it is most common in institutionalised communities. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for scabies? What are the effects of systemic treatments for scabies? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found two systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl benzoate (topical), crotamiton (topical), ivermectin (oral), lindane (topical), malathion (topical), permethrin (topical), and sulphur compounds (topical).

2008-01-01

9

Scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies is a neglected parasitic disease that is a major public health problem in many resource-poor regions. It causes substantial morbidity from secondary infections and post-infective complications such as acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Disease control requires treatment of the affected individual and all people they have been in contact with, but is often hampered by inappropriate or delayed diagnosis, poor treatment compliance, and improper use of topical compounds such as permethrin, lindane, or benzyl benzoate. In addition to concerns over toxicity with such compounds, parasite resistance seems to be increasing. Oral ivermectin is an alternative that has been used successfully in community control programmes. Plant derivatives such as turmeric, neem, and tea tree oil are also promising future treatments. The disease is strongly associated with poverty and overcrowding, and the associated stigma can ostracise affected individuals. Treatment of scabies in poor countries needs to integrate drug treatment programmes with efforts to improve the socioeconomic conditions and education programmes to reduce stigma. We expect the future to bring more sensitive and specific clinical and laboratory-based diagnostic methods, as well as new therapeutic strategies. PMID:16731272

Heukelbach, Jörg; Feldmeier, Hermann

2006-05-27

10

Scabies Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Diagnosis of a scabies ... Cases Publications Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

11

Scabies Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Article Body Scabies is caused by a microscopic mite that burrows under the top layers of skin ... from scabies is actually a reaction to the mite’s body, eggs, and excretions. Once the mite gets ...

12

Morphological alterations of epidermis of rabbits infested by R. sanguineus ticks and exposed to Selamectin (active principle of Pfizer Revolution(®) acaricide): a confocal microscopy study.  

PubMed

The present study analyzed, by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy, the epidermis of rabbits infested by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and exposed to concentrations of 50%, 80% and 100% of a selamectin-based commercial acaricide (Pfizer's Revolution(®)). The results demonstrated that rabbits exposed to concentrations of 80% and 100% of the Revolution acaricide, which contains 12% selamectin, showed thinning of epithelial tissue of the epidermis with associated cellular disorganization. Individuals exposed to a 50% concentration showed lower epidermal tissue disorganization when compared to those exposed to the higher doses of the acaricide (80% and 100%). Whereas selamectin, when used in higher concentrations (80% and 100% Revolution(®)) can alter the morphology of the epidermis, at lower concentrations (50%), even though still able to eliminate ectoparasites, it causes less toxicity damage to the host. Selamectin can be considered a dose-dependent toxic agent, since higher concentrations increase the morphological changes in the epidermis of the host rabbits. PMID:24369880

Bozzatto, Vlamir; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2014-04-01

13

Nosocomial scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies is a parasitic dermatosis with a worldwide distribution. This infestation affects millions of people annually and may cause large nosocomial outbreaks with considerable morbidity among patients and healthcare workers. Immunocompromised or elderly institutionalized patients admitted with unrecognized crusted scabies are the main source of nosocomial transmission. Factors that facilitate the development of hospital-acquired scabies and nosocomial epidemics are: poor knowledge of scabies epidemiology, unfamiliarity of healthcare workers with atypical presentations, long incubation period, diagnostic delay and incomplete monitoring. Within hospitals, containment of an outbreak relies on the strict implementation of appropriate infection control measures and treatment administration to contacts. It is associated with a considerable working and economic burden. PMID:17141368

Vorou, R; Remoudaki, H D; Maltezou, H C

2007-01-01

14

Scabies: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  

MedlinePLUS

... T Scabies Diagnosis, treatment Scabies: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome How do dermatologists diagnose scabies? A dermatologist can ... cream: To ease the redness, swelling, and itch. Outcome Treatment can get rid of the mites, eliminate ...

15

Scabies therapy--1993.  

PubMed

The addition of permethrin as a scabicide with low toxicity adds significantly to our therapeutic options for typical and special forms of scabies. Detailed specific management suggestions, as well as a scabies instruction sheet, are included. The management of crusted (Norwegian) scabies and scabies in human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is more difficult and may require, particularly in those intensely immunosuppressed, repeated treatment with scabicides and sometimes sequential use of several agents. Tolerance (resistance) to lindane was suggested in Central America but also in South America, Haiti, Egypt, and in clusters in the United States. PMID:7682833

Orkin, M; Maibach, H I

1993-03-01

16

Scabies: Disease Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... on the skin; these are caused by the female scabies mite tunneling just beneath the surface of ... the skin folds on the wrist, elbow, or knee, and on the penis, breast, or ... cord injury, paralysis, loss of sensation, mental debility). Crusted scabies ...

17

Scabies in Babies  

PubMed Central

The incidence of scabies has been progressively increasing during the last decade. The contrast of clinical manifestations seen in children and adults can make the diagnosis difficult in infants. Up-to-date treatment regimes described provide effective results and should be provided for all family members and close contacts. Only through such an epidemiological approach can ‘ping pong’ reinfestation be avoided, thus reducing the rate of spread and incidence of scabies in our society. Imagesp250-ap250-b

Jen, Ivan

1978-01-01

18

GALENICALS IN THE TREATMENT OF CRUSTED SCABIES  

PubMed Central

Crusted scabies is rare. It is a therapeutic challenge, as the common drugs used against scabies are unsatisfactory. The successful use of galenicals in a 10-year-old girl with crusted scabies is reported.

Sugathan, P; Martin, Abhay Mani

2010-01-01

19

Scabies (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... dermatologist any time your child has a skin itch or rash that will not go away, especially if the itch is worse at night and occurs around the ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Impetigo Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Skin, Hair, and Nails Scabies Impetigo ...

20

[Scabies: A world plague].  

PubMed

Scabies is a ubiquitous contagious disease, and its prevalence is growing. Diagnostic difficulties vary according to the patient's age and health. Benzyl benzoate and ivermectin are the reference drugs in France. Decontamination of the patients' bedding, clothing, and environment is essential for successful treatment. PMID:24682642

Spadoni, S; Lamand, V; Vonesch, M A; Béranger, C

2014-01-01

21

Current treatments for scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies is a frequent interhuman ectoparasitic infection. Several treatments are available worldwide. There are local treatments: synthetic pyrethrins, benzyl benzoate, lindane, crotamiton. Recently a few studies were published concerning ivermectin, systemic antiparasitic agent use in onchocercosis treatment. We reviewed the literature with an evidence-based medicine method. We attempt to answer two questions in particular: what is the treatment of choice for common scabies in a patient otherwise in good health? What is the role of systemic ivermectin? We also report specific situations. Among local treatments, studies are heterogeneous according to products, countries, group of treated patients, with or without contact subjects, and the method of treatment application. There are very few high proof-level controlled studies. In France, a combination of benzyl benzoate 10% and sulfiram 2% is used most, according to professional consensus. The most studied product is the cream permethrin 5%, available in the USA and UK. Its efficacy seems slightly superior to lindane and less toxic. It is more efficient than crotamiton. There is no study comparing benzyl benzoate and permethrin. Concerning systemic ivermectin, five controlled studies showed its efficiency in common scabies. But its relative efficiency over local treatment has not been established. A few open studies showed its efficacy in institutional epidemic, profuse scabies and in HIV-positive patients. Local treatment of choice in common scabies remains to be determined among the four principal molecules. There is no study comparing permethrin or esdepallethrin to benzyl benzoate. In what cases should we prescribe crotamiton or lindane? Indication of ivermectin seems proved in common scabies and probably for HIV-positive patients. It remains to be determined if it should be prescribed in the first instance, be double or triple, be associated or not with local treatment. In case of keratotic scabies, ivermectin seems interesting with two applications within 1 week, and should be associated with local treatment (duration remains to be defined). Ivermectin is probably useful in institutional epidemic, and therapeutic attitude remains to be defined. Ivermectin seems to have little or no risk. Treatment must be adapted case-by-case, according to feasibility. It is still important to treat contacts, and modality of this treatment remains to be specified. PMID:12667233

Buffet, M; Dupin, N

2003-04-01

22

Controlling scabies in institutional settings: a review of medications, treatment models, and implementation.  

PubMed

Scabies is a global problem and a significant source of morbidity in nursing home residents and workers because of its highly contagious nature. It is also a problem in hospitals that care for the elderly, the debilitated, and the immunocompromised. New outbreaks continue to occur, despite controlling the recurrent epidemics. Scabies manifests as papules, pustules, burrows, nodules, and occasionally urticarial papules and plaques. Most of the patients with scabies experience severe pruritus. A subset of patients have crusted or Norwegian scabies. These patients, who are usually debilitated or immunocompromised, do not experience the urge to scratch, and therefore do not scratch their own skin. Diagnosis of scabies is based on patient history, physical examination, and demonstration of mites, eggs, or scybala (black or brown football-shaped masses of feces of scabies) on microscopic examination. Scabies can be treated with topical or oral therapies. Topical treatments include 5% permethrin cream, 1% lindane (gamma benzene hexachloride) lotion, 6% precipitated sulfur in petrolatum, crotamiton, malathion, allethrin spray, and benzyl benzoate. Ivermectin, the only oral treatment, is not approved for scabies in the US. Most authorities advocate using a scabicide several times, specifically once a week over a period of 2-3 weeks. In an outbreak of scabies in a nursing home, residents, staff, and frequent visitors should all be treated even if they are not symptomatic. Ivermectin is useful in treating patients with Norwegian or crusted scabies, or who are debilitated. Ivermectin has no serious reported adverse effects. Model treatment plans to stop scabies epidemics have been developed. These plans coordinate treatment of all persons exposed (including ivermectin for debilitated patients), isolation of infected patients, disinfection of objects that patients have come into contact with, and education and reassurance of the medical staff. Failure to coordinate notification, education, treatment, and disinfection leads to failure to control scabies epidemics. Control of epidemics of institutional scabies requires attention to treatment effects and logistics. Treatment is low risk, but cumbersome because many individuals need be treated. It is advisable to restrict, where possible, the number of staff members that deal with scabies patients to limit the spread of the scabies. Prolonged surveillance is required for the eradication of institutional scabies. While the foregoing plans require coordination of all involved personnel and sustained efforts, they are necessary to halt the spread of scabies to patients and staff, to enhance their morale, and to prevent deterioration of labor and public relations. PMID:14979741

Scheinfeld, Noah

2004-01-01

23

Treatment of scabies: newer perspectives  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a common dermatological problem managed by general physicians, family physicians, and dermatologists. Scabies manifests itself in various forms in different individuals. The treatment of scabies has undergone developments with the evolution of new treatment strategies and antiectoparasitic drugs. The advent of drugs such as permethrin and ivermectin has revolutionised treatment. Management of scabies not only includes prescribing the drugs but also educating patients properly about the method of application of the drug. Treatment failures may result for various reasons and must be managed appropriately.

Karthikeyan, K

2005-01-01

24

Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model  

PubMed Central

Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental in vivo evidence supporting previous assumptions that establishment of pathogens follow scabies infection. Our findings provide an explanation for a biologically important aspect of the disease pathogenesis. The methods developed from this pig trial will serve as a guide to analyze human clinical samples. Studies building on this will offer implications for development of novel intervention strategies against the mites and the secondary infections.

Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

2014-01-01

25

Permethrin for scabies in children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT QUESTION I frequently see children with scabies in my practice. A variety of medications are available to treat scabies. Permethrin is one of the most common medications used. Is permethrin a safe and effective option for children? ANSWER Scabies is a common parasitic skin infection. It is highly prevalent in young children. Topical permethrin (5% cream) is a safe and effective scabicide in children. It is recommended as a first-line therapy for patients older than 2 months of age. Because there are theoretical concerns regarding percutaneous absorption of permethrin in infants younger than 2 months of age, guidelines recommend 7% sulfur preparation instead of permethrin.

Albakri, Lina; Goldman, Ran D.

2010-01-01

26

Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... scabicide may be necessary. If I come in contact with a person who has scabies, should I ... page Get email updates Listen to audio/Podcast Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

27

Psoroptic Cattle Scabies Research: An Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Psoroptic cattle scabies is a dermatitis that causes harmful itching, crusting, scurfing, and depilitation. Psoroptes ovis mites are the specific cause of common scabies in cattle. A major reason for the inadequacy of formerly successful eradication progr...

1979-01-01

28

Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... scabies and my job requires skin-to-skin contact with patients? Scabies usually is spread by prolonged ... page Get email updates Listen to audio/Podcast Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

29

Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

30

Scabies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scabies - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Pubic Lice ("Crabs") and Scabies English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department of Health ...

31

Complement Inhibitors from Scabies Mites Promote Streptococcal Growth - A Novel Mechanism in Infected Epidermis?  

PubMed Central

Background Scabies is highly prevalent in socially disadvantaged communities such as indigenous populations and in developing countries. Generalized itching causes discomfort to the patient; however, serious complications can occur as a result of secondary bacterial pyoderma, commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) or Staphylococcus aureus. In the tropics, skin damage due to scabies mite infestations has been postulated to be an important link in the pathogenesis of disease associated with acute rheumatic fever and heart disease, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and systemic sepsis. Treatment of scabies decreases the prevalence of infections by bacteria. This study aims to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the link between scabies and GAS infections. Methodology/Principal Findings GAS bacteria were pre-incubated with blood containing active complement, phagocytes and antibodies against the bacteria, and subsequently tested for viability by plate counts. Initial experiments were done with serum from an individual previously exposed to GAS with naturally acquired anti-GAS antibodies. The protocol was optimized for large-scale testing of low-opsonic whole blood from non-exposed human donors by supplementing with a standard dose of heat inactivated human sera previously exposed to GAS. This allowed an extension of the dataset to two additional donors and four proteins tested at a range of concentrations. Shown first is the effect of scabies mite complement inhibitors on human complement using ELISA-based complement activation assays. Six purified recombinant mite proteins tested at a concentration of 50 µg/ml blocked all three complement activation pathways. Further we demonstrate in human whole blood assays that each of four scabies mite complement inhibitors tested increased GAS survival rates by 2–15 fold. Conclusions/Significance We propose that local complement inhibition plays an important role in the development of pyoderma in scabies infested skin. This molecular link between scabies and bacterial infections may provide new avenues to develop alternative treatment options against this neglected disease.

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Pickering, Darren; McMillan, David; Sriprakash, Kadaba S.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja

2012-01-01

32

Pediculosis and scabies: treatment update.  

PubMed

Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A "no nit" policy for schools and day care centers no longer is recommended because nits can persist after successful treatment with no risk of transmission. First-line pharmacologic treatment of pediculosis is permethrin 1% lotion or shampoo. Multiple novel treatments have shown limited evidence of effectiveness superior to permethrin. Wet combing is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment option. Finding pubic lice should prompt an evaluation for other sexually transmitted infections. Body lice infestation should be suspected when a patient with poor hygiene presents with pruritus. Washing affected clothing and bedding is essential if lice infestation is found, but no other environmental decontamination is necessary. Scabies in adults is recognized as a pruritic, papular rash with excoriations in a typical distribution pattern. In infants, children, and immunocompromised adults, the rash also can be vesicular, pustular, or nodular. First-line treatment of scabies is topical permethrin 5% cream. Clothing and bedding of persons with scabies should be washed in hot water and dried in a hot dryer. PMID:23062045

Gunning, Karen; Pippitt, Karly; Kiraly, Bernadette; Sayler, Morgan

2012-09-15

33

Policy Decisions in Scabies Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a Kansas elementary school, an outbreak of scabies was discovered by the school nurse. Through cooperative planning with the local health department, the infected children were excluded from school pending medical treatment, and a screening program was set up for the entire student population. (JN)

Foutes, James A.; And Others

1981-01-01

34

Acaricidal activity of extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei in vitro.  

PubMed

The possible acaricidal activity of Eupatorium adenophorum was analyzed using extracts created by water decocting, ethanol thermal circumfluence, and steam distillation. The toxic effect of each extract was tested against Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei in vitro. Ethanol thermal circumfluence extract had strong toxicity against mites, killing all S. scabiei at 0.5 and 1.0 g/ml (w/v) concentration, while 1g/ml extract was also found to kill all P. cuniculi within a 4-h period. Similarly, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/ml concentration of extract had strong toxicity against S. scabiei, with median lethal time (LT(50)) values at 0.866, 0.785 and 0.517 h, respectively. 0.5 g/ml and 1g/ml showed strong acaricidal action against P. cuniculi; the LT(50) values were 0.93 h and 1.29 h, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values were 0.22 g/ml for Scabies mite and 0.64 g/ml for P. cuniculi in 1h. The results indicated that E. adenophorum contains potent acaricidal ingredients; as a first step in the potential development of novel drugs, it may provide new acaricidal compounds for the effective control of animal acariasis. PMID:22244533

Nong, Xiang; Fang, Chun-Lin; Wang, Jia-Hai; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Yang, De-Ying; Liu, Tian-Fei; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Run-Hui; Zheng, Wan-Peng; Peng, Xue-Rong; Wang, Shu-Xian; Yang, Guang-You

2012-06-01

35

Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies remains a public health problem, especially in developing countries, with a worldwide incidence of approximately 300 million cases each year. Prolonged skin-to-skin contact is necessary to allow the transmission of the causative mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. Classic scabies presents with burrows, erythematous papules, and generalized pruritus. Clinical variants include nodular scabies and crusted scabies, also called Norwegian scabies. The diagnosis is based mainly on history and physical examination, but definitive diagnosis depends on direct visualization of the mites under microscopy. Alternative diagnostic methods include the burrow ink test, video-dermatoscopy, newly serologic tests like PCR/ELISA, and specific IgE directed toward major mite components. Treatment of scabies consists of either topical permethrin or oral ivermectin, although the optimal regimen is still unclear. PMID:23904181

Shimose, Luis; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

2013-10-01

36

Histopathology of the tegument of rabbits infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) ticks and exposed to selamectin (active principle of acaricide Revolution, Pfizer).  

PubMed

Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites which can transmit several diseases to the host during their feeding process. When ticks mechanically damage the tissue, they eventually induce inflammatory responses on the skin spot where they are fixed. One of the alternatives to control these ectoparasites is the use of chemical substances like selamectin-the active principle of Pfizer's antiparasitic Revolution-a macrocyclic lactone capable of doing neurotoxic damage to the tick and eventually eliminating infestation in dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to analyze, using histological and histochemical techniques, the occurrence of morphophysiological alterations in the skin of the host rabbits exposed to selamectin and infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae). Histologically, the exposed and infested rabbits showed a partial and/or total decrease in the stratum corneum and the epithelium decreased in the number of cell layers, consequently reducing the stratification (thinning) and quite pronounced formations of sub-epidermal edemas with consequent disorganization of collagen fibers in the dermal layer's connective tissue. Histochemical tests showed strong periodic acid-Schiff-positive reaction in the hair follicle and some regions of the dermis, besides resynthesis of collagen fibers detected by Mallory's trichrome technique. The obtained results showed that selamectin acts like a toxicant agent when in contact with the skin of the rabbit infested with ticks, inducing morphophysiological alterations in the acute inflammatory process in the animal's tegument. Selamectin is a chemical substance which has a dose-dependent action since higher concentrations cause greater morphophysiological damage in the skin of rabbits. PMID:23613180

Bozzatto, Vlamir; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2013-07-01

37

Scabies incognito presenting as urticaria pigmentosa in an infant.  

PubMed

Misdiagnosis is frequent in scabies of infants and children because of a low index of suspicion, secondary eczematous changes, and inappropriate therapy. Topical or systemic corticosteroids may modify the clinical presentation of scabies and that situation is referred to as scabies incognito. We describe a 10-month-old infant with scabies incognito mimicking urticaria pigmentosa. PMID:12383096

Kim, Kyoung-Jin; Roh, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Jee-Ho; Sung, Kyung-Jeh; Moon, Kee-Chan; Koh, Jai-Kyoung

2002-01-01

38

Atypical scabies in HIV-positive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cases of Norwegian or keratotic scabies in HIV-positive patients are described. One of these patients was the source of an outbreak in a hospital, ultimately involving 72 persons. Three of our patients had a markedly pruritic eruption. This is unusual in crusted scabies in which pruritus is usually slight or absent. Two of the five patients had unusual CD4

José J. Portu; Juan M. Santamaria; Zuriñe Zubero; Maria V. Almeida-Llamas; Mikel Aldamiz-Etxebarria San Sebastian; Ana Rubio Gutiérrez

1996-01-01

39

Identification and treatment of scabies in infants.  

PubMed

Incidents of scabies are increasing nationally and globally, particularly among certain vulnerable groups. This article examines a rare and unusual case of scabies infestation in infancy and highlights the importance of recognising the differences in presentation of infestation in infants to enhance early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24984740

Bethel, James

2014-07-01

40

Oral ivermectin treatment in two cases of scabies: effective in crusted scabies induced by corticosteroid but ineffective in nail scabies.  

PubMed

We report two cases of scabies treated with oral ivermectin (200 micro g/kg). Case 1, a 72-year-old man, developed crusted scabies with the use of oral corticosteroids due to a misdiagnosis by an earlier physician. The patient was successfully treated with two doses of oral ivermectin at a 7 day interval with concomitant topical use of crotamiton and keratolytic agents. However, the nail scabies in this patient failed to respond to these treatments. Live mites were detected from all his toenails two weeks after the second dose of ivermectin. A complete cure of the nail scabies was achieved by occlusive dressing of 1% gamma-BHC on all toenails for one month. Case 2, a 52-year-old woman, had been treated with oral corticosteroid for mesangial nephritis. She developed common scabies, but a topical scabicide, crotamiton, was not effective. Two weeks after treatment with a single dose of oral ivermectin, eggs were still detected from a burrow on her trunk. Her treatment was completed after a further two doses of oral ivermectin were administered at 7 day intervals. In both patients, the administration of oral ivermectin did not induce any clinical or laboratory side effects. Oral ivermectin is effective for crusted scabies, but not effective for nail scabies. Two doses of oral ivermectin, administered with a one-week interval, is an appropriate treatment regimen. PMID:12773808

Ohtaki, Noriko; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Ohtomo, Hiroshi

2003-05-01

41

Norwegian crusted scabies: an unusual case presentation.  

PubMed

Scabies is a contagious condition that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person and has been frequently associated with institutional and healthcare-facility outbreaks. The subtype Norwegian crusted scabies can masquerade as other dermatologic diseases owing to the heavy plaque formation. Successful treatment has been documented in published reports, including oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Few case studies documenting the treatment of Norwegian crusted scabies have reported the use of surgical debridement as an aid to topical and/or oral treatment when severe plaque formation has been noted. A nursing home patient was admitted to the hospital for severe plaque formation of both feet. A superficial biopsy was negative for both fungus and scabies because of the severity of the plaque formation on both feet. The patient underwent a surgical, diagnostic biopsy of both feet, leading to the diagnosis of Norwegian crusted scabies. A second surgical debridement was then performed to remove the extensive plaque formation and aid the oral ivermectin and topical permethrin treatment. The patient subsequently made a full recovery and was discharged back to the nursing home. At 2 and 6 months after treatment, the patient remained free of scabies infestation, and the surgical wound had healed uneventfully. The present case presentation has demonstrated that surgical debridement can be complementary to the standard topical and oral medications in the treatment of those with Norwegian crusted scabies infestation. PMID:24370484

Maghrabi, Michael M; Lum, Shireen; Joba, Ameha T; Meier, Molly J; Holmbeck, Ryan J; Kennedy, Kate

2014-01-01

42

Acaricidal activity of 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone extracted from Eupatorium adenophorum in vitro.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of the 9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone (euptox A), a cadenine sesquiterpene from Eupatorium adenophorum (E. adenophorum) against Sarcoptes scabiei and Psoroptes cuniculi was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests in vitro. The results showed euptox A had strong toxicity against mites, killing all S. scabiei at 3 and 4 mg/ml (m/v) concentration, while 4 mg/ml euptox A was also found to kill all P. cuniculi within a 4 h period. Similarly, 2, 3 and 4 mg/ml concentration of euptox A had strong toxicity against S. scabiei, with median lethal time (LT50) values at 0.687, 0.526, 0.326 h, respectively. 3 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml showed strong acaricidal action against P. cuniculi; the LT50 values were 0.693 and 0.493 h, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 1.068 mg/ml for Scabies mite and 0.902 mg/ml for P. cuniculi in 2 h. The results indicate that euptox A has strong acaricidal activity and may exploit as novel drugs for the effective control of animal acariasis. PMID:24631419

Liao, Fei; Hu, Yanchun; Tan, Hui; Wu, Lei; Wang, Yunfei; Huang, Yue; Mo, Quan; Wei, Yahui

2014-05-01

43

Scabies and bedbugs in hospital outbreaks.  

PubMed

Scabies and bedbugs are two emerging ectoparasitic infections reported in crowded areas, including hospitals. Skin involvement is the main presenting initial manifestation for both infections, and the diagnosis is yet challenging for both. Topical permethrin is considered the first-line therapy for scabies except for crusted scabies which is mainly treated with oral ivermectin. To the contrary, treatment of bedbugs is mainly symptomatic. Avoiding close contact, early diagnosis and treatment of infected persons as well as decontamination of the involved environment play an essential role in controlling outbreaks in healthcare settings. PMID:24897948

Sfeir, Maroun; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

2014-08-01

44

Risk factors for recurrence of scabies: a retrospective study of scabies patients in a long-term care hospital.  

PubMed

A considerable number of patients suffer recurrence of scabies. To elucidate risk factors for recurrence of scabies, we compared patients who experienced scabies recurrence and those who suffered scabies only once. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of all scabies patients in a long-term care hospital for the elderly (300 beds; six wards) for a period of 42 months to determine frequency of scabies onsets, underlying diseases, history of treatment, and demographic data such as age and sex. One hundred and forty-eight patients and five hospital staff members suffered scabies during the 42-month study period. All staff members and 98 patients had no recurrence, while 50 patients experienced at least one recurrence of scabies. The cumulative number of scabies diagnoses was 228. The rates of scabies onset and recurrence were considerably different among wards. The dementia unit showed the highest rate of onset and recurrence. In addition to frequent exposure to infectious sources, problematic behavior, such as lying in other patients beds, might cause the high recurrence rate in dementia units. Higher serum total lymphocyte count and topical use of ?-benzene hexachloride were associated with lower risk of scabies recurrence. Recurrence of scabies is not uncommon among elderly patients in institutional settings. Impaired immunity may be a risk factor for recurrence of scabies. Groups with a high onset rate of scabies pose a high likelihood of recurrence. Problematic behavior of demented patients may increase the risk of recurrence. Use of effective topical treatment may effectively prevent recurrence. PMID:21658115

Makigami, Kuniko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Ishii, Norihisa; Tamashiro, Tetsuko; Yoshida, Sadao; Yasumura, Seiji

2011-09-01

45

Scabies in infants and small children.  

PubMed

Scabies in infants and young children manifests as a pruritic, often generalized eruption with frequent involvement of the face, scalp, palms, and soles, in contrast to the intertriginous localization of lesions in older patients. The most common presenting lesions are papules, vesiculopustules, and nodules. Secondary eczematization and impetiginization are common, but burrows are difficult to find. The diagnosis of scabies should be confirmed by mineral oil scraping. Permethrin 5% cream (Elimite; Herbert, Irvine, CA) is now considered to be the treatment of choice for infants and small children with scabies because of its high efficacy and low risk of side effects. Concomitant treatment of other family members and caretakers is imperative, as is cleansing of articles of contact. Postscabietic nodules may persist for a few months after clearance of the mites. Animal scabies may also cause pruritic papules and vesicles in young children, but the eruption clears spontaneously; the infested animal should be treated. PMID:7682835

Paller, A S

1993-03-01

46

Scabies: a ubiquitous neglected skin disease.  

PubMed

Scabies has been a scourge among human beings for thousands of years. Its worldwide occurrence with epidemics during war, famine, and overcrowding is responsible for an estimated 300 million people currently infested. Scabies refers to the various skin lesions produced by female mites, and their eggs and scybala that are deposited in the epidermis, leading to delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Recent immunological findings such as cross-reactivity with house dust mite allergens and an altered T-helper-1/T-helper-2 pattern contribute to a better understanding of the pathomechanism. Furthermore, progress in molecular biology and cloning of relevant antigens could enable the development of a diagnostic ELISA system and candidate vaccines in the near future. Typical and atypical clinical presentations with pruritus as a hallmark of scabies occur in young, pregnant, immunocompromised, and elderly patients and include bullous and crusted (Norwegian) manifestations as well as those masked by steroid use (scabies incognito). This article reviews scabies management strategies in developed countries and resource-poor communities as well as typical complications, including the emergence of resistance and drug-related adverse events. Other problems such as post-scabies eczema and reinfestation, and newer treatments such as ivermectin are also discussed. PMID:17123897

Hengge, Ulrich R; Currie, Bart J; Jäger, Gerold; Lupi, Omar; Schwartz, Robert A

2006-12-01

47

Efficacy and application considerations of selected residual acaricides against the mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) in simulated retail habitats.  

PubMed

The mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), is a stored product pest of economic significance that commonly infests many types of food and animal feed products. There is limited information regarding pest management tactics, including residual acaricides for managing this pest in retail store habitats. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of commercially available acaricides that could provide a protective barrier near susceptible food packages destined for consumer use. Mite mortality at 24 and 48 h was measured after exposing mites to acaricide residues applied to a nonporous surface. Two additional factors included in the study were humidity and the presence of an adjuvant to facilitate spread of acaricide on nonporous surfaces. Increasing humidity levels generally decreased acaricide efficacy. Use of the adjuvant itself did not appear to affect efficacy, but the type of application (wet or slurry, or dry) of dust acaricides significantly affected efficacy. The potential for residual acaricides to act as a barrier (within 24-48 h) against dispersal of this mite was discussed. PMID:24020311

Freitag, Jessica A; Kells, Stephen A

2013-08-01

48

[Report on erythroderma and scabies infection in connection with two cases of scabies norvegica].  

PubMed

Erythroderma is an inflammation of almost the whole surface of the skin, characterized by erythema, skin infiltration and desquamation. Despite the etiological factors, the generalized inflammation of a large body surface can lead to a life-threatening condition in itself. Parasite infection lies rarely in the background of erythroderma. The Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis belonging to the mite family is the cause of scabies disease. While the prevalence of "classic" scabies is high world-wide, the more severe and more dangerous form - scabies norvegica - is only seldom observed. Diagnosis and treatment is highly important from an epidemiological aspect. The authors discuss the differential diagnostic problems and epidemiological significance of scabies infection and erythroderma using two cases. PMID:19004745

Jenei, Márta; Veres, Imre; Schmidt, Emese; Varga, Imre; Remenyik, Eva

2008-11-23

49

Streptomyces scabies sp. nov., norn. rev.?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revival of the name Streptomyces scabies is proposed for the predominant species causing common scab of potato. Common scab strains from the northeastern United States, Atlantic Canada, and Hungary were differentiated by a phenotypic analysis of 42 criteria from six atypical pathogen strains, three saprophytic streptomycetes isolated from scab lesions, and reference strains of Streptomyces griseus and Streptomyces tendae. The

D. H. LAMBERT; R. LORIA

1989-01-01

50

[Norwegian scabies in a pediatric patient with Down syndrome, a case report].  

PubMed

Norwegian (crusted) scabies is a rare and extreme manifestation of scabies that can be observed mainly among immunosuppressed patients. Due to the high number of scabies mites present in each lesion, crusted scabies symptoms are much more intense than in usual scabies and it is thus highly contagious. A case study of a child with Down syndrome and Norwegian scabies who shows a good response to a treatment combining keratolytics, emollients, ivermectin and topical scabicides is described. PMID:24196772

Mantero, Natalia M; Jaime, Lorena J; Nijamin, Tamara R; Laffargue, Jorge A; De Lillo, Leonardo; Grees, Susana A

2013-12-01

51

Control Strategies for Endemic Childhood Scabies  

PubMed Central

Human scabies is a major global public health issue, with an estimated 300 million cases per year worldwide. Prevalence rates are particularly high in many third-world regions and within various indigenous communities in developed countries. Infestation with Sarcoptes Scabiei is associated with group-A streptococcal pyoderma which in turn predisposes to rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and their respective long-term sequelae: rheumatic heart disease and chronic renal insufficiency. The documented difficulties inherent in achieving scabies control within affected communities have motivated us to develop a network-dependent Monte-Carlo model of the scabies contagion, with the dual aims of gaining insight into its dynamics, and in determining the effects of various treatment strategies. Here we show that scabies burden is adversely affected by increases in average network degree, prominent network clustering, and by a person-to-person transmissibility of greater magnitude. We demonstrate that creating a community-specific model allows for the determination of an effective treatment protocol that can satisfy any pre-defined target prevalence. We find frequent low-density treatment protocols are inherently advantageous in comparison with infrequent mass screening and treatment regimes: prevalence rates are lower when compared with protocols that administer the same number of treatments over a given time interval less frequently, and frequent low-density treatment protocols have economic, practical and public acceptance advantages that may facilitate their long-term implementation. This work demonstrates the importance of stochasticity, community structure and the heterogeneity of individuals in influencing the dynamics of the human scabies contagion, and provides a practical method for investigating the outcomes of various intervention strategies.

Gilmore, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

52

The elimination of scabies: a task for our generation.  

PubMed

Scabies prevalence remains unacceptably high in many regions throughout the world. Infestation with scabies significantly impacts quality of life and is linked to pyoderma and consequently to severe long-term sequelae such as post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In the past, control programs using topical treatments have met with poor compliance; however, the highly effective oral agent ivermectin may offer a new paradigm in scabies management. Problems still exist with insensitive diagnostic tests, questions concerning mite reservoirs, and restrictions on who can receive ivermectin. Despite these difficulties, the elimination of scabies in communities worst affected may soon be possible. PMID:23834401

McLean, Florence E

2013-10-01

53

Scabies: more than just an irritation  

PubMed Central

Human scabies, caused by skin infestation with the arthropod mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, typically results in a papular, intensely pruritic eruption involving the interdigital spaces, and flexure creases. Recent research has led to a reassessment of the morbidity attributable to this parasite in endemic communities, particularly resulting from secondary skin sepsis and postinfective complications including glomerulonephritis. This has led to studies of the benefits of community based control programmes, and to concerns regarding the emergence of drug resistance when such strategies are employed. The renewed research interest into the biology of this infection has resulted in the application of molecular tools. This has established that canine and human scabies populations are genetically distinct, a finding with major implications for the formulation of public health control policies. Further research is needed to increase understanding of drug resistance, and to identify new drug targets and potential vaccine candidates.

McCarthy, J; Kemp, D; Walton, S; Currie, B

2004-01-01

54

The scabies problem on active service.  

PubMed

The paper set out by identifying the significant advantage that disease gives to the enemy-plus ca change! Scabies was the commonest skin infection, and uncomplicated cases took 3-4 days to treat, but more complicated cases often resulted in hospitalisation for up to a month. Complicated cases were the norm through, because of the harsh environment that soldiers operated in. PMID:24845897

Ross, David A

2014-06-01

55

Bullous scabies in an adult: A case report with review of literature.  

PubMed

Scabies is an infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, characterized by polymorphous lesions that may include burrows, papules, nodules, excoriation, and crusts. Vesicular and bullous lesions are rather rare. Bullous scabies is regarded as a distinct subtype of scabies, closely resembling bullous pemphigoid. Here, we report a case of bullous scabies in an adult male and review the literature. PMID:24350014

Gutte, Rameshwar M

2013-10-01

56

An Adolescent Patient with Scabies Mimicking Gottron Papules  

PubMed Central

Atypical features of scabies occur in infants and children and patients with prolonged use of corticosteroids or immunosuppression. We report a non-immunosuppressed 15-year-old female case of scabies showing scaly reddish papules over the proximal interphalangeal joints mimicking Gottron papules in classic dermatomyositis. Periungal erythema was also seen. Four months’ topical corticosteroids from previous clinics had been used. Dermoscopic findings were consistent with typical pictures of scabies. Scraping of hand crusts demonstrated scabies mites and ova. Skin lesions of the patient were cured with oral ivermectin and topical 10% crotamiton. This case suggests that a lesion resembling Gottron papules may be added to the panel of unusual presentations of scabies.

Yoshinaga, Eiji; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru; Kawada, Akira

2010-01-01

57

An Adolescent Patient with Scabies Mimicking Gottron Papules.  

PubMed

Atypical features of scabies occur in infants and children and patients with prolonged use of corticosteroids or immunosuppression. We report a non-immunosuppressed 15-year-old female case of scabies showing scaly reddish papules over the proximal interphalangeal joints mimicking Gottron papules in classic dermatomyositis. Periungal erythema was also seen. Four months' topical corticosteroids from previous clinics had been used. Dermoscopic findings were consistent with typical pictures of scabies. Scraping of hand crusts demonstrated scabies mites and ova. Skin lesions of the patient were cured with oral ivermectin and topical 10% crotamiton. This case suggests that a lesion resembling Gottron papules may be added to the panel of unusual presentations of scabies. PMID:21173918

Yoshinaga, Eiji; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru; Kawada, Akira

2009-01-01

58

[Hospital spread of scabies from an immunocompromised patient with Norwegian scabies].  

PubMed

Scabies was first found in a 71-year-old female who had been diagnosed as having leukemic transformation of primary myelofibrosis and had undergone treatment for the disease. She was admitted to the hospital in December 1986, because of abdominal fullness and a generalized subcutaneous tumor that proved to be myeloblastoma. For treatment of the underlying disease, the regimen of the combination of vindesine, cyclophosphamide, 6-mercaptopurine, and prednisolone was selected. She developed cardiac failure and fell into a coma one month after starting the anticancer therapy. She was put on artificial respiration and on additional steroid therapy as well. Dexamethasone was administrated at 16 mg/day. Since the myeloblastomas found on admission regressed, the steroid therapy was continued. She was in coma for a few days before her skin lesions turned red and formed a grayish crust in the lower abdominal region. Several days later, the doctor responsible for the treatment of this patient developed pruritus and exanthema on both arms, and soon many nurses in the same hospital-ward developed similar symptoms. At approximately the same time, the patient with myelofibrosis was diagnosed as having Norwegian scabies: the crusted skin lesions revealing many Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Two doctors (2/18), 17 nurses (17/19) and 3 other patients (3/51) were found to have contracted scabies, and we recognized the hospital spread of the infection. The first patient was isolated in a private room, and we avoided direct contact with her. The persons with scabies were treated with crotamiton liniment. The first scabies patient died of cardiac failure 1 month after falling into a coma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1761899

Iwasaki, H; Fukushima, T; Uchida, M; Ueda, T; Nakamura, T; Ishiguro, K; Ueda, K; Takada, N

1991-09-01

59

Crusted scabies in remote Australia, a new way forward: lessons and outcomes from the East Arnhem Scabies Control Program.  

PubMed

Crusted scabies is a highly infectious, debilitating and disfiguring disease, and remote Aboriginal communities of northern Australia have the highest reported rates of the condition in the world. We draw on monitoring data of the East Arnhem Scabies Control Program to discuss outcomes and lessons learnt through managing the condition in remote communities. Using active case finding, we identified seven patients with crusted scabies in three communities and found most had not presented to health services despite active disease. We compared presentations and hospitalisations for a cumulative total of 99 months during a novel preventive program with 99 months immediately before the program for the seven cases and seven sentinel household contacts. Our preventive long-term case management approach was associated with a significant 44% reduction in episodes of recurrent crusted scabies (from 36 to 20; P = 0.025) in the seven cases, and a non-significant 80% reduction in days spent in hospital (from 173 to 35; P = 0.09). It was also associated with a significant 75% reduction in scabies-related presentations (from 28 to 7; P = 0.017) for the seven sentinel household contacts. We recommend active surveillance and wider adoption of this preventive case management approach, with ongoing evaluation to refine protocols and improve efficiency. Contacts of children presenting with recurrent scabies should be examined to exclude crusted scabies. In households where crusted scabies is present, a diagnosis of parental neglect due to recurrent scabies and weight loss in children should be made with extreme caution. Improved coordination of care by health services, and research and development of new therapies including immunotherapies for crusted scabies, must be a priority. PMID:24938345

Lokuge, Buddhi; Kopczynski, Alex; Woltmann, Angela; Alvoen, Faye; Connors, Christine; Guyula, Terrence; Mulholland, Eddie; Cran, Samantha; Foster, Tim; Lokuge, Kamalini; Burke, Tanya; Prince, Sam

2014-06-16

60

Is the treatment of scabies hazardous?  

PubMed Central

Treatment for scabies is usually initiated by general practitioners; most consider lindane (gamma benzene hexachloride) the treatment of choice. Lindane is also widely used as an agricultural and industrial pesticide, and as a result the toxic profile of this insecticide is well understood. Evidence is accumulating that lindane can be toxic to the central nervous system and may be associated with aplastic anaemia. Preparations containing lindane continue to be sold over the counter and may represent a hazard to poorly informed patients. This literature review suggests that general practitioners should prescribe scabicides with increased caution for certain at-risk groups, and give adequate warnings regarding potential toxicity.

Wilkinson, Clare

1988-01-01

61

Oral ivermectin in the treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

One hundred and twenty scabietic patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Mansoura University Hospital, voluntarily participated in this uncontrolled, open label study to evaluate ivermectin 20 microg/kg as a scabietic after they had given their consent. The scabietic subjects included in this study were otherwise healthy, mentally competent, aged more than 18 years, and used no topical antiscabietic treatment in the week before ivermectin treatment, or during the 4-week study period. Patients were also required to show clinical evidence of scabies, and the microscopically demonstrated presence of Sarcoptes scabiei, their eggs, or their fecal pellets (scybala). A thorough history was taken, and a physical examination was conducted that included measurement of the pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and weight. For each participant, the distribution of scabies lesions was plotted on a body diagram, and the severity of disease was recorded as mild (10 or fewer lesions), moderate (11-49 lesions), or severe (50 or more lesions). Skin scrapings were examined for mites, eggs, or scybala. Urinalysis, stool analysis, a complete blood count, prothrombin time, and serum chemistry studies (serum creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin) were performed before treatment, and 2 and 4 weeks after the drug was given. Ivermectin was administered as scored 6-mg tablets with water, and the dose was designed to provide 200 micrograms/kg (ivermectin was provided by Delta Pharma, Tenth of Ramadan City, Egypt). The patients were instructed to have recently worn clothing, sheets, and towels washed in a hot cycle the day after treatment. The patients were interviewed 3 days after treatment about any symptoms or subjective evidence of adverse reactions. Follow-up examinations were carried out 2 and 4 weeks after intake of ivermectin, and all examination procedures and laboratory investigations were repeated. Cure criteria included absence of nocturnal itching as well as dermatologic evidence of scabies, and negative skin scraping. Patients showing evidence of active scabies or having new lesions during the follow-up visits were given a second dose of ivermectin. All members of the household and immediate family were treated with either topical 5% permethrin cream or 1% gamma benzene hexachloride to reduce the chance of reinfestation. PMID:10632775

Elmogy, M; Fayed, H; Marzok, H; Rashad, A

1999-12-01

62

Treatment of crusted scabies with albendazole: A case report.  

PubMed

Crusted scabies is a severe variant of scabies caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is characterized by high mite burden, extensive hyperkeratotic scaling, crusted lesions, variable pruritus, generalized lymphadenopathy, erythroderma, and eosinophilia, in some cases. There is an increased incidence of crusted scabies, particularly among patients with HIV infection. We describe a 22-year-old Syrian immunocompetent female who had hyperkeratotic psoriasiform plaques and hyperkeratosis without itching. She was treated with oral albendazole and topical crotamiton with salicylic acid 5 percent. PMID:19951635

Douri, Thaer; Shawaf, A Z

2009-01-01

63

Changes in acaricidal potency by introducing functional radicals and an acaricidal constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia.  

PubMed

The acaricidal potential of an active constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia oil and its structurally related derivatives was evaluated using filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays against house dust and stored food mites. The acaricidal constituent of S. tenuifolia oil was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone by GC-MS, (1)H-, and (13)C NMR spectra. 2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone was a potent acaricide against house dust and stored food mites, based on the LD50 values from the filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays, followed by 4-isopropylcyclohexanone, 2-isopropylidene-5-methylcyclohexanone, 2-methylcyclohexanone, 3-methylcyclohexanone, 4-methylcyclohexanone, and benzyl benzoate. Furthermore, 4-isopropylcyclohexanone and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone, which were introduced on the isopropyl (C3H7) functional radical of the cyclohexanone skeleton, had the highest acaricidal potency. These results indicate that S. tenuifolia oil and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone structural analogues could be effective natural acaricides for managing house dust and stored food mites. PMID:24206217

Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2013-11-27

64

Properties and actions of bridged diphenyl acaricides.  

PubMed Central

The properties and actions of the bridged diphenyl acaricides are discussed. These pesticides, which are more or less structurally related to DDT, were the first of the specific acaricides to be developed. They exhibit remarkable properties of specificity, being primarily toxic to phytophagous mites but of very low toxicity to most nontarget species, including insects, fish, birds, and mammals. Although many important facets of their broad mode of action are understood, virtually nothing is known of their primary mode of action or the underlying bases of their specificities. In most ways they are model compounds for integrated control and pest management activities and thus merit greater attention than they have received to elucidate the fundamentals underlying their unusual properties and actions.

March, R B

1976-01-01

65

Crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the widely accepted association between crusted scabies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, crusted scabies has not been included in the spectrum of infections associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 28-year-old Mexican individual with late HIV-infection, who had no apparent skin lesions but soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, he developed an aggressive form of crusted scabies with rapid progression of lesions. Severe infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei was confirmed by microscopic examination of the scale and skin biopsy. Due to the atypical presentation of scabies in a patient responding to antiretroviral therapy, preceded by no apparent skin lesions at initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the episode was interpreted for the first time as “unmasking crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome”. Conclusion This case illustrates that when crusted scabies is observed in HIV-infected patients responding to antiretroviral therapy, it might as well be considered as a possible manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Patient context should be considered for adequate diagnosis and treatment of conditions exacerbated by antiretroviral therapy-induced immune reconstitution.

2012-01-01

66

Norwegian scabies in a renal transplant patient  

PubMed Central

A variety of skin infections are encountered in postrenal transplant setting. Though bacterial and fungal infections are more common, surprises are in store for us sometimes. We describe a patient who underwent renal transplant two years ago, presenting with a painless, mildly pruritic expanding skin rash over abdomen. Histological examination of the skin biopsy showed that stratum corneum had multiple burrows containing larvae and eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient was treated with ivermectin 12 mg weekly once for 2 doses along with topical 5% permethrin and permethrin soap bath. There was remarkable improvement in the skin lesions with complete resolution in two weeks. Norwegian or crusted scabies is caused by massive infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. It can be rarely encountered in the post-transplant setting, which underscores the importance of early diagnosis and treatment before secondary bacterial infection sets in.

Sampathkumar, K.; Mahaldar, A. R.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Prabahar, S.

2010-01-01

67

In vitro acaricidal effect of tannin-rich plants against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal effects of lyophilized extracts of four tannin rich plants (Acacia pennatula, Piscidia piscipula, Leucaena leucocephala and Lysiloma latisiliquum) against diverse stages of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and to asses whether tannins were involved in the acaricidal effect using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to block tannins. Larval immersion (LIT) and adult immersion (AIT) tests were used to evaluate the acaricidal effect of each of the lyophilized extracts against larval and adult stages of R. microplus respectively. Larvae and adult ticks were exposed to increasing concentrations of each plant extract (0, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 and 19,200 ?g ml(-1)) for 10 min. Larval mortality was recorded at 48 h post-incubation. Adult mortality was recorded daily over 14 days, at which point their reproductive efficiency was evaluated. PEG was added to the extracts to verify whether tannins were involved in the acaricidal effect. The effect on egg laying inhibition and larval mortality was analyzed using the GLM procedure in SAS. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the effect of PEG on LIT results. Calculation of the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) was performed using a probit analysis. All extracts reduced the viability of R. microplus larval stages (P<0.001), and viability was restored with the addition of PEG suggesting an important role of tannins in the acaricidal effect (P<0.001). The LC50 values of L. latisiliquum and P. piscipula plant extracts were 6.402 and 2.466 ?g ml(-1). None of the tannin-rich plant extracts affected adult mortality (P>0.05). Lysiloma latisiliquum extract inhibited egg hatching of R. microplus (P<0.01). Tannin-rich plant extracts from A. pennatula, P. piscipula, L. leucocephala and L. latisiliquum showed potential acaricidal activity. Further in vivo studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:20947253

Fernández-Salas, A; Alonso-Díaz, M A; Acosta-Rodríguez, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I

2011-01-10

68

Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies  

PubMed Central

The recent article by Mohammed et al. demonstrates an impressive effect of ivermectin mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on the burden of scabies. Partnering scabies research within the evaluation and monitoring of Neglected Tropical Disease programmes could potentially increase our understanding of the epidemiology and control of scabies and its important bacterial complications.

2013-01-01

69

Characterization of Streptomyces scabies mutants deficient in melanin biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Streptomyces scabies, a causal agent of common scab, produces both melanin and a secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A. To establish a possible relation between melanin and thaxtomin A production in S. scabies, we carried out N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis and isolated 11 melanin-negative mutants of S. scabies EF-35. These mutants were characterized for thaxtomin A production, pathogenicity, sporulation, and stress resistance. Nine of these mutants showed a significant reduction in thaxtomin A production when compared with the wild strain. However, only a few mutants exhibited a reduced level of virulence or a loss in their ability to induce common scab symptoms on potato tubers. Other pleiotrophic effects, such as higher sensitivity to heavy metals and incapacity to sporulate under certain stress conditions, were also associated with a deficiency in melanin production. PMID:15644924

Beauséjour, Julie; Beaulieu, Carole

2004-09-01

70

High Burden of Impetigo and Scabies in a Tropical Country  

PubMed Central

Background Impetigo and scabies are endemic diseases in many tropical countries; however the epidemiology of these diseases is poorly understood in many areas, particularly in the Pacific. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted three epidemiological studies in 2006 and 2007 to determine the burden of disease due to impetigo and scabies in children in Fiji using simple and easily reproducible methodology. Two studies were performed in primary school children (one study was a cross-sectional study and the other a prospective cohort study over ten months) and one study was performed in infants (cross-sectional). The prevalence of active impetigo was 25.6% (95% CI 24.1–27.1) in primary school children and 12.2% (95% CI 9.3–15.6) in infants. The prevalence of scabies was 18.5% (95% CI 17.2–19.8) in primary school children and 14.0% (95% CI 10.8–17.2) in infants. The incidence density of active impetigo, group A streptococcal (GAS) impetigo, Staphylococcus aureus impetigo and scabies was 122, 80, 64 and 51 cases per 100 child-years respectively. Impetigo was strongly associated with scabies infestation (odds ratio, OR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.6–3.7) and was more common in Indigenous Fijian children when compared with children of other ethnicities (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.7–4.7). The majority of cases of active impetigo in the children in our study were caused by GAS. S. aureus was also a common cause (57.4% in school aged children and 69% in infants). Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that the impetigo and scabies disease burden in children in Fiji has been underestimated, and possibly other tropical developing countries in the Pacific. These diseases are more than benign nuisance diseases and consideration needs to be given to expanded public health initiatives to improve their control.

Steer, Andrew C.; Jenney, Adam W. J.; Kado, Joseph; Batzloff, Michael R.; La Vincente, Sophie; Waqatakirewa, Lepani; Mulholland, E. Kim; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

2009-01-01

71

Pseudouremic pruritus: a scabies epidemic in a dialysis unit.  

PubMed

A scabies epidemic was studied in a university hospital dialysis unit. Itching in patients was initially attributed to uremic pruritus, and diagnosis of the epidemic was delayed until cases occurred among the staff. Sixteen cases (seven patients and nine staff) were identified by survey questionnaire and dermatologic examination. Application of 1% lindane lotion (Kwell, Reed and Carnrick, Piscataway, NJ) to all patients dialyzed in the unit and the entire staff eradicated the epidemic. A dialysis unit-associated nosocomial scabies epidemic has not been reported before and may mimic uremic pruritus in dialysis patients. PMID:2578731

Lempert, K D; Baltz, P S; Welton, W A; Whittier, F C

1985-02-01

72

The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.  

PubMed

The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. PMID:20304561

Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

2010-05-11

73

Acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of camomile flowers, Matricaria chamomilla, against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi.  

PubMed

Arcaricidal properties of decoctions, infusions and macerates of dried flower heads of camomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in vitro against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi Delafond (Parasitiformes: Psoroptidae). This mite species is responsible for otoacariasis in domestic animals. Mites were exposed to the extracts for 24, 48 or 72 h. All the extracts tested showed highly significant acaricidal activity when compared with controls. Among them, a decoction of 10% was the only formulation which gave 100% activity at all the three observations times. PMID:15189247

Macchioni, F; Perrucci, S; Cecchi, F; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I; Pampiglione, S

2004-06-01

74

Scabies presenting with bullous pemphigoid-like lesions.  

PubMed

A wide range of clinical manifestations may be seen in scabies, from classic pruritic papules and burrows to secondary features such as impetigo. Bullus lesions are a less frequent. Twenty cases of scabies presenting with bullae have been reported so far in the medical literature. Differentiating this subtype of scabies from the immunobullous disease bullus pemphigoid is a diagnostic challenge. A 42-year-old man was referred to our dermatology outpatient clinic with 3-month history of severe pruritus and tense blisters affecting mainly the lower trunk, arms and legs. An initial biopsy was suggestive for bullous pemphigoid. Close physical examination revealed small excoriated papules and a few burrows on borders of the hands and wrists. Skin scraping of the lesions on wrists was positive for Sarcoptes scabiei. Another biopsy specimen from a recent blister revealed subepidermal bullae with fibrin and inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils. Direct immunofluorescence exam was negative. The patient was treated with lindane lotion followed by crotamiton cream with near complete resolution of the lesions. Scabies must be considered in patients presenting with recent onset of unexplained pruritic bullous lesions. Biopsy and immunofluorescence studies together with skin scrapings for Sarcoptes scabiei could help to differentiate these cases from bullous pemphigoid. Antiscabietic treatment results in resolution of bullous lesions in the affected patients. PMID:16638387

Ansarin, Habib; Jalali, Mir Hadi Aziz; Mazloomi, Shadi; Soltani-Arabshahi, Razieh; Setarehshenas, Roya

2006-01-01

75

[Treatment of scabies with special consideration of the approach in infancy, pregnancy and while nursing].  

PubMed

Infestation of human skin with scabies mites remains an persistent problem in daily dermatological practice. There are several therapeutic regiments against scabies which have been proven effective and without major side effects. Because of known neurotoxicity of lindane as well as intoxication/problems following systemic absorption of benzyl alcohol (the metabolite of benzyl benzoate), these two compounds have to be considered with caution in early childhood scabies as well as during pregnancy and nursing. The pharmacology and spectrum of clinical side effects of the approved anti-scabies preparations (lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton) as well as permethrin (not available in Germany) are reviewed. PMID:10663033

Fölster-Holst, R; Rufli, T; Christophers, E

2000-01-01

76

Prevalence of scabies and head lice among children in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

This is a survey of 120 children for scabies and head lice infestations in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang. Children from this welfare home (Rumah Kanak-Kanak Taman Bakti, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) were randomly selected. Majority of them were Malays (72.5%) and the rest were Indians. The infestation rates were highest in the 10-12 years age group with 46% and 70% for scabies and head lice respectively. Head lice was more commonly seen in girls (65%) than boys (29%). Scabies was more commonly seen in boys (50%) than girls (16%). Overall prevalence rate for scabies was 31% and for head lice infestation was 49%. PMID:21399584

Muhammad Zayyid, M; Saidatul Saadah, R; Adil, A R; Rohela, M; Jamaiah, I

2010-12-01

77

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa in association with scabies mite.  

PubMed

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a form of perforating dermatoses, which has a characteristic clinical presentation of grouped keratotic papules coalescing into serpiginous or annular configurations. The majority of elastosis perforans serpiginosa cases are idiopathic; however, various etiologies have been postulated for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The authors present a unique case of elastosis perforans serpiginosa that developed focally secondary to a scabies mite. PMID:24155992

Kassardjian, Michael; Frederickson, Julie; Griffith, Jack; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

2013-10-01

78

Treatment of scabies, permethrin 5% cream vs. crotamiton 10% cream.  

PubMed

Scabies is one of the three most common skin disorders in children, along with tinea and pyoderma. The treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of permethrin 5% cream vs. crotamiton 10% cream in the treatment of scabies. In total, 350 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups. The first group received permethrin 5% cream on two occasions with a one-week interval, while the second group received topical crotamiton 10% cream and were told to apply this twice daily for five consecutive days. The treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and the treatment was repeated if treatment failure was found at the 2-week follow-up. Two applications of permethrin 5 % cream provided a cure rate of 70% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 85% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of crotamiton 10% cream was effective in 45% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 65% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Two applications of permethrin 5% cream was as effective as single applications of crotamiton 10% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, permethrin 5 % cream was superior to crotamiton 10% cream at the 4-week follow up. PMID:24881286

Pourhasan, Abolfazl; Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham

2013-01-01

79

An outbreak of lindane-resistant scabies treated successfully with permethrin 5% cream.  

PubMed

An outbreak of scabies in 12 persons, after contact with a hospitalized patient with lindane-resistant Norwegian scabies, is described. Resistance to treatment was documented in 7 of 10 patients treated with lindane. Of these, one responded to crotamiton 10% cream, and the remaining six were cured by a single treatment with permethrin 5% cream. PMID:1725779

Purvis, R S; Tyring, S K

1991-12-01

80

Unusual Laboratory Findings in a Case of Norwegian Scabies Provided a Clue to Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of Norwegian scabies was missed for a year for an elderly long-term-care facility resident. Serpiginous tracks were noted on the surface of Sabouraud dextrose agar used for fungal culture of the skin scrapings. This unusual laboratory manifestation must alert clinical microbiologists to the possible diagnosis of scabies.

Wong, Samson S. Y.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-yung

2005-01-01

81

[Parasitophobic patient suffering from scabies treated with ivermectin--a case report].  

PubMed

We present a case of an atypical, difficult to diagnose crusted scabies caused by the invasion of non-human parasite (probably horse scabies Psoroptes equi) treated successfully by a rarely used in Europe antiparasitic agent-ivermectin. This inconvenient parasitemia additionally triggered parasitophobia--all of that together complicates the approach. PMID:17702448

Borkowski, Piotr Karol

2007-01-01

82

Crusted scabies and tinea corporis after treatment of presumed bullous pemphigoid.  

PubMed

We report a case of scabies that immunohistochemically mimicked bullous pemphigoid (BP) in an 82-year-old woman who presented with intractable pruritus. Bullous pemphigoid initially was diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF), though no blisters were clinically present. Subsequent immunosuppressive therapy for treatment of presumed BP led to the development of crusted scabies and widespread tinea corporis. PMID:24195092

Hylwa, Sara A; Loss, Lesley; Grassi, Marcelle

2013-10-01

83

Treatment of 18 children with scabies or cutaneous larva migrans using ivermectin.  

PubMed

In addition to onchocerciasis and other filarial diseases, ivermectin has been used for the treatment of scabies, head lice, larva migrans and gnathostomiasis. However, there is concern regarding the safety of its use in children under 5 years of age or weighing less than 15 kg. We present our experience in 18 children (aged 14 months to 17 years), with scabies or cutaneous larva migrans successfully treated with ivermectin. They included four cases of crusted scabies associated with immunosuppression and seven cases of common scabies four of whom had associated clinical mental retardation, immunosuppression or hypomobility. A further seven patients had cutaneous larva migrans. Fifteen patients were cured with a single dose of ivermectin, and three patients with crusted scabies required a second dose. None of our patients suffered significant adverse effects. We believe that ivermectin is a safe and effective alternative treatment of cutaneous parasitosis in children. PMID:12139665

del Mar Sáez-De-Ocariz, M; McKinster, C Durán; Orozco-Covarrubias, L; Tamayo-Sánchez, L; Ruiz-Maldonado, R

2002-06-01

84

Toxicity of three acaricides to Tetranychus urticae (Tetranychidae: Acari) and Orius insidiosus (Anthocoridae: Hemiptera).  

PubMed

Management for twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, populations in peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., relies on acaricides. The outcomes of acaricide applications are most predictable when complete information on their toxicity and specificity is available. Specifically, the degrees to which acaricides impact different stages of T. urticae and natural enemies combined determine the overall efficacy of an acaricide application. The objectives of this study were to determine stage-specific direct and residual efficacies of three acaricides (fenpropathrin, etoxazole, and propargite) against T. urticae, and the direct and residual toxicity of the acaricides to Orius insidiosus (Say) adults. Direct toxicity of acaricides to T. urticae was measured on peanut cuttings. All acaricide treatments caused significant mortality to a mixed stage population of T. urticae, and mortality did not differ among the acaricides 7 d after treatment. When toxicity to eggs was tested, the proportion of eggs that hatched for all acaricide treatments was significantly lower than the control, with etoxazole and propargite causing 100% mortality. Exposure to acaricide residues caused < 30% mortality of T. urticae adults 1 and 2 d after treatment and was not significantly different from the control. Fenpropathrin and propargite caused 100% mortality and etoxazole caused > 50% mortality of O. insidious adults after direct exposure to the acaricides. Residual toxicity of acaricides to O. insidiosus adults varied but remained toxic to O. insidiosus longer than to T. urticae. Fenpropathrin had the longest residual effect on O. insidiosus adults, causing > 95% mortality after 14 d; etoxazole and propargite caused < 30% mortality after 14 d. PMID:16573323

Ashley, Janet L; Herbert, D Ames; Lewis, Edwin E; Brewster, Carlyle C; Huckaba, Randy

2006-02-01

85

Effect of owner-controlled acaricidal treatment on tick infestation and immune response to tick-borne pathogens in naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria  

PubMed Central

Background Tick-borne infections resulting from regular tick infestation in dogs are a common veterinary health problem all over the world. The application of repellent and acaricidal agents to prevent transmission of pathogens is a major protection strategy and has been proven to be highly effective in several trials under laboratory and natural conditions in dogs. Despite such promising results, many dog owners still report tick infestation in their dogs although acaricidal agents are used. Information about the current infection status and changes of the infection status regarding tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs treated by the owner’s controlled acaricide application is lacking. Methods In this study 30 dogs were each treated with permethrin, fipronil + S-methoprene, or served as untreated controls. Application of the acaricide was performed by the owner who decided when and how often to use the spot on preparation. Over a period of 11 months, dogs were clinically examined and sampled for antibody responses against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., and TBE virus before the study started, 6 months later and at the end of the investigation period. Results The permethrin acaricide was applied on average 3.40 times within the examination period, whereas the fipronil + S-methoprene medication was applied 3.03 times. Approximately 2/3 of all dogs, independent of the group, had a positive immune response to one or more pathogens. Three dogs developed clinical symptoms of canine babesiosis, all other dogs remained healthy. Individual number of ticks per dog or number of infections per dog did not correlate with the application rate, and the number of ticks per dog did not influence the number of infections per dog. As owners did not apply the acaricides regularly no influence on the number of infections could be documented although the number of ticks was clearly reduced by the application of the spot-on drugs. Conclusions Clinical disease in dogs exposed to tick-borne pathogens is rare, although a humoral immune response reflecting infection is common. More educational training for dog owners is necessary to make the application of acaricides effective regarding the prevention of tick-borne diseases.

2013-01-01

86

Isolation and identification of acaricidal compounds in Eupatorium adenophorum petroleum ether extract and determination of their acaricidal activity against Psoroptes cuniculi.  

PubMed

We used multiple silica gel column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography coupled with (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR to separate and identify the active acaricidal ingredients in Eupatorium adenophorum petroleum ether extract. The acaricidal activity of each compound was tested against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. Three compounds had strong acaricidal activity against P. cuniculi in vitro. The insecticidal effect of 0.5% compound 9?-hydroxy-ageraphorone was better than the insecticidal effect of fenvalerate, and compounds 9-oxo-ageraphorone and 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone exhibited higher insecticidal effects than 9?-hydroxy-ageraphorone. Thus, the E. adenophorum petroleum ether extract contains an effective composition of acaricides that could potentially be developed as a promising plant-origin acaricide. PMID:24569033

Nong, Xiang; Li, Shu-Hua; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Wang, Jia-Hai; Xie, Yue; Fang, Chun-Lin; Liu, Tian-Fei; He, Ran; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

2014-06-16

87

[Clinical study of scabies. The changes in the modes of transmission, and its diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Scabies has become a common disease, not sexually transmitted but transmitted in households. Although it is also known to cause an epidemic in hospitals for the aged patients or residential homes, no effective treatment was taken for it at the present time. From January 1985 to December 1992, 424 patients with scabies (249 males and 175 females) visited the Dermatological clinic of Nippon Medical School Main Hospital. In these cases, only 13 patients (3.1%) were recognized as having STD. The sources of infestation were unclear in most cases where the disease was transmitted in households, which account for 38.5% of the patients. In 68 cases (16.0%), outbreaks of scabies in hospitals and residential homes affected the patients as well as the staffs and their families. The number of scabies cases which were infested in hospitals is increasing yearly. It is speculated that the hospitals for the aged patients and residential homes are becoming the main source of scabietic infestation. Only 16.6% of the patients were previously diagnosed or suspected to have scabies by their family doctors. It seems that the diagnosis of scabies is extremely difficult for the general practitioner. A considerable number of the patients who had been diagnosed or suspected to have scabies changed their doctor or stop visiting them. This is because an appropriate treatment is not available in most of medical facilities. At the time of the first visit to our clinic, 93.6% of the patients was diagnosed or suspected to have scabies, and the mite was demonstrated in 63.2% of the patients. It is suggested that careful inspection of scabietic burrows and the skillful technique to demonstrate the mite are essential to establish the diagnosis of scabies. Atopic dermatitis was the most common diagnosis of the patients who were misdiagnosed at the first time and later turned out to have scabies. These patients did have atopic dermatitis besides scabies. After the treatment with benzyl benzoate with crotamiton, 70.3% of the patients were cured and up to 94.9% of the patients were over improved. We compared the therapeutic effect of phenothrin to that of benzyl benzoate. Benzyl benzoate had more antipruritic effect and a little more improvement of skin lesion than phenothrin. However, there was no significant difference between benzyl benzoate and phenothrin in the period of time until the skin lesion cleared. Phenothrin is considered to have an adequate therapeutic effect for scabies. PMID:7829652

Fujimoto, K

1994-11-01

88

Scabies in a 2-month-old Infant Successfully Treated with Lindane  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of scabies in young children can be challenging since the morphology and distribution of skin lesions may differ from adults. Therefore, clinicians should keep scabies in mind in their differential diagnosis in a child who presents with severe pruritic, polymorphic skin lesions. Regarding the treatment of scabies, the reported clinical experience with gamma benzene hexachloride (lindane) in young children is quite limited because of its neurotoxicity. However, a recent review suggests that lindane is an excellent alternative drug with minimal risk. We report the case of a 2-month-old male infant with pruritic, erythematous macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and pustules from the top of the head to the tip of the toes. Initially, he was thought to have impetigo and antibiotics were prescribed. After obtaining a careful history and with the use of skin scraping, he was diagnosed with scabies. He was successfully treated with lindane with no adverse reactions.

Jin, Seon Pil; Choi, Ji Eun; Won, Chong-Hyun

2009-01-01

89

Community control of scabies: a model based on use of permethrin cream.  

PubMed

For 18 years treatment with lindane or crotamiton products has failed to stem the epidemic of scabies among the Kuna Indians in the San Blas islands of the Republic of Panama. Permethrin 5% cream was introduced as the only treatment in a programme to control scabies on an island of 756 inhabitants and involving workers recruited locally. Prevalence fell from 33% to less than 1% after every person was treated. As long as continued surveillance and treatment of newly introduced cases was maintained, prevalence of scabies remained below 1.5% for over 3 years. When supply of medication was interrupted for 3 weeks, prevalence rose to 3.6%. When control was lost after the US invasion of Panama, prevalence rose to 12% within 3 months. Bacterial skin infections decreased dramatically when scabies was controlled. Permethrin is safe and effective even in areas where this disease has become resistant to lindane. PMID:1673175

Taplin, D; Porcelain, S L; Meinking, T L; Athey, R L; Chen, J A; Castillero, P M; Sanchez, R

1991-04-27

90

Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in preschool nursery children of Afyon, Turkey.  

PubMed

Scabies and pediculosis are ubiquitous, contagious, and debilitating parasitic dermatoses. The tendency of high prevalence of pediculosis and scabies among school and preschool age children has prompted us to conduct a head louse and scabies prevalence survey among preschool nursery children in our district. A school-based, crosssectional study was performed, with 1,134 children chosen for evaluation. All cases were evaluated by physical examination and a detailed, structured questionnaire. The infestation was found in 14 (1.2%) of 1,134 children; 9 (0.8%) with pediculosis capitis and 5 (0.4%) with scabies. We found that infestations were more frequent in children with mothers whose education levels were low. This indicates the necessity of an improvement in the economic and sociocultural status of the community and the promotion of hygiene concepts and practices in order to improve health of preschool age children. PMID:16514290

Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki; Karaca, Semsettin; Dogru, Omer; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Kulac, Mustafa

2006-03-01

91

Scabies in a 2-month-old Infant Successfully Treated with Lindane.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of scabies in young children can be challenging since the morphology and distribution of skin lesions may differ from adults. Therefore, clinicians should keep scabies in mind in their differential diagnosis in a child who presents with severe pruritic, polymorphic skin lesions. Regarding the treatment of scabies, the reported clinical experience with gamma benzene hexachloride (lindane) in young children is quite limited because of its neurotoxicity. However, a recent review suggests that lindane is an excellent alternative drug with minimal risk. We report the case of a 2-month-old male infant with pruritic, erythematous macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and pustules from the top of the head to the tip of the toes. Initially, he was thought to have impetigo and antibiotics were prescribed. After obtaining a careful history and with the use of skin scraping, he was diagnosed with scabies. He was successfully treated with lindane with no adverse reactions. PMID:20523787

Jin, Seon Pil; Choi, Ji Eun; Won, Chong-Hyun; Cho, Soyun

2009-05-01

92

Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity.

Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

2007-01-01

93

Crossreacting IgG antibodies against fox mite antigens in human scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies continues to be an important parasitic disease of mammals. There remain, however, major gaps in the understanding of the human host immune response, and a simple diagnostic test is lacking. In contrast to human mites, red fox mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpis) can be collected easily and have been used, due to crossreactivity, for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies in dogs and pigs. We wanted to investigate the possibility that crossreactivity might also exist for the human mite, and determined titers against fox mite antigens by ELISA in 41 patients with scabies. Specific IgG was significantly higher in patients with scabies than in healthy controls (P=0.01). The sensitivity was, however, only 48%, although it increased slightly during treatment (P=0.86). A positive correlation was also noted between disease duration and severity of infestation (r=0.5), with specific IgG titers increasing in parallel with severity of symptoms (P=0.01). Patients with symptomatic scabies for more than 4 weeks had furthermore significantly higher IgG titers than patients with a shorter duration of disease (P=0.007). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate IgG antibodies in human scabies that crossreact with fox mite antigens, thus encouraging the search for improved ELISAs with more specific mite antigens to produce a more sensitive detection system for scabies in humans. PMID:15650895

Haas, N; Wagemann, B; Hermes, B; Henz, B M; Heile, C; Schein, E

2005-01-01

94

An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules  

PubMed Central

Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival.

Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

2013-01-01

95

Systemic amyloidosis: unusual presentation mistaken for a recurrent scabies infection.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with a history of undifferentiated connective-tissue disease, polyarthritis, and bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome who presented with generalized pruritus and erythematous and excoriated papules on the trunk and extremities. Empiric scabies treatment was unsuccessful. Patch testing and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies were unremarkable. The patient was found to have mild interstitial lung disease and hypogammaglobulinemia. Eventually a diagnosis of primary systemic amyloidosis was made after she developed frank lingual hypertrophy despite normal initial serum protein electrophoresis and negative abdominal fat pad aspiration. Diagnosis was confirmed with lingual biopsy. This case demonstrates an unusual presentation of primary systemic amyloidosis consisting of arthritis and intense debilitating pruritus without primary skin lesions for a full year prior to diagnosis of multiple myeloma. The patient responded to treatment with chemotherapy and corticosteroids. PMID:24999644

Haley, Erin M; Nabatian, Adam S; Kopp, Sandra A; Falasca, Gerald F; Haupt, Helen M; Halpern, Analisa V

2014-06-01

96

An in vitro feeding assay to test acaricides for control of hard ticks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal husbandry could notbe practisedoverlarge areasofthe planet without acaricides.Theprevention of tick bite and the transmission of diseases requires the use of pesticides, but this contributes to the development of tick resistance against acaricides. This drives the quest for new molecules that target physiological processes crucial to tick survival. In vivo trials involve multiple repetitions because of inherent variations between host

Thomas Kr; Patrick M Guerin

2009-01-01

97

Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).  

PubMed

Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects. PMID:22508399

Do?an, Nesli; Yaz?c?, Zehra; ?i?man, Turgay; A?kin, Hakan

2013-09-01

98

GENETICALLY DISTINCT DOG-DERIVED AND HUMAN-DERIVED SARCOPTES SCABIEI IN SCABIES-ENDEMIC COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Overcrowding is a significant factor contributing to endemic infection with Sarcoptes scabiei in human and animal populations. However, since scabies mites from different host species are indistinguishable morphologi- cally, it is unclear whether people can be infected from scabies-infested animals. Molecular fingerprinting was done using three S. scabiei-specific single locus hypervariable microsatellite markers, with a combined total of 70

Shelley F. Walton; Jodie Low Choy; Annie Bonson; Antony Valle; James M Cbroom; David Taplin; Larry Arlian; John D. Mathews; Bart Currie; David J. Kemp

99

[Nosocomial infection of scabies in national hospitals and sanatoria in Japan].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate cases of nosocomial infection of scabies in the national hospitals in Japan. Questionnaires sent to 183 hospitals and sanatoria were returned by 93. Fifty-three cases in 24 institutions of nosocomial infection were reported in the past 5 years. No nosocomial infection was reported from 7 sanatoria for Hansen's diseases where the patients were relatively older and had higher ADL scores. It took 7.5 weeks on the average to eliminate nosocomial infection and more than 8 weeks were required to control them in the hospitals where more than 10 cases had occurred. Benzyl benzoate, gamma benzene hexachloride, and Pyrethroids, which were not approved as drugs for the treatment of scabies in Japan, were used in the all institutions where nosocomial infection occurred except for one institution. Problems to be solved were as follows; (1) delay of diagnosis and treatment, (2) lack of nursing staff, (3) difficulties of complete isolation due to lack of spaces, inability of patients to understand the need for isolation and also the psychological instability of the isolated patients, (4) recurrence due to the use of ineffective drugs, (5) insufficient information about the prevalence of scabies in the previous institutions, (6) misdiagnosis of non-scabies patients with itchy skin rash as the scabies, (7) inconsisitent care due to poor evaluation of skin lesions. PMID:15387285

Yamamoto, Tomoko; Miura, Hisayuki; Nakashima, Kazumitsu

2004-07-01

100

Successful use of ivermectin in the treatment of endemic scabies in a nursing home.  

PubMed

Ivermectin, an antiparasitic agent, was successfully used as a sole agent to combat endemic scabies in a closed 33-bed ward of a rural nursing home. Previous topical therapies, including multiple applications of permethrin, gamma-benzene hexachloride, benzyl benzoate and precipitated sulfur in white soft paraffin, had failed. Several patients exhibited hyperkeratotic crusted scabies with head and neck involvement and all residents except one recently arrived resident had evidence of active infestation. All residents were treated with 200 micrograms/kg of ivermectin and this dose was repeated 2 weeks later in all subjects. Four weeks after the first dose of ivermectin there was no evidence of active scabies and all rashes were totally resolved by 6 weeks. The action of ivermectin, its safety and its indications are discussed. PMID:9293660

Sullivan, J R; Watt, G; Barker, B

1997-08-01

101

Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases. PMID:21268539

Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

2010-12-01

102

A Novel Clinical Grading Scale to Guide the Management of Crusted Scabies  

PubMed Central

Background Crusted scabies, or hyperinfestation with Sarcoptes scabiei, occurs in people with an inadequate immune response to the mite. In recent decades, data have emerged suggesting that treatment of crusted scabies with oral ivermectin combined with topical agents leads to lower mortality, but there are no generally accepted tools for describing disease severity. Here, we describe a clinical grading scale for crusted scabies and its utility in real world practice. Methodology/Principal Findings In 2002, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH), a hospital in tropical Australia developed and began using a clinical grading scale to guide the treatment of crusted scabies. We conducted a retrospective observational study including all episodes of admission to RDH for crusted scabies during the period October 2002–December 2010 inclusive. Patients who were managed according to the grading scale were compared with those in whom the scale was not used at the time of admission but was calculated retrospectively. There were 49 admissions in 30 patients during the study period, of which 49 (100%) were in Indigenous Australians, 29 (59%) were male and the median age was 44.1 years. According to the grading scale, 8 (16%) episodes were mild, 24 (49%) were moderate, and 17 (35%) were severe. Readmission within the study period was significantly more likely with increasing disease severity, with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 12.8 (1.3–130) for severe disease compared with mild. The patients managed according to the grading scale (29 episodes) did not differ from those who were not (20 episodes), but they received fewer doses of ivermectin and had a shorter length of stay (11 vs. 16 days, p?=?0.02). Despite this the outcomes were no different, with no deaths in either group and a similar readmission rate. Conclusions/Significance Our grading scale is a useful tool for the assessment and management of crusted scabies.

Tong, Steven Y. C.; Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

2013-01-01

103

Topically applied myco-acaricides for the control of cattle ticks: overcoming the challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of commercially viable and environmentally friendly options, the management of cattle ticks is heavily dependent\\u000a on the use of chemical acaricides. Due to recent advances in production, formulation and application technology, commercial\\u000a fungus-based biological pesticides (myco-insecticides, myco-acaricides) are becoming increasingly popular for the control\\u000a of plant pests; however, they have not been used against animal ectoparasites. The

Perry Polar; Dave Moore; Moses T. K. Kairo; Adash Ramsubhag

2008-01-01

104

Beauveria bassiana: Synergistic effect with acaricides against the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the need to combat the spread of chemical acaricide resistance in ticks, we evaluated the efficacy of a mixture of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana AT17 and acaricides for the control of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in China. A mixture of B. bassiana AT17 at the concentration of 108conidia\\/mL and the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin at concentrations of 2500, 250,

Ming Sun; Qiaoyun Ren; Zhijie Liu; Guiquan Guan; Huitian Gou; Miling Ma; Youquan Li; Aihong Liu; Jifei Yang; Hong Yin; Jianxun Luo

2011-01-01

105

Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under ?(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. PMID:23084038

Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

2013-02-18

106

Oral ivermectin in scabies patients: a comparison with 1% topical lindane lotion.  

PubMed

Scabies. which constitutes a significant proportion of the outpatient attendance in tropical dermatology clinics, has so far been treated with lindane, crotamiton, sulphur, permethrin, etc. Ivermectin, an orally administered drug, was tried in scabies patients and compared with 1% topical lindane lotion to evaluate its effects and toxicity profile. Two hundred scabies patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. One group received oral invermectin in a single dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight. The other received 1% lindane lotion for topical application overnight. Patients were assessed after 48 hours, two weeks and four weeks. After a period of four weeks, 82.6% of the patients in the ivermectin group showed marked improvement; only 44.44% of the patients in the lindance group showed a similar response. A side effects in the form of severe headache were noted in one patient in group A. Oral ivermectin is an easy drug to administer. It is given as a single oral dose, unlike lindane, which has to be applied topically. The compliance is accordingly increased. Moreover, ivermectin induces an early and effective improvement in signs and symptoms. Thus, it may be a better option for scabies than the traditional topical linlane lotion. PMID:11603388

Madan, V; Jaskiran, K; Gupta, U; Gupta, D K

2001-09-01

107

[Statistical studies on scabies at Division of Dermatology, Urakawa Red Cross Hospital].  

PubMed

Scabies is a relatively common skin disease caused by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Because of its strong contagious capacity, social problems especially as sexual transmission or massive infection in school children arise quite frequently. Since we have experienced many scabies patients in our outpatient clinic of Urakawa Red Cross Hospital, statistical analysis was attempted on patients from April 1976 to March 1987, in order to contribute to prevention and control of the disease. Results have been obtained as follows: (1) The total number of scabies patients was 496 that is 1.96% of the total number of new outpatients seen in this period. (2) Sex ratio was 1.33 (male): 1 (female), slightly higher in male. (3) As to the age distribution, the highest peak was 3rd decade of life. (4) Compared with previous reports, the ratio of children and elders was remarkably high. (5) Massive infection was observed in one nursing home and one hospital. (6) As to the seasonal distribution, the number of patients was high from October to March, and the highest peak was November. (7) We compared three kinds of scabies and discussed about the useful effect of gamma-BHC in the cure and prevention of the disease, comparing with crotamiton and benzyl benzoate. PMID:2471682

Sato, H; Kobayashi, H; Tsukinaga, I; Ando, M; Ohkawara, A

1989-03-01

108

Treatment for crusted scabies: limitations and side effects of treatment with ivermectin.  

PubMed

Skin eruption with mild itching of the hands and feet developed in a man in his 90s 1 month after he was hospitalized following a traffic accident. Scabies was diagnosed in an attending nurse 3 months after the patient's hospitalization, and infection from the patient was suspected. Cornification of the patient's soles and marked hypertrophy of the nails of both feet were observed. After a large number of scabies mites were detected on microscopic examination, crusted scabies was diagnosed. The patient was given oral ivermectin, 6 mg, once per week for 3 weeks, and crotamiton topical ointment containing 30% benzyl benzoate was applied on the body from the neck down. However, because a large number of scabies mites were detected again on microscopic examination, the dose of ivermectin was increased to 12 mg and administered 3 times. One week after the sixth dose of ivermectin was administered, hemorrhagic scabs around the mouth and erosion of the tongue developed. Mucosal drug eruption was suspected, and eruptions around the mouth and on the tongue resolved within 1 week after ivermectin being discontinued. 1% gamma-benzene hexachloride ointment was applied topically on the body from the neck down once a week, crotamiton ointment containing benzyl benzoate was applied daily, and the hypertrophic parts of the nails were removed. The patient subsequently achieved a full recovery. PMID:24998962

Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Kawasaki, Yushi; Morimoto, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Izumi; Kawana, Seiji

2014-01-01

109

A comparative study of oral ivermectin and topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The conventional antiscabietics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. Objective: This study compares the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin cream in the treatment of scabies. Methods: Eighty-five consecutive patients were randomized into 2 groups. Forty patients and their family contacts received

V. Usha; T. V. Gopalakrishnan Nair

2000-01-01

110

Thaxtomin A Production and Virulence Are Controlled by Several bld Gene Global Regulators in Streptomyces scabies.  

PubMed

Streptomyces scabies is the main causative agent of common scab disease, which leads to significant annual losses to potato growers worldwide. The main virulence factor produced by S. scabies is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A, which functions as a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. Thaxtomin A production is controlled by the cluster-situated regulator TxtR, which activates expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes in response to cello-oligosaccharides. Here, we demonstrate that at least five additional regulatory genes are required for wild-type levels of thaxtomin A production and plant pathogenicity in S. scabies. These regulatory genes belong to the bld gene family of global regulators that control secondary metabolism or morphological differentiation in Streptomyces spp. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of the thaxtomin biosynthetic genes was significantly downregulated in all five bld mutants and, in four of these mutants, this downregulation was attributed to the reduction in expression of txtR. Furthermore, all of the mutants displayed reduced expression of other known or predicted virulence genes, suggesting that the bld genes may function as global regulators of virulence gene expression in S. scabies. PMID:24678834

Bignell, Dawn R D; Francis, Isolde M; Fyans, Joanna K; Loria, Rosemary

2014-08-01

111

Comparison of oral ivermectin versus crotamiton 10% cream in the treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Scabies is a relatively contagious infection caused by a tiny mite (Sarcoptes scabiei). Products used to treat scabies are called scabicides because they kill scabies mites; some also kill mite eggs. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin versus crotamiton 10% cream for the treatment of scabies. Methods: In total, 320 patients with scabies were enrolled, and were randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200?µg/kg body weight, and the second group were treated with crotamiton 10% cream and were told to apply this twice daily for five consecutive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of two and four weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the two-week follow-up, the treatment was repeated. Results: A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 62.5% at the two-week follow-up, which increased to 87.5% at the four-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with crotamiton 10% cream was effective in 46.8% of patients at the two-week follow-up, which increased to 62.5% at the four-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Conclusion: A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as one application of crotamiton 10% cream at the two-week follow-up. After repeat treatment, ivermectin was superior to crotamiton 10% cream at the four-week follow up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:23431958

Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin

2013-02-25

112

Crusted scabies in an adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma patient successfully treated with oral ivermectin.  

PubMed

We report an adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) patient whose crusted scabies was successfully treated with oral ivermectin. This 63-year-old man had previously been treated with oral prednisolone, sobuzoxane and etoposide for approximately 1 year. When he developed crusted scabies, he received two doses of oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg) 10 days apart and the concomitant topical application of crotamiton containing 30% benzyl benzoate. This produced remarkable results, suggesting that oral ivermectin should be considered for the treatment of crusted scabies even in immunocompromised patients. While ivermectin may be useful for treating intractable scabies, attention must be paid to the possible appearance of ivermectin-resistant mites. PMID:16556285

Yonekura, Kentaro; Kanekura, Takuro; Kanzaki, Tamotsu; Utsunomiya, Atae

2006-02-01

113

Identification of a protein-binding sequence involved in expression of an esterase gene from Streptomyces scabies.  

PubMed Central

Expression of an esterase gene from Streptomyces scabies is regulated by zinc in both Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces lividans. A specific protein-binding site was identified on an esterase promoter fragment by using an S-30 extract from S. scabies. The location of the protein-binding site was determined by gel shift assays of promoter deletion fragments and by DNase I footprinting analysis. The protein-binding site maps from nucleotides -59 to -81 relative to the start of transcription. An esterase gene construct cloned and expressed in S. lividans was used to assess the importance of the protein-binding site. Deletion of the 23-bp protein-binding site resulted in a 10-fold decrease in esterase production when cells were grown in zinc-inducing conditions. The protein-binding site may represent a region involved in positive regulation of the S. scabies esterase gene. Images

Babcock, M J; McGrew, M; Schottel, J L

1992-01-01

114

Acaricidal effect of an isolate from Hoslundia opposita vahl against Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Hoslundia opposita Vahl. (Lamiaceae), a common local shrub in Ghana, is traditionally known not only for its pharmacological benefits but also for its insecticidal properties. Its acaricidal property, however, has not been investigated. Objective: To test the acaricidal effects of the crude extract and fractions of H. opposita leaves as well as to isolate and characterize the acaricidal principles. Materials and Methods: The crude methanolic extract, pet. ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of the leaves of H. opposita were tested against the larvae of the cattle tick, Amblyomma variegatum, using the Larval Packet Test. A bioassay-guided isolation was carried out to identify the acaricidal principle obtained from the ethyl acetate fraction. Results: The active principle was characterised as ursolic acid, a triterpene previously isolated from the leaves of the same plant. The extract and fractions were less potent than the control, malathion (LC50 1.14 × 10-4 mg/ml). Among the plant samples however the crude methanolic extract exhibited the highest effect against the larvae (LC50 5.74 × 10-2 mg/ml), followed by the ethyl acetate fraction (LC50 8.10 × 10-2 mg/ml). Ursolic acid, pet. ether and aqueous fractions however showed weak acaricidal effects with LC50 values of 1.13 mg/ml, 8.96 × 10-1 mg/ml and 1.44 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ursolic acid was not as potent as the crude methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction from which it was isolated. The overall acaricidal effect of H. opposita may have been due to synergy with other principles having acaricidal properties.

Annan, Kofi; Jackson, Nora; Dickson, Rita A.; Sam, George H.; Komlaga, Gustav

2011-01-01

115

Photodecomposition of an acaricide, fenazaquin, in aqueous alcoholic solution.  

PubMed

Fenazaquin (I) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. The photodecomposition of I was studied in aqueous methanolic and 2-propanolic solution under UV light (30 h) and sunlight (70 h) separately. The photolytic half-lives in aqueous methanolic solution were found to be 17.1 h (UV) and 38.1 h (sunlight), whereas these were 12.9 h (UV) and 29.2 h (sunlight) for aqueous 2-propanolic solution; all followed a first-order reaction kinetics. Six photoproducts were obtained: beta-phenyl (p-tert-butyl) ethyl alcohol (II), 4-hydroxyquinazoline (III), p-tert-butyl vinyl benzene (IV), 2,4-dihydroxyquinazoline (V), phenyl (p-tert-butyl) acetic acid (VI), and 2-methyl-2-[4'-(2' '-hydroxyethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid (VII). Compounds VI and VII could be isolated only from aqueous 2-propanolic solution under sunlight irradiation. The major degradation products are formed as a result of cleavage of the ether bridge linking the quinazoline and phenyl ring systems of the molecule, oxidation of the tert-butyl substituent, and oxidation of the heterocyclic portion of the quinazoline ring. A probable mechanism of formation of the photoproducts is also suggested. PMID:12822939

Bhattacharyya, Jayati; Banerjee, Hemanta; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

2003-07-01

116

Susceptibility of Amblyomma variegatum ticks to acaricides in Ghana.  

PubMed

Abstract. The susceptibility of unfed and fed stages of larvae, nymphs and adult females of Amblyomma variegatum ticks were tested using Shaw's filter paper dip method against four acaricides; chlorfenvinphos and dioxathion, chlorfenvinphos, gamma benzene hexachloride and amitraz at four different concentrations including the recommended dose rates. Based on their lethal concentrations (LC50 & LC90) chlorfenvinphos and dioxathion combined and chlorfenvinphos alone placed first and second, respectively, in all stages except at the unfed nymphal stage where gamma benzene hexachloride topped with a LC50 of 0.001629, while chlorfenvinphos and dioxathion combined and chlorfenvinphos alone had LC50 of 0.001794 and 0.002258, respectively. Amitraz appeared to have a quick knock-down effect on larvae and nymphs but at the recommended dose rate, showed no mortality of the ticks at that stage. However, at a concentration of 0.040%, amitraz showed a 100% inhibition of oviposition and hatching of laid eggs. Gamma benzene hexachloride produced only 66% inhibition of oviposition while chlorfenvinphos and dioxathion combined and chlorfenvinphos alone produced 100% inhibition of oviposition at their recommended dose rates. Fed nymphs were more susceptible than the unfed nymphs. Eggs laid by engorged female ovipositing ticks, applied with gamma benzene hexachloride, hatched. PMID:15792105

Natala, A J; Agyei, A D; Awumbila, B

2005-01-01

117

Comparative toxicity of acaricides to honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers and queens.  

PubMed

Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. Although acaricides control a serious honey bee parasite and mitigate bee loss, they may cause harm to bees as well. We topically applied five acaricides, each with a different mode of action, to young adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were found to be three-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and six-times more tolerant of thymol than workers when adjusted for body weight differences between workers (108 mg) and queens (180 mg). Queens survived the highest administered doses of fenpyroximate (1620 microg/g) and coumaphos (2700 microg/g) indicating that queens are at least 11-fold more tolerant of coumaphos and at least 54-fold more tolerant of fenpyroximate than workers. However, queens treated with as little as 54 microg/g of fenpyroximate exhibited reduced survival over 6 wk after treatment. Amitraz was the only acaricide tested for which queens were not more tolerant than workers. The striking difference in acaricide tolerance of queen and worker honey bees suggests physiological differences in how the two castes are affected by xenobiotics. PMID:23356051

Dahlgren, Lizette; Johnson, Reed M; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

2012-12-01

118

Scabies Mite Peritrophins Are Potential Targets of Human Host Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Background Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1) was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD). Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL), the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. Conclusions/Significance This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the lectin pathway of the complement cascade. These initial findings indicate a novel role of scabies mite peritrophins in triggering a host innate immune response within the mite gut.

Holt, Deborah C.; Kemp, Dave J.; Fischer, Katja

2011-01-01

119

Acaricidal activity of extracts from Adonis coerulea Maxim. against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of Adonis coerulea extracts was investigated against Psoroptes cuniculi. The aqueous, methanol, acetic ether and petroleum ether extracts all showed marked acaricidal activity in vitro. Especially, the acetic ether extract possessed strong toxicity against mites in vitro with LT50 values 0.743 h, 2.730 h, 5.919 h and 22.536 h at concentrations of 500, 250, 125 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively. At the same time, the acetic ether extract showed the best effectiveness topically to infested rabbits in vivo. After three times treatment, at the day 20, rabbits treated with A. coerulea extract were observed only small scabs or secretions in ear canal, but no mites. These findings suggested that as a potential insecticide, A. coerulea should be studied further to develop active components or a new acaricidal drug. PMID:23352106

Shang, Xiao-Fei; Miao, Xiao-Lou; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Li, Jian-Xi; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Yan, Zuo-Ting; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yu; He, Xi-Rui; Pan, Hu

2013-07-01

120

[Experiences with ivermectin in exotic animals: scabies in camelids (Camelus bactrianus, Lama guanicoe, L. glama) and scabies and roundworms in bears (Thalarctos maritimus and Ursus arctos)].  

PubMed

For the control of scabies in tylopodes (L. bactrianus, L. guanicoe, L. glama) and brown bears 0.2 mg/kg body weight (1 ml/50 kg body weight) of Ivermectin subcutaneously injected proved to be remedy of choice. In Kodiak-bears the oral application of Ivomec-solution was effective against ascariasis, not, however, in polar bears. Sufficient effect was reached only once, whereas Equalan-paste proved to be highly effective. Despite of strong hygienic measures continous follow-up treatment for the prevention of re-invasion is indispensible. PMID:2025214

Kuntze, A; Kuntze, O

1991-02-01

121

Increased spasticity in a chronic spinal cord injury patient after scabies infestation: a case report.  

PubMed

Spasticity is a common feature of spinal cord injury (SCI). Spasticity exacerbation is commonly encountered with nociceptive and exteroceptive stimuli including bladder and bowel dysfunction, pressure sores, contracture, tight-fitting leg bags and clothing, and ingrown toenail. This report describes a patient with chronic SCI (T4 level) who complained of increasing spasticity of bilateral lower extremities for 5 weeks. He also had skin lesions on different parts of his body, accompanied by itching above the spinal cord lesion level. A clinical diagnosis of scabies was made and pharmacologic treatment was initiated. Following treatment, spasticity was significantly reduced and the skin rash with itching faded out. This report is the first of scabies skin infestation lesions triggering exacerbation of spasticity in an SCI patient. PMID:9421996

Hassan, N F; Nasser, I; Bennett, M M

1997-12-01

122

Acute morbidity associated with scabies and other ectoparasitoses rapidly improves after treatment with ivermectin.  

PubMed

In resource-poor settings, scabies is associated with considerable morbidity. Which factors determine morbidity and how rapidly it recedes after specific treatment is not known. Patients with scabies were recruited in three urban slums in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil. Diagnosis was established according to dermatoscopy, skin scraping, or adhesive film test. Severity of scabies-associated morbidity was assessed semiquantitatively. Patients and close contacts were treated with oral ivermectin (200 ?g/kg, repeated after 7 days) and followed up for 2 weeks. Ninety-five patients were included in the study. Papules were the most common lesion type (98.9%). Excoriations due to scratching were observed in 43.2% and bacterial superinfection in 24.2%. Predilection sites were the arms (82.1%) and the abdomen (81.1%). At baseline, 36.3% of patients complained about intense or severe itching. Intense or severe itch decreased to 6.3% 2 weeks after treatment (p=0.02). Whereas 37.5% of the patients complained about intense or severe itch-related sleep disturbances at baseline, only 8.8% reported the symptom 2 weeks after treatment (p=0.35). At baseline, the degree of itching was correlated with the degree of sleep disturbance (?=0.64; p<0.001). One week after the first dose of ivermectin, the intensity of itching and of sleep disturbance decreased significantly (p<0.001). In patients living in resource-poor setting, scabies was associated with considerable morbidity. Treatment with ivermectin rapidly reconstituted health in almost all cases. PMID:22211573

Worth, Christine; Heukelbach, Jorg; Fengler, Gernot; Walter, Birke; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Hengge, Ulrich; Feldmeier, Hermann

2012-01-01

123

Equivalent Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin and Lindane in the Treatment of Human Scabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Of 53 patients, 43 (81%) completed the study, 19 in the group treated with ivermectin and 24 in the group treated with lindane. At day 15, 14 patients (74%; 95% confidence interval, 48.8%-90.8%) in the group re- ceiving ivermectin showed healing of their scabies and 13 patients (54%; 95% confidence interval, 32.8%- 74.4%) in the group treated with lindane

Edgardo N. Chouela; Alejandra M. Abeldano; Graciela Pellerano; Marta La Forgia; Rosa Maria Papale; Armando Garsd; Maria del Carmen Balian; Viviana Battista; Nora Poggio

1999-01-01

124

Synthesis of new fluorinated Tebufenpyrad analogs with acaricidal activity through regioselective pyrazole formation.  

PubMed

In previous studies, our group has shown that the use of fluorinated alcohols such as trifluoroethanol (TFE) and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) as solvents dramatically increases the regioselectivity in the pyrazole formation from 1,3-diketone with methylhydrazine. We have now applied this synthetic method to the preparation of new fluorinated pyrazoles, which have then been used as synthetic intermediates in the preparation of fluorinated analogs of Tebufenpyrad, a commercial acaricide. These compounds display a strong acaricidal activity that is either comparable to or better than that of the commercial compound. PMID:18855479

Fustero, Santos; Román, Raquel; Sanz-Cervera, Juan F; Simón-Fuentes, Antonio; Bueno, Jorge; Villanova, Salvador

2008-11-01

125

Production of monoclonal antibody to acaricide dicofol and its derivatives.  

PubMed

In Thailand detection of acaricide dicofol residues has been sporadically performed due to the limitation of analytical techniques. Conventional analytical methods for detecting dicofol residues most often use chromatographic-based techniques. Our ultimate aim is to develop an alternative method for rapidly analyzing dicofol residues in vegetables and fruit samples. Here we report the production of monoclonal antibodies specific to dicofol and its derivatives. Hapten-protein carriers were prepared by linking succinic anhydride to dichlorobenzhydrol (DCBH), which was then conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oval albumin (OVA). DCBH-BSA conjugate was used as immunogen while DCBH-OVA conjugate was used as capture antigen for competitive inhibition assay. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with DCBH-BSA conjugate subcutaneously, and antibody (Ab) level was determined 2 weeks after the last immunization. Spleen cells producing high titer antibody were isolated and fused with myeloma cells of P3.X6.Ag8.653. After limiting dilutions, antibody produced by one clone had high affinity, which was found to be of IgG1 with ? light chain. Specificity and inhibition concentrations of the monoclonal antibody (MAb) were determined by competitive indirect ELISA with dicofol, and its 50% (IC(50)) was 0.28 ?g/mL. Working ranges of the developed immunoassay were from 0.07 to 25 ?g/mL. Hence, the prepared MAb will be able to be applied for immunoassay development for detecting dicofol residue in vegetables and fruits far below the maximum residue limit such that 5 g of fruits and berries can be detected below 0.1 mg/kg. PMID:21118018

Hongsibsong, Surat; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Suphavilai, Chaisuree; Wipasa, Jiraprapa; Pattarawarapan, Mookda; Kasinrerk, Watchara

2010-12-01

126

Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of scabies in Japan (second edition).  

PubMed

The guideline has been prepared by the Japanese Dermatological Association to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of scabies, as oral therapy became available on August 2006 under health insurance and its clinical use was expected to increase. For making a proper diagnosis, the following three points should be taken into consideration: (i) clinical symptoms; (ii) detection of the mite (Sarcoptes scabiei); and (iii) epidemiological symptoms. The diagnosis is confirmed if the mites or eggs are identified by microscopy or dermoscopy and so forth. Topical sulfur preparations, with only limited usefulness, are the only available topical drugs approved by health insurance coverage for treating scabies. Currently, crotamiton, benzyl benzoate and gamma-benzene hexachloride are also used clinically. It is important to apply these to the whole-body, including hands, fingers and genitals. The dose for ivermectin is a single administration p.o. of approximately 200 microg/kg bodyweight with water before a meal. Administration of a second dose is considered, if new specific lesions develop or the mites are detected. For treating crusted scabies, concomitant administration of oral ivermectin and the topical preparation is necessary. Some safe and useful topical drug preparations are needed to be approved by health insurance. PMID:18578720

Ishii, Norihisa

2008-06-01

127

Acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro.  

PubMed

Usnic acid, a major active compound in lichens, was first isolated in 1884. Since then, usnic acid and its sodium salt (sodium usnic acid) have been used in medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, and other industries due to its extensive biological activities. However, its acaricidal activity has not been studied. In this paper, we investigated the acaricidal activity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. After evaluating the acaricidal activity and toxicity of usnic acid and sodium usnic acid in vitro, the results showed that at doses of 250, 125, and 62.5 mg/ml, usnic acid and sodium usnic acid can kill mites with 91.67, 85.00, and 55.00 % and 100, 100, and 60.00 % mortality after treatment 24 h. The LT50 values were 4.208, 8.249, and 16.950 h and 3.712, 7.339, and 15.773 h for usnic acid and sodium usnic acid, respectively. Sodium usnic acid has a higher acaricidal activity than usnic acid, which may be related to the difference in their structures. PMID:24770718

Shang, Xiaofei; Miao, Xiaolou; Lv, Huiping; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jiqin; He, Hua; Yang, Zhiqiang; Pan, Hu

2014-06-01

128

Structural modification of sanguinarine and chelerythrine and their in vitro acaricidal activity against Psoroptes cuniculi.  

PubMed

Sanguinarine (1) and chelerythrine (2) are two quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs). Eighteen derivatives of 1 and 2 were synthesized by modification of C=N(+) bond and evaluated for their in vitro acaricidal activity against Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite. A new method was developed to prepare 6-alkoxy dihydro derivatives of 1 and 2 (1a-e, 2a-e). Among all the compounds, only 6-alkoxy dihydrosanguinarines (1a-e) showed significant acaricidal activity at 5.0?mg/mL and 1a possessed the strongest activity (50% lethal concentrations (LC(50))=339.70±0.75?mg/L, 50% lethal time (LT(50))=6.53±0.04?h), comparable with a standard drug ivermectin (LC(50)=168.19±11.79?mg/L, LT(50)=16.54±0.11?h). The iminium moiety in 1 and 2 was proven to be the determinant for their acaricidal properties. 6-Alkoxy dihydro derivatives (1a-e, 2a-e) were prodrugs of 1 and 2. Compared with 7,8-dimethoxy groups, 7,8-methylenedioxy group was able to significantly improve the bioactivity. The present results suggested that QBAs are promising candidates or lead compounds for the development of new isoquinoline acaricidal agents. PMID:23000953

Miao, Fang; Yang, Xin-Juan; Ma, Yan-Ni; Zheng, Feng; Song, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Le

2012-01-01

129

Effect of Various Acaricides on Hatchability of Eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus  

PubMed Central

The effect of commonly used acaricides (amitraz, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, and flumethrin) on the eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Ludhiana, Punjab, was evaluated by egg hatch assay (EHA). The regression graph of probit hatchability and per cent inhibition of hatching (IH%) of eggs was plotted against log values of concentration of various acaricides. All concentrations of flumethrin and amitraz caused complete inhibition of hatching, whereas a hatchability of 31.0 ± 6.1, 40.0 ± 5.2 and 19.3 ± 1.7% was only recorded at the highest concentration of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of the acaricide showed a significant effect on the IH% of eggs for cypermethrin (P < 0.01) and deltamethrin (P < 0.05) but was nonsignificant for fenvalerate. The slope of the regression curve of IH% was utilized for the calculation of the dose of various acaricides causing inhibition of hatching for 95% eggs (LC95) and the discriminating dose (DD). Results indicated that maximum DD was recorded for fenvalerate (2.136%), followed by cypermethrin (0.214%) and deltamethrin (0.118%). The results of the current study will be helpful in formulating effective control strategies against ticks.

Haque, M.; Jyoti; Singh, N. K.; Rath, S. S.

2014-01-01

130

Insecticidal and Acaricidal Activity of Carvacrol and ?-Thujaplicine Derived from Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai Sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal and acaricidal components from sawdust of Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai against eight species of anthropod pests (Reticulitermes speratus, Lasioderma serricorne, Callosobruchus chinensis, Sitophilus oryzae, Plutella xylostella, Myzus persicae, Blatella germanica, and Tetranychus urticae) were isolated by chromatographic techniques and characterized by spectroscopic analyses as the terpenoids carvacrol and ß-thujaplicine. In tests using the filter paper diffusion method, carvacrol had

Young-Joon Ahn; Seong-Baek Lee; Hoi-Seon Lee; Gil-Ha Kim

1998-01-01

131

Acaricide efficiency of amitraz/cypermethrin and abamectin pour-on preparations in game.  

PubMed

The efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. The eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. The amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. Both acaricides were effective against R. appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus in the eland. The amitraz/cypermethrin acaricide was effective against R. (Boophilus) decoloratus in the blesbok. Ticks can cause damage to the skins, secondary infections, abscesses, anaemia, loss of condition, tick toxicosis and act as vectors of infectious diseases. Introduction of hosts and/or ticks from endemic to non-endemic areas because of translocation of game, may lead to severe losses. The pouron acaricides tested were effective against natural tick infestations and should always be used according to the manufacturer's instructions and efficacy claims. PMID:16562734

Van Der Merwe, J S; Smit, F J; Durand, A M; Krüger, L P; Michael, L M

2005-12-01

132

Acaricidal activity of 31 essential oils extracted from plants collected in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a worldwide pest, feeding on a large variety of plant families. As its resistance to acaricides spreads rapidly, it is crucial to develop new biological control tactics to manage its populations. In this respect, essential oils may be a good alternative, as they are currently considered minimum-risk pesticides. In this paper, we

Sabrine Attia; Kaouthar L. Grissa; Zeineb G. Ghrabi; Anne C. Mailleux; Georges Lognay; Thierry Hance

2012-01-01

133

Effect of Various Acaricides on Hatchability of Eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

The effect of commonly used acaricides (amitraz, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, and flumethrin) on the eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Ludhiana, Punjab, was evaluated by egg hatch assay (EHA). The regression graph of probit hatchability and per cent inhibition of hatching (IH%) of eggs was plotted against log values of concentration of various acaricides. All concentrations of flumethrin and amitraz caused complete inhibition of hatching, whereas a hatchability of 31.0 ± 6.1, 40.0 ± 5.2 and 19.3 ± 1.7% was only recorded at the highest concentration of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of the acaricide showed a significant effect on the IH% of eggs for cypermethrin (P < 0.01) and deltamethrin (P < 0.05) but was nonsignificant for fenvalerate. The slope of the regression curve of IH% was utilized for the calculation of the dose of various acaricides causing inhibition of hatching for 95% eggs (LC95) and the discriminating dose (DD). Results indicated that maximum DD was recorded for fenvalerate (2.136%), followed by cypermethrin (0.214%) and deltamethrin (0.118%). The results of the current study will be helpful in formulating effective control strategies against ticks. PMID:25057486

Haque, M; Jyoti; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

2014-01-01

134

Effect of a botanical acaricide on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and nontarget arthropods.  

PubMed

We tested the effectiveness of the rosemary oil-based insecticide, Eco-Exempt IC2, to control all stages of Ixodes scapularis (Say) in southern Maine. We selected plots in oak-pine forest where I. scapularis is endemic and recorded the abundance of ticks and nontarget arthropods before and after applications of IC2, bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid), and water (reference treatment). Licensed applicators applied high-pressure spray treatments during the summer nymphal and fall adult seasonal peaks. Both acaricides sprayed during the summer nymphal season reduced nymphal I. scapularis/hour to zero. IC2 was as effective as bifenthrin in controlling nymphs through the rest of the nymphal season and also controlled adult ticks 9 mo postspray compared with 16 mo for bifenthrin, and both acaricides reduced larvae through 14 mo postspray. Both acaricides sprayed during the fall adult season reduced adult I. scapularis/hour to zero; IC2 controlled adult ticks 6 mo postspray compared with 1 yr for bifenthrin. Both fall-applied acaricides controlled nymphs 9 mo postspray and reduced larvae up to 10 mo postspray. Impacts on some nontarget arthropods was assessed. Colleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Collembola declined 1 wk postspray in acaricide-treated plots, and in IC2 plots all numbers rebounded by 20 d postspray. For bees and other flower-visiting insects there were no detectable reductions in nests produced, number emerged from nests, or number of foraging visits to flowering plants in IC2 or bifenthrin plots. IC2 was phytotoxic to the leafy portions of select understory plants that appeared to recover by the next growing season. PMID:23427661

Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Staples, Joseph K; St Amand, Theodore W; Stubbs, Constance S; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Smith, Leticia B; Smith, Robert P

2013-01-01

135

Acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits against stored food mites.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits were evaluated against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). On the basis of the 50 % lethal dose (LD(50)) values, the ethyl acetate fraction of the fractions obtained from an aqueous extract of P. ussuriensis fruits had the highest acaricidal activity (16.32 ?g/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae. The acaricidal constituent of P. ussuriensis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 1,4-benzoquinone. On the basis of the LD(50) values, 1,4-benzoquinone (1.98 ?g/cm(2)) was 5.9 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (11.69 ?g/cm(2)), followed by 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (3.29 ?g/cm(2)), and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (5.03 ?g/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae in the fumigant bioassay. In a filter paper bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1,4-benzoquinone (0.07 ?g/cm(2)) was 120.1 times more effective than that of benzyl benzoate (8.41 ?g/cm(2)), followed by 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (0.11 ?g/cm(2)) and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (0.30 ?g/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae. These results demonstrate that P. ussuriensis fruit-derived material and its derivatives have potential as new preventive agents for the control of stored food mites. PMID:22980009

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2012-07-01

136

Comparison of crotamiton 10% cream (Eurax) and permethrin 5% cream (Elimite) for the treatment of scabies in children.  

PubMed

Permethrin 5% cream (Elimite) was approved as a treatment for scabies by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in September 1989. In a double-blinded, randomized study, it was compared with crotamiton 10% cream (Eurax) for the treatment of scabies in children 2 months to 5 years of age. Two weeks after a single overnight treatment, 14 (30%) of 47 children were cured with permethrin 5% cream, in contrast to only 6 of 47 (13%) of subjects treated with Eurax. Four weeks after treatment the figures were 89% and 60% cured for the two agents, respectively. In 10 of the 19 patients whose treatment failed, the condition became worse after therapy. The difference in efficacy in favor of permethrin was significant (P = 0.002). That agent also demonstrated greater effectiveness in reducing pruritus and secondary bacterial infections. Elimite offers a safe, efficacious, and cosmetically elegant alternative to Eurax in the treatment of scabies in children. PMID:2188239

Taplin, D; Meinking, T L; Chen, J A; Sanchez, R

1990-03-01

137

Scabies Mite Inactive Serine Proteases Are Potent Inhibitors of the Human Complement Lectin Pathway  

PubMed Central

Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics.

Reynolds, Simone L.; Pike, Robert N.; Mika, Angela; Blom, Anna M.; Hofmann, Andreas; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Fischer, Katja

2014-01-01

138

Topical ivermectin versus crotamiton cream 10% for the treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Scabies, known colloquially as the 7-year itch, is a contagious skin infection that occurs among humans and other animals. The treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin vs. crotamiton cream 10% for the treatment of scabies. In total, 340 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups. The first group received 1% ivermectin applied topically to the affected skin. The dose employed was 400 ?g/kg, repeated once the following week, and the second group received crotamiton 10% cream and were told to apply this twice daily for five consecutive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of two and four weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. Two applications of topical ivermectin provided a cure rate of 64.7% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 82.3% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of crotamiton cream 10% was effective in 41.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 64.7% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Ivermectin was quite safe in our cases. Two applications of ivermectin were as effective as single applications of crotamiton 10% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to crotamiton cream 10% at the 4-week follow-up. PMID:24898622

Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghiafar, Ramin

2014-07-01

139

Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.  

PubMed

Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics. PMID:24854034

Reynolds, Simone L; Pike, Robert N; Mika, Angela; Blom, Anna M; Hofmann, Andreas; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Kemp, Dave; Fischer, Katja

2014-05-01

140

Novel Scabies Mite Serpins Inhibit the Three Pathways of the Human Complement System  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage.

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Mohlin, Frida C.; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M.; Pickering, Darren A.; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Pike, Robert N.; Blom, Anna M.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja

2012-01-01

141

A Scabies Mite Serpin Interferes with Complement-Mediated Neutrophil Functions and Promotes Staphylococcal Growth  

PubMed Central

Background Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4) inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood killing of S. aureus was measured in whole blood bactericidal assays, counting viable bacteria recovered after treatment in fresh blood containing active complement and phagocytes, treated with recombinant SMSB4. SMSB4 inhibited the blood killing of various strains of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive isolates. Staphylococcal growth was promoted in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of SMSB4 on the complement-mediated neutrophil functions, namely phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylatoxin release, by flow cytometry and in enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISA). SMSB4 reduced phagocytosis of S. aureus by neutrophils. It inhibited the deposition of C3b, C4b and properdin on the bacteria surface, but did not affect the depositions of C1q and MBL. SMSB4 also inhibited C5 cleavage as indicated by a reduced C5b-9 deposition. Conclusions/Significance We postulate that SMSB4 interferes with the activation of all three complement pathways by reducing the amount of C3 convertase formed. We conclude that SMSB4 interferes with the complement-dependent killing function of neutrophils, thereby reducing opsonization, phagocytosis and further recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. As a consequence secreted scabies mites complement inhibitors, such as SMSB4, provide favorable conditions for the onset of S. aureus co-infection in the scabies-infected microenvironment by suppressing the immediate host immune response.

Swe, Pearl M.; Fischer, Katja

2014-01-01

142

Demodex folliculorum and topical treatment: acaricidal action evaluated by standardized skin surface biopsy.  

PubMed

A standardized skin surface biopsy was performed in 34 patients suffering from skin diseases with high Demodex folliculorum density (Dd) > 5D/cm2 before, during and after topical treatment. The patients were randomized into six comparable groups to study six topical treatments: metronidazole 2%, permethrin 1%, sublimed sulphur 10%, lindane 1%, crotamiton 10% and benzyl benzoate (BB) 10%. Their acaricidal activity was measured according to three criteria: (i) for each treatment, decrease of Dd to under the normal threshold (< or = 5 D/cm2); (ii) for each treatment, a significant decrease in Dd; and (iii) comparison of the relative difference in Dd between treatments. These three criteria converged to establish the acaricidal activity of BB on D. folliculorum; the efficacy of crotamiton was demonstrated by the second criterion. An important irritating effect was observed with BB and sulphur. PMID:9580800

Forton, F; Seys, B; Marchal, J L; Song, A M

1998-03-01

143

Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats  

PubMed Central

This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance.

2014-01-01

144

Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats.  

PubMed

This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance. PMID:24393426

Coles, Tad B; Dryden, Michael W

2014-01-01

145

The rise and fall of psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico.  

PubMed

Between 1978 and 1997, a combination of psoroptic scabies (Psoroptes spp.), mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation, and periodic drought reduced a population of native desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the San Andres Mountains (SAM), New Mexico, from >200 individuals to a single ewe. In 1999, this ewe was captured, ensured to be Psoroptes-free, and released back into the SAM. Eleven radio-collared rams were translocated from the Red Rock Wildlife Area (RRWA) in New Mexico into the SAM range and monitored through 2002 to determine whether Psoroptes spp. mites were still in the environment. None of these sentinel rams acquired scabies during this period, and no additional native sheep were found to be present in the range. In 2002, 51 desert bighorn sheep were translocated into the SAM from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona (n = 20) and the RRWA in New Mexico (n = 31). Twenty-one bighorn sheep have died in the SAM since that time, but Psoroptes spp. mites have not been detected on any of these animals, nor have they been found on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) sampled since 2000. We conclude that psoroptic scabies is no longer present in the San Andres bighorn sheep population and that psoroptic scabies poses a minimal to nonexistent threat to the persistence of this population at this time. PMID:16244062

Boyce, Walter M; Weisenberger, Mara E

2005-07-01

146

Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in the prisoners of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, Iran.  

PubMed

The increasing prevalence of active pediculosis and scabies among prisoners prompted us to conduct a head louse and scabies prevalence survey among prisoners in the Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, Iran. During the study, 67 patients with skin disorders were found. Among the doubtful patients who were considered 38 patients (57%) indicated Sarcoptes scabiei, 6 patients (9%) were indicated lice and 23 patients (33%) were set aside for more studying and specialized tests. Contamination rates were 18.4, 10.5 and 10.5% in the youths, drug abusers and kitchen units, respectively. Adults, foreigners and quarantine units were contaminated 7.9, 5.3 and 5.3%, respectively. In cheque and military units, no contamination was observed because of the higher hygienic status. Morbidity rate in the individual and technical units was 2.5%. The highest and the least morbidity rates were observed among 20-29 year age group (55.2%) and over 50 year age group (2.6%). The average and the mean ages of the 38 patients that contaminated to Sarcoptes scabiei was 29 +/- 8 and 28 years, respectively. The least and the highest contamination ages were 18 and 59 years, respectively. The affirmative Sarcoptes scabiei cases in the different units indicated that the general units had the most morbidity percentage because there were many prisoners with different cultural backgrounds (26.3%). PMID:19090266

Poudat, A; Nasirian, H

2007-11-01

147

A risk-benefit assessment of agents used in the treatment of scabies.  

PubMed

Permethrin is probably the most effective topical treatment for scabies. There is little microbial resistance to the drug, and it is highly effective. Toxicity is limited to occasional contact dermatitis. Similarly, oral ivermectin 200 micrograms/kg is extremely effective. Oral administration eliminates the need to be certain that medication has been applied properly. Toxicity has been very limited. It is not available in the US for human use in scabies at this time. The toxicity of most of other treatments that are available has not been studied carefully. Sulphur 6% in petrolatum is recommended as safe, but there are no good studies to confirm this. Sulphur is probably the medication of choice when cost is the overriding concern. Crotamiton and benzyl benzoate are probably safe, but are not as effective as permethrin. Lindane has some potential CNS toxicity if used incorrectly, and must be used carefully on damaged skin to avoid excessive absorption. It is important to stress that all household and sexual contacts must be treated, whether or not they have symptoms. Proper application of topical medications must be achieved, including under the fingernails, and up to the edge of all body orifices. PMID:8828016

Elgart, M L

1996-06-01

148

Selection and Characterization of Microorganisms Utilizing Thaxtomin A, a Phytotoxin Produced by Streptomyces scabies  

PubMed Central

Thaxtomin A is the main phytotoxin produced by Streptomyces scabies, a causal agent of potato scab. Thaxtomin A is a yellow compound composed of 4-nitroindol-3-yl-containing 2,5-dioxopiperazine. A collection of nonpathogenic streptomycetes isolated from potato tubers and microorganisms recovered from a thaxtomin A solution were examined for the ability to grow in the presence of thaxtomin A as a sole carbon or nitrogen source. Three bacterial isolates and two fungal isolates grew in thaxtomin A-containing media. Growth of these organisms resulted in decreases in the optical densities at 400 nm of culture supernatants and in 10% reductions in the thaxtomin A concentration. The fungal isolates were identified as a Penicillium sp. isolate and a Trichoderma sp. isolate. One bacterial isolate was associated with the species Ralstonia pickettii, and the two other bacterial isolates were identified as Streptomyces sp. strains. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were determined in order to compare thaxtomin A-utilizing actinomycetes to the pathogenic organism S. scabies and other Streptomyces species. The nucleotide sequences of the ? variable regions of the 16S ribosomal DNA of both thaxtomin A-utilizing actinomycetes were identical to the sequence of Streptomyces mirabilis ATCC 27447. When inoculated onto potato tubers, the three thaxtomin A-utilizing bacteria protected growing plants against common scab, but the fungal isolates did not have any protective effect.

Doumbou, Cyr Lezin; Akimov, Vladimir; Beaulieu, Carole

1998-01-01

149

Effect of Acaricide Resistance on Reproductive Ability of the Honey Bee Mite Varroa Destructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproduction of pyrethroid-resistant Varroa destructor mite, a brood parasite of honey bees, was observed in Weslaco, Texas, and the results compared with known susceptible mite\\u000a populations from other studies. Seven Apis mellifera colonies that had mite populations resistant to the acaricide Apistan™ were used. Pyrethroid-resistance was confirmed when only 17% rather than 90% of mites confined in dishes containing

Stephen J. Martin; Patti J. Elzen; William R. Rubink

2002-01-01

150

Repellents and acaricides as personal protection measures in the prevention of tick-borne diseases.  

PubMed

A number of preventive measures for the protection of humans against tick-borne diseases were evaluated. Measures involving the avoidance of tick bites with the use of protective clothing and insect repellents are the simplest and most effective. Repellents are applied directly to the skin or clothing and other fabrics, such as bednets, tents and anti-mosquito screens. Currently, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is considered the most efficient arthropod repellent reference substance. The registered and recommended active repellent ingredients for skin and/or cloths application, among others, are: DEET, 1-methyl-propyl-2- (hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate (picaridin), p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), ethyl butylactyloaminopropionate ( IR3535), 1S,2S-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (SS220), racemic 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (AI3-37220) and synthethic pyrethroid - 3-phenoxybenzyl-cis-trans-3(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropancarboxylate (permethrin) - an acaricide with repellent properties. To achieve the protection from tick bites by avoiding attachment and/or engorgement by the arthropod, acaricides with repellent properties, such as synthetic pyrethroid-permethrin are used. This pyrethroid is an acaricide of choice used for clothing impregnation, which is effective for personal protection against all three parasitic stages of western black-legged ticks. Products based on natural compounds, e.g. eugenol from Ocimum basilicum, 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato, geraniol - a natural product extracted from plants, and many others, represent an interesting alternative to common synthetic repellents and/or acaricides. PMID:23311778

Cisak, Ewa; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zaj?c, Violetta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2012-01-01

151

Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum against the ectoparasitic cattle mite, Chorioptes texanus.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of extracts obtained from the plant Eupatorium adenophorum against the common cattle mite Chorioptes texanus. The results showed that 95% ethanol extracts at concentrations of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 g/mL (w/v) were highly toxic to C. texanus in vitro, killing 100% of mites in 4 h. Similarly, petroleum ether extracts of E. adenophorum resulted in between 80 and 100% mortality of mites in vitro at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.025 mL/mL (v/v) within 4 h. In clinical trials, all infected individuals completely recovered after two treatments administered at 7-day intervals and remained disease-free at 60 days posttreatment. The clinical effect of treatment with E. adenophorum petroleum ether extracts was similar to that of treatment with the acaricide fenvalerate. These results indicated that E. adenophorum contains novel potential acaricidal compounds that can effectively control mites in livestock. PMID:24464273

Nong, Xiang; Li, Shu-Hua; Wang, Jia-Hai; Xie, Yue; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Liu, Tian-Fei; He, Ran; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

2014-03-01

152

A class of promising acaricidal tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives: synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

As part of our continuing research on isoquinoline acaricidal drugs, this paper reports the preparation of a series of the 2-aryl-1-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with various substituents on the N-phenyl ring, their in vitro acaricidal activities against Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite, and discusses their SAR as well. The structures of all compounds, including 12 new ones, were elucidated by analysis of UV, IR, NMR, ESI-MS, HR-MS spectra and X-ray diffraction experiments. All target compounds showed varying degrees of activity at 0.4 mg/mL. Compound 1 showed the strongest activity, with a 50% lethal concentration value (LC50) of 0.2421 ?g/mL and 50% lethal time value (LT50) of 7.79 h, comparable to the standard drug ivermectin (LC50 = 0.2474 ?g/mL; LT50 = 20.9 h). The SAR showed that the substitution pattern on the N-aromatic ring exerted a significant effect on the activity. The substituents 2'-F, 3'-F, 2'-Cl, 2'-Br and 2'-CF3 remarkably enhanced the activity. Generally, for the isomers with the same substituents at different positions, the order of the activity was ortho > meta > para. It was concluded that the target compounds represent a class of novel promising candidates or lead compounds for the development of new tetrahydroisoquinoline acaricidal agents. PMID:24936707

Yang, Rui; Ruan, Qiao; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Zheng, Zuo-Lue; Miao, Fang; Zhou, Le; Geng, Hui-Ling

2014-01-01

153

Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300µg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0µg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient.

Afify, Abd El-Moneim MR; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Fayed, Sayed A; Shalaby, Emad A

2011-01-01

154

Dementia-specific risks of scabies: Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of an unveiled nosocomial outbreak in Japan from 1989-90  

PubMed Central

Background Although senile dementia patients in long-term care facilities are at leading risk of scabies, the epidemiologic characteristics of this disease have yet to be fully clarified. This study documents the findings of a ward-scale nosocomial outbreak in western Japan from 1989–90, for which permission to publish was only recently obtained. Methods A retrospective epidemiologic study was performed to identify specific risk factors of scabies among patients with dementia. Analyses were based on a review of medical and nursing records. All inpatients in the affected ward at the time of the outbreak were included in the study. Observational and analytical approaches were employed to assess the findings. Results Twenty of 65 inpatients in the ward met the case definition of scabies. The outbreak lasted for almost 10 months and as a result, the spatial distribution of infections showed no localized patterns in the latter phase of the outbreak. The duration of illness significantly decreased after initiation of control measures (P = 0.0067). Movement without assistance (Odds Ratio [OR] = 11.3; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.9, 44.8) and moving beyond the room (but within the ward) (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.5) were significantly associated with infection, while types of room (Western or Japanese) and sleeping arrangement (on beds or futons laid directly on the floor) appeared not to be risk factors. Conclusion Univariate analysis demonstrated the importance of patients' behaviours during daily activities in controlling scabies among senile dementia patients. The findings also support previous evidence that catching scabies from fomites is far less common. Moreover, since cognitive disorders make it difficult for individuals to communicate and understand the implications of risky contacts as well as treatment method, and given the non-specific nature of individual contacts that are often unpredictable, real-time observations might help improve control practices.

Tsutsumi, Masae; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Toshio

2005-01-01

155

Management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberry fields with Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and acaricides.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) for the control of Tetranychus urticae Koch in commercial strawberry fields, under greenhouse conditions, in association or not with the use of acaricides. The N. californicus strain used in this study was tolerant or resistant to several pesticides. Three experiments were carried out in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first experiment, the initial infestation of T. urticae was 87.1 active stages per leaflet. Two applications of propargite were made on the first and the 14th day of the experiment. Approximately 2 h after each propargite application, N. californicus was released at a rate of 3.0 and 1.9 adult mites per plant, respectively, for each application. The population of T. urticae decreased from 87.1 to 2.8 mites per leaflet in the first three weeks. After this period, the population of T. urticae was maintained at low levels (acaricide chorfenapyr was applied on the strawberry field. The release of N. californicus (2 mites per plant) was made 2 weeks after spraying the acaricide. The population of T. urticae was maintained at low levels (acaricide application, were not sufficient to reduce significantly the T. urticae population in release plots (release plants + non-release plants) in 6 weeks from the first release, however, the spider mite population decreased from 55.5 to 7.8 active stages per leaflet on release plants, during this period. Interplant dispersal of N. californicus was low in this strawberry field with high infestation of T. urticae. The studies indicate the viability of the use of this strain of N. californicus for the control of T. urticae in strawberry fields under greenhouse conditions, especially in association with selective acaricides. PMID:17549586

Sato, Mário Eidi; Da Silva, Marcos Zatti; De Souza Filho, Miguel Francisco; Matioli, André Luís; Raga, Adalton

2007-01-01

156

Determination of LC 50 of permethrin acaricide in semi-engorged females of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the most efficient and widely used method of tick control still is the treatment with acaricides, especially permethrin (active ingredient of the Advantage® Max3, Bayer), a pyrethroid with neurotoxic action. Due to the wide use of this acaricide in the control of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, this study carried out laboratorial procedures to determine the LC50 (lethal concentration fifty)

Gislaine Cristina Roma; Patrícia Rosa de Oliveira; Marcos Aparecido Pizano; Maria Izabel Camargo Mathias

2009-01-01

157

Mange mites causing scabies in Egyptian buffaloes at Giza Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

In the present study, 560 buffaloes from a private animal farm in Giza Governorate were examined over one year for scabies infestation. The results showed that 466 Buffaloes (83.2%) were infested with two mange mites; Psoroptes natalensis and Sarcoptes scabiei. The highest prevalence rate of infestation was during winter (90.4%), and lowest was in summer (71.4%). The infestation on females was 90.4%, while on males was 80.8%. The mites were predominant on the withers, lumber, back, croup and the external angle of ilium. Buffaloes more than five years old were highly infested than smaller ones, but no mite's infestation were detected in those less than one year. PMID:21634242

Yassin, Mohammad K

2011-04-01

158

[Treatment of scabies and Ascabiol(®) supply disruption: What about the pediatric population?].  

PubMed

Scabies is a disease in steady increase in Île-de-France region. Standard treatment, Ascabiol(®) (benzyl benzoate/sulfiram), is back-order for several months and its return remains uncertain. Facing this drug shortage, French Drug Agency (ANSM) has imported a drug from Germany, Antiscabiosum 10 % (benzyl benzoate), to treat patients having contraindications for other scabicides available in France (ivermectin, esdepallethrine). However, infants less than 1year (<15kg) and asthmatics infants have no alternative treatment. A multidisciplinary workgroup explored the various existing therapeutic alternatives in France and worldwide. From ANSM's recommendations and group's experience, a decision algorithm was proposed for treating patients. However, pediatric context implied the use of off-label drugs. Proposed treatments widely known by practitioners, prescriptions-types, dose, modalities of use and dispensation, and flyers to patients were realized to optimize treatment efficacy. PMID:24768069

Berthe-Aucejo, A; Prot-Labarthe, S; Pull, L; Lorrot, M; Touratier, S; Trout, H; Bourdon, O; Dehen, L; Bourrat, E

2014-06-01

159

Acaricidal activity of pine essential oils and their main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored food mite.  

PubMed

Some essential oils obtained from the branches of four Pinus species (P. pinea L., P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster Soil in Ait., and P. nigra Arnold) have been evaluated for their acaricidal activity by aerial diffusion against the stored food mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (L.). All the essential oils showed a good efficacy, but P. pinea oil and its two constituents 1,8-cineole and limonene were the most effective compounds, showing 100% acaricidal activity at 8 microL; 1,8-cineole showed the same activity at 6 microL. PMID:12137480

Macchioni, F; Cioni, P L; Flamini, G; Morelli, I; Perrucci, S; Franceschi, A; Macchioni, G; Ceccarini, L

2002-07-31

160

Acaricidal effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf ethanolic extract against Rhipicephlaus (Boophilus) annulatus.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (AIT). The percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA. The extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 80 mg / ml of the extract. Mortality of adult engorged female ticks and inhibition of fecundity were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 97.1 mg / ml. PMID:23959488

Sunil, A R; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G; Soorya, V C; Divya, T M; Jyothymol, G; Ghosh, S; Ravindran, R

2013-06-01

161

Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal activities of components derived from Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined using direct contact application and compared with that of the commercial repellent benzyl benzoate. The major biologically active constituent of Foeniculum fruit oil was characterized as (+)-fenchone by spectroscopic analyses. On the basis of LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to D. farinae was p-anisaldehyde (11.3 mg/m(2)) followed by (+)-fenchone (38.9 mg/m(2)), (-)-fenchone (41.8 mg/m(2)), benzyl benzoate (89.2 mg/m(2)), thymol (90.3 mg/m(2)), and estragol (413.3 mg/m(2)). Against D. pteronyssinus, p-anisaldehyde (10.1 mg/m(2)) was much more effective than benzyl benzoate (67.5 mg/m(2)), thymol (68.5 mg/m(2)), and estragol (389.9 mg/m(2)). These results indicate that the acaricidal activity of F. vulgare fruit oil likely results from (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde. (+)-Fenchone was 20.3 times more abundant in the oil than p-anisaldehyde. (+)-Fenchone and p-anisaldehyde merit further study as potential house dust mite control agents or as lead compounds. PMID:15137830

Lee, Hoi-Seon

2004-05-19

162

Propolis volatiles characterisation from acaricide-treated and -untreated beehives maintained at Algarve (Portugal).  

PubMed

The variability of the volatile profile of 70 propolis samples from acaricide-treated and -untreated beehives maintained at Algarve (Portugal) was evaluated. Propolis samples were collected in three regions of Algarve at three different periods. Cluster analysis based on the propolis volatiles' chemical composition defined two main clusters, not related to the time of year, collection site, altitude, temperature or humidity ranges, and was based mainly on the relative amounts of viridiflorol, n-tricosane and n-nonadecane for cluster I. Cluster II was mainly characterised by the high thymol content, followed by viridiflorol, n-tricosane and n-nonadecane. The presence of higher thymol levels in propolis samples from cluster II may reflect the long use of an acaricide with thymol as main active ingredient. All samples showed an intense rock-rose aroma supported by the presence of characteristic Cistus and labdanum oil volatile components. Given the nowadays frequent propolis household use, volatiles thorough characterisation may assist in its quality assessment. PMID:22724515

Miguel, Maria G; Nunes, Susana; Cruz, Cláudia; Duarte, João; Antunes, Maria D; Cavaco, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, A Sofia; Pedro, Luis G; Barroso, José G; Figueiredo, A Cristina

2013-04-01

163

Food protective and color alteration effects of acaricidal aldehydes on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).  

PubMed

The activities of benzaldehyde isolated from Prunus persica seeds and of commercially available aldehydes against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (a stored-food mite) adults were examined and compared with those of the synthetic acaricides benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. On the basis of the 50% lethal dose (LD50), the compound most toxic to T. putrescentiae adults was salicylaldehyde (LD50 of 1.02 microg/cm2) followed by cinnamaldehyde (1.66 microg/cm2), benzaldehyde (4.23 microg/cm2), phthaldialdehyde (5.16 microg/cm2), benzyl benzoate (9.75 microg/cm2), and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (16.26 micorg/cm2). Benzaldehyde was about 2.3 and 3.8 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, respectively, against T. putrescentiae adults. These results indicated that benzaldehyde isolated from P. persica seeds and the three aldehydes (cinnamaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, and phthaldialdehyde) are useful as lead compounds for developing acaricidal agents against T. putrescentiae adults. The color of the T. putrescentiae cuticle was changed by treatment with cinnamaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, and phthaldialdehyde. PMID:16865912

Sung, B K; Lim, J H; Lee, H S

2006-07-01

164

Susceptibility of the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae), to acaricides on tea plants in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Tetranychidae), was recently found on mango and tea plants in the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. The susceptibility of adult females and eggs of a population from tea on Okinawa Island to 19 acaricides was examined, using a spray tower. The LC50 values in female adults of O. coffeae indicated high susceptibility to 15

T. Gotoh; Y. Kitashima; K. Goka; T. Nagata

2001-01-01

165

The effect of East Coast fever immunisation and different acaricidal treatments on the productivity of beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trial was performed on a farm in the Coast Province of Kenya to study the effects of East Coast fever immunisation and different acaricidal treatments on the productivity of immunised and unimmunised beef cattle. Eighty cattle were immunised against Theileria parva parva (Marikebuni) by the infection and treatment method and a similar group was left as an unimmunised control.

SP Morzaria; AD Irvin; J Wathanga; D DSouza; J Katende; AS Young; J Scott; G Gettinby

1988-01-01

166

A model to test how ticks and louping ill virus can be controlled by treating red grouse with acaricide.  

PubMed

Ticks are the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in Europe. In the U.K., Ixodes ricinus L. (Ixodida: Ixodidae) transmits louping ill virus (LIV; Flaviviridae), which kills livestock and red grouse, Lagopus lagopus scoticus Lath. (Galliformes: Phasianidae), a valuable game bird. Tick burdens on grouse have been increasing. One novel method to reduce ticks and LIV in grouse may be acaricide treatment. Here, we use a mathematical model parameterized with empirical data to investigate how the acaricide treatment of grouse might theoretically control ticks and LIV in grouse. Assuming a situation in which ticks and LIV impact on the grouse population, the model predicts that grouse density will depend on deer density because deer maintain the tick population. In low deer densities, no acaricide treatment is predicted to be necessary because abundances of grouse will be high. However, at higher deer densities, the model predicts that grouse densities will increase only if high numbers of grouse are treated, and the efficacy of acaricide is high and lasts 20 weeks. The qualitative model predictions may help to guide decisions on whether to treat grouse or cull deer depending on deer densities and how many grouse can be treated. The model is discussed in terms of practical management implications. PMID:23088727

Porter, R; Norman, R A; Gilbert, L

2013-09-01

167

Evaluation acaricidal efficacy of botanical extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of a botanical extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. This could result in developing effective extracts of E. adenophorum as a source of natural, low-toxicity plant-based acaricidal drugs. Adult engorged females of H. longicornis were collected from naturally infected goats. The engorged females were reared in the laboratory and their offspring (larvae and nymphs) were used as test ectoparasites. The toxic effects of botanical extracts from E. adenophorum against larvae and nymphs of H. longicornis were evaluated. The results showed that the extracts with 1.5 and 1.0g/ml (w/v) concentrations were toxic for H. longicornis, comparable to a toxic effect of 2% chlorpyrifos (positive control). The median lethal time (LT50) for larval and nymphal ticks with 1.5g/ml (w/v) concentration of extract were 0.790 (LT99=1.065) and 1.018 (LT99=10.608) hours, respectively, whereas the LT50 of 1.0g/ml (w/v) concentration were 1.445 (LT99=6.047) and 1.313 (LT99=29.932) hours for larval and nymphal ticks, respectively. At a concentration of 1.5g/ml (w/v), an acaricidal effect of 100% was achieved for both larval and nymphal ticks, while a concentration of 1.0g/ml (w/v) resulted in 100% (for larvae) and 93% (for nymphs) within a 6h period. In additional, we found that the relatively low concentration (0.5g/ml) also obtained a good acaricidal effect during the short experimental period, with 2.22 and 2.651h LT50 for larval and nymphal ticks, respectively. These results indicate that E. adenophorum contains potent acaricidal ingredients against the hard tick H. longicornis. PMID:24051345

Nong, Xiang; Tan, Yong-Jian; Wang, Jia-Hai; Xie, Yue; Fang, Chun-Lin; Chen, Lin; Liu, Tian-Fei; Yang, De-Ying; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Peng, Xue-Rong; Wang, Shu-Xian; Yang, Guang-You

2013-11-01

168

Acaricidal properties of an Ailanthus altissima bark extract against Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.  

PubMed

The potential acaricidal properties of an Ailanthus altissima bark extract were assessed against two common species of animal ectoparasitic mites, Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi, in vitro. A. altissima bark extract was obtained by ethanol thermal circumfluence and tested at four concentrations (1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 g/ml) on mites collected from rabbits. Compared to the fenvalerate treatment group, the A. altissima bark exhibited significant acaricidal properties for both mite species treated. The extract of concentrations of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml killed all tested S. scabiei within 7 h, however, only 1.0 and 0.5 g/ml of extract killed all treated P. cuniculi. The median lethal time (LT50) values at 1, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml were 0.60, 0.78, 1.48 h for S. scabiei and 0.74, 1.29, 3.33 h for P. cuniculi. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for P. cuniculi was approximately 1.6 times that for S. scabiei var. cuniculi at 4 h. The extract showed stronger toxicity against S. scabiei than against P. cuniculi. Mortality rates increased with increasing concentration of extract administered and with increasing time post-treatment, indicating that the acaricidal activity of A. altissima bark extract is both time-dependent and dose-dependent. This is the first report on acaricidal activity of A. altissima against P. cuniculi and S. scabiei var. cuniculi. It indicates that A. altissima contain potential acaricidal compounds. Our study is the first step to develop potentially novel compounds from A. altissima for the effective control of mites in livestock. PMID:24052400

Gu, Xiaobin; Fang, Chunlin; Yang, Guangyou; Xie, Yue; Nong, Xiang; Zhu, Junyang; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Qigui

2014-02-01

169

First report of fluazuron resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus: a field tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides.  

PubMed

The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil. PMID:24560364

Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza

2014-03-17

170

Susceptibility of immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) to plant-derived acaricides.  

PubMed

Plant-derived acaricides, extracted from various botanical species, and commercially available phytochemicals were evaluated for biological activity against immature Ixodes scapularis (Say) using the disposable pipet method. In addition, residual activity of the plant extracts was determined. Of the 13 plant extracts tested, 9 exhibited biological activity with Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., being the most effective against the nymphal ticks (LC50 = 0.151% wt:vol) and eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., showing the greatest activity against larval ticks (LC50 = .001% wt:vol). The commercially available products were significantly less active than the plant extracts we prepared, but some commercial compounds did exhibit limited activity. Only the Alaska yellow cedar exhibited any residual activity that lasted 21 d after treatment. PMID:9151500

Panella, N A; Karchesy, J; Maupin, G O; Malan, J C; Piesman, J

1997-05-01

171

Neurobehavioural study of subchronic administration of oxydemeton-methyl (insecticide and acaricide) in rats.  

PubMed

Oxydemeton-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide produced decrease in the exploratory behaviour and prolongation of barbitone sodium induced hypnosis in rats after intermittent aerosol spray inhalational exposure, for 1/2 hour daily for 7 consecutive days, compared to the saline control group. Further, ED50 +/- SEM value for haloperidol induced catalepsy, CD50 +/- SEM value for pentylenetetrazole induced seizure and CI50 +/- SEM value for electroshock (i.e. the dose of haloperidol, PTZ and intensity of electroshock producing catalepsy or positive seizure response in 50% of rats) were significantly decreased after 7 days exposure to oxydemeton-methyl compared to that of saline control group. The study has established the central nervous system depressant effect, extrapyramidal effect and proconvulsant potential of oxydemeton-methyl which is widely used by the agricultural workers in the form of field spray. PMID:11881572

Kansal, D K; Chakrabarti, A

2001-07-01

172

Acaricidal efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma marginatum isaaci (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum Sims (Labiatae) against the larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma marginatum (m.) isaaci Sharif, 1928 (Acari: Ixodidae). The synthesized AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized from the leaf extract of O. canum was evaluated through UV-visible spectrophotometer in a range of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm. This revealed a peak at 426 nm in leaf extracts of O. canum, indicating the production of AgNPs. The XRD spectrum compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of silver particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2? values of 27.71°, 32.16°, 38.08°, 46.15°, 54.70° and 57.35°. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 818, 1,045, 1,381 and 1,616 in the region 500-3,000 cm(-1). The peaks correspond to the presence of a C-H vibration of the aromatic ring, stretch vibration of C-O, carbonyl groups and flavanones. SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable, which measured 25-110 nm in size. It is clear that the rod and cylindrical structures have an average size of 95 nm. The EDX spectra showed the purity of the material and the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of O. canum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The acaricidal activities of aqueous crude leaf extracts of O. canum against the larvae of H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci have LC(50) and LC(90) values of 15.31 and 13.85 mg/L, and 62.41 and 48.86 mg/L, respectively. The efficacies of 1 mM AgNO(3) solution against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci were LC(50) = 12.25 and 12.17 mg/L, LC(90) = 49.17 and 46.52 mg/L, respectively, and the maximum efficacy was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 0.78 and 1.00 mg/L, and 1.51 and 1.68 mg/L, respectively. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach to control parasites. PMID:21789583

Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

2012-09-01

173

Acaricidal effect of herbal extracts against cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using in vitro studies.  

PubMed

The crude methanolic extract of Datura stramonium, Azadirachta indica, and Calotropis procera leaves, Allium sativum (AS) cloves, and Carica papaya (CP) seeds collected from Banaskanta, Gujarat (India) was tested for its acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The percent adult mortality within 15 days, reproductive index, percentage inhibition of oviposition, hatching of laid ova, and percentage larval mortality were studied at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml. At the highest concentration (100 mg/ml), the adult tick mortality was 66.67, 73.33, 80.00, and 93.33% for C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extracts, respectively, and it was statistically significant (P?acaricidal properties and could be a potential component of alternative R. (B.) microplus tick control strategy. PMID:24633906

Shyma, K P; Gupta, J P; Ghosh, S; Patel, K K; Singh, Veer

2014-05-01

174

Chitin in the peritrophic membrane of Acarus siro (Acari: Acaridae) as a target for novel acaricides.  

PubMed

The peritrophic membrane in Acarus siro L. (Acari: Acaridae) is produced by distinct cells located in the ventriculus. In this study, the chitin inside the peritrophic membrane was detected using wheat germ-lectin conjugated with colloidal gold (10 nm). The chitin fibrils of the peritrophic membrane were a target for chitin effectors, including 1) chitinase, which hydrolyzes chitin fibers inside the peritrophic membrane; 2) calcofluor, which binds to chitin and destroys the peritrophic membrane mesh structure; and 3) diflubenzuron, which inhibits chitin synthesis. In addition, soybean trypsin protease inhibitor (STI) and cocktails of chitinase/calcofluor, diflubenzuron/calcofluor and chitinase/STI were tested. These compounds were supplemented in diets and an increase of population initiated from 50 individuals was observed after 21 d of cultivation. Final A. siro densities on experimental and control diets were compared. The chitin in the peritrophic membrane was determined to be a suitable target for novel acaricidal compounds for suppressing the population growth of A. siro. The most effective compounds were calcofluor and diflubenzuron, whereas the suppressive effects of chitinase and STI were low. The failure of chitinase could be due to its degradation by endogenous proteases. The combination of chitinase and STI suppressed A. siro population growth more effectively than when they were tested in oral admission separately. The combinations of calcofluor/chitinase or calcofluor/difluorbenzuron showed no additive effects on final A. siro density. The presence of chitin in peritrophic membrane provides a target for novel acaricidal compounds, which disrupt peritrophic membrane structure. The suitability of chitin effectors and their practical application in the management of stored product mites is discussed. PMID:18613609

Sobotnik, Jan; Kudlikova-Krizkova, Iva; Vancova, Marie; Munzbergova, Zuzana; Hubert, Jan

2008-06-01

175

Efficacy of pheromone-acaricide-impregnated tail-tag decoys for controlling the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae), on cattle in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale field test using pheromone-acaricide-impregnated plastic tail-tag decoys demonstrated excellent efficacy of these devices for control of the bont tick,Amblyomma hebraeum, on cattle in Zimbabwe. The tail tags were impregnated with a mixture containingo-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate, 2,6-dichlorophenol and phenylacetaldehyde and one of three different acaricides (cyfluthrin, flumethrin or alphacypermethrin).o-Nitrophenol and methyl salicylate are components of theA. hebraeum attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone,

R. A. I. Norval; Daniel E. Sonenshine; Sandra A. Allan; Michael J. Burridge

1996-01-01

176

Acaricidal efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma marginatum isaaci (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including\\u000a the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The\\u000a present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles\\u000a (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract

Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

177

Ivermectin versus benzyl benzoate applied once or twice to treat human scabies in Dakar, Senegal: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To compare the effectiveness of oral ivermectin (IV) and two different modalities of topical benzyl benzoate (BB) for treating scabies in a community setting. Methods The trial included patients aged 5–65 years with scabies who attended the dermatology department at the Institut d’Hygiène Sociale in Dakar, Senegal. The randomized, open trial considered three treatments: a single application of 12.5% BB over 24 hours (BB1 group), two applications of BB, each over 24 hours (BB2 group), and oral IV, 150–200 µg/kg (IV group). The primary endpoint was the disappearance of skin lesions and itching at day 14. If necessary, treatment was repeated and patients were evaluated until cured. Results were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. A pre-planned intermediate analysis was carried out after the BB1, BB2 and IV groups had recruited 68, 48 and 65 patients, respectively. Findings At day 14, 33 patients (68.8%) in the BB2 group were cured versus 37 (54.4%) in the BB1 group and 16 (24.6%) in the IV group (P < 10–6). Bacterial superinfection occurred more often in the IV group than in the BB1 and BB2 groups combined (28% versus 7.8%, respectively; P = 0.006). At day 28, 46 patients (95.8%) in the BB2 group were cured versus 52 (76.5%) in the BB1 group and 28 (43.1%) in the IV group (P < 10–5). These clear findings prompted early study cessation. Conclusion Topical BB was clearly more effective than oral IV for treating scabies in a Senegalese community.

Caumes, Eric; Ndaw, Cheick Ahmet Tidiane; Ndiaye, Bassirou; Mahe, Antoine

2009-01-01

178

Socio-economic factors influencing the use of acaricides on livestock: a case study of the pastoralist communities of Nakasongola District, Central Uganda.  

PubMed

A study was conducted in Nakasongola district to determine socioeconomic factors that influence the use of acaricides on livestock. The information was got through focus group discussions (FGDs) and use of a questionnaire. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred households. Acaricides were used to kill ticks and biting flies which transmit diseases and cause discomfort to livestock. But to a less extent was also done for cosmetic purposes. Most of the farmers were aware of the correct acaricide dilutions as recommended by the manufacturers but they ignored them. But through trial and error came up with their own dilutions, which they said were very cost-effective. Further, they experimented on concoctions of different acaricide mixes and came up with acaricide combinations which were more effective in killing ticks and flies. Veterinarians and acaricide manufacturing companies had called this a malpractice. On the contrary, this should be treated as an innovation by farmers in their endeavour to find a cheaper sustainable method of controlling ticks and flies. Further research should therefore be done on these working "malpractices". PMID:19543802

Mugabi, Kenneth N; Mugisha, Anthony; Ocaido, Michael

2010-01-01

179

Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)  

PubMed Central

The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC 50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC 50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

2006-01-01

180

Study of semi-automated solid-phase extraction for the determination of acaricide residues in honey by liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method followed by a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure is reported for the assay of a wide polarity range acaricide residues in honey. After selection of suitable chromatographic and detection conditions, most steps of the SPE procedure that may affect to the recovery were investigated. Honey sample was buffered at pH 6 and then applied

E Korta; A Bakkali; L. A Berrueta; B Gallo; F Vicente

2001-01-01

181

Synthesis of 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-ium bromides and their in vitro acaricidal activity against Psoroptes cuniculi.  

PubMed

By employing sanguinarine, a natural active quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid, as a model molecule, a series of structurally simple quaternary 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-ium compounds were designed and synthesized and evaluated for in vitro acaricidal activity against P. cuniculi. A new approach towards the title compounds was developed with isochroman as starting material. The results showed that 22 of 24 tested compounds displayed the activity in varying degrees at 0.4 mg/mL. Fourteen compounds were significantly more effective than ivermectin, a standard acaricide, and 6-methoxy dihydrosanguinarine, a derivative of sanguinarine (p<0.05). And their comprehensive relative activity was 1.4 to 16.5 times than that of ivermectin and 1.5 to 18.8 times than that of 6-methoxy dihydrosanguinarine. The structure-activity relationship indicated that the introduction of a substituent to N-benzene ring, especially halogen atom and trifluoromethyl group, led to great improvement of the activity. The position of fluorine atom, methyl group and hydroxyl group made very significant effects on the activity. It was concluded that 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-iums are very promising candidates for the development of new isoquinoline acaricidal agents. PMID:23221611

Ma, Yan-Ni; Yang, Xin-Juan; Pan, Le; Hou, Zhe; Geng, Hui-Ling; Song, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Le; Miao, Fang

2013-01-01

182

Toxicity of acaricides to Raoiella indica and their selectivity for its predator, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is considered a pest of coconut palm in Asia and the Middle East. This mite was recently introduced in the Americas, where it spread to several countries and expanded its range of hosts, causing heavy losses to coconut and banana production. The phytoseiid mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) is one of the predators most often encountered in coconut palms. Because the current prospects for the control of R. indica in the New World indicate the use of acaricides and the management of their natural enemies, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of selected acaricides to R. indica and the selectivity (i.e., toxicity to the predator relative to toxicity to the prey) for A. largoensis. Assays were performed by the immersion of banana leaf discs in acaricide solutions, followed by the placing of adult females of the pest or predator on the discs. Mortality of the mites was evaluated after 24 h, and the data obtained were subjected to probit analysis. Abamectin, fenpyroximate, milbemectin and spirodiclofen were the products most toxic to R. indica adults, whereas fenpyroximate and spirodiclofen were the most selective for A. largoensis. PMID:23229493

de Assis, Carla P O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Gondim, Manoel G C

2013-07-01

183

Acaricide Treatment Affects Viral Dynamics in Varroa destructor-Infested Honey Bee Colonies via both Host Physiology and Mite Control  

PubMed Central

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed.

Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R.

2012-01-01

184

Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.  

PubMed

In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light). PMID:20218530

Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

2009-01-01

185

Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), ?-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and ?-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 ?l/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 ?l/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, ?-humulene and ?-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to ?-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed. PMID:22415244

Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

2012-06-01

186

Acaricidal efficacy against cattle ticks and acute oral toxicity of Lippia javanica (Burm F.) Spreng.  

PubMed

In search for low-cost, safe and environmentally benign plant-based alternatives to commercial pesticides, the efficacy of Lippia javanica aqueous leaf extracts in controlling ticks on cattle, acute oral toxicity in mice and phytochemistry were evaluated. L. javanica aqueous leaf extracts at 10% and 20% w/v were effective at controlling cattle ticks but not as good as an amitraz-based acaricide Tickbuster. However, they can provide an effective tick control option where synthetic products are unavailable or unaffordable, particularly in remote parts of southern Africa. Peripheral blood samples collected showed no haemoparasites in treated cattle implying that animals did not suffer from clinical tick-borne diseases. The leaf aqueous extracts of L. javanica were tested for toxicity in BALB/c mice. While anecdotal evidence suggests L. javanica has low mammalian toxicity, within 48 h all mice fed with the L. javanica leaf aqueous extract at 12.5-37.5% v/v were lethargic, and overall mortality was 37.5% (n = 24). Thus, despite their apparent safety, water extracts of L. javanica leaves may have deleterious health implications on humans and animals if consumed at very high doses. Many compounds have been identified from L. javanica including an array of phenolic glycosides, flavonoids and essential oils but none of these are known to have acute toxic properties. PMID:20978842

Madzimure, James; Nyahangare, Emmanuel T; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Hove, Thokozani; Stevenson, Philip C; Belmain, Steve R; Mvumi, Brighton M

2011-02-01

187

Acaricidal activity of spinosad and abamectin against two-spotted spider mites.  

PubMed

Spinosad is a bioinsecticide with a high degree of selective toxicity towards insects of different orders, but its toxicity towards the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is under debate. In this study, we compared the acaricidal properties of spinosad with the commercial bioacaricide abamectin on the life stages of TSSM. Adulticide and ovicide bioassays were performed on a susceptible laboratory strain using direct spraying of leaf disks with five rates of spinosad (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 mg/l), five rates of abamectin (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2.5 mg/l), sublethal concentrations or a combination of spinosad and abamectin. Both adulticidal and ovicidal effects of spinosad against T. urticae in the laboratory were apparent, based on morality rates of the adults, reduction of female fecundity and death of offspring. Abamectin was also found to significantly reduce female fecundity and killed offspring when applied directly on the eggs. Interestingly, sublethal concentrations of spinosad reduced female fecundity stronger than abamectin. When a mixture of spinosad and abamectin was applied at LC50, mortality was 74%, fecundity reduction was comparable to abamectin alone and egg hatching rate was lower than by either compound alone. In conclusion, spinosad was more harmful than abamectin for TSSM life stages and the combined application is recommended. PMID:17899400

Ismail, Manal S M; Soliman, Maha F M; El Naggar, Moustafa H; Ghallab, Mona M

2007-01-01

188

Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

2011-01-01

189

Toxicity and efficacy of selected pesticides and new acaricides to stored product mites (Acari: Acaridida).  

PubMed

Stored product mites can often infest stored products, but currently there is little information regarding the efficacy of pesticides that can be used for control. In this study we evaluated several common pesticides formulated from single active ingredients (a.i.) or commercially available mixtures (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, and a combination of deltamethrin and S-bioallethrin), plus an acaricide composed of permethrin, pyriproxyfen and benzyl benzolate, for efficacy against Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. The pesticides were incorporated into the mite diets in a dose range of 10-1000 microg a.i. g(-1) diet. Concentrations for suppression of 50 and 90% population growth and eradication (rC0) of mites were fit to linear regression models. None of the tested pesticides gave complete eradication of A. siro, which was the most tolerant of the three mite species tested. The most effective pesticide Allergoff 175 CS was a combination product (a nano-capsule suspension of permethrin, pyriproxyfen and benzyl benzolate) labeled for dust mites, with rC0 range of 463-2453 microg a.i. (permethrin) g(-1) diet depending on the species. Least effective were chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin. PMID:17674127

Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Vaclav; Munzbergova, Zuzana; Hajslova, Jana; Arthur, Frank H

2007-01-01

190

Comparison of safety, efficacy, and cost effectiveness of benzyl benzoate, permethrin, and ivermectin in patients of scabies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare three treatment modalities in scabies for safety, efficacy, and economy in a local population of Nagpur. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, comparative clinical trial conducted in 103 participants, randomly allocated to three groups. First group received benzyl benzoate (BB) 25% lotion, second group received permethrin 5% cream, whereas third group received tablet ivermectin 200 ?g/kg as a single dose. The participants were recalled after one week for follow-up evaluation. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated. The participants were followed up for two weeks for cure rate, adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring, and postintervention observation. The follow-up was stopped after two weeks. Statistics: Fischer's exact test using Graph pad Instat v 3.05. Results: Ivermectin showed 100% cure rate after two weeks of treatment. Permethrin decreased pruritus by 76% at the end of one week and had significantly better cure rate than ivermectin. At the end of two weeks treatment, this finding was reversed, that is, cure rate in ivermectin group was 100%. For cost-effectiveness analysis, treatment regimens were formulated hypothetically for comparison from Markov population tree for decision analysis. It was found that BB and ivermectin each consecutively for two weeks were most cost effective regimens giving complete cure in four weeks, while ivermectin was the fastest regimen giving the same results in two weeks. Conclusion: Benzyl benzoate as first line intervention and ivermectin in the remaining gave best cost-effective results in the study patients of scabies.

Bachewar, Narendra P.; Thawani, Vijay R.; Mali, Smita N.; Gharpure, Kunda J.; Shingade, Vaishali P.; Dakhale, Ganesh N.

2009-01-01

191

In-Vitro Assessment of the Acaricidal Properties of Artemisia annua and Zataria multiflora Essential Oils to Control Cattle Ticks  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect’ of Zataria multiflora and Artemisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Methods This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3) of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus) annulatus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were recorded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi). Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, and comparison of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure. Results The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3) to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3) and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively) by the end of the experiment (36 hpi). No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. annua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essential oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged female ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent. Conclusion Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro.

Pirali-Kheirabadi, KH; Teixeira da Silva, JA

2011-01-01

192

Acaricidal activity of Thymus vulgaris oil and its main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored food mite.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of compounds derived from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) oil against Tyrophagus putrescentiae were assessed using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay, and were compared with those of the synthetic acaricides, benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. The observed responses differed according to dosage and chemical components. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) value of the T. vulgaris oil against T. putrescentiae was 10.2 microg/cm2. Biologically active constituents derived from T. vulgaris oil were purified by using silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of acaricidal components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, 1H-13C COSY-NMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were subsequently identified as carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol was the most toxic compound with LD50 values (4.5 microg/cm2) significantly different from thymol (11.1 microg/cm2), benzyl benzoate (11.3 microg/cm2), and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (13.9 microg/cm2). Linalool was as toxic as was N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. The lower LD50 of carvacrol indicates that it may be the major contributor of the toxicity of T. vulagaris oil against the stored food mite, although it only constitutes 14.2% of the oil. From this point of view, carvacrol and thymol can be very useful as potential control agents against stored food mite. PMID:18326186

Jeong, E Y; Lim, J H; Kim, H G; Lee, H S

2008-02-01

193

Acaricidal activities of major constituents of essential oil of Juniperus chinensis leaves against house dust and stored food mites.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of major constituents from the oil of Juniperus chinensis (var. globosa) leaves were compared with those of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) by using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Toxicity varied with doses as well as chemical composition. The 50% lethal doses (LD50) of J. chinensis oil against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae were 21.60, 19.89, and 38.10 microg/cm2, respectively. The active constituent was purified using silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The acaricidal component was identified as bomyl acetate through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-13C shift correlation spectrum-NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer-NMR. The LD50 of bornyl acetate (2.94 microg/cm2) against D. farinae was significantly lower than those of DEET (37.13 microg/cm2) and alpha-eudesmol (29.72 microg/cm2). Similar results were observed when bomyl acetate and alpha-eudesmol were tested against D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae. The lower LD50 of bornyl acetate indicates that it may be responsible for the major acaricidal activity against house dust and stored food mites, even though it constitutes only 19.5% of J. chinensis oil. Overall, these findings indicated that bornyl acetate and c-eudesmol have potential for use as control agents against house dust and stored food mites. PMID:19722401

Lee, Chi-Hoon; Park, Joon-Moh; Song, Ha-Yun; Jeong, Eun-Young; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2009-08-01

194

Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from three Lamiaceae plant species on Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal effects of three Labiatae essential oils extracted from ariel parts of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus, Mentha longifolia L., and Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 1-0.1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae. PMID:22581297

Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Ayd?n, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

2012-10-01

195

CYP9Q-mediated detoxification of acaricides in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)  

PubMed Central

Although Apis mellifera, the western honey bee, has long encountered pesticides when foraging in agricultural fields, for two decades it has encountered pesticides in-hive in the form of acaricides to control Varroa destructor, a devastating parasitic mite. The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate and the organophosphate coumaphos have been used for Varroa control, with little knowledge of honey bee detoxification mechanisms. Cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification contributes to pyrethroid tolerance in many insects, but specific P450s responsible for pesticide detoxification in honey bees (indeed, in any hymenopteran pollinator) have not been defined. We expressed and assayed CYP3 clan midgut P450s and demonstrated that CYP9Q1, CYP9Q2, and CYP9Q3 metabolize tau-fluvalinate to a form suitable for further cleavage by the carboxylesterases that also contribute to tau-fluvalinate tolerance. These in vitro assays indicated that all of the three CYP9Q enzymes also detoxify coumaphos. Molecular models demonstrate that coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate fit into the same catalytic pocket, providing a possible explanation for the synergism observed between these two compounds. Induction of CYP9Q2 and CYP9Q3 transcripts by honey extracts suggested that diet-derived phytochemicals may be natural substrates and heterologous expression of CYP9Q3 confirmed activity against quercetin, a flavonoid ubiquitous in honey. Up-regulation by honey constituents suggests that diet may influence the ability of honey bees to detoxify pesticides. Quantitative RT-PCR assays demonstrated that tau-fluvalinate enhances CYP9Q3 transcripts, whereas the pyrethroid bifenthrin enhances CYP9Q1 and CYP9Q2 transcripts and represses CYP9Q3 transcripts. The independent regulation of these P450s can be useful for monitoring and differentiating between pesticide exposures in-hive and in agricultural fields.

Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A.; Berenbaum, May R.

2011-01-01

196

Laboratory assessment of acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera extracts against deltamethrin resistant Hyalomma anatolicum.  

PubMed

Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, in the multi-host tick Hyalomma anatolicum collected from district Moga, Punjab (India). Results indicated the presence of level I resistance against deltamethrin (RF = 2.81), whereas the tick isolate was susceptible to cypermethrin (RF = 0.2). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera along with roots of Vitex negundo were assessed for their acaricidal activity against the larvae of deltamethrin resistant H. anatolicum. The efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent larval mortality and determination of LC50 values. The various ethanolic extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in larval tick mortality, whereas the aqueous extracts exhibited a much lower mortality. The highest mortality (93.7 ± 0.66 %) was observed at the 5.0 % concentration of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus and the lowest LC50 value (0.011 %) was recorded for ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo. The results indicated that these plant extracts have potential to be developed as herbal acaricides. PMID:24647800

Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

2014-07-01

197

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry determination of acaricides from honey after a new fast ultrasonic-based solid phase micro-extraction sample treatment.  

PubMed

A method is reported for the determination of acaricides (amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos and fluvalinate) from honey by gas chromatography mass spectrometry after a new fast solid phase micro-extraction, SPME, procedure. Six different fibers were assessed for micro-extraction purpose studying the following variables: (i) SPME coating, (ii) extraction temperature, (iii) extraction time, (iv) desorption conditions and (v) agitation conditions. The new ultrasonic bath technology providing different sonication frequencies (35 and 130kHz) and different working modes (Sweep, Standard and Degas) was studied and optimized for speeding up the acaricide micro-extraction. The best extraction results were achieved with the polyacrylate fiber. The extraction process was done in 30min using the ultrasonic bath at 130kHz in the Standard mode. Quality parameters of the proposed method show a good precision (<11%) and detection and quantitation limits lower than 6 and 15ng/g, respectively, except for fluvalinate. Eleven Portuguese commercial honey samples were analyzed with the developed method in order to assess the performance of the method with real samples and to determine whether the concentration of acaricides in honey exceed their maximum residue levels (MRLs). Acaricide residues detected were lower than those established by the legislation. PMID:19071541

Rial-Otero, R; Gaspar, E M; Moura, I; Capelo, J L

2007-03-30

198

In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of computer-selected analogues of carvacrol and salicylic acid on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick that causes huge economic losses in cattle. The indiscriminate use of acaricides has generated resistance to most compounds present on the market. This makes further investigation on other potential acaricides necessary, the in silico assay being an alternative to the design of new compounds. In the present study a biosilico assay was performed using TOMOCOMD-CARDD (TOpological MOlecular COMputer Design-Computer-Aided Rational Drug Design) and WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software. Two carvacrol and four salicylic acid derivatives, synthesized by conventional methods and evaluated with the larval packet test on larvae of R. (B.) microplus were selected. All evaluated compounds presented acaricidal activity; however, ethyl 2-methoxybenzoate (91.8 ± 1.7 % mortality) and ethyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (89.1 ± 1.6 % mortality) showed greater activity than salicylic acid. With regard to the carvacrol analogues, carvacrol acetate (67.8 ± 2.1 % mortality) and carvacrol methyl ether (71.7 ± 1.6 % mortality) also showed greater activity than carvacrol (35.9 ± 3.2 % mortality). TOMOCOMD-CARDD and WEKA software were helpful tools in the search for alternative structures with potential acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23543288

Concepción, Ramírez L; Froylán, Ibarra V; Herminia I, Pérez M; Norberto, Manjarrez A; Héctor J, Salgado Z; Yeniel, González C

2013-10-01

199

Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)  

PubMed Central

Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5?minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0?mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5?minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus.

2012-01-01

200

Preliminary study on the acaricidal efficacy of spinosad administered orally to dogs infested with the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinosad is a novel mode of action insecticide and acaricide derived from a family of natural compounds produced from fermentation of the actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Although spinosad has been shown to have rapid knockdown and 1 month of residual efficacy against fleas (Ctenocephalides spp.) following oral administration in dogs, potential activity against ticks infesting dogs has not been determined. To

Daniel E. Snyder; Larry R. Cruthers; Robyn L. Slone

2009-01-01

201

Acaricidal activity of extract of Artemisia absinthium against Rhipicephalus sanguineus of dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of chloroform extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test (EHT) and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. A control group was established (water + dimethylsulphoxide) together with a positive control group (amitraz), with three repetitions each. In AIT, the mortality rates were 0.0, 13.3, 16.7, 33.3 and 93.3 % in concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %, respectively, and the variation was significant (p=0.0151). The LC50 (CI) and LC95 (CI) values were calculated as 8.793 % (8.217-9.408) and 34.59 % (29.71-40.26), respectively. The egg production was reduced by 6.6, 6.6, 18.3, 42.5 and 85.1 % in the concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %, respectively, and it was statistically significant (p=0.0274). In EHT, hatching was completely inhibited at 5, 10 and 20 % displaying 100 % ovicidal action while at the concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 %, the inhibition rates were 20 and 60 %, respectively. In LPT, the extract caused 100 % mortality of larvae in the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 % after 24 h while at the concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 %, the mortality rates were 54.3 and 96.7 %, respectively. The LC50 (CI) and LC95 (CI) values were determined to be 1.11 % (1.099-1.121) and 2.37 % (2.328-2.423), respectively. The results show that the extract of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling R. sanguineus which is an efficient vector of pathogens both in dogs and humans. PMID:24288053

Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Raghuvanshi, P; Singh, N K

2014-02-01

202

Cloning, sequencing, and regulation of expression of an extracellular esterase gene from the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies.  

PubMed Central

The gene that encodes the extracellular esterase produced by Streptomyces scabies has been cloned and sequenced. The gene was identified by hybridization to a synthetic oligonucleotide that corresponds to the amino-terminal amino acid sequence determined for the secreted form of the esterase. Nucleotide sequence analysis predicted a 345-amino-acid open reading frame, a putative ribosome-binding site, and 39 amino acids at the amino terminus of the sequence that is not found in the secreted protein. This 39-amino-acid sequence has many of the characteristics common to known signal peptides. End mapping the esterase transcript revealed a single 5' end of the mRNA located 51 nucleotides upstream from the start point for translation. Northern (RNA) hybridization analysis of the esterase message by using the cloned esterase gene as a probe indicated that the esterase mRNA is about 1,440 nucleotides in length and was detected only when the cells were grown in the presence of zinc. These results suggest that the level of esterase mRNA detected in the cells is regulated by zinc. Images

Raymer, G; Willard, J M; Schottel, J L

1990-01-01

203

Comparison of in vitro acaricidal effects of commercial preparations of cypermethrin and fenvalerate against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.  

PubMed

Commercially available preparations of cypermethrin (Clinar and Ectomin) and fenvalerate (Flytik and Ticomax, 20% E.C) were compared for their acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus using adult immersion test. Adult tick mortality was higher with Ectomin compared to Clinar. Complete eclosion blocking was observed at all the tested concentrations with Ectomin while it was observed only at the highest concentration tested for Clinar. Compared to Flytik, adult tick mortality was higher with Ticomax at the tested concentrations. Complete blocking of hatching of laid ova was observed with Flytik at the highest concentration tested. At the manufacture recommended dosage of 200 ppm Ectomin elicited 93.37 per cent inhibition of fecundity, while it was 91.7 per cent for Clinar. For fenvalerate, the recommended concentration was 1200 ppm at which Ticomax showed 86 per cent and Flytik produced 80.05 per cent inhibition of fecundity respectively. PMID:24570856

Ravindran, Reghu; Ramankutty, Sunil Athalathil; Juliet, Sanis; Palayullaparambil, Adarsh Krishna Thumadath; Gopi, Jyothimol; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar Karapparambu; Nair, Suresh Narayanan; Ghosh, Srikanta

2014-01-01

204

Residue distribution of the acaricide coumaphos in honey following application of a new slow-release formulation.  

PubMed

Acaricide used in beehives for the control of varroa often leaves residues in bee products. The behaviour and distribution of the acaricide coumaphos in honey following the application of a new slow-release strip formulation (CheckMite+) was assessed. The bee colonies were allowed to build new combs without foundation, and two strips were hung in the brood chamber of each colony for a period of 42 days. The distribution of coumaphos residues in honey in relation to the position of the frame and the duration of treatment was examined by collecting samples from each comb at various time intervals up to 145 days after treatment. In the brood chamber, coumaphos was incorporated into honey from the first day of application, and residues accumulated mainly in combs placed next to strips. In the adjacent combs, residues remained at low concentrations with slight variations. In the honey chamber, residue concentrations on the day of strip removal ranged between 0.006 and 0.020 mg kg(-1), while 79 days after application the concentration of coumaphos residues was below 0.020 mg kg(-1). Residues above the EC fixed maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.1 mg kg(-1) were measured only in brood chamber honey obtained from those combs placed next to strips. In these samples, 0.060-0.111 mg kg(-1) of coumaphos was detected up to 103 days after strip removal. Coumaphos residues in honey extracted from combs that were placed at the edge of the brood chamber were found below the MRL value, even during the 42 day period of CheckMite+ strip treatment. PMID:18069655

Karazafiris, Emmanuel; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas

2008-02-01

205

Seasonal and spatial distribution of ixodid tick species feeding on naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria and the influence of acaricides/repellents on these parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Effective control of tick infestation and pathogen transmission requires profound knowledge of tick biology in view of their vector function. The particular time of the year when the different tick species start to quest and the favoured sites on the canine host are of major interest. The efficacy of acaricides/repellents to control ticks in the field requires observation. Methods To address these issues, 90 dogs, grouped in “untreated”, “acaricide/repellent” (permethrin) and “acaricide only” (fipronil) animals and subjected to tick infestation under natural conditions in Burgenland (Eastern Austria), were examined. The number and species of ticks occurring during and outside the protection time was evaluated during a period of 11?months and the biting location on the dogs’ skin was recorded. Results Of the 700 ticks collected, the most common species in that particular walking area was Ixodes ricinus, followed by Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna. Regarding the on-host activity, D. reticulatus displayed more infestations in early spring and late autumn, whereas I. ricinus occurred almost one month later in spring and one month earlier in autumn. H. concinna followed a monophasic pattern of activity with a peak in summer. The preferred feeding sites of the ticks on the dogs were on the head, neck, shoulder and chest. This distribution over the dog’s body was not influenced by the use of the drugs, although on the whole fewer ticks (22.5% of all ticks) were found during the protection time. Interestingly, differences occurred with the use of drugs compared to non-protected dogs with regard to the infestation over the year. Acaricide-treated dogs displayed a higher prevalence in April, May and September, whereas dogs of the acaricide/repellent group showed a higher infestation in March, July, October and November. Conclusion The different tick species display different on-dog activity peaks over the year, during which particular canine diseases can be expected and predicted, considering the specific incubation times for each pathogen. The tick species occurring in this study do not seem to choose particular sites on the dogs. Their arrival place seems to represent the attachment and consequently the feeding sites. The use of acaricides leads to a significantly (p<0.01) lower number of infesting ticks but no change of the distribution pattern on the dogs was observed.

2013-01-01

206

Acaricidal activity of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae) essential oil and its major component, carvacrol against adults Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of an essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae), an endemic species in Turkey, and its major constituents, carvacrol was evaluated against unfed adults Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Kepez, Antalya. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. The major compound identified in the oil was carvacrol (93.02%). Generally, tick mortalities to the O. bilgeri distillate and carvacrol increased with concentrations. O. bilgeri oil produced >83% mortality at 48h at a concentration of 0.8% and mortality was higher than 63% at a carvacrol concentration of 0.4%. Our results have shown that O. bilgeri essential oil and its major component, carvacrol, may have potential as acaricidal agents against R. turanicus. PMID:23218220

Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Aydin, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

2013-03-31

207

Influence of long-term exposure to simulated acid rain on development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduvals) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated after long-term (about 40 generations) exposure to various levels of acid rain; pH 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.6. Deionized water (pH 6.8) served as a control. The mites were reared on eggplant leaves at 28°C, 80%RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) in the laboratory. The results

Jin-Jun Wang; Jian-Ping Zhang; Lin He; Zhi-Mo Zhao

2006-01-01

208

Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether extract of neem oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography was diluted at different concentrations with liquid paraffin. The acaricidal bioassay was conducted using a dipping method. The results indicated that the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (at the concentration of 500.0ml/l) was 70.9ml/l, 24h after treatment. At concentrations of 500.0, 250.0, 125.0, 62.5 and 31.2ml/l, the median lethal times (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract were 8.7, 8.8, 10.8, 11.5 and 13.1h, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the petroleum ether extract of neem oil separated into four fractions (F1-F4). Acaricidal activity of 68.3% and 100.0% in the F2 and F4 was confirmed. These results suggest that petroleum ether extracts of neem oil and its four fractions possess useful acaricidal activity in vitro. PMID:22349080

Deng, Yunxia; Shi, Dongxia; Yin, Zhongqiong; Guo, Jianhong; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Lv, Cheng; Fan, Qiaojia; Liang, Xiaoxia; Shi, Fei; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Wei

2012-04-01

209

9 CFR 73.12 - Ivermectin. 1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.12 Ivermectin...veterinarian.â (a) Cattle affected with scabies or which just prior to movement were affected with or exposed to scabies may be moved interstate from a...

2010-01-01

210

9 CFR 73.12 - Ivermectin.1  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.12 Ivermectin.1 (a) Cattle affected with scabies or which just prior to movement were affected with or exposed to scabies may be moved interstate from a...

2009-01-01

211

In vitro acaricidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts with known azadirachtin concentrations against Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

The effect of four extracts from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) containing 2000, 5000, 9000 and 10,000 ppm of azadirachtin A (AZA), quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diluted to 1.25%; 2.5%; 5.0%; 10.0% and 12.8% was verified by in vitro tests with engorged females and larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The results from the bioassays with the engorged females showed that the main toxic effect of the extracts was reduction of the reproductive parameters, with a sharp drop in the number of eggs laid and the hatching rate, mainly when the extracts were diluted to 10.0% and 12.8%. The product effectiveness (PE) calculations for all the solutions tested showed that the AZA solution at 10,000 ppm (N10) was the most effective. However, statistical analysis of the PE data obtained for the proportional AZA concentrations in the different diluted extracts showed significance (P<0.05) of the effects included in the model (extract dilution, principle effect (classificatory) of the assay (extract) and the interaction between the two), indicating significant variations due to the dilution, the test and the interaction between the two factors in the tests with engorged females. For solutions N2, N5, and N9, it was not possible to estimate LC(90) values in the dilution range tested. The lowest LC(50) was observed for extract N5, and although extract N10 was the only extract for which the LC(90) could be estimated within the range tested, the LC(50) was higher than for N5 and N9. These results suggest that substances other than AZA present in the extracts influenced the efficacy, especially up to a certain LC range. In the tests with larvae, no mortality was observed, indicating zero effectiveness of all the extracts tested. The results of the tests with engorged females showed that the neem extracts had acaricide activity, inhibiting egg laying and the larval hatching rate. Complementary studies are necessary to develop new methods to isolate and/or identify other substances besides AZA contained in this plant, to enable using products made from it as acaricides. PMID:21536387

Giglioti, R; Forim, M R; Oliveira, H N; Chagas, A C S; Ferrezini, J; Brito, L G; Falcoski, T O R S; Albuquerque, L G; Oliveira, M C S

2011-09-27

212

Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Moga, Punjab (India) was carried out using larval packet test. Results indicated the presence of resistance of level I and III against cypermethrin (resistance factors (RF) = 4.67) and deltamethrin (RF = 34.2), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo, and Withania somnifera along with roots of V. negundo against the SP resistant engorged females of R. (B.) microplus. The efficacy of various extracts was assessed by estimation of percent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), percent inhibition of oviposition (%IO), and hatching rate. A concentration dependent increase in tick mortality was recorded which was more marked with various ethanolic extracts, and highest mortality was recorded in ticks treated with ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus. The LC50 values were determined by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality for various aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Acaricidal property was recorded to be higher in ethanolic extracts, and high activity was found with the ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus with LC50 (95% CL) values of 0.46% (0.35-0.59%), followed by W. somnifera as 5.21% (4.45-6.09%) and V. negundo as 7.02% (4.58-10.74%). The egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the various extract was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the RI and the %IO value of the treated ticks were reduced. Further, complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo and aqueous extracts of leaves of W. somnifera. The results of the current study indicate that extracts of C. winterianus, V. negundo, and W. somnifera can be used for the control of SP resistant ticks. PMID:24178747

Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

2014-01-01

213

Acaricide and ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican tropics.  

PubMed

In the Neotropics the control of tick infestations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. In Mexico, resistance to one or multiple classes of acaricides has been reported in Rhipicephalus microplus infesting cattle, but information on acaricide susceptibility in R. microplus infesting red deer is lacking. In this study we report the level of resistance to different classes of acaricides and ivermectin in R. microplus collected from red deer in the Mexican tropics. Engorged R. microplus females were collected from a red deer farm in Yucatan, Mexico. The larval packet test was used to detect resistance to the organophosphates (OPs) chlorpyrifos and coumaphos, synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) cypermethrin and permethrin, and the phenylpyrazol, fipronil. Resistance to the formamidine amitraz (Am), and ivermectin was ascertained using the larval immersion test. Data were subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentrations and resistance ratios to kill 50% (RR50) and 99% (RR99) of the tick population under evaluation in relation to susceptible reference strains. Additionally, allele specific polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus. The R. microplus population from red deer in Yucatan showed very high resistance to the two SPs evaluated (RRs>72.2 for cypermethrin; RR for permethrin resistance was so high a dose-response curve was not possible). All individual larvae tested to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus were homozygous. The same tick population showed different levels of resistance to OPs (chlorpyrifos: RR50=1.55, RR99=0.63; coumaphos: RR50=6.8, RR99=5.9), fipronil (RR50=1.8, RR99=0.9), and amitraz (RR50=2.3, RR99=4.4). Resistance to ivermectin was regarded as moderate (RR50=7.1, RR99=5.0). This is the first report of R. microplus ticks collected from red deer in Mexico with different levels of resistance to four acaricide groups and ivermectin. PMID:24365245

Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Miller, R J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Pérez de León, A A

2014-02-24

214

In vitro tests for evaluation of the hatchability of the eggs of Psoroptes mites following exposure to acaricidal compounds.  

PubMed

Three in vitro assays for the evaluation of the hatchability of the eggs of the mite Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae) are described. Preliminary trials showed that hatching occurs at very high rates when eggs are incubated under conditions of high humidity, on a liquid medium and in agarose dishes. These three protocols were compared, taking into account the ease of preparation, follow-up and accuracy of counting. The best protocol was found to be the use of agarose dishes. It was accurate, easy to carry out and reproducible for further evaluation of existing or potentially new compounds against both adults and eggs of Psoroptes spp. The acaricidal properties of phoxim and amitraz were then evaluated against eggs and adults using the three protocols. Results showed that for both drugs, in vitro adulticidal activity was complete, whereas the in vitro ovicidal activity was only partial. Nevertheless, efficacy of amitraz against both adults and eggs was shown to be higher than that of phoxim. PMID:16608494

Lekimme, M; Mignon, B; Leclipteux, T; Tombeux, S; Marechal, F; Losson, B

2006-03-01

215

Syringe test (modified larval immersion test): a new bioassay for testing acaricidal activity of plant extracts against Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

We report a new bioassay "syringe test" (modified larval immersion test) for in vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of crude plant extracts. Prepared syringes, containing eggs of tick, were incubated until 14 d after hatching of eggs, when the bioassay was performed on the larvae. Lethal concentrations for 50% of larvae (LC(50)), LC(90) and LC(99) values were calculated for each tested product. 95% confidence intervals for LC(50) were very narrow, indicating a high degree of repeatability for the new bioassay on larvae of R. microplus. Bioassays were applied to six crude aqueous-methanol extracts from five plants (Acacia nilotica, Buxus papillosa, Fumaria parviflora, Juniperus excelsa, and Operculina turpethum), of which three showed discernible effects. Twenty-four hours post exposure, LC(99) values were 11.9% (w/v) for F. parviflora, 20.8% (w/v) and 29.2% (w/v) for B. papillosa and A. nilotica, respectively. After six days of exposure these values were; 9.1% (w/v), 9.2% (w/v) and 15.5 (w/v) for F. parviflora, A. nilotica and B. papillosa, respectively. PMID:22516644

Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Iqbal, Zafar

2012-09-10

216

On minimal exposed faces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider the problem of the non-empty intersection of exposed faces in a Banach space. We find a sufficient condition to assure that the non-empty intersection of exposed faces is an exposed face. This condition involves the concept of inner point. Finally, we also prove that every minimal face of the unit ball must be an extreme point and show that this is not the case at all for minimal exposed faces since we prove that every Banach space with dimension greater than or equal to 2 can be equivalently renormed to have a non-singleton, minimal exposed face.

García-Pacheco, Francisco Javier

2011-10-01

217

Acaricidal activity of essential oil from Lippia sidoides on unengorged larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The aims of this work were to identify the compounds and to investigate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Lippia sidoides for unengorged larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma cajennense. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In total, 22 compounds comprising 98.5% of the total peak area were identified. The major constituent of the essential oil was thymol (69.9%). The acaricidal activity against larvae and nymphs was assessed using a modified larval packet test. In all experiments, oils were tested at concentrations of 2.35, 4.70, 9.40 14.10 and 18.80 mg/mL. The mortalities of larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus were 20.6, 47.8, 73.6, 99.5 and 99.0% and 12.0, 50.0, 76.3, 96.0 and 96.1%, respectively. For larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense the rates of mortality were 41.9, 63.3, 77.8, 82.5 and 100.0% and 0.0, 32.8, 64.8, 71.1 and 94.0%, respectively. The LC 90 values of the L. sidoides oil were 11.56 and 12.97 mg/mL for larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus and 15.70 and 18.52 mg/mL for larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense, respectively. The essential oil from L. sidoides has acaricidal activity on unengorged larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus and A. cajennense. PMID:24333789

Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Julião, Lisieux de Santana; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Zeringóta, Viviane; Calmon, Fernanda; Matos, Renata da Silva; Daemon, Erik; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de

2014-02-01

218

Erratum to: the acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.  

PubMed

The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5%) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC?? and LC?? were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT?? and LT?? were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25%). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC?? and LC?? values were 0.0033 and 0.0052% (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT?? and LT?? values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.0025% DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5%), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.005 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42% after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28%) when compared with that of DMT (52%). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT. PMID:23955563

Khater, Hanem F; Seddiek, Shaker A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Ali, Ali M

2013-10-01

219

Travelers' Health: Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Travelers' Health All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Travelers' Health: Travel Safe, Travel Smart Share Compartir Chapter 3 ...

220

Scabies: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... permission of the American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides. References: Chosidow O. Clinical ... T U V W X Y Z Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Site map Home Copyright © ...

221

Use of polymerase chain reaction: Restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect acaricidal resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in Boophilus microplus ticks of South India  

PubMed Central

Background: Boophilus microplus is an important ectoparasite of livestock. Apart from transmitting diseases, heavy tick burden can decrease production and damage hides. The synthetic pyrethroids which are advantageous over other acaricides for treatment of this infestation are now losing their efficacy due to development of resistant strains of ticks. Materials and Methods: Boophilus microplus ticks with a previous history of acaricidal treatment especially synthetic pyrethroids (SP) such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin were randomly collected from different pockets of four Southern States of India namely Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Puducherry from cattle. Deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from pooled adult B. microplus tick from each State was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect point mutation in carboxyl esterase gene. Results: A product size of 372 bp was obtained for cattle tick samples collected from all over Southern States of India. Conclusions: B. microplus ticks found in Southern part of India are not resistant to commonly used SP.

Cattavarayane, Mathivathani; Basith, Abdul; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi

2013-01-01

222

Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), ?-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides. PMID:20865426

Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

2011-02-01

223

Acaricidal activities of whole cell suspension, cell-free supernatant, and crude cell extract of Xenorhabdus stokiae against mushroom mite (Luciaphorus sp.)*  

PubMed Central

Xenorhabdus bacterium has been used as a biological control agent against Luciaphorus sp., a mushroom mite endemic in Thailand. To develop an effective formulation of Xenorhabdus stokiae, treatments using different parts of X. stokiae isolate PB09 culture, including whole cell suspension, cell-free supernatant, and crude cell extract, were performed. The results show that different parts of X. stokiae isolate PB09 culture could induce variable effects on mite mortality and fecundity. Application with cell-free supernatant of X. stokiae culture resulted in both the highest mite mortality rate [(89.00±3.60)%] and the lowest mite fecundity [(41.33±23.69) eggs/gravid female]. Whole cell suspension of X. stokiae isolate PB09 culture was found to be slightly less effective than its cell-free supernatant, suggesting that X. stokiae was more likely to release its metabolites with acaricidal activities to the surrounding culture media. Crude cell extract of X. stokiae was not effective against mites. Cell-free supernatant of X. stokiae isolate PB09 was the most effective biological control agent and it could be conveniently used in future formulations instead of live bacteria.

Bussaman, Prapassorn; Sa-Uth, Chirayu; Rattanasena, Paweena; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

2012-01-01

224

Chemical characterization and acaricide potential of essential oil from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806).  

PubMed

Rhipicephalus sanguineus, commonly known as the brown dog tick, is one of the most widely distributed species of tick. In dogs, it can cause anemia and provide the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma platys, and Mycoplasma haemocanis. To man, it can transmit the intracellular parasites Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, the causative agents of the Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the Americas and Mediterranean and spotted fever in Europe and North Africa. Its control is performed by applying synthetic formulations composed of pyrethroids; however, continued use of these products results in environmental damage and acquisition of resistance. Alternatively, studies with botanical insecticides have been increasingly recurrent. Therefore, this study aimed to test the efficacy of essential oil of Tagetes patula, a ruderal species widely described in the literature for its insecticidal properties, in engorged females of R. sanguineus by the adults immersion test (AIT) and impregnated paper disk test (IPDT). The essential oil used, through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, revealed the presence of 55 compounds, being the 4-vinyl guaiacol and gamma terpinene the majority ones. The AIT compared to the IPDT was more efficient in inhibiting oviposition of tick; however, the eggs laid by the females submitted to saturated atmosphere with essential oil, from IPDT, not hatched, interrupted their development cycle. Besides being a pioneer work, the results presented here contributes to new researches, aiming the incorporation of essential oil in an acaricide for use in the environment. PMID:23508761

Politi, Flávio Augusto Sanches; de Souza-Moreira, Tatiana Maria; Rodrigues, Edvânio Ramos; de Queiroz, Geisiany Maria; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Januário, Ana Helena; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues

2013-06-01

225

Acaricidal and oviposition deterring effects of santalol identified in sandalwood oil against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Thirty-four plant essential oils were screened for their acaricidal and oviposition deterrent activities against two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), in the laboratory using a leaf-dip bioassay. From initial trials, sandalwood and common thyme oils were observed to be the most effective against TSSM adult females. Subsequent trials confirmed that only sandalwood oil was significantly active (87.2 ± 2.9% mortality) against TSSM adult females. Sandalwood oil also demonstrated oviposition deterring effects based on a 89.3% reduction of the total number of eggs on leaf disks treated with the oil. GC-MS analysis revealed that the main components of the sandalwood oil were ?-santalol (45.8%), ?-santalol (20.6%), ?-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-?-santalol (3.3%). A mixture of ?- and ?-santalol (51.0:22.9, respectively) produced significantly higher mortality (85.5 ± 2.9%) and oviposition deterrent effects (94.7% reduction in the number of eggs) than the control. Phytotoxicity was not shown on rose shoots to which a 0.1% solution of sandalwood oil was applied. PMID:22162959

Roh, Hyun Sik; Lim, Eu Gene; Kim, Jinwoo; Park, Chung Gyoo

2011-12-01

226

Application of ionic-liquid-supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction for the determination of acaricides in fruit juice samples.  

PubMed

In this study, ionic liquid (IL) supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction was developed and a systematic investigation was conducted on imidazolium ILs for their extraction performance. This nano-based pretreatment procedure was then applied for the determination of acaricides in fruit juice samples for the first time. A feature of this technique is that the commonly laborious chemical modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was skillfully circumvented. Because of the combination of ILs, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and dispersive MNP solid-phase microextraction, the extraction efficiency can be significantly improved using commercial MNPs. Parameters of the extraction method were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time approach. The optimal experimental conditions were as follows: emulsification for 2 min by sonication with the addition of 50 ?L [C6MIM][NTf2] in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step and vortexing for 90 s after adding 40 mg spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles (20 nm). The desorption time was 2 min. Good linearity (0.5-500 ng/mL) and detection limits within the range of 0.05-0.53 ng/mL were achieved. The application of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of real fruit juice samples, in which recoveries between 85.1 and 99.6% were obtained. PMID:23894018

Zhang, Jiaheng; Li, Min; Li, Yubo; Li, Zongyang; Wang, Fenfen; Li, Qiu; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua; Gao, Haixiang

2013-10-01

227

EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities (PSI) of DLR, Cologne: the space parameters (vacuum, temperature and extra-terrestrial UV-radiation) as delivered from the ISS are simulated. An overview over the EXPOSE mission from the EXPOSE-R Experiment Verification Test (EVT) Program to the flight sample preparation is presented.

Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

228

Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control. PMID:21845941

Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

2011-07-01

229

Welding tritium exposed stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

Kanne, W.R. Jr.

1994-11-01

230

9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. When cattle are shipped as...

2009-01-01

231

9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6 Animals...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means...treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. When cattle are shipped as...

2010-01-01

232

Scabies: Who Gets and Causes  

MedlinePLUS

... permission of the American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides. References: Czelusta A, Yen- ... Acad Dermatol 2007; 56: 1026-43. Search Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Site map Home Copyright © ...

233

Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique.  

PubMed

A novel long-lasting repellent-treated net (LLRTN) has been designed by binding the skin repellents N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or IR3535, onto the fibres of bed net fabric using a new polymer-coating technique. The repellent toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of a factory-based repellent-impregnated fabric has been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. By using this repellent-embedding impregnation technique, concentrations exceeding 10 g/m(2) could be achieved with one single polymer layer. Both DEET- and IR3535-impregnated fabrics revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidal activity. One hundred percent knockdown times of DEET-treated bed nets ranged from 187.5 +/- 31.8 to 27.5 +/- 3.5 min against A. aegypti, and between 214 +/- 47 and 22.6 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, linked to a DEET concentration of 1.08 and 10.58 g/m(2), respectively. With IR3535, A. aegypti produced dose-dependent 100% knockdown times varying from 87.5 +/- 10.6 to 57.5 +/- 3.5 min and between 131.4 +/- 6.5 and 33.8 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, respectively, linked to concentrations between 1.59 and 10.02 g/m(2). One hundred percent repellency measured by complete landing and biting protection of impregnated fabric by using the arm-in-cage test could be achieved at DEET concentrations exceeding 3.7 to 3.9 g/m(2), and for IR3535 concentrations over 10 g/m(2). One hundred percent landing and biting protection could be preserved with DEET-treated fabrics for 29 weeks at an initial concentration of 4.66 g/m(2), 54 weeks at 8.8 g/m(2), 58 weeks at 9.96 g/m(2) and 61 weeks at 10.48 g/m(2) for DEET, and 23 weeks for IR3535-treated fabric at a concentration of 10.02 g/m(2). Unlike repellent-treated fabric, a brand of a commercially available long-lasting insecticide-treated net tested containing 500 mg permethrin/m(2) did not protect from mosquito bites. First results on bioactivity and long-lasting efficacy show that the new LLRTN technique is highly promising as a potential candidate for future malaria control strategies, especially in areas where pyrethroid resistance occurs. PMID:20162432

Faulde, Michael K; Albiez, Gunther; Nehring, Oliver

2010-03-01

234

Preliminary study on the acaricidal efficacy of spinosad administered orally to dogs infested with the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Spinosad is a novel mode of action insecticide and acaricide derived from a family of natural compounds produced from fermentation of the actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Although spinosad has been shown to have rapid knockdown and 1 month of residual efficacy against fleas (Ctenocephalides spp.) following oral administration in dogs, potential activity against ticks infesting dogs has not been determined. To address this possibility, a proof-of-concept laboratory efficacy study was conducted using dogs orally treated with spinosad and experimentally infested with the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae). In this randomized block (blocked by gender and pre-treatment tick counts), blinded, parallel-arm study, 12 dogs selected on health and ability to maintain pre-treatment tick populations were allocated equally among three groups: placebo-treated negative control, and spinosad in gelatin capsules at 50 and 100mg/kg administered per os. All treatments were administered once on Day 0. On days -6, -1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, each dog was infested with 50 unfed adult R. sanguineus, approximately 50% male and 50% female, obtained from the investigator's established tick colony. Tick comb counts were performed approximately 48 h post-infestation by study personnel who were blinded to treatments. Compared to geometric mean live tick counts in the control group, tick counts in the 50 and 100mg/kg spinosad doses were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by 94.8 and 97.2%, respectively, within 24h of treatment. Compared to geometric mean live tick counts in the control group at Days 9, 16, 23 and 30 after treatment, the 50mg/kg spinosad treatment group demonstrated 67.8, 49.1, 52.1 and 5.0% reductions, while the 100mg/kg spinosad treatment group demonstrated 88.6, 70.6, 61.9 and 71.3% reductions, respectively. This pilot efficacy study demonstrated that a single oral treatment with technical spinosad in gelatin capsules, at 50 and 100mg/kg, provides high efficacy against existing R. sanguineus infestations within 24h of dosing, and suggests that there is some post-treatment residual tick control in dogs for up to 1 month. PMID:19713042

Snyder, Daniel E; Cruthers, Larry R; Slone, Robyn L

2009-12-01

235

Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms  

SciTech Connect

Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency.

Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

1980-03-01

236

Exposed-key weakness of ??  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?? protocol given by Barbosa et al. [G.A. Barbosa, E. Corndorf, P. Kumar, H.P. Yuen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 227901, quant-ph/0212018] claims to be a secure way of encrypting messages using mesoscopic coherent states. We show that transmission under ?? exposes information about the secret key to an eavesdropper, and we estimate the rate at which an eavesdropper can learn about the key. We also consider the consequences of using further randomization to protect the key and how our analysis applies to this case. We conclude that ?? is not informationally secure.

Ahn, Charlene; Birnbaum, Kevin

2007-10-01

237

Heterogeneity in exposed uninfected individuals.  

PubMed

In spite of repeated exposures to HIV, some individuals remain seronegative and apparently uninfected. A variety of mechanisms potentially able to confer resistance to HIV infection, including cell-mediated and (unconventional) humoral immune responses, as well as mutations affecting receptors for virus entry have been considered and analysed. In this article, we want to discuss recent reports on specific immune responses and genetic factors potentially involved in mechanisms of protection, and to present some of our data relative to a cohort of people sexually exposed to HIV-1, but persistently seronegative. These EU (exposed uninfected) individuals can be distinguished from "normal" unexposed controls on the basis of significantly increased frequencies of a number of immunological parameters that might be considered "unconventional" correlates of HIV infection/protection. However, EU individuals are highly heterogeneous since the various unconventional immune responses considered can be present in all possible combinations. Aim of future research will be to ascertain the role of such immune responses in the maintenance of the protection state, or their secondary nature as signals of a particular kind of infection. PMID:9418157

Lopalco, L; Pastori, C; Barassi, C; Furci, L; Burastero, S; Lillo, F; Boeri, E; Soldini, L; Tambussi, G; Lazzarin, A; Beretta, A; Siccardi, A G

1997-01-01

238

Layers Exposed at Polar Canyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color subframe of an image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the north polar layered deposits at top and darker materials at bottom, exposed in a scarp at the head of Chasma Boreale, a large canyon eroded into the layered deposits.

The polar layered deposits appear red because of dust mixed within them, but are ice-rich as indicated by previous observations. Water ice in the layered deposits is probably responsible for the pattern of fractures seen near the top of the scarp. The darker material below the layered deposits may have been deposited as sand dunes, as indicated by the crossbedding (truncation of curved lines) seen near the middle of the scarp. It appears that brighter, ice-rich layers were deposited between the dark dunes in places. Exposures such as these are useful in understanding recent climate variations that are likely recorded in the polar layered deposits.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

2006-01-01

239

Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Design A randomized controlled trial (2002–2005; data analyzed 2005–2006) of a brief motivational intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in preconceptional women by focusing on both risk drinking and ineffective contraception use. Setting/Participants A total of 830 nonpregnant women, aged 18–44 years, and currently at risk for an AEP were recruited in six diverse settings in Florida, Texas, and Virginia. Combined settings had higher proportions of women at risk for AEP (12.5% overall) than in the general population (2%). Interventions Participants were randomized to receive information plus a brief motivational intervention (n=416) or to receive information only (n=414). The brief motivational intervention consisted of four counseling sessions and one contraception consultation and services visit. Main Outcome Measures Women consuming more than five drinks on any day or more than eight drinks per week on average, were considered risk drinkers; women who had intercourse without effective contraception were considered at risk of pregnancy. Reversing either or both risk conditions resulted in reduced risk of an AEP. Results Across the follow-up period, the odds ratios (ORs) of being at reduced risk for AEP were twofold greater in the intervention group: 3 months, 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.69–3.20); 6 months, 2.15 (CI=1.52–3.06); 9 months, 2.11 (CI=1.47–3.03). Between-groups differences by time phase were 18.0%, 17.0%, and 14. 8%, respectively. Conclusions A brief motivational intervention can reduce the risk of an AEP.

Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Mark; Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen; Nettleman, Mary; Sobell, Linda; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Ceperich, Sherry; von Sternberg, Kirk; Bolton, Burt; Skarpness, Bradley; Nagaraja, Jyothi

2010-01-01

240

Comparative acaricidal efficacy of the topically applied combinations fipronil/(S)-methoprene, permethrin/imidacloprid and metaflumizone/ amitraz against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick (ornate dog tick, Fabricius, 1794) in dogs.  

PubMed

The acaricidal efficacy against Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs of the commercial topical combinations fipronil/(S)-methoprene (FRONTLINE Combo spot-on dog), imidacloprid/permethrin (Advantix) and metaflumizone/amitraz (ProMeris Duo) was evaluated and compared. Three treatment groups and one untreated control group of six adult Beagle dogs each were randomly formed. Each treatment was administered topically once on Day-0, according to the recommended label dose and instructions for use. All dogs were infested weekly with approximately 50 adult unfed D. reticulatus over a period of seven weeks. Ticks were removed and counted approximately 48 hours after each infestation. The percent reduction in numbers of ticks for fipronil/(S)-methoprene was > or = 97% compared to untreated controls for all seven weekly infestations. The percent reductions for imidacloprid/permethrin and metaflumizone/amitraz were satisfactory initially but fell and stayed below 90 % after three weeks. From the third week onwards, fipronil/(S)-methoprene treated dogs had significantly fewer ticks than imidacloprid/permethrin or metaflumizone/amitraz treated dogs (p < 0.05). PMID:21275241

Tielemans, E; Manavella, C; Pollmeier, M; Chester, T; Murphy, M; Gale, B

2010-12-01

241

Acaricidal activity of four fractions and octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester isolated from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.  

PubMed

Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5 h of exposure at a concentration of 200 mg ml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1 mg ml(-1) at 24 h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3 h at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml(-1). PMID:19443124

Du, Yong-Hua; Li, Jin-Liang; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Qun

2009-07-01

242

Exposing line reduces strain during subsidence  

SciTech Connect

Timely and proper intervention can save a pipeline from substantial damage due to soil-subsidence effects of longwall mining. This article covers the range of intervention responses in such a situation and examines the benefits of exposing pipelines to subsidence in longwall-mining areas. The readily apparent responses available to an operator whose pipeline is about to undergo subsidence due to mining are: do nothing (acceptable if the anticipated added strains are very small), monitor subsidence and strain without exposing the pipeline and without taking it out of service, expose the pipeline and monitor subsidence and strain while leaving the pipeline in service, expose the pipeline and monitor subsidence and strain while leaving the pipeline in service, and take the pipeline out of service, expose, and reposition it after the subsidence has taken place. Since this article deals with responses involving monitoring, the first and the last cases will be omitted.

Kiefner, J.F.

1987-06-29

243

3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook and short introduction to the next mission, EXPSOE-R2

Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.

2011-10-01

244

Neonatal visual information processing in cocaine-exposed and non-exposed infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated early neonatal visual preferences in 267 poly drug exposed neonates (131 cocaine-exposed and 136 non-cocaine exposed) whose drug exposure was documented through interviews and urine and meconium drug screens. Infants were given four visual recognition memory tasks comparing looking time to familiarized stimuli of lattices and rectangular shapes to novel stimuli of a schematic face and curved

Lynn T. Singer; Robert Arendt; Joseph Fagan; Sonia Minnes; Ann Salvator; Tina Bolek; Michael Becker

1999-01-01

245

ERYTHROCYTE SURVIVAL IN SHEEP EXPOSED TO OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone has been reported to produce a variety of extrapulmonary effects including changes in the specific activity of some erythrocyte enzymes. Buckley et al. (1975) reported statistically significant extrapulmonary changes in a number of human volunteers experimentally exposed to...

246

Sensorimotor development in cocaine-exposed infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant sensorimotor development. One hundred and sixty-seven12-month-olds (74 cocaine-exposed and 93 unexposed) were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Ninety-seven had previously been evaluated on the Movement Assessment of Infants and the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants at age 4 months. On the BSID, the cocaine-exposed

Orphia Bass-Busdiecker; JoMarie Mascia; Jennifer Angelopoulos

1998-01-01

247

An exploratory study to assess the activity of the acarine growth inhibitor, fluazuron, against Sarcoptes scabei infestation in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background The most common treatments for scabies in human and veterinary settings are topical 5% permethrin or systemic treatment with ivermectin. However, these treatments have very little activity against arthropod eggs, and therefore repeated treatment is frequently required. In-vitro, biochemical and molecular studies have demonstrated that human mites are becoming increasingly resistant to both acaricides. To identify alternate acaricides, we undertook a pilot study of the in vivo activity of the benzoylphenyl urea inhibitor of chitin synthesis, fluazuron, in pigs with sarcoptic mange. Findings Pigs (n = 5) were infested with S. scabei var suis, and randomised to treatment at the start of peak infestation with fluazuron at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day per os for 7 days (n = 3) or no treatment (n = 2). Clinical scores, skin scrapings for mite counts and blood sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis were undertaken. Fluazuron was well absorbed in treated pigs with measureable blood levels up to 4 weeks post treatment. No adverse effects were observed. Modest acaricidal activity of the compound was observed, with a reduction in severity of skin lesions in treated pigs, as well as a reduction in number of scabies mite's early life stages. Conclusions The moderate efficacy of fluazuron against scabies mites indicates a lead to the development of alternate treatments for scabies, such as combination therapies that maybe applicable for human use in the future.

2012-01-01

248

Acaricidal effect of a diatomaceous earth formulation against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmata: Acaridae) and its predator Cheyletus malaccensis (Prostigmata: Cheyletidae) in four grain commodities.  

PubMed

Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effect of the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation SilicoSec (Biofa GmbH, Münsingen, Germany), against two stored-product mite species, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Shrank) and the predator Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans. For this purpose, DE was applied in wheat, oat, rye, and maize, at the dose rates 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg grain. The mortality of the exposed mites was assessed after 24 h, 48 h, 7 d, and 14 d of exposure in the treated substrate. After this interval, the treated grains were checked for oviposition or progeny. The tests were conducted at 80% RH and at two temperatures, 20 and 25 degrees C. Generally, for both species, mortality was higher at 25 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. For T. putrescentiae, at both temperatures, the mortality in grains treated with the highest DE rate was 100% after only 24 h of exposure, with the exception of maize at 20 degrees C, where mortality was 91.7%. The mortality of C. malaccensis after 24 h of exposure to the treated grains, in the absence of prey, did not exceed 29% at any of the temperature- grain-dose combinations, whereas no mites were dead in rye and maize treated with 0.5 and 1 g of DE. Even after 14 d of exposure at the highest DE rate, mite mortality did not reach 100%. The presence of T. putrescentiae individuals as prey in the treated substrate enhanced C. malaccensis survival. Hence, after 14 d of exposure, the mortality of C. malaccensis, in wheat, oat, rye, and maize treated with the highest DE rate was 51.7, 59.7, 70, and 36.9, respectively. No progeny production was recorded in the treated substrate for T. putrescentiae; in contrast, oviposition and F1 progeny were recorded for C. malaccensis. Our results suggest that the use of C. malaccensis with low doses of DE may be an appealing integrated pest management (IPM) approach against T. putrescentiae, and probably against other stored-grain mite species. PMID:16573344

Palyvos, Nickolas E; Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G

2006-02-01

249

Comparing the earthquake exposed and non-exposed Turkish children's Post Traumatic Stress Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfortunately, Turkey is stretched out on the earthquake fault line; therefore, Turkish children are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caused by earthquake exposures and the threats of the anticipated earthquakes as well as aftershocks. This current study aimed at identifying PTSD reactions of disaster exposed and non-exposed Turkish children after the big 1999 Marmara earthquakes in the

Sefa Bulut

2006-01-01

250

Interviews with Children Exposed to Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to show how research practices may simultaneously follow principles of children's citizenship rights to participation and principles of protection and support when children exposed to violence are informants. The article focuses upon organisation of interview processes and interactions between adult researchers and child…

Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

2012-01-01

251

Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

2014-01-01

252

Insecticide Urinary Metabolites in Nonoccupationally Exposed Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide use of insecticides in agricultural and residential settings has resulted in environmental contamination, leading to increased concern about exposure of the population and possible chronic effects on health. This review summarizes the studies that have measured urinary metabolites to assess exposure of nonoccupationally exposed population to nonpersistent insecticides, organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, and pyrethroids. Electronic search yielded 36 different

G. Bouvier; N. Seta; A. Vigouroux-Villard; O. Blanchard; I. Momas

2005-01-01

253

Nonwhites Exposed to More Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Nonwhites Exposed to More Air Pollution: Study More nitrogen dioxide from exhaust fumes, power ... Preidt Tuesday, April 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Air Pollution TUESDAY, April 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Nonwhite Americans ...

254

Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

Gordon, Sheldon P.

2011-01-01

255

Cocaine Babies: Florida's Substance-Exposed Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…

Harpring, Jayme

256

Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene.  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median = 31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (> 31 ppm, n = 22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p < 0.01), but lower exposure (< or = 31 ppm, n = 21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene dose. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploidy and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r = -0.44, p = 0.003) but not in controls (r = -0.09, p = 0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations.

Zhang, L; Rothman, N; Wang, Y; Hayes, R B; Bechtold, W; Venkatesh, P; Yin, S; Wang, Y; Dosemeci, M; Li, G; Lu, W; Smith, M T

1996-01-01

257

Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was the most significant factor for all the contaminants generally detected at less than 1 atom percent, or detected only occasionally (i.e., all but Si, O, and C). Flight control surfaces, including sample backsides not exposed to space radiation or atomic oxygen flux, have accumulated some contamination on flight (compared to laboratory controls), but experimentally, the LDEF exposed surface contamination levels are generally higher for the contaminants Si and O. For most materials analyzed, Si contamination levels were higher on the leading edge surfaces than on the trailing edge surfaces. This was true even for the composite samples where considerable atomic oxygen erosion of the leading edge surfaces was observed by SEM. It is probable that the return flux associated with atmospheric backscatter resulted in enhanced deposition of silicones and other contaminants on the leading edge flight surfaces relative to the trailing edge. Although the Si concentration data suggested greater on-flight deposition of contaminants on the leading edge surfaces, the XPS analyses did not conclusively show different relative total thicknesses of flight deposited contamination for leading and trailing edge surfaces. It is possible that atomic oxygen reactions on the leading edge resulted in greater volatilization of the carbon component of the deposited silicones, effectively 'thinning' the leading edge deposited overlayer. Unlike other materials, exposed polymers such as Kapton and FEP-type Teflon had very low contamination on the leading edge surfaces. SEM evidence showed that undercutting of the contaminant overlayer and damaged polymer layers occurred during atomic oxygen erosion, which would enhance loss of material from the exposed surface.

Hemminger, Carol S.

1992-01-01

258

The EXPOSE-R Experiment ROSE-3 SPORES in artificial meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the conducted experiment, spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns, especially adapted to survive extreme conditions, were either solely or embedded in artificial meteorites exposed to space environment in the ESA facility EXPOSE-R for 22 months (10.03.2009-21.02.2011). The experiment will provide experimental clues to the question whether meteorite material offers enough protection against the harsh environment of space for spores to survive a long-term stay in space. This question has received increased attention since the discovery of Martian meteorites has provided evidence that rocks can be transported from one planet to another in our solar

Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Reitz, G.

2011-10-01

259

Silent victims: children exposed to family violence.  

PubMed

Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder, may be associated with violence exposure, and it is imperative that school nurses recognize these. All children should be screened for domestic violence exposure at regular intervals, and those who are at risk should have a more thorough health assessment. Planning for the safety of the child, nonoffending caregiver, and siblings and the school nurse involved in the situation is of utmost importance. PMID:17394377

Kolar, Kathryn R; Davey, Debrynda

2007-04-01

260

Viability of bacterial spores exposed to hydrazine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purposes of planetary protection, a series of experiments were performed to answer a long-standing question about the potential of bacterial contamination of interplanetary spacecraft from liquid hydrazine. Spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC No. 9372, also known as Bacillus subtilis var. niger, and BSN) were exposed to hydrazine and survivors were enumerated using the NASA standard planetary protection pour plate assay. Results indicate that bulk hydrazine rocket propellant may be considered free of living bacterial cells for planetary protection compliance.

Schubert, W.; Plett, G.; Yavrouian, A.; Barengoltz, J.

2008-09-01

261

Children Exposed to War\\/Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related

Jon A. Shaw

2003-01-01

262

Assessment of service exposed boiler tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boiler tubes in power plants have finite life because of prolonged exposure to high temperature, stress and aggressive environment. Service-exposed platen superheater and reheater tubes (148,900 h) made of 2.25Cr-1 Mo steels in a 120 MW boiler of a thermal power plant were evaluated for remnant life. The investigation included hot tensile tests, hardness measurement, dimensional measurement, microscopy and creep

A. K. Ray; S. K. Sahay; B. Goswami

2003-01-01

263

Behaviour of rats exposed to trichloroethylene vapour.  

PubMed Central

Rats were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) vapour for about five five-day weeks at concentrations from 100 to 1 000 ppm, and at 100 ppm for 12 1/2 weeks. The social behaviour of paired male rats was observed periodically in the home cage for five minutes after they had been exposed to TCE. The principal finding was a consistent reduction of up to 24% in the total acitivity. A single day's exposure to TCE was sufficient at the highest concentration. At 100 ppm, a similar decline in activity was significant after 1 1/2 weeks' exposure in one experiment and 8 1/2 weeks' in another. The decline in activity was fairly uniform and not usually because of specific reductions in particular kinds of behaviour. However, exploration of the cage and submission to, or escape from, the other rat were sometimes specifically reduced. In an 'exploration-thirst' test, rats were deprived of water overnight and placed on two or three occasions in a previously unfamiliar cage. Rats exposed to 100, 200, or 1 000 ppm TCE found water and began drinking sooner than their controls without altering the rate of movement about the cage. These results suggest lowered performance in a familiar situation where rats are usually very active and some loss of inhibitory control in an unfamiliar one. At the present threshold limit value, repeated exposure to TCE eventually had effects similar to those of one day's exposure to a higher concentration, but only after a widely variable delay.

Silverman, A P; Williams, H

1975-01-01

264

Chromosome painting for cytogenetic monitoring of occupationally exposed and non-exposed groups of human individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of a three-color fluorescence in situ suppression hybridization technique was examined for monitoring five different groups of individuals: 30 occupied in radiology, 26 occupied in nuclear medicine or radiation physics, 32 patients with breast cancer, 26 occupied with military waste disposal, all presumably exposed to low doses of radiation or chemical mutagens and a non-exposed control group (N=29).

I. Verdorfer; S. Neubauer; S. Letzel; J. Angerer; R. Arutyunyan; P. Martus; M. Wucherer; E. Gebhart

2001-01-01

265

Comparative study of liver cancer patients in arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas of Pakistan.  

PubMed

The investigated data shows that arsenic (As) in drinking water is associated with increased mortality from different types of cancers including liver cancer. In this study, blood and scalp hair samples of male liver cancer patients and healthy referents belonging to As exposed areas of Sindh Pakistan were analyzed for As contents. The As levels in drinking water of understudy area showed that sections of this population was exposed to 3-15-folds higher concentrations of As than permissible limit. For comparative purposes, blood and scalp hair samples of matched cancerous patient as referent patients belonging to big city (Hyderabad) who have used municipal treated water with low As levels <10 ?g/L were also collected. The results of this study showed that the average As concentration was higher in the blood and scalp hair of exposed and non-exposed referent cancer patients as compared to referents (p?exposed cancerous patients have twofolds higher As level in both biological samples as related to non-exposed case matched cancerous male subjects. PMID:21448561

Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Chandio, Akhtar Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Khan, Sumaira; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Nasreen, Syeda; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed

2011-12-01

266

Experimental investigations on freely exposed ducted radiators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with the relation between the open areas, the drag, and the air flow as observed on freely exposed, ducted radiators - the air conductivity being modified from zero to one unit. In conjunction with theoretical results, the individual components of the drag of ducted radiators are discussed and general rules established for low-loss ducts. The influence of the wall thickness of the ducts, of the length ratio of the exit, and the effects of sonic velocity on diffusers are dealt with by special measurement.

Linke, W

1941-01-01

267

Isolation and characterisation of acaricidal and larvicidal novel compound (2S,5R,6R)-2-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyloctan-4-one from Streptomyces sp. against blood-sucking parasites.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricidal and larvicidal property of marine actinobacterial compound (2S,5R,6R)-2-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyloctan-4-one extracted and isolated from Streptomyces sp. VITDDK3 tested against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The isolate was taxonomically characterised, identified and designated as Streptomyces sp. VITDDK3. The crude compound was loaded on silica gel column and eluted with chloroform-methanol-water. The purity of the compound isolated was analysed by thin layer chromatography using chloroform and methanol as the solvent system and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structure of the purified compound was established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR and mass spectral data. The chemical shift assignments obtained for the aliphatic compound from (1)H-NMR corresponding to the molecular formula C(11)H(22)O(2). Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of compound, which was identified as (2S,5R,6R)-2-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyloctan-4-one. In the present study, Streptomyces sp. VITDDK3 crude extract and different fractions were tested against the larvae of parasites at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. Those fractions showing 100% mortality in 24 h alone was selected for further column chromatographic separation. The purified compound (2S,5R,6R)-2-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyloctan-4-one was tested in the concentrations of 250, 200, 150, 100 and 50 ppm and observed the per cent mortality of 100, 88, 62, 50 and 36 against R. microplus; 100, 100, 87, 62 and 39 against A. subpitcus; and 100, 94, 79, 51 and 33 against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The crude extract showed parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm, and parasite mortality was observed against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 88.74 ppm; r (2) = 0.865) against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 162.59 ppm; r (2) = 0.817) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 120.15 ppm; r (2) = 0.782), respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in purified marine actinobacterial compound (2S,5R,6R)-2-hydroxy-3,5,6-trimethyloctan-4-one with LC(50) and r (2) values against the larvae of R. microplus (94.49 ppm; 0.982) and A. subpictus (69.65 ppm; 0.906) and against C. quinquefasciatus (82.82 ppm; 0.957), respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay. PMID:21698506

Deepika, Thimiri Lakshmipathi; Kannabiran, Krishnan; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

2012-09-01

268

The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the ISS. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples. EXPOSE-R was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, 2 control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Jessberger, E. K.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2013-06-01

269

The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS: A Space Exposure Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features. Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R onboard the International Space Station. The ORGANIC experiment monitored the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of the samples in space environment. EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS from March 10, 2009 to January 21, 2011. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The 682-day period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA Ames Research Center. During the exposure on the ISS, two control sample carriers were exposed with a slight time shift in a planetary simulation chamber at the Microgravity User Support Center (MUSC) at DLR. Vacuum, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations are simulated according to the telemetry data measured during flight. The spectroscopic measurements of these two carriers have been performed together with the returned flight samples. We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and preliminary flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Z.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Jessberger, E.; Bischoff, A.; Breitfellner, M.; Schmidt, W.; Robert, F.

2012-05-01

270

Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds  

PubMed Central

Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

Edmondson, David A.; Barrios, Christy S.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Straus, David C.; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Fink, Jordan N.

2009-01-01

271

Viability of bacterial spores exposed to hydrazine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purposes of planetary protection a series of experiments were performed to answer a long-standing question about the potential of bacterial contamination of interplanetary spacecraft from liquid hydrazine Spores of Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC No 9372 also known as Bacillus subtilis var niger and BSN were exposed to hydrazine for various durations Then the survivors were enumerated using the NASA standard planetary protection pour plate assay It is important to note that in these experiments the hydrazine was removed prior to the assay This eliminated the possibility that the presence of hydrazine rather than a prior exposure was inhibiting germination and or reproduction Populations of 10 6 spores were eliminated within 30 minutes These results indicate that bulk hydrazine rocket propellant may be considered free of living bacterial cells for planetary protection compliance

Schubert, W.; Plett, G.; Yavrouian, A.; Barengoltz, J.

272

Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens.  

PubMed

We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, beta-sitosterol, and the positive control 17beta-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17beta-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. PMID:16584819

Clotfelter, Ethan D; Rodriguez, Alison C

2006-12-01

273

Cancer mortality among workers exposed to formaldehyde  

SciTech Connect

Proportionate mortality among workers exposed to formaldehyde was analyzed among employees of a large chemical plant in Western Massachusetts. Twenty-four such decedents, all males, were identified through union records, reports of former co-workers, and a systematic review of obituaries in local newspaper. Work histories were obtained from seniority lists. Race-age-sex-adjusted proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were significantly elevated for cancer of the colon based on United States, county, and county cancer mortality proportions (PMR . 702, 424, 333, p less than or equal to .05), as were PMRs for the category buccal and pharyngeal cancer (PMR . 870, 952, 833, p less than .05). This study provides evidence of formaldehyde's carcinogenicity. These findings are at variance with a previous report of the mortality experience of workers at the same plant from an earlier period.

Liebling, T.; Rosenman, K.D.; Pastides, H.; Griffith, R.G.; Lemeshow, S.

1984-01-01

274

Endocrine function in mercury exposed chloralkali workers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study whether functional impairment of the pituitary, thyroid, testes, and adrenal glands of humans occupationally exposed to mercury (Hg) vapour can be shown as a result of accumulation of Hg in these glands. METHODS--Basal concentrations of thyrotrophin (TSH), prolactin, free thyroxine (free T4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (free T3), antibodies against thyroperoxidase, and testosterone in serum, as well as cortisol in morning urine were measured in 41 chloralkali workers exposed (10 years on average) to Hg vapour, and in 41 age matched occupationally unexposed referents. The chloralkali workers had a mean urinary Hg concentration (U-Hg) of 15 nmol/mmol (27 micrograms/g) creatinine, and a mean blood Hg concentration (B-Hg) of 46 nmol/l. For the reference group U-Hg and B-Hg were 1.9 nmol/mmol (3.3 micrograms/g) creatinine and 17 nmol/l respectively. RESULTS--The serum free T4 concentration and the ratio free T4/free T3 were slightly, but significantly, higher in the subgroups with the highest exposure, and the serum free T3 was inversely associated with cumulative Hg exposure. This indicates a possible inhibitory effect of mercury on 5'-deiodinases, which are responsible for the conversion of T4 to the active hormone T3. Serum total testosterone, but not free testosterone, was positively correlated with cumulative Hg exposure. Prolactin, TSH and urinary cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated to exposure. CONCLUSION--Apart from inhibition of the deiodination of T4 to T3, the endocrine functions studied seem not to be affected by exposure to Hg vapour at the exposure levels of the present study. Growth hormone secretion was not studied.

Barregard, L; Lindstedt, G; Schutz, A; Sallsten, G

1994-01-01

275

Population exposed to landslide risk in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides counting over 486,000 mass movements with a total area of 20,700 square kilometres equal to 6.9% of the national territory. Moreover Italy is a densely urbanized country: 8101 municipalities, about 200 inhabitants per sq. km, 16,000 km of rail network and 180,000 km of road network. Landslides caused more than 5000 fatalities in the last century and considerable damage to urban areas, transport infrastructure and facilities, environmental and cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to estimate the population exposed to landslide risk in Italy. The input data are: the Italian Landslide Inventory, the Italian Population Census data and the high-resolution Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer (Geoland2). The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) realised by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-governing Provinces, identifies landslides occurred in the national territory in accordance with standardized methods and using a detailed landslide mapping (1:10,000 scale). The 14th Population Census, made by ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) in 2001, contains data of resident population for the 382,534 census tracts in which Italy is divided. The pan-European high-resolution (HR) Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer, realized using remote sensing data within the GMES initiative (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) by European Commission and European Space Agency, contains the degree of imperviousness (between 0 and 100%). GIS overlay of this information layer (20 x 20 m grid) with census tracts has allowed the spatialization of population within urban settlements of each census tract. This methodology has been particularly useful in the case of rural census tracts characterized by large surface area and low population density. The methodology could be also applied to estimate the population exposed to other natural, environmental or technological risks.

Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Munafò, Michele; Baiocco, Fabio; Marinosci, Ines; Chiocchini, Raffaella; Mugnoli, Stefano

2013-04-01

276

Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers  

PubMed Central

Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.

Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

2013-01-01

277

Cytogenetic analyses of mice exposed to dichloromethane  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome damage was studied in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) by subcutaneous or inhalation treatments. No increase in the frequency of either sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow cells was observed after a single subcutaneous injection of 2,500 or 5,000 mg/kg DCM. Inhalation exposure to DCM for 10 days at concentrations of 4,000 or 8,000 ppm resulted in significant increases in frequencies of SCEs in lung cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes, CAs in lung and bone marrow cells, and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Lung cell CAs and blood erythrocyte MN reached frequencies of approximately two times control levels. Following a 3-month inhalation exposure to 2,000 ppm DCM, mice showed small but significant increases in lung cell SCEs and peripheral blood erythrocyte MN. These findings suggest that genotoxicity may play a role in the carcinogenicity of DCM in the lungs of B6C3F1 female mice.

Allen, J.; Kligerman, A.; Campbell, J.; Westbrook-Collins, B.; Erexson, G.; Kari, F.; Zeiger, E. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-01-01

278

Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth,

Paula S. Nurius; Patricia L. Russell; Jerald R. Herting; Carole Hooven; Elaine A. Thompson

2009-01-01

279

Biological monitoring of workers exposed to ethylbenzene and co-exposed to xylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Ethylbenzene is an important constituent of widely used solvent mixtures in industry. The objective of the present study\\u000a was to provide information about biological monitoring of occupational exposure to ethylbenzene, and to review the biological\\u000a limit values corresponding to the threshold limit value of ethylbenzene. Methods: A total of 20 male workers who had been exposed to a mixture

J.-Y. Jang; P. O. Droz; S. Kim

2000-01-01

280

Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO  

SciTech Connect

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3{mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

1994-07-11

281

Exterior exposed ductwork: Delivery effectiveness and efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Most of California`s light commercial buildings use air transport through ductwork for thermal distribution. The same air distribution systems are often used to provide both thermal comfort and ventilation. Some air distribution ductwork is installed on rooftops, exposed directly to the outside environment. As such, there exist potential energy penalties related to externally installed ductwork. In order to evaluate the magnitude of these penalties, a case study was conducted of a one-story community college building, located in California`s Sacramento Valley. The majority of the building`s air distribution ductwork was located on the roof. Energy-related issues studied in this case included duct-related thermal losses (duct leakage and conduction), delivery effectiveness and efficiency, thermal comfort issues and the effect of a roof retrofit (additional insulation and a reflective coating). The building in this study underwent a retrofit project involving additional insulation and a highly reflective coating applied to the roof and ducts. As part of this project, methods were developed to analyze the air distribution system effectiveness independent of the introduction of outside air through an outside air damper. A simplified model was developed to predict the effectiveness and efficiency of the distribution system. The time frame of the retrofit allowed two separate three week monitoring periods. Despite the fact that the ducts started off with a conduction efficiency of 97%, the delivery efficiency was on average only 73% (with a supply side effectiveness of 78% and return effectiveness of 92%). This is due to the losses from the ducts being located on the roof. The retrofit increased the delivery efficiency to an average of 89% (with a supply side effectiveness of 90% and return effectiveness of 99%), reducing the average energy use for conditioning by 22%. The model predicted, on average, the results within 10%, or better, of measured results.

Delp, W.W.; Matson, N.; Modera, M.P.

1996-07-01

282

Foster placed children prenatally exposed to poly-substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a prospective, longitudinal study of children prenatally exposed to poly-substances, who were reared under minimal postnatal risk conditions. The aim of the study was to examine whether the substance-exposed group exhibited a higher level of attention-related problems than a group of age-matched, nonexposed children. The substance-exposed children (n = 42) evinced significant elevated levels of impulsivity

K. Slinning

2004-01-01

283

CEREBELLAR HISTOGENESIS IN RATS EXPOSED TO 2450 MHZ MICROWAVE RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Pregnant rats were either exposed or sham exposed from day 13 of gestation until birth to 2450 MHz linearly polarized microwaves at 10 mW/sq cm. A third matching group served as cage control. After birth, the pups were kept with their mothers for 21 days without any treatment, an...

284

Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

2006-01-01

285

Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

Currie, Cheryl L.

2006-01-01

286

31. VIEW OF ROOM 212 LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXPOSED STUD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF ROOM 212 LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARDS EXPOSED STUD WALL THAT SERVES AS DIVIDER TO ROOM 211. EXPOSED TRUSSWORK VISIBLE THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM. WOOD PANELED WALLS ARE PAINTED; FLOORS ARE WOOD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

287

Neuropathy in female dental personnel exposed to high frequency vibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate early neuropathy in dental personnel exposed to high frequency vibrations. METHODS--30 dentists and 30 dental hygienists who used low and high speed hand pieces and ultrasonic scalers were studied, and 30 dental assistants and 30 medical nurses not exposed to vibration (all women). Vibrotactile sensibility, strength, motor performance, sensorineural symptoms and signs, and vascular symptoms in the hands,

I Akesson; G Lundborg; V Horstmann; S Skerfving

1995-01-01

288

Developmental Outcomes in Two Groups of Infants and Toddlers: Prenatally Cocaine Exposed and Noncocaine Exposed. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined cognitive and motor development in 56 toddlers prenatally exposed to cocaine (ages 12-27 months) and 56 typical toddlers. Infants prenatally exposed to cocaine experienced developmental problems in expressive and receptive language areas. In addition, there was a possible relationship between cocaine exposure and subsequent…

Chapman, J. Keith

2000-01-01

289

Follow-up of children of depressed mothers exposed or not exposed to antidepressant drugs during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the structural growth and developmental outcome of children born to mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder during pregnancy who were exposed or not exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in utero. Study design Children whose mothers were diagnosed with major depressive disorder in pregnancy and elected not to take medication (n = 13) were compared with

Regina C. Casper; Barry E. Fleisher; Julie C. Lee-Ancajas; Allyson Gilles; Erika Gaylor; Anne DeBattista; H. Eugene Hoyme

2003-01-01

290

Non-disjunction mutations in Drosophila exposed to magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency of XO mutations in Drosophila melanogaster was significantly higher than normal in magnetic field exposed, immature males, than in exposed, mature males. Mutation levels increased with magnetic field strength. Intercellular rings of black magnetic particles were formed in the high magnetic flux region of dorsally exposed, early stage pupae and to a lesser degree in the abdomen of young adult females. Orientation of minute, chromosome associated, magnetic domains within the microenvironment of the developing organism was believed to alter oxidative processes within maturing X+ sperm which during fertilization were incompatible with and destructive to an Xw chromosome in the zygote.

Levengood, W. C.

1987-09-01

291

Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic to man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer. Images

Boysen, M; Zadig, E; Digernes, V; Abeler, V; Reith, A

1990-01-01

292

27. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UNDER SHED FROM CONCOURSE, SHOWING EXPOSED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UNDER SHED FROM CONCOURSE, SHOWING EXPOSED TRUSS AFTER SHED ROOFING WAS REMOVER - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

293

Maternal Drug Abuse and Drug Exposed Children: Understanding the Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the extent of maternal drug abuse, assesses the prevalence of substance-exposed children, describes the research being conducted on these issues, lists treatment and prevention services for women, explains child welfare and legal issue...

1992-01-01

294

32. Span 6, underview showing exposed deformed steel bar reinforcement ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Span 6, underview showing exposed deformed steel bar reinforcement in soffits of arch ribs; view to southeast. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

295

Epidemiologic study of workers exposed to titanium dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine whether workers exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) had significantly higher risks of lung cancer, chronic respiratory disease, pleural thickening/plaques, or pulmonary fibrosis than referent groups. A total of 1,576 employees exposed to TiO/sub 2/ were observed from 1956 through 1985 for cancer and chronic respiratory disease incidence, and from 1935 through 1983 for mortality. A cross-sectional sample of 398 employees was evaluated for chest roentgenogram abnormalities. Cohort analyses suggested that the risks of developing lung cancer and other fatal respiratory diseases were no higher for TiO/sub 2/-exposed employees than for the referent groups. Nested case-control analyses found no statistically significant associations between TiO/sub 2/ exposure and risk of lung cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and chest roentgenogram abnormalities. No cases of pulmonary fibrosis were observed among TiO/sub 2/-exposed employees.

Chen, J.L.; Fayerweather, W.E.

1988-12-01

296

Altered Myocardial Electrolyte Content of High-Altitude Exposed Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tissue level acclimation to chronic hypoxia was investigated by using the isolated right ventricular strip preparation and determining sodium and potassium contents before and after a bout of acute anoxia. The ventricular strips of the altitude-exposed an...

J. J. McGrath R. W. Bullard

1969-01-01

297

Lung function in workers exposed to polyvinyl chloride dust.  

PubMed

Several reported studies on the effects of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dust in animals and man have been conflicting. The present study of the ventilatory function of 509 male workers exposed to PVC dust was made in 1977. Altogether 104 men exposed to PVC dust only, 112 men exposed to non-chlorinated solvents only, and 293 men exposed to a mixture of both completed the MRC questionnaire on respiratory function and performed simple spirometric tests (forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity). No differences were found between the three groups after allowance was made for age, height, and smoking. When exposure and smoking effects were considered separately, the latter was shown to be the dominant cause of reduced lung function. In this study work with PVC dust has not produced deleterious effects on ventilatory function. PMID:7426465

Chivers, C P; Lawrence-Jones, C; Paddle, G M

1980-05-01

298

8. DETAIL OF EASTERN ABUTMENT, SHOWING SPALLING AND EXPOSED REINFORCING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL OF EASTERN ABUTMENT, SHOWING SPALLING AND EXPOSED REINFORCING BAR. - Big Conestoga Creek Bridge No. 12, Spanning Conestoga River at Farmersville Road (State Route 1010), Brownstown, Lancaster County, PA

299

18. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED STEEL FRAMING OF WATERFRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EXPOSED STEEL FRAMING OF WATERFRONT ELEVATION - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

300

Children Exposed to Violence: Current Status, Gaps, and Research Priorities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This workshop brought together researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to provide perspectives on the current state of knowledge regarding children exposed to violence, and to identify research gaps and promising avenues for future research. Three ma...

2002-01-01

301

Roof detail, section of northfacing light panel showing wireglass exposed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof detail, section of north-facing light panel showing wireglass exposed - U.S. Department of the Treasury, South Court, Fifteenth Street & Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

302

ENTERIC PARASITES IN WORKERS OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine if parasitic infections occur more frequently among workers exposed to wastewater than among controls, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens collected over a 12-month period from sewer and highway maintenance workers. Three of 56 sewer maintena...

303

98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST SIDE OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING WEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

304

Multiple test chamber exposes materials to various environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple compartment test chamber exposes several material specimens to various environmental conditions for prolonged periods. The specimens are individually mounted in chamber compartments, rotated to various positions, and measured through optical windows to determine progressive changes in the material properties.

Johnston, R. L.

1965-01-01

305

Antioxidative stress response in workers exposed to carbon disulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the effects of carbon disulfide (CS2) on antioxidative stress systems of exposed workers. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and thiobarbituric acid test (BAT) were conducted on 67 exposed workers and 88\\u000a controlled ones in a viscose rayon factory to determine their serum cuprozinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and malonyldialdehyde\\u000a (MDA) levels. Results: The average levels of CuZnSOD in workers

Le Jian; Disheng Hu

2000-01-01

306

Ozone exposed epithelial cells modify cocultured natural killer cells  

PubMed Central

Ozone (O3) causes significant adverse health effects worldwide. Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are among the first sites within the respiratory system to be exposed to inhaled air pollutants. They recruit, activate, and interact with immune cells via soluble mediators and direct cell-cell contacts. Based on our recent observation demonstrating the presence of natural killer (NK) cells in nasal lavages, the goal of this study was to establish a coculture model of NECs and NK cells and examine how exposure to O3 modifies this interaction. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess immunophenotypes of NK cells cocultured with either air- or O3-exposed NECs. Our data show that coculturing NK cells with O3-exposed NECs decreased intracellular interferon-? (IFN-?), enhanced, albeit not statistically significant, IL-4, and increased CD16 expression on NK cells compared with air controls. Additionally, the cytotoxicity potential of NK cells was reduced after coculturing with O3-exposed NECs. To determine whether soluble mediators released by O3-exposed NECs caused this shift, apical and basolateral supernatants of air- and O3-exposed NECs were used to stimulate NK cells. While the conditioned media of O3-exposed NECs alone did not reduce intracellular IFN-?, O3 enhanced the expression of NK cell ligands ULBP3 and MICA/B on NECs. Blocking ULBP3 and MICA/B reversed the effects of O3-exposed NECs on IFN-? production in NK cells. Taken together, these data showed that interactions between NECs and NK cells in the context of O3 exposure changes NK cell activity via direct cell-cell interactions and is dependent on ULBP3/MICA/B expressed on NECs.

Muller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.

2013-01-01

307

Pulmonary function and symptoms in workers exposed to wood dust.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Exposure to wood dust can cause a variety of lung problems, including chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced expiratory flow (FEF), forced mid expiratory flow (FMF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, breathlessness, wheezing, and nasal symptoms) were recorded in 145 non-smoking workers (77 male, 68 female) exposed to wood dust in a furniture factory in Umtata, Republic of Transkei, and 152 non-smoking control subjects (77 male, 75 female) from a bottling factory with a clean environment. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and standing height the forced expiratory indices were significantly lower in the exposed male workers than in the control subjects. FEF and PEF in the exposed men were 81.3% and 89.4% of predicted values and were lower than other indices. FVC in exposed men showed a significant inverse correlation with exposure (expressed in number of years of employment). The FVC was reduced by 26 ml per year of employment. The proportion of men with an FEV1/FVC below 70 was higher in exposed workers than in control subjects and higher in the exposed workers with more years of employment. The exposed workers had more respiratory symptoms than the control subjects, the prevalence, especially of cough and nasal symptoms, increasing with the increase in the number of years of employment. CONCLUSION: Workers exposed to pine and fibre dust have more respiratory symptoms and a greater risk of airflow obstruction.

Shamssain, M H

1992-01-01

308

Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.

Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.

1992-01-01

309

Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to inorganic germanium compounds  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess occupational exposure to inorganic germanium (Ge) in workers from a producing plant, and to assess the health of these workers, with a special focus on respiratory, kidney, and liver functions.?METHODS—Cross sectional study of 75 workers exposed to Ge and 79 matched referents. Exposure was characterised by measuring air and urine concentrations of the element during a typical working week, and health was assessed by a questionnaire, clinical examination, lung function testing, chest radiography, and clinical chemistry in serum and urine, including high and low molecular weight urinary proteins.?RESULTS—Airborne concentrations of Ge (inhalable fraction) ranged from 0.03 to 300 µg/m, which was reflected by increased urinary excretion of Ge (0.12-200 µg/g creatinine, after the shift at the end of the working week). Lung, liver, and haematological variables were not significantly different between referents and workers exposed to Ge. A slightly higher urinary concentration of high molecular weight proteins (albumin and transferrin) was found in workers exposed to Ge, possibly reflecting subclinical glomerular changes. No relation was found between the intensity or duration of exposure and the urinary concentration of albumin. No difference between referents and workers exposed to Ge was found for other renal variables.?CONCLUSIONS—Measurement of urinary Ge can detect occupational exposure to inorganic Ge and its compounds. It is prudent to recommend the monitoring of renal variables in workers exposed to Ge.???Keywords: inorganic germanium; occupational exposure; biological monitoring

Swennen, B; Mallants, A; Roels, H; Buchet, J; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

2000-01-01

310

[Biochemical evaluation on rural workers exposed to pesticides].  

PubMed

Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but may represent a potential risk to farmers and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate horticultural workers exposed to pesticide, categorized by: direct exposure (n = 45), indirect exposure (n = 50) and controls (n = 50) using exposure and effect biomarkers: cholinesterase (ChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), Damage Index Comet Assay (IDEC) and Damage Index Repair Assay (IDER). Our results show: a) an AChE inhibition in directly and indirectly exposed population (p < 0.001), b) significant increase in the levels of TBARS in direct exposure (p < 0.001), c) the CAT reduction was significant (p < 0.01), d) a significant increase in IDEC and IDER in both exposed groups (p < 0.001). Our results evidence variations in oxidative balance and DNA damage in exposed workers. These findings represent a contribution to the sub-clinical evaluation of subjects exposed to agrochemicals in our country. PMID:21163734

Simoniello, María Fernanda; Kleinsorge, Elisa C; Carballo, Marta A

2010-01-01

311

Urinary thromboxane, prostacyclin, cortisol, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in nonsmokers exposed and not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypotheses that (1) increased platelet aggregation, as measured by 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B(2) (Tx-M) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) (PGI-M), and (2) increased oxidative stress, as measured by 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), would occur in ETS-exposed nonsmokers as compared with non-ETS-exposed nonsmokers. The concentrations of the stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane (Tx-M) and prostacyclin (PGI-M), cortisol and 8-OHdG were measured in a 24-h urine sample from 3 groups of subjects: 21 nonsmokers with minimal (15 min or less per day) ETS exposure (termed non-ETS-exposed), 22 nonsmokers with at least 5 h per day of ETS exposure (termed ETS-exposed), and 20 cigarette smokers who served as a positive control group. The self-reported levels of ETS exposure were verified by personal air monitors. As compared with either group of nonsmokers, cigarette smokers excreted significantly more urinary Tx-M. Non-ETS-exposed nonsmokers showed a statistically significantly higher level of urinary Tx-M over that seen in nonsmokers with considerably more ETS exposure. Urinary concentrations of PGI-M were marginally higher in the smokers and did not differ between the nonsmoker groups. Nonsmokers exposed to at least five h of ETS per day did not have significantly higher excretion of 8-OHdG than non-ETS-exposed nonsmokers. The results from this study suggest that platelet aggregation, as measured by the thromboxane metabolite Tx-M and prostacyclin metabolite PGI-M, is not associated with ETS exposure. Therefore, platelet aggregation is not a plausible or quantitatively consistent mechanism to explain the nonlinear dose-response hypothesis of cardiovascular disease and ETS exposure. PMID:11158725

Smith, C J; Fischer, T H; Heavner, D L; Rumple, M A; Bowman, D L; Brown, B G; Morton, M J; Doolittle, D J

2001-02-01

312

An XPS study of space-exposed polyimide film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to assess changes induced in the surface chemistry of Kapton H (Du Pont Trademark) polyimide strips exposed to the low Earth orbit environment at the space-end of the LDEF satellite on Experiment A0133. Results from flight specimens are compared to material cut from the same lot and stored at room temperature under standard atmospheric conditions. One notable difference was a nearly two-fold increase in surface oxygen (atom-percent composition) for specimens exposed to the direct space environment as compared to controls. In addition, space exposed specimens contained distinct silicon peaks (2p 103.2 eV and 2s 154.2 eV) in their spectra. These peaks were absent in control spectra. It is likely that the increase in oxygen is associated with the silicon. This is in agreement with reports of widespread silicon contamination throughout the LDEF satellite.

Lee, Myung; Rooney, William; Whiteside, James

1993-01-01

313

Cerebellar histogenesis in rats exposed to 2450-MHz microwave radiation  

SciTech Connect

Pregnant rats were either exposed or sham exposed from day 13 of gestation until birth to 2450-MHz linearly polarized microwaves at 10 mW/sq cm. A third matching group served as cage control. After birth, the pups were kept with their mothers for 21 days without any treatment, and at age 21 their brains were prepared for histological analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in the cerebellar area among the three exposure groups. The differences was seen only in the females and not in the males. Purkinje cell density was not significantly different (P>0.05) among the three exposure groups. However, Purkinje cell density in the females was highest in the microwave exposed rats and lowest in the cage controls. The differences in the cerebellar area among the three groups may not be attributed to microwave exposure but to some unidentifiable factor which differentiated the cage controls from both exposure groups.

Albert, E.N.

1988-08-01

314

Analysis of a space-exposed thermoplastic resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical characterization of a thermoplastic resin exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment for 10 months and for 5.8 years is reported. The resin, processed as a thick film and as a matrix for a graphite fiber reinforced composite, few exposed in the RAM direction on the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Differences attributable to environmental exposure were detected in infrared spectra and in various molecular weight parameters of film after 10 months in LEO. Those effects were not as apparent in composites after 5.8 years in LEO. Increased exposure to atomic oxygen toward the end of the LDEF mission probably scrubbed these effects from specimens exposed for 5.8 years. The intent of this study is to increase our fundamental understanding of space environmental effects on polymeric materials and to develop a benchmark for enhancing our methodology for and understanding of the ground-based simulation of space environmental effects.

Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Davis, Judith R. J.

1992-01-01

315

Thioether excretion of workers exposed to bitumen fumes.  

PubMed

The excretion of thioethers was determined in the urine of workers involved in road paving operations and in the preparation of asphalt mixing in an asphalt plant. An occupationally nonexposed group served as control. From the results it was observed that there was no significant difference in urinary thioether levels between the exposed and nonexposed groups, however, smokers of both exposed groups had significantly higher urinary thioether levels than the nonexposed smoking workers. These results suggested that higher urinary thioether excretion could be only due to a difference in smoking behaviour. There were also significant differences in urinary thioether levels between the exposed smoking and nonsmoking workers. The authors suggest that these workers have a low mutagenic/carcinogenic risk and smoking is responsible for the majority of thioether excretion, as has been found by other investigators. PMID:3384491

Burgaz, S; Bayhan, A; Karakaya, A E

1988-01-01

316

Cardiovascular response of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields.  

PubMed

Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 or 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements, made during exposure to a 100-kV/m electric field for one hour, revealed no significant differences between exposed and sham-exposed groups. In addition, physiologic reserve capacity, measured in rats subjected to low temperature after exposure to 100 kV/m for one month, showed that electric-field exposure had no significant effect on physiological response to cold stress. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of 1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; 2) minimizing steady-state micro-currents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and 3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages. PMID:7284016

Hilton, D I; Phillips, R D

1980-01-01

317

Mechanical integrity of polysilicon films exposed to hydrofluoric acid solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results from a comparative study of Young’s modulus, residual stress, and membrane burst pressure of undoped LPCVD polysilicon films exposed to various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Load deflection measurements on square membranes of polysilicon with residual tensile stress were used to obtain estimates of Young’s modulus, residual stress and burst pressure. The polysilicon membranes were exposed to four different solutions of the 49% by weight reagent HF including 10:1 DI water and HF, 1:1 DI water the HF, commercial 10:1 buffered oxide etchant, or pure HF ( i.e. 49% by weight reagent). Two control groups were studied composed of membranes with no treatment and membranes exposed to DI water. Young’s modulus changed from an average of 190 GPa for the control groups to an average of 240 GPa for films exposed to pure HF. Residual stress values exhibited a less pronounced and opposite change, with an average of 42 MPa for the control groups and an average of 27 MPa for films exposed to pure HF. Similarly, burst pressure was seen to decrease with increasing HF concentration, ranging in value from an average of 96.5 kPa (14 psi) for the control groups to an average of 34.5 kPa (5 psi) for films exposed to pure HF. It was found that the change in the investigated mechanical properties of polysilicon was approximately equal for HF:DI solutions of HF concentration above 10%. Furthermore, for solutions of equal HF concentration, the addition of the buffering agent decreases the effect on membrane burst pressures significantly.

Walker, James A.; Gabriel, Kaigham J.; Mehregany, Mehran

1991-09-01

318

The EXPOSE-E Mission on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for ex-periments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation, extraterrestrial UV and ionizing radiation. For 1.5 years the astrobiological experimental ESA facility EXPOSE-E was accommodated on the EuTEF Platform on one of the external balconies of the Columbus Module with 5 exobio-logical and 3 radiation experiments, exposing the chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment. The main interest of the experiments was to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigated resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens and plant seeds to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biologi-cal specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation were regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. The exposure facility EXPOSE-E itself and the accommodated experiments and samples are introduced. A complete Mission overview of this recent long term astrobiological experiment is presented: from the sample preparation and launch to the landing and sample retrieval. Mission data and an assessment of the impacting space parameters during the mission are given. After EXPOSE-E, the sister facility EXPOSE-R was launched and still is in space. A short status information and outlook on this second astrobiological Mission will be included.

Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Guenther

319

49 CFR 195.569 - Do I have to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines? 195.569 Section 195...to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines? Whenever you have knowledge that any portion of a buried pipeline is exposed, you must...

2010-10-01

320

49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed. 192.459 ...corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed. Whenever an...knowledge that any portion of a buried pipeline is exposed, the...

2010-10-01

321

49 CFR 195.569 - Do I have to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines? 195.569 Section 195...to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines? Whenever you have knowledge that any portion of a buried pipeline is exposed, you must...

2009-10-01

322

49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed. 192.459 ...corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed. Whenever an...knowledge that any portion of a buried pipeline is exposed, the...

2009-10-01

323

Preparation of the Biochip experiment on the EXPOSE-R2 mission outside the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochips might be suited for planetary exploration. Indeed, they present great potential for the search for biomarkers - molecules that are the sign of past or present life in space - thanks to their size (miniaturized devices) and sensitivity. Their detection principle is based on the recognition of a target molecule by affinity receptors fixed on a solid surface. Consequently, one of the main concerns when developing such a system is the behavior of the biological receptors in a space environment. In this paper, we describe the preparation of an experiment planned to be part of the EXPOSE-R2 mission, which will be conducted on the EXPOSE-R facility, outside the International Space Station (ISS), in order to study the resistance of biochip models to space constraints (especially cosmic radiation and thermal cycling). This experiment overcomes the limits of ground tests which do not reproduce exactly the space parameters. Indeed, contrary to ground experiments where constraints are applied individually and in a limited time, the biochip models on the ISS will be exposed to cumulated constraints during several months. Finally, this ISS experiment is a necessary step towards planetary exploration as it will help assessing whether a biochip can be used for future exploration missions.

Vigier, F.; Le Postollec, A.; Coussot, G.; Chaput, D.; Cottin, H.; Berger, T.; Incerti, S.; Triqueneaux, S.; Dobrijevic, M.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.

2013-12-01

324

A care coordination program for substance-exposed newborns.  

PubMed

The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by perinatal substance use. Findings from VIP-RI's final four years show that by 12 months, 86% of substance-exposed newborns had identified permanent placements and 77% were placed with biological parents or relatives. PMID:22533057

Twomey, Jean E; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M

2011-01-01

325

Donation to disaster relief campaigns: Underlying social cognitive factors exposed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an

Liesbeth Oosterhof; Ard Heuvelman; Oscar Peters

2009-01-01

326

Corneal autograft patches for covering exposed transscleral sutures.  

PubMed

This article details the authors' experience with a relatively unknown technique for covering exposed ends of transscleral sutures. During combined transscleral suturing of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) with a penetrating keratoplasty, buttons from the excised recipient cornea are sutured with 10-0 nylon over the protruding suture ends. This technique has been used successfully in four cases. PMID:9150528

Lifshitz, T; Wender, A; Lapid-Gortzak, R

1997-05-01

327

Enhanced CO2 Production by Yeast Exposed to Elevated Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY After starvation, yeast exposed to elevated temperatures produced CO, twice as fast as unexposed organisms. The lag which preceded linear CO, pro- duction by starved yeast was essentially eliminated by heat treatment. Uptake and retention of sorbose was greater in heated yeast. Heating was accomplished by brief immersion of the organisms in heated solutions and by growth for 2

E. Spoerl

1970-01-01

328

Respiratory infections in coal miners exposed to nitrogen oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal miners working underground may be exposed chronically to low levels of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide from diesel engine emissions and from the use of explosives for blasting. The aims of this study were to establish whether long-term exposures to low concentrations of these gases at nine British coal mines had been associated with increased susceptibility to respiratory infections

M. Jacobsen; T. A. Smith; J. F. Hurley; A. Robertson; R. Roscrow

1988-01-01

329

Antioxidant Status of Neonates Exposed in utero to Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of

L. Fayol; J. M. Gulian; C. Dalmasso; R. Calaf; U. Simeoni; V. Millet

2005-01-01

330

LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

331

LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

332

Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: exposed common ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: exposed common bond brick wall, arched brick lintels over a two single-light casement window with brick sills, arched brick lintel over door cornice; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

333

PAPILLOMAS ON FISH EXPOSED TO CHLORINATED WASTEWATER EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic chemical(s) in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant was indicated by papillomas developing on caged black bullheads (Ictaluraus melas), hepatic enzyme induction in exposed fish, and Ames test mutagenicity of organic extracts of t...

334

BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC THERMOREGULATION IN MICE EXPOSED TO MICROWAVE RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Preferred ambient temperature (T) and breathing rate were measured in free-moving mice exposed to 2,450-MHz microwaves. A waveguide-exposure system was imposed with a longitudinal temperature gradient that permitted mice to select their preferred T. Breathing rate was determined ...

335

Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological,…

Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

2012-01-01

336

A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

2011-01-01

337

Estimating the Number of Substance-Exposed Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates the number of infants exposed to legal and illegal substances before birth, drawing on 27 published reports and National Institute on Drug Abuse data. The following are estimated exposure levels: (1) cocaine, 2-3 percent; (2) marijuana, 3-12 percent; (3) cigarettes, 38 percent; and (4) alcohol, 73 percent. (SLD)

Gomby, Deanna S.; Shiono, Patricia H.

1991-01-01

338

PBF detail of metal pedestrian bridge over exposed control cables, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF detail of metal pedestrian bridge over exposed control cables, which run between Control (PER-619) and Reactor Buildings (PER-620). Camera facing northwest. Southwest corner of PER-620 at upper right of view. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-6-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

339

Hematotoxicity in Workers Exposed to Low Levels of Benzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain. In a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene, white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly lower than in 140 controls, even for exposure below 1 ppm in

Qing Lan; Luoping Zhang; Guilan Li; Roel Vermeulen; Rona S. Weinberg; Mustafa Dosemeci; Stephen M. Rappaport; Min Shen; Blanche P. Alter; Yongji Wu; William Kopp; Suramya Waidyanatha; Charles Rabkin; Weihong Guo; Stephen Chanock; Richard B. Hayes; Martha Linet; Sungkyoon Kim; Songnian Yin; Nathaniel Rothman; Martyn T. Smith

2004-01-01

340

2. VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF STATION FARLEY FACING NORTH SHOWING EXPOSED EXTERIOR FRONT OF THE CONCRETE CONCEALMENT, SANDSTONE FLANK-WALLS ARE VISIBLE AT REAR SIDES. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

341

Test method for spalling of fire exposed concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the

K. D. Hertz; L. S. Sørensen

2005-01-01

342

Parenting Stress and Child Maltreatment in Drug-Exposed Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, with 48 infants and toddlers (24 of which were drug exposed), found that mothers who used drugs during pregnancy reported higher levels of total parenting stress, child-related stress, and parent-related stress than foster mothers and comparison mothers. A strong association between maternal use of drugs and serious child maltreatment…

Kelley, Susan J.

1992-01-01

343

Mortality of Workers Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls—An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in two plants manufacturing electrical capacitors was reported in 1981. The study was conducted primarily to examine the risk of cancer mortality associated with exposure to PCBs. Based on animal data, liver cancer was the disease of most interest. Due to the small number of deaths and a

David P. Brown

1987-01-01

344

In vitro cell changes in laser-exposed tissue.  

PubMed

Tissue cultures of WI 38 human embryonic lung were exposed to CO2 laser irradiation while others were maintained unexposed as controls. In the test cultures the target area demonstrated cell dehydration and distortion, consisting of nuclear and cellular elongation and cytoplasmic fragmentation. Regeneration of the cultures was gradual and incomplete. PMID:6773283

Shepanek, N A; Kaplan, B J; Townsend, D

1980-01-01

345

Behavioral responses of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.  

PubMed

Research has shown that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, mitochondrial fatty acid transport, and oxidation enzymes. Various behavioral abnormalities may also decrease the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate behavioral irregularities in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C) neonatal chicks, we studied behavioral responses when compared with the control kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Two-day-old chicks (n = 5) were exposed to either low or thermoneutral temperature for 3 h and were then immediately placed in an acrylic monitoring cage (40 x 30 x 20 cm). The monitoring cage was fitted with a 3-dimensional mirror (to prevent isolation-induced stress) and maintained either at 20 or 30 degrees C. Behavioral responses were monitored for 10 min. Behavioral observations revealed that low-temperature exposure decreased distress vocalizations and spontaneous activity. Low-temperature exposure induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks; active wakefulness was decreased while standing or sitting motionless with eyes closed or open and sleeping posture was significantly increased. In conclusion, there is evidence that on exposure to low-temperature, neonatal chicks decrease behavioral activity. Increased sleep-like behavior and decreased activity may reduce heat production in low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks and could potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19359677

Mujahid, A; Furuse, M

2009-05-01

346

The ROSE experiments on the EXPOSE facility of the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXPOSE is a multi-user facility to be mounted outside of the International Space Station (ISS). The tray-like structure will accomodate among others 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Responses of Organisms to the Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. Each compartment is either vented, i.e. open to space vacuum, or sealed and then provided with a defined gas environment. The experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. To achieve maximum insolation, EXPOSE is mounted on a coarse pointing device. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by use of shutters. EXPOSE has been selected for the Early Utilisation Period of the ISS and will stay in space for 1.5 years. The results will contribute to our understanding of photobiological processes in simulated radiation climates of planets (e.g. early Earth, early and present Mars, and the role of the ozone layer in protecting the biosphere from harmful UV-B radiation), as well as studies of the probabilities and limitations for life to be distributed beyond its planet of origin.

Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.

2001-08-01

347

Response of Bush Bean Exposed to Acid Mist.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed ...

I. J. Hindawi J. A. Rea W. L. Griffis

1980-01-01

348

CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

349

Diversity, Value and Technology: Exposing Value Pluralism in Institutional Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore ways in which value pluralism in institutional learning-technology strategy can be exposed and managed with the use of learning activities involving stakeholder groups across and between educational institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The case-study of a series of national workshops on…

Johnson, Mark; Smyth, Keith

2011-01-01

350

A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

Abergel, Rebecca

2013-10-31

351

29. VIEW WEST TOWARDS KALAWAO OF PIPELINE, EXPOSED AT LOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW WEST TOWARDS KALAWAO OF PIPELINE, EXPOSED AT LOWER LEFT. CAT TRACKS, MADE BY THE CONSTRUCTION/MAINTENANCE VEHICLES, CAN BE SEEN ALONG BOULDER BEACH - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

352

Studies of workers exposed to low doses of external radiation  

SciTech Connect

Currently, several epidemiologic studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to low levels of radiation are being conducted. They include studies of workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. This paper focuses on studies evaluating the possible adverse effects that result from external exposure to radiation.37 references.

Gilbert, E.S. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (Unites States))

1991-10-01

353

WATER RELATIONS OF DIFFERENTIALLY IRRIGATED COTTON EXPOSED TO OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to be sore susceptible to drought because typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios implants. otton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside,...

354

18. INTERIOR OF ROOM 106 LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED BEAM AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. INTERIOR OF ROOM 106 LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED BEAM AT CEILING IS PAINTED. FLOOR IS VINYL COMPOSITION TILE. WALLS AND CEILING ARE PAINTED GYPSUM BOARD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

355

Biological responses of marine flatfish exposed to municipal wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern over the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents, yet knowledge of potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. The present study used laboratory exposures to examine estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with 2 degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 d to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone, and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. Contaminants of emerging concern were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems. PMID:24273037

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Baker, Michael E; Hardiman, Gary; Reyes, Jesus A; Kelley, Kevin M; Schlenk, Daniel

2014-03-01

356

Out-of-Home Placement of Children Exposed to Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing concern about the increasing number of children in the USA who are exposed to community violence and the need to remove some of them from their families. This study examines risk factors for out-of-home placement among a large pool of children and adolescents who were referred for general clinical assessment following exposure to…

Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Berkowitz, Steven; Marans, Steven; Murphy, Robert A.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

2008-01-01

357

Mechanical integrity of polysilicon films exposed to hydrofluoric acid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results from a comparative study of Young's modulus, residual stress, and membrane burst pressure of undoped LPCVD polysilicon films exposed to various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Load deflection measurements on square membranes of polysilicon with residual tensile stress were used to obtain estimates of Young's modulus, residual stress and burst pressure. The polysilicon membranes were

James A. Walker; Kaigham J. Gabriel; Mehran Mehregany

1991-01-01

358

Mechanical integrity of polysilicon films exposed to hydrofluoric acid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results from a comparative study of Young's modulus, residual stress, and membrane burst pressure of undoped LPCVD polysilicon films exposed to various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) are presented. A reversal from compressive to tensile stress through a high-temperature anneal for large-grain polysilicon is an important (although ancillary) result of this study. As HF concentration is increased, residual stress

J. A. Walker; K. J. Gabriel; M. Mehregany

1990-01-01

359

XPS Study of Space-Exposed Polyimide Film.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to assess changes induced in the surface chemistry of Kapton H (Du Pont Trademark) polyimide strips exposed to the low Earth orbit environment at the space-end of the LDEF satellite on Experiment A0133. Results fr...

M. Lee W. Rooney J. Whiteside

1993-01-01

360

Sensory Irritation in Mice Exposed to Emissions from Indoor Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory irritation (SI) in mice exposed to chemical emissions from products was investigated using a modification of an ASTM standard protocol. Samples of carpet, ceiling tile, wallcovering, resilient flooring, and veneer were tested as typical indoor products. SI during head-only animal exposure was assessed by monitoring changes in respiratory frequency and waveform when test products were continuously ventilated at either

William J. Muller; Marilyn S. Black

1995-01-01

361

Gibraltar: Exposing Hardware Devices to Web Pages Using AJAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibraltar is a new framework for exposing hardware devices to web pages. Gibraltar's fundamental insight is that JavaScript's AJAX facility can be used as a hardware access protocol. Instead of relying on the browser to mediate device interactions, Gibraltar sandboxes the browser and uses a small device server to handle hardware requests. The server uses native code to interact with

Kaisen Lin; David Chu; James Mickens; Li Zhuang; Feng Zhao; Jian Qiu

2012-01-01

362

Are children exposed to interparental violence being psychologically maltreated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on childhood witnessing of interparental violence is reviewed. Evidence is presented as to the severe developmental damages the witnessing covictims often sustain. These include: depression, anxiety, cognitive problems, delinquency, and proneness to violence and victimization. Parental failure to shield children from such traumatizing experiences constitutes child maltreatment in that it exposes the victims to (a) terrorizing, and (b) missocializing

Eli Somer; Anat Braunstein

1999-01-01

363

Structural brain changes in prenatal methamphetamine-exposed children.  

PubMed

The global use of methamphetamine (MA) has increased substantially in recent years, but the effect of MA on brain structure in prenatally exposed children is understudied. Here we aimed to investigate potential changes in brain volumes and cortical thickness of children with prenatal MA-exposure compared to unexposed controls. Eighteen 6-year old children with MA-exposure during pregnancy and 18 healthy controls matched for age, gender and socio-economic background underwent structural imaging. Brain volumes and cortical thickness were assessed using Freesurfer and compared using ANOVA. Left putamen volume was significantly increased, and reduced cortical thickness was observed in the left hemisphere of the inferior parietal, parsopercularis and precuneus areas of MA-exposed children compared to controls. Compared to control males, prenatal MA-exposed males had greater volumes in striatal and associated areas, whereas MA-exposed females predominantly had greater cortical thickness compared to control females. In utero exposure to MA results in changes in the striatum of the developing child. In addition, changes within the striatal, frontal, and parietal areas are in part gender dependent. PMID:24553878

Roos, Annerine; Jones, Gaby; Howells, Fleur M; Stein, Dan J; Donald, Kirsten A

2014-06-01

364

A multicentre mortality study of workers exposed to ethylene oxide.  

PubMed Central

A multicentre cohort study was carried out to study the possible association between exposure to ethylene oxide and cancer mortality. The cohort consisted of 2658 men from eight chemical plants of six chemical companies in the Federal Republic of Germany who had been exposed to ethylene oxide for at least one year between 1928 and 1981. The number of subjects in the separate plants varied from 98 to 604. By the closing date of the study (31 December 1982) 268 had died, 68 from malignant neoplasms. For 63 employees who had left the plant (2.4%) the vital status remained unknown. The standardised mortality ratio for all causes of death was 0.87 and for all malignancies 0.97 compared with national rates. When local state rates were used the SMRs were slightly lower. Two deaths from leukaemia were observed compared with 2.35 expected (SMR = 0.85). SMRs for carcinoma of the oesophagus (2.0) and carcinoma of the stomach (1.38) were raised but not significantly. In one plant an internal "control group" was selected matched for age, sex, and date of entry into the factory and compared with the exposed group. In both groups a "healthy worker effect" was observed. The total mortality and mortality from malignant neoplasms was higher in the exposed than in the control group; the differences were not statistically significant. There were no deaths from leukaemia in the exposed group and one in the control group. Images

Kiesselbach, N; Ulm, K; Lange, H J; Korallus, U

1990-01-01

365

Respiratory Infections in Coalminers Exposed to Nitrogen Oxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coalminers working underground may be exposed chronically to low levels of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from diesel engine emissions and from the use of explosives for blasting. The aims of the study were to establish whether long-term exp...

M. Jacobsen T. A. Smith J. F. Hurley A. Robertson R. Roscrow

1987-01-01

366

12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. VIEW TO WEST, TOWARD SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

367

Embryo- and fetotoxicity of chromium in pregestationally exposed mice  

SciTech Connect

Chromium, an essential element in the human body required for proper carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, is reported to impair gestational development of offspring of workers chronically exposed to this metal in the work place. Workers in chromium based industries can be exposed to concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the general population. Among the general population, residents living near chromate production sites may be exposed to high levels of chromium (VI) in air or to elevated levels (40 - 50,000 ppm) of chromium in effluents. Shmitova reported afterbirth and puerperal hemorrhages in women industrially exposed to this metal and observed high chromium levels in blood and urine of pregnant women and in fetal and cord blood. Chromium readily passes the placental barrier and reaches the growing fetus. Exposure of mice to chromium during various gestational periods resulted in embryo and fetotoxic effects. This study looks at the role of body chromium accumulated pregestationally on embryo and fetal development and its subsequent transfer to feto-placental sites. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

Junaid, M.; Murthy, R.C.; Saxena, D.K. [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India)] [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India)

1996-10-01

368

46 CFR 28.215 - Guards for exposed hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.215 Guards for exposed hazards. (a) Each space on board a vessel must meet the requirements of this...

2013-10-01

369

A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

Abergel, Rebecca

2014-06-24

370

EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ON THE SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE UNIT - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, U-SHAPED TWO-BEDROOM SINGLE-FAMILY TYPE 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

371

Risk of spontaneous abortion among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental contamination of livestock in Michigan in 1973 with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) led to the establishment of a registry of exposed individuals in 1976. At the time of enrollment, serum was collected and analyzed for PBBs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In 1997, women aged 18 years or older and active in the registry were invited to participate in a telephone

Chanley M. Small; Keely Cheslack-Postava; Metrecia Terrell; Heidi Michels Blanck; Paige Tolbert; Carol Rubin; Alden Henderson; Michele Marcus

2007-01-01

372

25. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, showing exposed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Interior detail view of women's waiting area, showing exposed roof construction with lacquered finish, decorative cove molding at intersection of roof and walls, and interior framing details - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

373

Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed roof sections of buildings 934 (center) and 933 (left), 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 3, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

374

REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

375

Thioether excretion of workers exposed to bitumen fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excretion of thioethers was determined in the urine of workers involved in road paving operations and in the preparation of asphalt mixing in an asphalt plant. An occupationally nonexposed group served as control. From the results it was observed that there was no significant difference in urinary thioether levels between the exposed and nonexposed groups, however, smokers of both

Sema Burgaz; Aysel Bayhan; Ali Esat Karakaya

1988-01-01

376

Exposed Ice in the Northern Mid-Latitudes of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ice-Rich Layer: Polygonal features with dimensions of approximately 100 meters, bounded by cracks, are commonly observed on the martian northern plains. These features are generally attributed to thermal cracking of ice-rich sediments, in direct analogy to polygons in terrestrial polar regions. We mapped polygons in the northern mid-latitudes (30 to 65 N) using MOC and HiRISE images. Polygons are scattered across the northern plains, with a particular concentration in western Utopia Planitia. This region largely overlaps the Late Amazonian Astapus Colles unit, characterized by polygonal terrain and nested pits consistent with periglacial and thermokarst origins. Bright and Dark Polygonal Cracks: An examination of all MOC images (1997 through 2003) covering the study area demonstrated that, at latitudes of 55 to 65 N, most of the imaged polygons show bright bounding cracks. We interpret these bright cracks as exposed ice. Between 40 and 55 N, most of the imaged polygons show dark bounding cracks. These are interpreted as polygons from which the exposed ice has been removed by sublimation. The long-term stability limit for exposed ice, even in deep cracks, apparently lies near 55 N. Bright and Dark Spots: Many HiRISE and MOC frames showing polygons in the northern plains also show small numbers of bright and dark spots, particularly in western Utopia Planitia. Many of the spots are closely associated with collapse features suggestive of thermokarst. The spots range from tens to approximately 100 meters in diameter. The bright spots are interpreted as exposed ice, due to their prevalence on terrain mapped as ice rich. The dark spots are interpreted as former bright spots, which have darkened as the exposed ice is lost by sublimation. The bright spots may be the martian equivalents of pingos, ice-cored mounds found in periglacial regions on Earth. Terrestrial pingos from which the ice core has melted often collapse to form depressions similar to the martian dark spots. Future Observations: The SHARAD radar should be able to confirm the presence and measure the depth of the interpreted ice-rich layer that forms the Astapus Colles unit. If this layer is confirmed it will strengthen the interpretation of bright polygon cracks and bright spots as exposed ice. HiRISE images of the northern plains are showing unprecedented details of the polygonal cracks. Future HiRISE images that include bright spots, compared to MOC images taken years earlier, will illustrate the temporal stability of the spots. The CRISM spectrometer, with multiple spectral bands and a spatial resolution around 20 meters, should allow mineralogical identification of the material exposed in the polygonal bounding cracks and in the bright spots.

Allen, Carlton C.

2007-01-01

377

Biomonitoring of a population of Portuguese workers exposed to lead.  

PubMed

Lead is a heavy metal that has been used for many centuries and it is still used for various industrial purposes thanks to its physical and chemical characteristics. Human exposure to lead can result in a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. Despite the fact that lead has been found capable of eliciting genotoxic responses in a wide range of tests, not all studies have been conclusive. Although several experimental studies have shown that lead may modulate immune responses, data in exposed humans are still preliminary. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the genotoxic and immunotoxic effects of lead exposure in a group of 70 male workers from two Portuguese factories. The control group comprised 38 healthy males. The exposed individuals showed significantly higher levels of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin, and significantly lower ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity than the controls, suggesting a relatively high lead exposure. Nevertheless, the limit of 70 ?g/dl for lead in blood established by the Portuguese regulation was never reached. Results of the comet assay were not modified by the exposure, but a significant increase in the mutation frequency in the exposed workers was obtained in the T-cell receptor mutation assay. Furthermore, data obtained in the analysis of the different lymphocyte subsets showed a significant decrease in %CD8+ cells and a significant increase in the %CD4+/%CD8+ ratio in exposed individuals with regard to the controls. No clear effect was observed for vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism on the parameters evaluated. In view of our results showing mutagenic and immunotoxic effects related to lead exposure in occupational settings, it seems that the Portuguese biological exposure limit for lead needs to be revised in order to increase the safety of exposed workers. PMID:21241821

García-Lestón, Julia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Vilares, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Cunha, Luís M; Prista, João; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Mayan, Olga; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

2011-03-18

378

Exposed core microstructured optical fiber surface plasmon resonance biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) scattering offers significant advantages compared to traditional reflectivity measure- ments, essentially turning a non-radiative process into a radiative one. Recently, we have shown that SPR scattering can be used in an optical fiber, enabling higher signal to noise ratio, reduced dependence on the metallic thickness as well as the unique capability of multiplexed detection with a single fiber. Here we report a novel SPR scattering based sensor fabricated based on an exposed-core silica Microstructured Optical Fiber (MOF). This MOF presents a structure with a relatively small core (Ø = 10µm), exposed along the whole fiber length. This exposed core MOF allows for fabrication of SPR supporting metallic thin films directly onto the fiber core offering the new prospect of exploiting SPR in a waveguide structure that supports only a relatively small number of guided optical modes, with a structure that offers ease of fabri- cation and handling. A thin silver film of 50 nm thickness was deposited onto the fiber core by thermal evaporation. The significant surface roughness of the prepared metallic coatings facilitates strong scattering of the light wave coupled into the surface plasmon. Performance characteristics of the new exposed core fiber sensor were compared to those of a large bare core silica fiber (Ø = 140µm). Although sensitivity of both sensors was comparable (around 2500nm/RIU ), full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the SPR peaks for the new exposed core fiber sensor decreased by a factor of 3 offering an significant enhancement in the detection limit of the new sensing platform in addition to the prospect of a sensor with a lower detection volume.

Klantsataya, Elizaveta; François, Alexandre; Zuber, Agnieszka; Torok, Valeria; Kostecki, Roman; Monro, Tanya M.

2014-02-01

379

Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children  

PubMed Central

This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological, behavioral and maternal reported measures of reactivity. Five replicable clusters were identified which corresponded to 1) Dysregulated/High Maternal Report Reactors, 2) Low Behavioral Reactors, 3) High Reactors, 4) Optimal Reactors and 5) Dysregulated/Low Maternal Report Reactors. These clusters were associated with differences in prenatal cocaine exposure status, birthweight, maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal negative affect during mother-infant interactions. These results support the presence of distinct reactivity profiles among high risk infants recruited on the basis of prenatal cocaine exposure and demographically similar control group infants not exposed to cocaine.

Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

2012-01-01

380

Corrosion of beryllium exposed to celotex and water  

SciTech Connect

Celotex is a commercial rigid cellulose fiberboard product primarily used in the building construction industry. Currently celotex is being used as a packing material in AL-R8 containers. Ion chromatography of celotex packing material at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has indicated that this material contains aggressive anions, including chloride, which may accelerate corrosion. It is well known that beryllium is susceptible to pitting corrosion when exposed to chloride containing environments. Levy noted pitting in beryllium at the open circuit potential when exposed to 0.1 M NaCl solution. This investigation attempts to evaluate the potential risk of accelerated beryllium corrosion from celotex and water which may occur naturally when celotex dust comes into contact with moisture from the atmosphere.

Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Lab.

1997-12-01

381

Radiation effects on ETFE polymer exposed to glow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymer ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) is composed of alternating ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene segments. Because it has applications in areas such as medical physics and industrial coatings, there is a great interest in surface modification studies of ETFE polymer. When this material is exposed to ionizing radiation it suffers damage that depends on the type, energy and intensity of the irradiation. In order to determine the radiation damage mechanism from exposure to low voltage plasma, ETFE films were exposed to residual gas plasma in glow discharge regime to a fluence of 2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2. Irradiated films were analyzed with optical absorption photospectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the structural changes caused by low energy glow discharge.

Minamisawa, Renato Amaral; Abidzina, Volha; de Almeida, Adelaide; Budak, Satilmis; Tereshko, I.; Elkin, I.; Ila, Daryush

2007-08-01

382

Characterization of enamel exposed to 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of three 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on enamel microhardness and surface morphology. Seventy-two enamel slabs were subjected to one of three carbamide peroxide solutions or an artificial saliva solution for 15 hours a day for 2- and 4-week periods. During the remaining 9 hours, slabs were exposed to human saliva in vivo. Although differences were not statistically significant, microhardness values of all treated specimens 2 weeks after treatment were less than those of control specimens. These trends, however, were not evident at 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation revealed significant surface alterations in enamel topography for slabs treated with the bleaching solutions for 4 weeks. The most severe alterations were found in slabs exposed to the lower-pH solutions. PMID:8511257

Shannon, H; Spencer, P; Gross, K; Tira, D

1993-01-01

383

Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

Kolasinski, R. D.; Cowgill, D. F.; Donovan, D. C.; Shimada, M.; Wampler, W. R.

2013-07-01

384

Recovery of Pasteurella multocida from experimentally-exposed freshwater snails.  

PubMed

We determined how long Pasteurella multocida could survive in experimentally-exposed freshwater snails. Physa virginea were collected from the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Glenn County, California (USA), an enzootic site for avian cholera. Exposure to water containing up to 10(7) P. multocida per ml did not produce observable changes or mortality in snails. A minimum of 84 P. multocida per snail was necessary for detection among the normal snail bacterial flora. When snails were exposed to P. multocida in vials containing 10(7) bacteria per ml, P. multocida was detected for up to 72 hours in snails. When uninoculated snails were placed in aquaria containing 10(6) P. multocida per ml, P. multocida was not detected within the snails; further, P. multocida was detected in the water for only 24 hours at this level. Based on these results, we propose that P. virginea is not an effective reservoir for P. multocida. PMID:8592357

Miller, S L; Botzler, R G

1995-07-01

385

Pneumoconiosis in animals exposed to poly(vinyl chloride) dust.  

PubMed Central

Rats, guinea pigs and monkeys were exposed by inhalation (6 hr/day, 5 days/week) for up to 22 months to a 13 mg/m3 concentration of PVC dust. Autopsies on rats and guinea pigs were performed after 12 months of exposure and on monkeys after 22 months after 22 months of exposure. Lung function tests were performed on monkeys after 9, 14 and 22 months of exposure. Aggregates of alveolar macrophages containing PVC particles were found in the lungs of all animals. These aggregates were more numerous in the monkey lungs. No fibrosis or significant cellular infiltrates were present in or near these cellular aggregates. No significant effects on pulmonary function could be demonstrated in the monkeys exposed to PVC. Under the conditions of this experiment, inhaled PVC produced a benign pneumoconiosis. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6.

Groth, D H; Lynch, D W; Moorman, W J; Stettler, L E; Lewis, T R; Wagner, W D; Kommineni, C

1981-01-01

386

Pneumoconiosis in animals exposed to poly(vinyl chloride) dust.  

PubMed

Rats, guinea pigs and monkeys were exposed by inhalation (6 hr/day, 5 days/week) for up to 22 months to a 13 mg/m3 concentration of PVC dust. Autopsies on rats and guinea pigs were performed after 12 months of exposure and on monkeys after 22 months after 22 months of exposure. Lung function tests were performed on monkeys after 9, 14 and 22 months of exposure. Aggregates of alveolar macrophages containing PVC particles were found in the lungs of all animals. These aggregates were more numerous in the monkey lungs. No fibrosis or significant cellular infiltrates were present in or near these cellular aggregates. No significant effects on pulmonary function could be demonstrated in the monkeys exposed to PVC. Under the conditions of this experiment, inhaled PVC produced a benign pneumoconiosis. PMID:6800783

Groth, D H; Lynch, D W; Moorman, W J; Stettler, L E; Lewis, T R; Wagner, W D; Kommineni, C

1981-10-01

387

Deepest exposed crust of Brazil-SHRIMP establishes three events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deepest exposed crust of Brazil is in the western portion of the exposed Precambrian shield of southernmost Rio Grande do Sul State and comprises a bimodal sequence of mafic garnet granulites and metatrondhjemites, intercalated with smaller volumes of metamorphosed pyroxenites, anorthosites, sillimanite gneisses, and banded iron formation. As determined by zircon U/Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), this granulite terrain accreted from the mantle at the end of the Archean (ca. 2.55 Ga) and was deformed in high-pressure granulite facies metamorphic conditions in the Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.02 Ga). A younger event, possibly ca. 900 Ma, caused local amphibolite facies retrogression in the complex. Zircons from a metabasalt and a metatrondhjemite show external morphologies typical of high-grade metamorphic rocks, whereas backscattered electron images reveal internal oscillatory zoning of their igneous precursors. Spot ages from zircon agree well with previous model Nd and Sm/Nd mineral isochron ages.

Hartmann, Léo A.; Leite, Jayme A. D.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Santos, João Orestes S.

1999-10-01

388

Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

R. D. Kolasinski; D. F. Cowgill; D. C. Donovan; M. Shimada

2012-05-01

389

Progress of renal dysfunction in inhabitants environmentally exposed to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

The reversibility of beta 2-microglobulinuria, glucosuria, and aminoaciduria was examined in 74 inhabitants (32 males and 42 females) over 50 yr of age, who lived in a cadmium-polluted area. The subjects participated in two examinations conducted just after the cessation of cadmium exposure and 5 yr later. All urinary parameters did not show reversible changes. During the 5 yr the geometric mean concentrations of beta 2-microglobulinuria, glucosuria, and aminoaciduria indicated significant increases in excretion. In cases where greater than 1,000 micrograms/g creatinine of beta 2-microglobulinuria was observed (at the time cadmium exposure ended), almost all individuals exposed to cadmium showed deterioration of beta 2-microglobulinuria, whereas in the case of less than 1,000 micrograms/g creatinine of beta 2-microglobulinuria, no significant changes were observed. The present study indicates that cadmium-induced renal dysfunction in individuals environmentally exposed to cadmium is irreversible.

Kido, T.; Honda, R.; Tsuritani, I.; Yamaya, H.; Ishizaki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Nogawa, K.

1988-05-01

390

Spores in artificial meteorites, the experiment SPORES on expose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiment "Spores in artificial meteorites" (SPORES) will be accommodated in the EXPOSE facility outside of the Columbus module of the ISS. Spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns, which are especially adapted to survive extreme conditions, will be embedded in artificial meteorites and exposed to selected parameters of space. The experiment consists of the following three sub-units: (I) laminated structure where layers of meteorite material are sandwiched with biological layers, (II) intermixed structure with a layer of meteorite powder mixed with biological systems, and (III) monitoring of UV radiation and cosmic ionising radiation. After 3 years in space, the viability and impairment of the spores will be analysed in the laboratory using a set of biological and biochemical assays. The experiment will provide experimental clues to the question whether meteorite material offers enough protection against the harsh environment of space for spores to survive a long-term stay in space.

Horneck, G.; Hock, B.; Wänke, H.; Rettberg, P.; Häder, D.-P.; Dachev, T.; Rabbow, E.; Reitz, G.; Panitz, C.; Lux-Endrich, A.; Richter, P.; Mishev, D.

2002-11-01

391

Laser-induced fluorescence of space-exposed polyurethane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this work was to utilize laser-induced fluorescence technique to characterize several samples of space-exposed polyurethane. These samples were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was in a shuttle-like orbit for nearly 6 years. Because of our present work to develop laser-induced-fluorescence inspection techniques for polymers, space-exposed samples and controls were lent to us for evaluation. These samples had been attached to the outer surface of LDEF; therefore, they were subjected to thermal cycling, solar ultraviolet radiation, vacuum, and atomic oxygen. It is well documented that atomic oxygen and ultraviolet exposure have detrimental effects on many polymers. This was a unique opportunity to make measurements on material that had been naturally degraded by an unusual environment. During our past work, data have come from artificially degraded samples and generally have demonstrated a correlation between laser-induced fluorescence and tensile strength or elasticity.

Hill, Ralph H., Jr.

1993-01-01

392

Temperature Increase in the Fetus Exposed to UHF RFID Readers.  

PubMed

Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has prominently increased during the last decades due to the rapid development of new technologies. Among the various devices emitting EMFs, those based on Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies are used in all aspects of everyday life, and expose people unselectively. This scenario could pose a potential risk for some groups of the general population, such as pregnant women, who are expected to be possibly more sensitive to the thermal effects produced by EMF exposure. This is the first paper that addresses the estimation of temperature rise in two pregnant women models exposed to ultrahigh frequency RFID by computational techniques. Results show that the maximum temperature increase of the fetus and of the pregnancy-related tissues is relatively high (even about 0.7 °C), not too far from the known threshold of biological effects. However, this increase is confined to a small volume in the tissues. PMID:24956619

Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Liorni, Ilaria; Samaras, Theodoros; Ravazzani, Paolo

2014-07-01

393

Long-term psychological distress among chemically exposed firefighters.  

PubMed

Long-term psychological effects of exposure to a dangerous chemical were evaluated in a sample of firefighters who fought a large polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire. When compared with nonexposed firefighter controls (n = 22), the exposed firefighters (n = 64) had significantly higher levels of demoralization and specific emotional distress 22 months after the incident. Longitudinal analyses of a subsample of exposed firefighter subjects (n = 55) surveyed 5 to 6 weeks after the fire and again 22 months later revealed that there was no reduction in symptomatology over time. Some psychological distress scores actually rose significantly between time points. Distress scores were also significantly correlated between time points. These results have a number of intervention and public health implications. PMID:2742992

Markowitz, J S

1989-01-01

394

Work function recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report substantial work function (WF) recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing. We observed a sharp reduction in the MoOx WF (from 6.8 eV to 5.6 eV) as well as a very thin layer of oxygen rich adsorbate on the MoOx film after an hour of air exposure. The WF of the exposed MoOx film started to gradually recover with increasing annealing temperature in vacuum, and the saturation in the WF recovery was observed at 450 °C with WF ~6.4 eV. We further studied the interface formation between the annealed MoOx and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CuPc was observed to be almost pinned to the Fermi level, strongly suggesting the possibility of efficient hole injection with the vacuum annealed MoOx film.

Irfan, Irfan; James Turinske, Alexander; Bao, Zhenan; Gao, Yongli

2012-08-01

395

Skin friction measurement with partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film (10-25 microns) deposited on a flat glass substrate has been used for the first time to measure skin friction. Utilizing the shear-stress-induced director reorientation in the partially exposed liquid-crystal droplets, optical transmission under crossed polarization has been measured as a function of the air flow differential pressure. Direct measurement of the skin friction with a skin friction drag balance, under the same aerodynamic conditions, lets us correlate the skin friction with optical transmission. This provides a unique technique for the direct measurement of skin friction from the transmitted light intensity. The results are in excellent agreement with the model suggested in this paper.

Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.

1993-01-01

396

Photodegradation of riboflavin in milks exposed to fluorescent light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodegradation of riboflavin in 50-ml samples of fluid milks exposed to fluorescent light (2690 lux) followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the reaction rate (s-1) averaged 1.86 x 10(-5) in skim milk and 1.47 x 10(-5) in whole milk. Additional evidence led us to conclude that photodegradation of riboflavin proceeds prior to the appearance of a light-induced off-flavor.

C. Allen; O. W. Parks

1979-01-01

397

Effectiveness of measles vaccination for control of exposed children.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of measles vaccine for postexposure prophylaxis at educational centers was investigated. A total of 166 children who shared the classroom with 10 confirmed cases during the infectious period of cases were studied. Of total susceptible exposed children, 72% (54/75) were vaccinated and 25 contracted measles. Vaccine effectiveness in children vaccinated within 72 hours of exposure was 90.5% (95% confidence interval, 34%-99%). PMID:20844460

Barrabeig, Irene; Rovira, Ariadna; Rius, Cristina; Muñoz, Pilar; Soldevila, Nuria; Batalla, Joan; Domínguez, Angela

2011-01-01

398

Biomarkers assessment in juvenile Cyprinus carpio exposed to waterborne cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of long-term exposure to waterborne cadmium (Cd) on Cyprinus carpio was evaluated through changes of selected parameters considered as biomarkers of toxicity. Fish were exposed to 1.6 mg l?1 Cd for 14 days and then transferred to Cd-free water for 19 days. The measured parameters were gill ATPases, brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE), liver glutamate oxaloacetate (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate

F. R de la Torre; A Salibián; L Ferrari

2000-01-01

399

Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a smelter exposed to zinc fumes  

SciTech Connect

A smelter exposed to zinc fumes reported severe recurrent episodes of cough, dyspnea and fever. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed a marked increase in lymphocytes count with predominance of CD8 T-lymphocytes. Presence of zinc in alveolar macrophages was assessed by analytic transmission electron microscopy. This is the first case of recurrent bronchoalveolitis related to zinc exposure in which the clinical picture and BAL results indicate a probable hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Ameille, J.; Brechot, J.M.; Brochard, P.; Capron, F.; Dore, M.F. (Consultation de Pathologie Professionnelle, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches, (France))

1992-03-01

400

Decreased arginine methylation and myelin alterations in arsenic exposed rats.  

PubMed

Methylation has an important role in the synthesis of myelin basic protein (MBP), an essential component that confers compactness to myelin, and the correct synthesis and assembling of myelin are fundamental in the development of the central nervous system. Since arsenic metabolism requires a high consumption of S-adenosylmethionine, the main donor of methyl groups in the organism, it has been proposed that arsenic exposure can lead to a demethylation status in the organism comprising DNA and protein hypomethylation. This study documents myelin alterations in brain and changes in levels of methylated arginines in brain and serum of adult female Wistar rats exposed to arsenic (3 and 36 ppm, drinking water) from gestation throughout lactation, development and until 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Morphological characteristics were analyzed by means of light microscopy and methylated arginines were analyzed through HPLC. Arsenic intake resulted in myelin damage reflected as empty spaces in fiber tracts of the exposed animals. The low exposure group (approximately 0.4 mg/kg/day) did not present myelin damage during the first 2 months, only moderate alterations in the third and fourth months. By contrast, animals exposed to 36 ppm (approximately 4 mg/kg/day) showed moderate to severe damage to nerve tracts from the first month of age. These alterations were accompanied by significant lower levels of dimethyl arginine in both exposed groups, as compared with the controls, in the third and fourth months of age and exposure. These data demonstrate that myelin composition is a target of arsenic through interference with arginine methylation, and they suggest that disturbances in nervous transmission through myelinated fibers are an important component of arsenic neurotoxicity. PMID:19896975

Zarazúa, Sergio; Ríos, Rosalva; Delgado, Juan Manuel; Santoyo, Martha E; Ortiz-Pérez, Deogracias; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E

2010-01-01

401

Immunological studies on mice exposed subacutely to methyl isocyanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunotoxicity of methyl isocyanate (MIC) was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice exposed via inhalation to 0, 1, or 3 ppm for 6 hr per day on 4 consecutive days. The antibody response to sheep erythrocytes and natural killer cell activity were found to be unaffected by MIC exposure. Although lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens were moderately suppressed by MIC, the

A. N. Tucker; J. R. Bucher; D. R. Germolec; M. T. Silver; S. J. Vore; M. I. Luster

1987-01-01

402

Reproduction and fetal development in mice chronically exposed to enflurane.  

PubMed

Reproductive indices and developmental toxicity were evaluated in Swiss/ICR mice chronically exposed to a subanesthetic (0.01 or 0.1 per cent) or an anesthetic (0.5/1.0 per cent) concentration of enflurane. Pregnant mice (443) and fetuses (4743) were examined. In one experiment, groups of females were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, or 0.5/1.0 per cent enflurane for 4 hours per day, 7 days per week for 3 weeks; they were then mated with unexposed males. Exposure of females was continued daily throughout pregnancy. No adverse effects on fertility were observed at any dosage. At the highest dosage, 1.0 per cent, minor developmental variations occurred (i.e., lumbar ribs and increased renal pelvic cavitation). In a second experiment, groups of mice were exposed to 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 per cent enflurance only on days 6 through 15 of pregnancy for 4 hours per day, after having been mated with untreated males. Abnormalities (i.e., increased incidence of cleft palate, minor skeletal and visceral anomalies, and developmental variants) were again seen only at the highest dosage. In a third experiment, male mice were exposed to 0.01, 0.1 or 0.5/1.0 per cent enflurane for 11 weeks for 4 hours per day, 5 days per week, prior to mating with unexposed females; results of this experiment were negative. In general, enflurane treatments did not adversely affect reproductive indices. Effects on fetal development were minimal, being somewhat greater than those reported in previous experiments with methoxyflurane but less than those seen with halothane. The smallest exposure at which effects were seen was approximately 100 times greater than the level of human occupational exposure in unscavenged operating rooms. PMID:7235278

Wharton, R S; Mazze, R I; Wilson, A I

1981-06-01

403

Hemoglobin adducts in workers exposed to benzidine and azo dyes.  

PubMed

Benzidine (Bz) is a known human carcinogen. Several azo dyes have been synthesized with Bz. Bz can be metabolically released from azo dyes. In a group of Indian workers producing Bz and azo dyes the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) adducts was investigated. The following Hb adducts were identified and quantified by GC-MS: Bz, N-acetylbenzidine (AcBz), 4-aminobiphenyl (4ABP), aniline. 4ABP and aniline were quantitatively the major adducts. In the exposed workers (n = 33) all correlations between 4ABP, Bz and AcBz were r = 0.89 (P < 0.01) or greater. The group of workers exposed to Bz (Bz workers, n = 15) had 10-17-fold higher adduct levels than the workers exposed to dyes (dye workers, n = 18). 4ABP can be metabolically released from Bz and azo dyes. Aniline can be metabolically released from azo dyes. Therefore, the presence of 4ABP and aniline as Hb adducts is a consequence of exposure to the parent compounds or to the exposure of Bz and azo dyes and a consequent metabolical release of the arylamine moiety. The mean adduct ratios of 4ABP/(AcBz + Bz) varied up to 4-fold across all seven factories. Therefore, it is possible that 4ABP may have derived from general contamination in the work environment or endogenous metabolism, or a combination of the two. Since 4ABP is also a known human carcinogen, tumors observed in workers exposed to Bz or Bz dyes might be caused by both compounds. Further, these results suggest that understanding the role that genetic variants in NAT1 and NAT2 play in modifying the impact of Bz on bladder cancer risk may be complicated, as N-acetylation detoxifies 4ABP and activates Bz. PMID:16497705

Beyerbach, Armin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Bhatnagar, Vijai K; Kashyap, Rekha; Sabbioni, Gabriele

2006-08-01

404

Excess hepatobiliary cancer mortality among munitions workers exposed to dinitrotoluene.  

PubMed

An analysis of the mortality experience of workers exposed to dinitrotoluene (DNT) was conducted to test the hypothesis that DNT exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the liver and biliary tract. A total of 4,989 workers exposed to DNT and 7,436 unexposed workers who had worked for at least 5 months at the study facility between January 1, 1949 and January 21, 1980, were included in this investigation. Workers were considered exposed if they had worked at least 1 day on a job with probable exposure to DNT. The vital status as of December 31, 1982, was successfully ascertained for approximately 97% of these workers. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated based upon comparisons with the US population using a modified life-table program. In addition, standardized rate ratios (SRRs) were computed based upon direct comparisons between the DNT and the internal unexposed cohort. An excess of hepatobiliary cancer was observed among workers exposed to DNT in this study. The rate ratio for hepatobiliary cancer was 2.67 (six cases observed) based upon comparison with the US population (SMR = 2.67, 95% CI = 0.98, 5.83), and 3.88 based upon comparison using the internal unexposed referent group (SRR = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.04, 14.41). This study failed to demonstrate an exposure-response relationship between duration of DNT exposure and hepatobiliary cancer mortality. Our study was limited by the small number of workers with long duration of exposure to DNT, and by the lack of quantitative information on exposure to DNT and other chemicals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8384257

Stayner, L T; Dannenberg, A L; Bloom, T; Thun, M

1993-03-01

405

Lung Cancer in Railroad Workers Exposed to Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel exhaust has been suspected to be a lung carcinogen. The assessment of this lung cancer risk has been limited by lack of studies of exposed workers followed for many years. In this study, we assessed lung cancer mortality in 54,973 U.S. railroad workers between 1959 and 1996 (38 years). By 1959, the U.S. railroad industry had largely converted from

Eric Garshick; Francine Laden; Jaime E. Hart; Bernard Rosner; Thomas J. Smith; Douglas W. Dockery; Frank E. Speizer

2004-01-01

406

Neurological Disorders in Three Workers Exposed to 1-Bromopropane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological Disorders in Three Workers Exposed to 1-Bromopropane: Gaku ICHIHARA, et al. Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine—A 35-yr-old female worker developed sore throat, stumbling, dysphagia, incontinence of urination and numbness with a burning sensation in the legs, thighs, hips and lower back as well as numbness in the perineum. She was spraying a

Gaku ICHIHARA; Joseph Keith MILLER; Aldona ZIOLKOKWSKA; Seiichiro ITOHARA; Yasuhiro TAKEUCHI

2002-01-01

407

Impact Features and Projectile Residues in Aerogel Exposed on Mir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 0.63 m2 of SiO2-based aerogel (0.02 g cm?3) was exposed for 18 months on the Mir Station to capture hypervelocity particles from both man-made and natural sources. Optical inspection revealed two major classes of hypervelocity impact features in the aerogel: (1) long, carrot-shaped tracks, well known from laboratory impact experiments, that exhibit a depth- (t) to-diameter (D) relationship of

F. Hörz; M. E. Zolensky; R. P. Bernhard; T. H. See; J. L. Warren

2000-01-01

408

Maize pollen is an important allergen in occupationally exposed workers  

PubMed Central

Background The work- or environmental-related type I sensitization to maize pollen is hardly investigated. We sought to determine the prevalence of sensitization to maize pollen among exposed workers and to identify the eliciting allergens. Methods In July 2010, 8 out of 11 subjects were examined who were repeatedly exposed to maize pollen by pollinating maize during their work in a biological research department. All 8 filled in a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing (SPT) and immune-specific analyses. Results 5 out of the 8 exposed subjects had repeatedly suffered for at least several weeks from rhinitis, 4 from conjunctivitis, 4 from urticaria, and 2 from shortness of breath upon occupational exposure to maize pollen. All symptomatic workers had specific IgE antibodies against maize pollen (CAP class ? 1). Interestingly, 4 of the 5 maize pollen-allergic subjects, but none of the 3 asymptomatic exposed workers had IgE antibodies specific for grass pollen. All but one of the maize pollen-allergic subjects had suffered from allergic grass pollen-related symptoms for 6 to 11 years before job-related exposure to maize pollen. Lung function testing was normal in all cases. In immunoblot analyses, the allergenic components could be identified as Zea m 1 and Zea m 13. The reactivity is mostly caused by cross-reactivity to the homologous allergens in temperate grass pollen. Two sera responded to Zea m 3, but interestingly not to the corresponding timothy allergen indicating maize-specific IgE reactivity. Conclusion The present data suggest that subjects pollinating maize are at high risk of developing an allergy to maize pollen as a so far underestimated source of occupational allergens. For the screening of patients with suspected maize pollen sensitization, the determination of IgE antibodies specific for maize pollen is suitable.

2011-01-01

409

Chromosome fragility in river buffalo cows exposed to dioxins.  

PubMed

Fifty river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50) cows reared in two different provinces of Campania (southern Italy) underwent cytogenetic investigations to ascertain possible differences in their chromosome stability. One group (Caserta province) was under legal sequestration due to the presence in the milk mass of higher mean values of dioxins [21.79 pg/g of fat as sum of polychloro-dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychloro-dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs)] than both those permitted (6.0 pg/g of fat as WHO-TEQ) and those (1.3 pg/g of fat as WHO-TEQ) observed in the control group raised in Salerno province. Two types of peripheral blood cell cultures were performed: without (normal cultures for the chromosome abnormality (CA) test: chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, fragments) and with the addition of BrdU for the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test). The CA test revealed a significantly (P?exposed cows compared to the control. Indeed, mean values of CA/cell were 1.26?±?1.15 in exposed cows and 0.37?±?0.71 in the control. Mean SCE was higher in exposed cows (8.50?±?3.35) than that (8.29?±?3.51) found in the control but the difference was not significant. Comparison within the same group of cows at first (FL) and multiple (ML) lactations revealed significantly (P?exposed ML-cows vs FL-cows while no statistical differences were found between ML-cows and FL-cows in the control farm. By contrast, significantly (P?

Genualdo, V; Perucatti, A; Iannuzzi, A; Di Meo, G P; Spagnuolo, S M; Caputi-Jambrenghi, A; Coletta, A; Vonghia, G; Iannuzzi, L

2012-05-01

410

Mechanical integrity of polysilicon films exposed to hydrofluoric acid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results from a comparative study of Young’s modulus, residual stress, and membrane burst pressure\\u000a of undoped LPCVD polysilicon films exposed to various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Load deflection measurements\\u000a on square membranes of polysilicon with residual tensile stress were used to obtain estimates of Young’s modulus, residual\\u000a stress and burst pressure. The polysilicon membranes were

James A. Walker; Kaigham J. Gabriel; Mehran Mehregany

1991-01-01

411

Specificity in the coacervation of tropoelastin: solvent exposed lysines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropoelastin protein monomers associate by coacervation and are cross-linked in vivo to form elastin macro-assemblies. We provide evidence for specific protein domain contact points between tropoelastin monomers during association by coacervation. The homobifunctional cross-linker bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate served as a rapid reporter of adjacent lysines and preferentially exposed domains. Intact cross-linked peptide pairs were identified after protease digestion and high-resolution electrospray

Steven G. Wise; Suzanne M. Mithieux; Mark J. Raftery; Anthony S. Weiss

2005-01-01

412

Effects of Flumetazone on Exposed Dental Pulp of Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capík I., V. Ledeck?, A. ·evãík:Effects of Flumetazone on Exposed Dental Pulp of Dogs. Acta Vet. Brno 2003, 72: 279-283. Dental pulp metabolism plays very important role throughout the tooth life. Its role is essential particularly in the first two-three years. This is the time of the highest dentin deposition which provides sufficient firmness to withstand common everyday trauma. This

I. CAPÍK; V. LEDECK

2003-01-01

413

Biochemical responses in gills of rainbow trout exposed to propiconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of PCZ, a triazole fungicide commonly present in surface and ground\\u000a water, on the ROS defense system and Na+-K+-ATPase in gills of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations (0.2, 50 and 500 ?g L?1) for 7, 20 and 30 days. After prolonged exposure of PCZ at higher test concentrations

Zhi-Hua Li; Vladimir Zlabek; Roman Grabic; Ping Li; Tomas Randak

2011-01-01

414

Forces on Dust Grains Exposed to Anisotropic Interstellar Radiation Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grains exposed to anisotropic radiation fields are subjected to forces due to\\u000athe asymmetric photon-stimulated ejection of particles. These forces act in\\u000aaddition to the ``radiation pressure'' due to absorption and scattering. Here\\u000awe model the forces due to photoelectron emission and the photodesorption of\\u000aadatoms. The ``photoelectric'' force depends on the ambient conditions relevant\\u000ato grain charging. We find

Joseph C. Weingartner; B. T. Draine

2000-01-01

415

Radiation-exposed populations: who, why, and how to study.  

PubMed

Everyone is exposed to natural and manmade ionizing radiation that can originate from sources in the environment and in medical and occupational settings. There is notable variation, however, among individuals and across populations in the types of sources of radiation and in the frequency, level, and duration of exposure. Adverse health effects associated with radiation exposure have been known for decades, and ionizing radiation exposure has been linked with a broad range of different types of cancer and benign neoplasms as well as birth defects, reproductive effects, and diseases of the circulatory, hematologic, and neurologic systems. Our present understanding of radiation-related health risks derives primarily from multidisciplinary health risk (epidemiologic) studies that provide the key information on radiation-associated health outcomes, quantify radiation-related disease risks, and enhance understanding of mechanisms of radiation-related disease pathogenesis. Such information is central to quantifying risks in relation to benefits; addressing public concerns, including societal and clinical needs in relation to radiation exposure; and providing the database needed for establishing recommendations for radiation protection. Because of the importance of determining risks compared to benefits for all situations where exposure to ionizing radiation might result, it is useful for planning new health risks studies to categorize exposed populations according to the sources and types of radiation. This paper describes a wide range of populations exposed to radiation and the motivation and key methodological criteria that drive the rationale and priority of studying such populations. Also, discussed are alternative methods for evaluating radiation-related health risks in these populations, with a major focus on epidemiologic approaches. This paper concludes with a short summary of major highlights from radiation epidemiologic research and important unanswered questions.Introduction of Exposed Populations (Video 1:29, http://links.lww.com/HP/A22). PMID:24378492

Simon, Steven L; Linet, Martha S

2014-02-01

416

Reproductive toxicity of trenbolone acetate in embryonically exposed Japanese quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the effects of a one time embryonic exposure to trenbolone acetate on reproductive development and function in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Embryos were exposed to either 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50?g trenbolone or a sesame oil vehicle control at embryonic day 4. Onset of puberty, gonadal histopathology, sperm motility, cloacal gland size, and male

Michael J. Quinn; Emma T. Lavoie; Mary Ann Ottinger

2007-01-01

417

Cytogenetic study on workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cytogenetic study was performed on 22 healthy workers engaged in benzene production and exposed to low concentrations of benzene, ranging from 0.2 to 12.4 p.p.m. (threshold limit value 10 p.p.m.). Workers were divided into two groups according to the different levels of exposure, inferrable also from the concentration of benzene in the alveolar air and the levels of urinary

P. G. Brovedani; E. Merler; M. Peruzzi; V. Bianchi; A. G. Levis

1984-01-01

418

Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of glucogenesis on the plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress is investigated. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats are injected with C-14 lactate, alanine, of glycerol, and six of the rats are exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. The plasma glucose and liver glycogen of the centrifuged and noncentrifuged rats are analyzed. A significant increase in the C-14 incorporation of the substrate into the plasma glucose and liver glycogen is observed in the centrifuged rats. The injection of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis inhibitor, results in a blocked increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen. The role of epinephrine on the hyperglycemic and liver glycogen responses of centrifuged rats is studied. It is concluded that the initial increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen in rats exposed to hyper-G stress is the result of an increased rate of gluconeogenesis.

Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

1985-01-01

419

Expose : procedure and results of the joint experiment verification tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Space Station will carry the EXPOSE facility accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D located outside the Russian Service Module. The launch will be affected in 2005 and it is planned to stay in space for 1.5 years. The tray like structure will accomodate 2 chemical and 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Response of Organisms to Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. The either vented or sealed experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by the use of individual shutters. To test the compatibility of the different biological systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. The procedure and first results of this joint Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) will be presented. The results will be essential for the success of the EXPOSE mission and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results of the mission will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.

Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Baglioni, P.

420

Fate of graphene in polymer nanocomposite exposed to UV radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene is increasingly incorporated in polymers to enhance their mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. However, organic polymers are prone to degrade when exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, graphene in polymer nanocomposites could eventually be released into the environment during their life cycle, which might have a negative impact on the environment and thus presents a roadblock to their use. This study investigates the degradation of a graphene/polyurethane composite and characterizes the graphene concentration at the nanocomposite surfaces during exposure to UV radiation. The polyurethane was a one-component, water-borne polyurethane and graphene material was graphene oxide (GO) sheets. GO/WBPU composites having a thickness between 105 ?m and 150 ?m were exposed to 75% RH, 50°C, and UV radiation between 290 nm and 400 nm in a NIST-developed UV chamber. Chemical degradation, mass loss, and surface morphology were measured at specified exposure time using FTIR, gravimetry, SEM, AFM and LCSM techniques. Results showed that, when exposed to UV radiation having wavelengths similar to those of the sunlight, the polyurethane matrix underwent photodegradation, subsequent mass loss and accumulation of a large amount of graphene on the composite surface.

Bernard, C.; Nguyen, T.; Pellegrin, B.; Holbrook, R. D.; Zhao, M.; Chin, J.

2011-07-01

421

Hepatitis A in workers exposed to sewage: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To assess whether the scientific literature supports the hypothesis that workers exposed to sewage are at higher risk of hepatitis A (HA).?METHODS—All original papers reporting epidemiological studies published in English, French, or German which reported on the risk of HA infection in workers exposed to sewage were eligible. They were identified by several methods and each original paper was assessed independently with a checklist by two people. Studies were classified according to the strength of their design. Non-eligible studies were also examined to assess the impact of publication bias. If the risk estimates diverged widely, causes for heterogeneity were assessed. A distinction was made between seroprevalence studies based on subclinical HA (defined only by the presence of anti-HA antibodies) and clinical HA.?RESULTS—17 eligible studies were identified. No indication of an increased risk of clinical HA could be found. For seroprevalence the studies with the strongest design suggested a slightly increased risk of subclinical HA with an odds ratio (OR) <2.5. Heterogeneity was considerable and precluded a meta-analysis. Considering non-eligible studies would still decrease the OR.?CONCLUSIONS—The systematic review does not confirm an increased risk of clinical HA in workers exposed to sewage. An increased risk of subclinical HA cannot be excluded but the association between seropositivity and exposure to sewage was not strong and became still weaker if publication bias was taken into account.???Keywords: hepatitis A; sewage; systematic review

Glas, C; Hotz, P; Steffen, R

2001-01-01

422

Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. All the species successfully survived but at higher scale in more deep (protected from direct affect of UV radiation) layers. The experiments gave direct confirmation that dried resting stages of aquatic organisms can be transported to other planets by space vehicles in harsh open space conditions that had both negative (interplanetary quarantine) and positive (outside Earth artificial ecosystem creation) sides. This study was supported by several national RFBR, international RFBR-Japan and travel grant from Malaysia grants.

Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

2012-07-01

423

Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed Central

Chlorpyrifos is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide. Houses and lawns in the United States receive a total of approximately 20 million annual chlorpyrifos treatments, and 82% of U.S. adults have detectable levels of a chlorpyrifos metabolite (3,5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; TCP) in the urine. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that there are 5,000 yearly reported cases of accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning, and approximately one-fourth of these cases exhibit symptoms. Organophosphates affect the nervous system, but there are few epidemiologic data on chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity. We studied neurologic function in 191 current and former termiticide applicators who had an average of 2.4 years applying chlorpyrifos and 2.5 years applying other pesticides, and we compared them to 189 nonexposed controls. The average urinary TCP level for 65 recently exposed applicators was 629.5 microg/L, as compared to 4.5 microg/L for the general U.S. population. The exposed group did not differ significantly from the nonexposed group for any test in the clinical examination. Few significant differences were found in nerve conduction velocity, arm/hand tremor, vibrotactile sensitivity, vision, smell, visual/motor skills, or neurobehavioral skills. The exposed group did not perform as well as the nonexposed group in pegboard turning tests and some postural sway tests. The exposed subjects also reported significantly more symptoms, including memory problems, emotional states, fatigue, and loss of muscle strength; our more quantitative tests may not have been adequate to detect these symptoms. Eight men who reported past chlorpyrifos poisoning had a pattern of low performance on a number of tests, which is consistent with prior reports of chronic effects of organophosphate poisoning. Overall, the lack of exposure effects on the clinical examination was reassuring. The findings for self-reported symptoms raise some concern, as does the finding of low performance for those reporting prior poisoning. Although this was a relatively large study based on a well-defined target population, the workers we studied may not be representative of all exposed workers, and caution should be exercised in generalizing our results.

Steenland, K; Dick, R B; Howell, R J; Chrislip, D W; Hines, C J; Reid, T M; Lehman, E; Laber, P; Krieg, E F; Knott, C

2000-01-01

424

Analysis Of The Returned Samples From A Space Exposure Experiment: The ORGANIC Experiment on EXPOSE-R on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ORGANIC experiment on the multi-user facility EXPOSE-R on the International Space Station investigated the chemical evolution, survival, destruction, and chemical modification of PAHs and fullerenes in space. Aromatic networks are among the most abundant organic material in space. PAHs and fullerenes have been identified in meteorites and are thought to be among the carriers for numerous astronomical absorption and emission features.Thin films of selected PAHs and fullerenes have been subjected to the low Earth orbit environment as part of the ORGANIC experiment.EXPOSE-R with its experiment inserts was mounted on the outside of the ISS for 682 days starting in 2009. The samples were returned to Earth and inspected in spring 2011. The period outside the ISS provided continuous exposure to the cosmic-, solar-, and trapped-particle radiation background and >2500 h of unshadowed solar illumination. All trays carry both solar-irradiation-exposed and dark samples shielded from the UV photons, enabling discrimination between the effects of exposure to solar photons and cosmic rays. The samples were analyzed before exposure to the space environment with UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy. Ground truth monitoring of additional sample carriers was performed through UV-VIS spectroscopy at regular intervals at NASA ARC (Bryson et al. 2011, Adv. Space Res. 48, 1980). The UV-VIS and IR spectroscopic measurements were collected for the returned flight samples.We report on the scientific experiment, the details of the ground control analysis, and returned flight sample results. We discuss how extended space exposure experiments allow to enhance our knowledge on the evolution of organic compounds in space.

Bryson, Kathryn; Peeters, Zan; Salama, Farid; Foing, Bernard; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ricco, Antonio; Jessberger, Elmar K; Schmidt, Werner; Robert, François

2014-06-01

425

Long term health and neurodevelopment in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs before birth  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the frequency of neonatal and later childhood morbidity in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero. Design: Retrospective population based study. Setting: Population of the Grampian region of Scotland. Participants: Mothers taking antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy between 1976 and 2000 were ascertained from hospital obstetric records and 149 (58% of those eligible) took part. They had 293 children whose health and neurodevelopment were assessed. Main outcome measures: Frequencies of neonatal withdrawal, congenital malformations, childhood onset medical problems, developmental delay, and behaviour disorders. Results: Neonatal withdrawal was seen in 20% of those exposed to antiepileptic drugs. Congenital malformations occurred in 14% of exposed pregnancies, compared with 5% of non-exposed sibs, and developmental delay in 24% of exposed children, compared with 11% of non-exposed sibs. After excluding cases with a family history of developmental delay, 19% of exposed children and 3% of non-exposed sibs had developmental delay, 31% of exposed children had either major malformations or developmental delay, 52% of exposed children had facial dysmorphism compared with 25% of those not exposed, 31% of exposed children had childhood medical problems (13% of non-exposed sibs), and 20% had behaviour disorders (5% of non-exposed). Conclusion: Prenatal antiepileptic drug exposure in the setting of maternal epilepsy is associated with developmental delay and later childhood morbidity in addition to congenital malformation.

Dean, J; Hailey, H; Moore, S; Lloyd, D; Turnpenny, P; Little, J

2002-01-01

426

Assessment of immunotoxicity parameters in individuals occupationally exposed to lead.  

PubMed

Although adverse health effects produced by lead (Pb) have long been recognized, studies regarding the immunotoxic effects of occupational exposure report conflicting results. In a previous study, alterations in some immunological parameters were noted in 70 Pb-exposed workers. In view of these results, it was of interest to extend this study comprising a larger population and increasing the number of immunological endpoints assessed. Accordingly, in this study the immunotoxic effects of occupational exposure to Pb were assessed by analyzing (1) percentages of lymphocyte subsets (CD3?, CD4?, CD8?, CD19?, and CD56?/16?); (2) concentration of plasma cytokines, namely, interleukin (IL) 2, IL4, IL6, IL10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ?, and interferon (IFN) ?; and (3) plasma concentrations of neopterin, tryptophan (Trp), and kynurenine (Kyn). In addition, the possible influence of genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genes on immunotoxicity parameters was studied. Exposed workers showed significant decreases in %CD3?, %CD4?/%CD8? ratio, IL4, TNF?, IFN?, and Kyn to Trp ratio (Kyn/Trp), and significant increases in %CD8?, IL10, and Trp levels. All these parameters, except Trp, were significantly correlated with exposure biomarkers. No significant influence of genetic polymorphisms was observed. Significant correlation between Kyn/Trp and neopterin concentrations suggests an involvement of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in the Trp metabolic alterations, which may contribute to some of the immune alterations observed. Results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to PB may influence the immune system by impairing several mechanisms, which might ultimately produce deregulation of the immune response and diminish immunosurveillance in exposed individuals. PMID:22788368

García-Lestón, Julia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Mayan, Olga; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Fuchs, Dietmar; Moreira, Ana O; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Teixeira, João Paulo; Laffon, Blanca

2012-01-01

427

Exposed-core chalcogenide microstructured optical fibers for chemical sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical bonds of most of the molecules vibrate at a frequency corresponding to the near or mid infrared field. It is thus of a great interest to develop sensitive and portable devices for the detection of specific chemicals and biomolecules for various applications in health, the environment, national security and so on. Optical fibers define practical sensing tools. Chalcogenide glasses are known for their transparency in the infrared optical range and their ability to be drawn as fibers. They are consequently good candidates to be used in biological/chemical sensing. For that matter, in the past decade, chalcogenide glass fibers have been successfully implemented in evanescent wave spectroscopy experiments, for the detection of bio-chemical species in various fields of applications including microbiology and medicine, water pollution and CO2 detection. Different types of fiber can be used: single index fibers or microstructured fibers. Besides, in recent years a new configuration of microstructured fibers has been developed: microstructured exposed-core fibers. This design consists of an optical fiber with a suspended micron-scale core that is partially exposed to the external environment. This configuration has been chosen to elaborate, using the molding method, a chalcogenide fiber for chemical species detection. The sensitivity of this fiber to detect molecules such as propan-2-ol and acetone has been compared with those of single index fibers. Although evanescent wave absorption is inversely proportional to the fiber diameter, the result shows that an exposed-core fiber is much more sensitive than a single index fiber having a twice smaller external diameter.

Troles, Johann; Toupin, Perrine; Brilland, Laurent; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Cui, Shuo; Mechin, David; Adam, Jean-Luc