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Sample records for acartia tonsa dana

  1. Temperature impact on the trophic transfer of fatty acids in the congeneric copepods Acartia tonsa and Acartia clausi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbrouck, Eva; Tiselius, Peter; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Cervin, Gunnar; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-06-01

    Copepods of the genus Acartia occur worldwide and constitute an important link to higher trophic levels in estuaries. However, biogeographical shifts in copepod assemblages and colonization of certain European estuaries by the invader A. tonsa, both driven or enhanced by increasing ocean temperature, raise the pressure on autochthonous copepod communities. Despite the profound effect of temperature on all levels of biological organization, its impact on the fatty acid (FA) dynamics of Acartia species is understudied. As certain FAs exert a bottom-up control on the trophic structure of aquatic ecosystems, temperature-induced changes in FA dynamics of Acartia species may impact higher trophic levels. Therefore, this study documents the short-term temperature responses of A. tonsa and A. clausi, characterized by their warm- versus cold-water preference respectively, by analyzing the FA profiles of their membrane and storage lipids under 5 and 15 °C. Copepods that were fed an ad libitum diet of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (bloom conditions) under 15 °C increased their storage FA content substantially. Furthermore, the membrane FA composition of A. tonsa showed a more profound temperature response compared with A. clausi which might be linked with the eurythermal character of the former.

  2. Fully defined saltwater medium for cultivation of and toxicity testing with marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Kusk, K.O.; Wollenberger, L.

    1999-07-01

    The marine copepod Acartia tonsa and the food organism Rhodomonas salina were cultured in fully defined medium for 8 months without problems. Both organisms were also cultured in natural seawater and in a commercial salt mixture for at least two generations before the sensitivities of A. tonsa to bisphenol A, potassium dichromate, and 3,5-dichlorophenol in the three different media were compared and found to be at the same level. The defined medium may be used for cultivation and testing, thus avoiding unknown background contaminants.

  3. Experimental records of the effect of food patchiness and predation on egg production of Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, E.; Tiselius, P.; Verity, P.; Paffehofer, G.A. ); Jonsson, P.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The effects of predation and spatial patchiness in food distribution on egg production of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were investigated in the laboratory. A postexperiment egg production method was developed to override the decline in number of copepods due to predation. The copepods were able to remain in food patches about 41-47% of the time, and consequently egg production rates were higher than expected from the average food concentration. Predation by the calanoid copepod Labidocera aestiva tended to increase egg production rates of A. tonsa. The interaction of patchiness and predation resulted in relatively less time spent by A. tonsa in the food patches, probably as a consequence of conflict between hunger level and predation risk. 40 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. THE EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON THE RESPONSE OF FIELD POPULATIONS OF THE CALANOID COPEPOD 'ACARTIA TONSA' TO COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous flow toxicity tests were conducted on field populations of adult Acartia tonsa collected from Narragansett Bay. Potential algal food at the collection site was estimated from ATP and chlorophyll analysis. There was positive correlation (P < 0.01) between chlorophyll a ...

  5. Comparison of Turbulence-Copepod Interaction: Temora longicornis vs. Acartia tonsa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus-Villanueva, N. H.; Young, D. L.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the behavioral response of the marine copepod Temora longicornisto a Burgers' vortex intended to mimic the characteristics of a turbulent vortex that a copepod is likely to encounter in the coastal or near surface zone. Copepod behavioral assays were conducted for two turbulence levels corresponding to mean turbulent dissipation rates of 0.009 (Level 2) and 0.096 (Level 3) cm2/s3. The Burgers' vortex parameters (i.e., circulation and axial strain rate) are specified to match a vortex corresponding to the median viscous dissipation rate for each target turbulence level. The behavioral response of T. longicornis compared to Acartia tonsa is of particular interest due to differences in swim style (cruiser vs. hop-sinker, respectively) and mechanosensory array morphology (planar vs. 3D, respectively). When exposed to these vortex flow treatments, T. longicornis exhibited a minimal behavioral response to the Level 2 vortex, but significantly altered their swimming behavior in the presence of the Level 3 vortex. Specifically, in the Level 3 vortex treatment T. longicornis increased relative swim speed, turn frequency, and escape acceleration while decreasing angle of alignment with the vortex axis and escape frequency (relative to stagnant control conditions). Histograms of escape jump location as a function of radius reveals no preferential escape location for T. longicornis, which contrasts the preferential escape location of A. tonsa in the vortex core.

  6. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Vitiello, V; Casals, E; Puntes, V F; Iamunno, F; Pellegrini, D; Changwen, W; Benvenuto, G; Buttino, I

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the "sonicated experiment" (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the "non-sonicated experiment" (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50mgL(-1) and 1, 5 and 10mgL(-1) NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50mgL(-1) NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843nm after 48h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC50 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2mgL(-1)) and SON experiments (22.14mgL(-1)) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC50 of 7.45mgL(-1) and 6.97mgL(-1) for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63mgL(-1), showed EC50 of 0.164 and 0.039mgL(-1), respectively. Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl2 than NiNPs with EC50 being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl2 and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025mgL(-1) NiCl2 and by 8.5mgL(-1) NiNPs. At NiNP concentration

  7. Cold storage of Acartia tonsa eggs: a practical use in ecotoxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, V; Zhou, C; Scuderi, A; Pellegrini, D; Buttino, I

    2016-07-01

    The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa has been recommended as a marine organism for ecotoxicological tests due to its wide distribution, short life cycle and high productivity. This species is used in acute and chronic toxicity tests to assess water and sediment quality; egg hatching success and the survival of the first larval stages are considered endpoints. Toxicity test protocols require a large number of organisms and an appropriate culture system. Eggs stored under conditions that delay hatching could ensure sufficient quantities of biological materials for ecotoxicological tests. In the current study early-spawned eggs were stored at 3 °C (±1) up to 240 days and their hatching success was evaluated on a monthly basis. Our results showed that the percentage of hatching success for eggs stored for 30 days was >80 % and decreased by about 8 % for every 20 days of storage, up to 120 days. A further increase of time in cold storage brought about a significant reduction, in statistical term, of hatching success compared with the control group (43.69 ± 22.19 %). Almost 50 % of eggs hatched or died during the cold storage period, with more than 80 % lost after periods longer than 150 days. To verify the suitability of stored eggs for toxicity test, 48 h acute tests were performed using nickel chloride as a referent toxicant. Eggs stored for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days gave EC50 values ranging from 0.130 to 0.221 mg L(-1), similar to the value recorded for early-spawned eggs, suggesting that these eggs can be used for ecotoxicological tests. Our results open new possibilities for a wider use of the Mediterranean strain of A. tonsa copepod for ecotoxicological tests. PMID:27106013

  8. Climatic facilitation of the colonization of an estuary by Acartia tonsa.

    PubMed

    Chaalali, Aurélie; Beaugrand, Grégory; Raybaud, Virginie; Goberville, Eric; David, Valérie; Boët, Philippe; Sautour, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Global change has become a major driving force of both terrestrial and marine systems. Located at the interface between these two realms, estuarine ecosystems are probably the place where both direct and indirect effects of human activities conspire together to affect biodiversity from phytoplankton to top predators. Among European estuarine systems, the Gironde is the largest estuary of Western Europe and many studies have provided evidence that it has been affected by a variety of anthropogenic stressors such as thermal and chemical pollution, physical alterations and exploitation, especially for maritime traffic. In such a context, species introduction is also a current major issue with the establishment of strong competitive species that could lead to ecosystem reorganization with potential decrease or even disappearance of native species. In the Gironde estuary, this hypothesis was proposed for the invasive shrimp species Palaemon macrodactylus as a decrease in the native species abundance was observed at the same time. Although species introduction often takes place via ballast water, the influence of climate-driven changes on the establishment of new species remains a key issue. The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, observed in the Gironde estuary for the first time in 1983, have since colonized most part of the estuary, reaching a level of abundance comparable to the dominant native species Eurytemora affinis. In this study, using both the concept of the ecological niche sensu Hutchinson (fundamental and realized niches) and statistical models, we reveal that the dynamics of the colonization of A. tonsa was facilitated by environmental conditions that have become closer to its environmental optimum with respect to temperature and salinity. PMID:24098656

  9. Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to the copepod Acartia tonsa, exposed through a phytoplankton diet.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Miller, Robert J; Lenihan, Hunter S; Bielmyer, Gretchen K

    2013-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are being increasingly utilized in a variety of products and applications and are therefore commonly discharged into aquatic environments, increasing exposure and potentially impacting aquatic organisms. Zinc oxide nanoparticles can depress growth of some marine phytoplankton, and several examples of nanoparticle trophic transfer have been documented, although not within planktonic communities. The authors test whether feeding on ZnO-exposed phytoplankton could cause toxic effects in a widespread and ecologically important marine grazer, the copepod Acartia tonsa. The authors exposed the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii to ZnO nanoparticles for 7 d and measured growth, zinc accumulation, and zinc distribution within the algal cells to elucidate bioavailability to grazing copepods. Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured with nano-ZnO were continuously fed to A. tonsa for 7 d, and reproduction and survival were quantified. A dose-dependent growth reduction was observed in T. weissflogii exposed to nano-ZnO, with a 20% effective concentration (EC20) of 70 µg/L Zn and a lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of 99 µg/L Zn. Zinc accumulation in the algae occurred dose-dependently over time, with the majority of the zinc partitioning into the cell wall fraction. Feeding on ZnO-exposed diatoms led to a decrease in copepod survival and reproduction. The EC20s corresponding to the dissolved zinc concentration in the T. weissflogii exposure media were 112 µg/L (13 µg/g dry wt) and 143 µg/L (16 µg/g dry wt), and the LOECs were 168 µg/L (17 µg/g dry wt) and 263 µg/L (21 µg/g dry wt) for copepod survival and reproduction, respectively. These results provide evidence of trophic transfer of metal contaminants associated with metal oxide nanomaterials within a marine plankton community, leading to a reduction in individual demographic performance of an important coastal marine grazer. PMID:23417698

  10. Accumulation of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Gonads of the Copepod Acartia tonsa Revealed by Tailored Fluorescent Probes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Stefanie; Nejstgaard, Jens C.; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies. PMID:25383890

  11. The toxicity of the three antifouling biocides DCOIT, TPBP and medetomidine to the marine pelagic copepod Acartia tonsa.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ida; Backhaus, Thomas; Blanck, Hans; Arrhenius, Åsa

    2016-07-01

    Copepods, the largest group of pelagic grazers, are at risk from exposure to antifouling biocides. This study investigated the toxicity of the antifouling biocides 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP) and 4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (medetomidine) to the copepod Acartia tonsa, using mortality and egg production as endpoints. The toxicity ranking for mortality was as follows: DCOIT (LC50 57 nmol l(-1)) = TPBP (LC50 56 nmol l(-1)) > medetomidine (LC50 241 nmol l(-1)). Egg production was more sensitive than mortality to TPBP (EC50 3.2 nmol l(-1)), while DCOIT and medetomidine inhibited egg production at roughly the same concentrations (72 and 186 nmol l(-1) respectively). Furthermore, TPBP seems to affect egg hatching directly which was not the case for DCOIT and medetomidine. DCOIT and medetomidine might pose an environmental risk as they have been reported to occur in different exposure scenarios or analytical surveys at concentrations only 2-3 times lower than the respective EC10. Reported environmental concentrations of TPBP are few but clearly lower than the EC10 values reported here, suggesting current risk of TPBP to copepods to be moderate. PMID:26984312

  12. Accumulation of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the gonads of the copepod Acartia tonsa revealed by tailored fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Stefanie; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies. PMID:25383890

  13. The turbidity front as a habitat for Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) in the Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derisio, Carla; Braverman, Mara; Gaitán, Esteban; Hozbor, Constanza; Ramírez, Fernando; Carreto, José; Botto, Florencia; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Acha, E. Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is one of the most abundant copepod species in estuaries worldwide. In the Río de la Plata, its highest densities appear to occur in an area of low quality food (detritus): the turbidity front (TF). The objective of this study was to understand how trophic and oceanographic drivers contribute to the high densities of A. tonsa in the Río de la Plata TF. The patterns of spatial distribution and density of this species were analyzed in relation to oceanographic and biological attributes of the system. The egg production rate (EPR) in the TF was evaluated as a measure of fitness, and a stable isotope analysis indicated the possible sources of organic matter in the species' diet. This study confirmed that the highest observed densities of A. tonsa were mostly associated with the TF, where high suspended matter and low Chl-a occur. Immediately offshore from the TF, decreased copepod densities and the maximum Chl-a values were found. Females close to the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) had a lower EPR than those closer to the high Chl-a concentrations. Within the TF, A. tonsa apparently fed on detritus close to the ETM and phytoplankton close to the edge of the TF. The report includes a discussion of how retention processes, two layered flow and the life history strategy of A. tonsa could be contributing to the development of high densities (more than 10,000 ind m- 3) of this species in the inner estuarine zone, despite the poor quality of food available for development in that area. A. tonsa can live and prosper in areas with high turbidity and low chlorophyll concentrations. This trait exemplifies the plasticity of this species and helps explain why it is a key species in many worldwide estuaries.

  14. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  15. Effects of methyltestosterone, letrozole, triphenyltin and fenarimol on histology of reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa.

    PubMed

    Watermann, Burkard T; Albanis, Triantafyllos A; Dagnac, Thierry; Gnass, Katarina; Ole Kusk, K; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Wollenberger, Leah

    2013-07-01

    The marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was exposed to methyltestosterone (MET, 1.6-126 μg L(-1)), letrozole (LET, 10-1000 μg L(-1)), triphenyltin chloride (TPT, 0.0014-0.0088 μg L(-1) TPT-Sn) and fenarimol (FEN, 2.8-105 μg L(-1)) for 21 d covering a full life-cycle. All four compounds investigated are known to act as androgens in vertebrates. The digestive tract, musculature, nervous system, reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands were examined by light microscopy after routine staining and immune-labelling for detection of apoptosis and determination of proliferation activities. MET induced an inhibition of oogenesis, oocyte maturation and yolk formation, respectively, which was most pronounced at the lowest concentrations tested. In LET exposed males, spermatogenesis was enhanced with very prominent gamete stages; in some stages apoptosis occurred. The spermatophore was hypertrophied and displayed deformations. In females, LET induced a disorder of oogenesis and disturbances in yolk synthesis. TPT stimulated the male reproductive system at 0.0014 and 0.0035 μg TPT-SnL(-1), whereas inhibiting effects were observed in the female gonad at 0.0088 μg TPT-SnL(-1). In FEN exposed females proliferation of gametes was reduced and yolk formation showed irregular features at 2.8-105 μgL(-1). In FEN exposed males an elevated proliferation activity was observed. No pathological alterations in other organ systems, e.g. the digestive tract including the hindgut acting as respiratory organ, the nervous system, or the musculature were seen. This indicates that the effects on gonads might be caused rather by disturbance of endocrine signalling or interference with hormone metabolism than by general toxicity. PMID:23664474

  16. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid. PMID:14749060

  17. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  18. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  19. Acute copper toxicity in the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa: implications for the development of an estuarine and marine biotic ligand model.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Bianchini, Adalto

    2010-08-01

    Copepods (Acartia tonsa) were exposed (48 h) to waterborne, diet-borne (non-Cu-equilibrated and Cu-equilibrated food), and waterborne plus diet-borne Cu in either the absence or the presence of food (diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii). Toxicity tests were run in different salinities (5, 15, and 30 ppt) together with measurements of physicochemical parameters and total and dissolved Cu concentrations in the experimental media. Results show that most of the toxic Cu fraction was in the dissolved phase. In general, Cu toxicity was higher in low (5 ppt) than in high salinity (30 ppt), regardless of the pathway of Cu exposure tested. In the absence of food, data clearly indicate that differences in waterborne Cu toxicity can be explained by changes in water chemistry. However, addition of food (either non-Cu-equilibrated or Cu-equilibrated) to the experimental media protected against acute Cu toxicity in salinities 5 and 15 ppt, suggesting that A. tonsa requires extra energy to cope with the stressful condition imposed by Cu exposure associated with the ionoregulatory requirements in low salinities. For diet-borne exposure, a very high Cu concentration was necessary to precontaminate the diatoms to a level resulting in copepod mortality. Therefore, availability of food exerted a more important positive impact in protecting against acute Cu toxicity than its potential negative impact via contamination resulting in toxicity. Findings indicate the need for incorporation of both salinity and food in a future biotic ligand model (BLM) version for Cu in estuarine and marine waters. In this context, the euryhaline copepod A. tonsa would be a suitable model species with which to perform experiments to validate and calibrate any future saltwater BLM. PMID:20821639

  20. Acartia tonsa eggs as a biomonitor to evaluate bioavailability/toxicity of persistent contaminants in anoxic/sulfidic conditions: The case of cadmium and nickel.

    PubMed

    Sei, Sandra; Invidia, Marion; Giannetto, Marco; Gorbi, Gessica

    2016-10-01

    The evaluation of toxicity due to persistent pollutants in anoxic aquatic environments has met with various problems, as most test organisms can not withstand oxygen lack and exposure to free sulfide. We evaluated the suitability of the eggs of the brackish copepod Acartia tonsa for bioassays in anoxic/sulfidic conditions: when exposed to deep hypoxia and free sulfide, the eggs become quiescent and are able to resume hatching after restoring normoxic conditions. Tests with cadmium and nickel were performed in normoxic and deeply hypoxic conditions and in anoxic water containing H2S or H2S+FeSO4 on an equimolar basis. Active and quiescent eggs showed equivalent sensitivity to the metals, both suffering significant reductions in hatching success at 89μM Cd and 17μM Ni. As expected on the basis of the SEM/AVS model, Cd toxicity was almost completely suppressed in presence of sulfides. Dissolved Cd concentration drastically dropped and hatching success was generally >80%, as against values <6% observed in sulfide-free water, indicating that the applied experimental procedure can simulate metal-sulfide interaction. Ni toxicity was only slightly reduced by the presence of sulfides. High dissolved Ni concentrations were detected and mean hatching percentages were ≤32%, suggesting that Ni bioavailability/toxicity was only partially controlled by excess reactive sulfides. The results suggest that A. tonsa eggs could be a useful biomonitor to evaluate toxicity due persistent contaminants in anoxic conditions and the role of sulfides in reducing metal bioavailability/toxicity. PMID:27235834

  1. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Dana Point Jetty Light 6 to Dana Point Breakwater Light 5....

  2. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Dana Point Jetty Light 6 to Dana Point Breakwater Light 5....

  3. Multi-threaded Event Processing with DANA

    SciTech Connect

    David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2007-05-14

    The C++ data analysis framework DANA has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab commensurate with the anticipated 12GeV upgrade. The DANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. This document describes how DANA implements multi-threaded event processing and compares it to simply running multiple instances of a program. Also presented are relative reconstruction rates for Pentium4, Xeon, and Opteron based machines.

  4. DANA: distributed numerical and adaptive modelling framework.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Nicolas P; Fix, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    DANA is a python framework ( http://dana.loria.fr ) whose computational paradigm is grounded on the notion of a unit that is essentially a set of time dependent values varying under the influence of other units via adaptive weighted connections. The evolution of a unit's value are defined by a set of differential equations expressed in standard mathematical notation which greatly ease their definition. The units are organized into groups that form a model. Each unit can be connected to any other unit (including itself) using a weighted connection. The DANA framework offers a set of core objects needed to design and run such models. The modeler only has to define the equations of a unit as well as the equations governing the training of the connections. The simulation is completely transparent to the modeler and is handled by DANA. This allows DANA to be used for a wide range of numerical and distributed models as long as they fit the proposed framework (e.g. cellular automata, reaction-diffusion system, decentralized neural networks, recurrent neural networks, kernel-based image processing, etc.). PMID:22994650

  5. X-15 with test pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Bill Dana is seen here next to the X-15 #3 rocket-powered aircraft after a flight. William H. Dana is Chief Engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Formerly an aerospace research pilot at Dryden, Dana flew the F-15 HiDEC research aircraft and the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16 aircraft. Dana flew the famed X-15 research airplane 16 times, reaching a top speed of 3,897 miles per hour and a peak altitude of 310,000 feet (almost 59 miles high). The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation made 3 X-15 aircraft for the program. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52

  6. Richard Henry Dana (1927-2015).

    PubMed

    Allen, James

    2016-01-01

    Richard Henry Dana was born on June 14, 1927, in Bronxville, New York. Dick was accepted to Princeton University in 1944 on a scholarship and graduated in 1949. He then became a student leader in the Congress of Racial Equality and participated in a series of nonviolent sit-in protests. He completed studies for his doctoral degree at the University of Illinois in clinical psychology (1953). He briefly held a series of clinical and university positions until finally settling down at the University of Arkansas (1969- 1988). It was during his long tenure in Arkansas that Dick authored one of the foundational textbooks in clinical psychology. His groundbreaking work, Multicultural Assessment Perspectives for Professional Psychology (1993), provided the first comprehensive book on the topic. Over a remarkable 10-year period, he produced a flurry of scholarly and professional activity. He passed away peacefully at his home in Portland, Oregon, on August 17, 2015. PMID:26866992

  7. F-18 HARV research pilot Dana Purifoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dana D. Purifoy is an aerospace research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He joined NASA in August 1994. Purifoy is a former Air Force test pilot who served as a project pilot in the joint NASA/Air Force X-29 Forward Swept Wing research program conducted at Dryden from 1984 to 1991. His most recent assignment in the Air Force was flying U-2 aircraft as a test pilot at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, CA. In addition to flying the X-29 at Dryden as an Air Force pilot, Purifoy also served as project pilot and joint test force director with the AFTI F-16 (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16) program, also located at Dryden. Before his assignments as project pilot on the X-29 and AFTI/F-16 aircraft, Purifoy was chief of the Academics Systems Branch at the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards. Prior to becoming a test pilot, he flew F-111 and F-16 aircraft in Great Britain and Germany. He has accumulated 3800 hours of flying time in his career. The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden on May 29, 1996. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  8. [Dana swimming crab growth Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jesylén; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo Walter

    2011-12-01

    Callinectes danae is a common species captured with crab traps in nearby areas of coastal lagoons in Margarita Island. Although its considerable economic importance as a fishery resource, few studies have been done on population dynamics and its fishery potential in local coastal environments to support decision making in fishery administration. We present growth pattern details of Callinectes danae to better estimate its population size and exploitation feasibility. For this, we analyzed a total of 3 623 specimens that were monthly captured in crab pots by artisanal fishermen in Las Marites lagoon, from October 2007 to September 2008. The length-weight ratio was determined, and growth parameters estimated from both length and weight curves of the von Bertalanffy model. The general sex ratio showed no significant difference between males and females (chi2 = 0.04, p > 0.05). However, values of slopes b between males and females were significantly different (t(s) = 2.75, p < 0.05), as well as intercepts a (t(s) = 2.44, p < 0.05). Thus, the length-weight ratio was determined separately: W = 7.48e(-5)*L(2.98) for males and W = 1.21e(-4)*L(2.87) for females, indicating a negative allometric growth in both sexes. Growth parameters were established as: L(infinity) =134.80mm, W(infinity) = 166.04g and k = 0.86/yr for males; L(infinity) = 122.35mm, W(infinity) = 118.45g and k = 0.63/yr for females. Lifespan was estimated at 3.05 years for males and 4.24 years for females. We concluded that Callinectes danae is a species with short lifespan and moderately rapid growth. The coefficient of variation values (CV), of the phi-prime growth performance index (Ø'), showed a different growth pattern compared to those obtained in other regions. We propose that a management strategy will be the periodical review of the minimum capture size for fishing area, after the great variability found in growth parameters. PMID:22208071

  9. The "Dana Decision" and Its Impact Relative to On-Line Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2012-01-01

    Dana College (Dana.edu) was dying. A corporation was willing to buy it. However, Dana did not teach in the main, 21st century technical skills which is true of most little liberal arts colleges. Dana's demise first came in cuts for faculty in terms of benefits (Manghan, K. 1/16/2009). The entrance of the federal government was an attempt to stop a…

  10. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    PubMed

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. PMID:21798200

  11. HL-10 on lakebed with pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Bill Dana stands in front of the HL-10 Lifting Body following his first glide flight on April 25, 1969. Dana later retired Chief Engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, which was called only the NASA Flight Research Center in 1969. Prior to his lifting body assignment, Dana flew the famed X-15 research airplane. He flew the rocket-powered aircraft 16 times, reaching a top speed of 3,897 miles per hour and a peak altitude of 310,000 feet (almost 59 miles high). The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting bodies (M2-F2/F3, HL-10, X-24A). The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the Lifting Body program. On Feb. 18, 1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228 mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 feet, which became the highest

  12. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

    2012-10-01

    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester

  13. Gonad morphology, oocyte development and spawning cycle of the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisfeld, Sonja M.; Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    Information on gonad morphology and its relation to basic reproductive parameters such as clutch size and spawning frequency is lacking for Acartia clausi, a dominant calanoid copepod of the North Sea. To fill this gap, females of this species were sampled at Helgoland Roads from mid March to late May 2001. Gonad structure and oogenesis were studied using a combination of histology and whole-body-analysis. In addition, clutch size and spawning frequency were determined in incubation experiments, during which individual females were monitored at short intervals for 8 and 12 h, respectively. The histological analysis revealed that the ovary of A. clausi is w-shaped with two distinct tips pointing posteriorly. It is slightly different from that of other Acartia species and of other copepod taxa. From the ovary, two anterior diverticula extend into the head region, and two posterior diverticula extend to the genital opening in the abdomen. Developing oocytes change in shape and size, and in the appearance of the nucleus and the ooplasm. Based on these morphological characteristics, different oocyte development stages (OS) were identified. Mitotically dividing oogonia and young oocytes (OS 0) were restricted to the ovary, whereas vitellogenic oocytes (OS 1 4) were present in the diverticula. The development stage of the oocytes increased with distance to the ovary in both, anterior and posterior diverticula. Most advanced oocytes were situated ventrally, and their number varied between 1 and 18, at a median of 4. All oocyte development stages co-occur indicating that oogenesis in A. clausi is a continuous process. These morphological features reflect the reproductive traits of this species. In accordance with the low numbers of mature oocytes in the gonads, females usually produced small clutches of one to five eggs. Clutches were released throughout the entire observation period at intervals of 90 min (median) resulting in mean egg production rates of 18 28 eggs female

  14. X-15 #3 with test pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    NASA research pilot Bill Dana is seen here next to the X-15 #3 (56-6672) rocket-powered aircraft after a flight. William H. Dana is Chief Engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Formerly an aerospace research pilot at Dryden, Dana flew the F-15 HIDEC research aircraft and the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16 aircraft. Dana flew the famed X-15 research airplane 16 times, reaching a top speed of 3,897 miles per hour and a peak altitude of 306,900 feet (over 58 miles high). The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable horizontal stabilizers to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a

  15. HL-10 on lakebed with pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This photo shows the HL-10 on Rogers Dry Lakebed with pilot Bill Dana in the foreground. Bill joined the HL-10 program in 1969 after flying the M2-F1 and the X-15, among other aircraft. His first glide flight was on April 25, 1969. Some months later, on September 3, 1969, he reached an altitude of 77,960 feet. This was one of a series of HL-10 flights to collect stability and control data at higher speeds and altitudes and at different angles of attack. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting bodies (M2-F2/F3, HL-10, X-24A). The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the Lifting Body program. On Feb. 18, 1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228 mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 feet, which became the highest altitude reached in the program. Some new

  16. HL-10 after landing with pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    This movie clip, running about 56 seconds, shows NASA pilot Bill Dana exiting the cockpit of the HL-10 and waving to his B-52 drop aircraft, just after landing on the dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California. A fleet of lifting bodies flown at the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from 1963 to l975 demonstrated the ability of pilots to maneuver (in the atmosphere) and safely land a wingless vehicle. These lifting bodies were basically designed so they could fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an aircraft at a pre-determined site. (In 1976 NASA renamed the FRC as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in honor of Hugh L. Dryden.) These unique research vehicles, with their unconventional aerodynamic shapes, were the M2-F1, M2-F2, M2-F3, HL-10, X-24A, and the X-24B. The information the lifting body program generated contributed to the database that led to development of the current space shuttle program as well as the X-33 and X-38 technology demonstrators. Aerodynamic lift -- essential to flight in the atmosphere -- was obtained from the shape of the vehicles rather than from wings on a normal aircraft. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. All but the M2-F1 were powered by the same type of XLR-11 rocket engine used in the famed Bell X-1 -- first aircraft to fly faster than the speed of sound. The M2-F1, a lightweight prototype, was unpowered. The success of the Dryden M2-F1 program led to the NASA development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA Ames and Langley research centers -- the M2-F2 and the HL-10, both built by the Northrop Corporation. The 'M' refers to 'manned' and 'F' refers to 'flight' version. 'HL' comes from 'horizontal landing' and '10' is for the tenth lifting body model to be investigated by Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The HL-10 was delivered to the FRC by Northrop

  17. X-15 test pilots - Thompson, Dana, and McKay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA pilots Milton O. Thompson, William H. 'Bill' Dana, and John B. 'Jack' McKay are seen here in front of the #2 X-15 (56-6671) rocket-powered research aircraft. Among them, the three NASA research pilots made 59 flights in the X-15 (14 for Thompson, 16 for Dana, and 29 for McKay). The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52 aircraft at 45,000 ft and a speed of about 500 mph. Depending on the mission, the rocket engine provided thrust for the first 80 to 120 sec of flight. The remainder of the

  18. Test pilots 1962 - Armstrong, Walker, Dana, Peterson, McKay, Thompson, Butchart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The research pilots at what in 1962 was called the Flight Research Center standing in front of the X-1E. They are (left to right) Neil Armstrong, Joe Walker, Bill Dana, Bruce Peterson, Jack McKay, Milt Thompson, and Stan Butchart. of the group, Armstrong, Walker, Dana, McKay and Thompson all flew the X-15. Bruce Peterson flew the M2-F2 and HL-10 lifting bodies, while Stan Butchart was the B-29 drop plane pilot for many of the D-558-II and X-1 series research aircraft.

  19. Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA)-psychometric properties of a new field-deployable neurocognitive assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Lathan, Corinna; Spira, James L; Bleiberg, Joseph; Vice, Jack; Tsao, Jack W

    2013-04-01

    The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) is a new neurocognitive assessment tool that includes a library of standardized cognitive and psychological assessments, with three versions that range from a brief 5-minute screen to a 45-minute complete assessment. DANA is written using the Android open-source operating system and is suitable for multiple mobile platforms. This article presents testing of DANA by 224 active duty U.S. service members in five operationally relevant environments (desert, jungle, mountain, arctic, and shipboard). DANA was found to be a reliable instrument and compared favorably to other computer-based neurocognitive assessments. Implications for using DANA in far-forward military settings are discussed. PMID:23707818

  20. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  1. Mentoring Matters: Many Voices, Many Choices--Women Who Mentored and Inspired Dana Rodriguez

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mary G.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author traces the progress of one English teacher (Dana) from her days as a middle school student, to her university work, to her emergence as a teacher. The journey reveals that many mentors along the way contributed to the new teacher's sense of purpose, efficacy, and confidence. It is easy to limit one's thinking about the…

  2. Testing Mixture Models of Transitive Preference: Comment on Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    This article contrasts 2 approaches to analyzing transitivity of preference and other behavioral properties in choice data. The approach of Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober (2011) assumes that on each choice, a decision maker samples randomly from a mixture of preference orders to determine whether "A" is preferred to "B." In contrast, Birnbaum…

  3. We the People? An Analysis of the Dana Corporation Policies Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Priscilla S.; Swales, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the complex language decisions reflected in the written ethical code of the Dana Corporation, an Ohio manufacturing firm. Suggests that such codes aim to be both inclusive of the readership and reflective of corporate goals. Uses linguistic substitution to highlight some rhetorical decisions that code composers need to negotiate. (SG)

  4. Promoting Writing among Psychology Students and Faculty: An Interview with Dana S. Dunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Perilou

    2002-01-01

    Perilou Goddard is a professor of psychology at Northern Kentucky University (NKU), where she teaches introductory and abnormal psychology as well as courses in writing in psychology and drug policy. She was chosen as NKU's outstanding professor in 1999. Dana S. Dunn is a professor of psychology and former chair of the Department of Psychology at…

  5. From Romantic Idealism to Enlightenment Rationalism: Lucretia Coffin Mott Responds to Richard Henry Dana, Sr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that the contrast between speeches by Richard Henry Dana Sr. and Lucretia Coffin Mott lies not only in their two views of the woman's place and role in society but also in the respective orientation toward Romantic idealism and Enlightenment rationalism. (TB)

  6. 5. PILOTS KNIGHT, RUSHWORTH, ENGLE, THOMPSON, DANA, AND McKAY STANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PILOTS KNIGHT, RUSHWORTH, ENGLE, THOMPSON, DANA, AND McKAY STANDING AT THE NOSE OF X-15 NO. 66671. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Molecular and microscopic evidence of viruses in marine copepods

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Darren S.; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Rosario, Karyna; Barbosa, Jorge G.; Greco, Anthony M.; Breitbart, Mya; Hewson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    As dominant members of marine mesozooplankton communities, copepods play critical roles in oceanic food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Despite the ecological significance of copepods, little is known regarding the causes of copepod mortality, and up to 35% of total copepod mortality cannot be accounted for by predation alone. Viruses have been established as ecologically important infectious agents in the oceans; however, viral infection has not been investigated in mesozooplankton communities. Here we used molecular and microscopic techniques to document viral infection in natural populations of the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa (Dana) and Labidocera aestiva (Wheeler) in Tampa Bay, FL. Viral metagenomics revealed previously undocumented viruses in each species, named Acartia tonsa copepod circo-like virus (AtCopCV) and Labidocera aestiva copepod circo-like virus (LaCopCV). LaCopCV was found to be extremely prevalent and abundant in L. aestiva populations, with up to 100% prevalence in some samples and average viral loads of 1.13 × 105 copies per individual. LaCopCV transcription was also detected in the majority of L. aestiva individuals, indicating viral activity. AtCopCV was sporadically detected in A. tonsa populations year-round, suggesting temporal variability in viral infection dynamics. Finally, virus-like particles of unknown identity were observed in the connective tissues of A. tonsa and L. aestiva by transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating that viruses were actively proliferating in copepod connective tissue as opposed to infecting gut contents, parasites, or symbionts. Taken together, these results provide strong independent lines of evidence for active viral infection in dominant copepod species, indicating that viruses may significantly influence mesozooplankton ecology. PMID:23297243

  8. Molecular and microscopic evidence of viruses in marine copepods.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Darren S; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Rosario, Karyna; Barbosa, Jorge G; Greco, Anthony M; Breitbart, Mya; Hewson, Ian

    2013-01-22

    As dominant members of marine mesozooplankton communities, copepods play critical roles in oceanic food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Despite the ecological significance of copepods, little is known regarding the causes of copepod mortality, and up to 35% of total copepod mortality cannot be accounted for by predation alone. Viruses have been established as ecologically important infectious agents in the oceans; however, viral infection has not been investigated in mesozooplankton communities. Here we used molecular and microscopic techniques to document viral infection in natural populations of the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa (Dana) and Labidocera aestiva (Wheeler) in Tampa Bay, FL. Viral metagenomics revealed previously undocumented viruses in each species, named Acartia tonsa copepod circo-like virus (AtCopCV) and Labidocera aestiva copepod circo-like virus (LaCopCV). LaCopCV was found to be extremely prevalent and abundant in L. aestiva populations, with up to 100% prevalence in some samples and average viral loads of 1.13 × 10(5) copies per individual. LaCopCV transcription was also detected in the majority of L. aestiva individuals, indicating viral activity. AtCopCV was sporadically detected in A. tonsa populations year-round, suggesting temporal variability in viral infection dynamics. Finally, virus-like particles of unknown identity were observed in the connective tissues of A. tonsa and L. aestiva by transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating that viruses were actively proliferating in copepod connective tissue as opposed to infecting gut contents, parasites, or symbionts. Taken together, these results provide strong independent lines of evidence for active viral infection in dominant copepod species, indicating that viruses may significantly influence mesozooplankton ecology. PMID:23297243

  9. Bill Dana in front of HL-10 after flight H-24-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    NASA research pilot Bill Dana after his fourth free flight (1 glide and 3 powered) in the HL-10. This particular flight reached a maximum speed of Mach 1.45. Dana made a total of nine HL-10 flights (1 glide and 8 powered), and his lifting body experience as a whole included several car tow and 1 air tow flights in the M2-F1; 4 glide and 15 powered flights in the M2-F3; and 2 powered flights in the X-24B. He is wearing a pressure suit for protection against the cockpit depressurizing at high altitudes. The air conditioner box held by the ground crewman provides cool air to prevent overheating.

  10. Life cycle and structure of the fish digenean Brachyphallus crenatus (Hemiuridae).

    PubMed

    Køie, M

    1992-04-01

    Cystophorous cercariae from Retusa obtusa (Montagu) (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Retusidae) develop into adults of Brachyphallus crenatus (Rudolphi, 1802) Odhner, 1905 (Hemiuridae). The free-swimming cercariae were ingested by laboratory-reared Acartia tonsa Dana, and the cercarial body was injected into the hemocoel of the copepod. Two-week-old metacercariae held at 15 C were infective to stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus. The cercariae of B. crenatus are very similar to the cercariae of Hemiurus luehei Odhner, 1905, and Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1901 (Hemiuridae), which develop in closely related opisthobranch snails. Scanning electron microscopy of metacercariae and adults of B. crenatus revealed the annular plications of most of the external surface to be scalelike. The area surrounding the genital pore and the presomatic pit was densely plicated. PMID:1556648

  11. Test pilots 1962 - Thompson, McKay, Dana, Armstrong, Peterson, Butchart, Walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A group photo of NASA research pilots at the front door of the Flight Research Center headquarters building. In the front row are (left to right) Milt Thompson, Jack McKay, and Bill Dana. All three flew the X-15, and Thompson and Dana were also involved in the lifting body flights. McKay was injured in a crash landing in X-15 #2. Although he recovered, the injuries eventually forced him to retire from research flying. In the back row (left to right) are Neil Armstrong, Bruce Peterson, Stanley Butchart, and Joe Walker. Armstrong and Walker also both flew the X-15. Soon after this photo was taken, Armstrong was selected as an astronaut, and seven years later became the first man to walk on the Moon. Walker made the highest flight in the X-15, reaching 354,200 feet. He then went on to fly the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, and was killed on June 8, 1966 when his F-104N collided with the XB-70. Peterson made the first flight in the HL-10 lifting body, and was later badly injured in the crash of the M2-F2 lifting body. Butchart flew a wide range of research missions in the 1950s, and was the B-29 drop plane pilot for a number of rocket flight.

  12. High-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore of Dana Point, southern California borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sliter, Ray W.; Ryan, Holly F.; Triezenberg, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected high-resolution shallow seismic-reflection profiles in September 2006 in the offshore area between Dana Point and San Mateo Point in southern Orange and northern San Diego Counties, California. Reflection profiles were located to image folds and reverse faults associated with the San Mateo fault zone and high-angle strike-slip faults near the shelf break (the Newport-Inglewood fault zone) and at the base of the slope. Interpretations of these data were used to update the USGS Quaternary fault database and in shaking hazard models for the State of California developed by the Working Group for California Earthquake Probabilities. This cruise was funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Catastrophic Hazards project. Seismic-reflection data were acquired aboard the R/V Sea Explorer, which is operated by the Ocean Institute at Dana Point. A SIG ELC820 minisparker seismic source and a SIG single-channel streamer were used. More than 420 km of seismic-reflection data were collected. This report includes maps of the seismic-survey sections, linked to Google Earth? software, and digital data files showing images of each transect in SEG-Y, JPEG, and TIFF formats.

  13. Influence of food quality on egg production and viability of the marine planktonic copepod Acartia omorii [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jang, Min-Chul; Jang, Pung-Kuk; Ju, Se-Jong; Lee, Tea-Kyun; Chang, Man

    2003-06-01

    Egg production, egg viability and fecal pellet production were determined for individual Acartia omorii, which were fed diets of two species of diatoms ( Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and three species of dinoflagellates ( Scrippsiella trochoidea, Heterocapsa triquetra and Cochlodinium polykrikoides). Diets were analyzed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Depending on the diet, egg production of A. omorii varied over time, diminishing with some diets ( S. trochoidea, C. polykrikoides, P. tricornutum). This rate of reduction was much more rapid for a diet of C. polykrikoides, which caused egg production to decrease to ca. 2.4 eggs f -1 d -1 in only four days. As for all diets, egg viability was high at the beginning but with the C. polykrikoides and P. tricornutum diets, it rapidly decreased with time. Fecal pellet production also varied with time, depending on the diet. Egg production rate was closely correlated with fecal pellet production. There was no direct relationship between egg viability and egg production rate, but both egg production and viability were affected by the nutritional quality of food. Egg viability was also highly dependent on the composition of fatty acids in the eggs. Egg viability showed positive correlation with the ratio of ω3:ω6 groups among egg fatty acids, and negative correlation with the ratio of 20:5 ( n-3) : 22:6 ( n-3). While comparing several diets, egg production rate was higher on diets ( H. triquetra and S. trochoidea) containing ample amounts of essential fatty acids such as 18:4 ( n-3) and 22:6 ( n-3). The results suggest that fertility of A. omorii was dependent upon the quality of the food, and dinoflagellate diets, with the exception of C. polykrikoides, were preferable to diatom diets.

  14. X-24B with Test Pilot Bill Dana, Following last Powered Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    William H. Dana poses in front of the X-24B after his last powered lifting-body flight on September 23, 1975. In the late 1960s and in the 1970s Dana was a project pilot on the lifting-body program which flew several versions of the wingless vehicles and produced data that helped in development of the Space Shuttles. For his contributions to the lifting body program, Dana received the NASA Exceptional Service Medal. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19, 1970. The X-24A was flown 28 times in the program that, like the HL-10, validated the concept that a Space Shuttle vehicle could be landed unpowered. The fastest speed achieved by the X-24A was 1,036 miles per hour (mph--Mach 1.6). Its maximum altitude was 71,400 feet. It was powered by an XLR-11 rocket engine with a maximum theoretical vacuum thrust of 8,480 pounds. The X-24A was later modified

  15. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 83-107-1574, Dana Corporation, Fort Wayne, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, R.G.; Wallingford, K.M.

    1985-04-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples of cutting fluids and oils were analyzed at Dana Corporation, Fort Wayne, Indiana in May, 1983. The survey was requested by a company representative to evaluate the cause of dermatitis among machine-tool operators. A cutting fluid used at the facility was thought to be the cause of the dermatitis. Medical questionnaires were administered to 95 workers. Company dispensary records were reviewed. N-nitrosodimethylamine and triethanolamine were detected in new and used cutting fluid samples. Nickel, chromium, and zinc were detected in a sample of used cutting oil residue. Chloromethyl-phenol was found in two cutting fluid mix samples. The authors conclude that a health hazard exists at the facility. The skin problems appear to be related to exposure to cutting fluids and solvents in general, rather than a specific agent. Recommendations include using protective clothing, using waterless hand cleaners instead of solvents, and avoiding contact with chlorothene.

  16. Dryden Test Pilots 1990 - Smolka, Fullerton, Schneider, Dana, Ishmael, Smith, and McMurtry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    It was a windy afternoon on Rogers Dry Lake as the research pilots of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility gathered for a photo shoot. It was a special day too, the 30th anniversary of the first F-104 flight by research pilot Bill Dana. To celebrate, a fly over of Building 4800, in formation, was made with Bill in a Lockheed F-104 (826), Gordon Fullerton in a Northrop T-38, and Jim Smolka in a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 (841) on March 23, 1990. The F-18 (841), standing on the NASA ramp is a backdrop for the photo of (Left to Right) James W. (Smoke) Smolka, C. Gordon Fullerton, Edward T. (Ed) Schneider, William H. (Bill) Dana, Stephen D. (Steve) Ishmael, Rogers E. Smith, and Thomas C. (Tom) McMurtry. Smolka joined NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility in September 1985. He has been the project pilot on the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) research and F-15 Aeronautical Research Aircraft programs. He has also flown as a pilot on the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, as a co-project pilot on the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control aircraft and the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. Other aircraft he has flown in research programs are the F-16, F-111, F-104 and the T-38 as support. Fullerton, joined NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility in November 1986. He was project pilot on the NASA/Convair 990 aircraft to test space shuttle landing gear components, project pilot on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft, and project pilot on the B-52 launch aircraft, where he was involved in six air launches of the commercially developed Pegasus space launch vehicle. Other assignments include a variety of flight research and support activities in multi-engine and high performance aircraft such as, F-15, F-111, F-14, X-29, MD-11 and DC-8. Schneider arrived at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility on July 5, 1982, as a Navy Liaison Officer, becoming a NASA research

  17. Stable carbon isotope ratios in Astrangia danae : evidence for algal modification of carbon pools used in calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, C. E.; McCarty, H. B.

    1982-06-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios have been measured in skeletons of the temperature shallow water scleractinian coral, Astrangia danae. δ13C values ranging from -5.42 to -7.30%. revealed the expected depletion of 13C in skeletal carbonate relative to sea water bicarbonate. Differences among the ratios could not be attributed to collection site and were not correlated to skeletal morphology. Values of δ13C were directly related to zooxanthellae density for all colonies, so that as zooxanthellae concentration increased, δ13C valued increased. Colonies maintained under high temperature conditions were offset from the normal, exhibiting ratios less enriched in 13C than similar colonies from natural conditions. These trends supported the models of Weber and Goreau in which the carbon pools used in calcification are modified by algal photosynthesis. Direct evidence of physiological differences between symbiotic and asymbiotic colonies of A. danae has also been provided.

  18. HL-10 on lakebed with Jerauld R. Gentry, Peter Hoag, John A. Manke, and Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The four principal HL-10 pilots are seen here with the lifting body aircraft. They are, left to right; Air Force Major Jerauld R. Gentry, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag, and NASA pilots John A. Manke and Bill Dana. All are wearing the pressure suits needed for flying above 50,000 feet. The HL-10 was one of five heavyweight lifting-body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC--later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. Northrop Corporation built the HL-10 and M2-F2, the first two of the fleet of 'heavy' lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center. The contract for construction of the HL-10 and the M2-F2 was $1.8 million. 'HL' stands for horizontal landing, and '10' refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. After delivery to NASA in January 1966, the HL-10 made its first flight on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities, stability, and control. In the end, the HL-10 was judged to be the best handling of the three original heavy-weight lifting bodies (M2-F2/F3, HL-10, X-24A). The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the Lifting Body program. On Feb. 18, 1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228 mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 feet, which became the highest altitude reached in the program. Some new and different lessons were learned through the successful flight testing of the HL-10. These lessons, when combined with information from it's sister ship, the M2-F2/F3

  19. An environmental forensic approach for tropical estuaries based on metal bioaccumulation in tissues of Callinectes danae.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Andrade, Nathalia P; Hortellani, Marcos A; Favaro, Deborah I T; Kakazu, Mauricio H; Cotrim, Marycel E B; Lavradas, Raquel T; Moreira, Isabel; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann

    2016-01-01

    The blue crab Callinectes danae is distributed throughout the Atlantic coast and this study aimed to evaluate a environmental forensics approach that could be applied at tropical estuarine systems where this species is distributed, based on the metal concentrations in its tissues. For this purpose, blue crab samples were collected in 9 sites (distributed in 3 areas) along the Santos Estuarine System, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in gills, hepatopancreas and muscle tissues. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed in these same sites. A data distribution pattern was identified during both sampling periods (August and December 2011). In order to validate this model, a new sampling campaign was performed in March 2013 at the Santos Estuarine System and also at Ilha Grande (state of Rio de Janeiro). These data were added to the previous database (composed of the August and December 2011 samples) and a discriminant analysis was applied. The results confirmed an environmental fingerprint for the Santos Estuarine System. PMID:26475048

  20. X-15 flight crew - Engle, Rushworth, McKay, Knight, Thompson, and Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The X-15 flight crew, left to right; Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay, Air Force Major William J. 'Pete' Knight, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, and NASA pilot Bill Dana. These six pilots made 125 of the 199 total flights in the X-15. Rushworth made 34 flights (the most of any X-15 pilot); McKay flew 29 times; Engle, Knight, and Dana each flew 16 times; Thompson's total was 14. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52

  1. X-15 test pilots - Engle, Rushworth, McKay, Knight, Thompson, and Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The X-15 flight crew, left to right; Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay, Air Force pilot William J. 'Pete' Knight, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, and NASA pilot Bill Dana. of their 125 X-15 flights, 8 were above the 50 miles that constituted the Air Force's definition of the beginning of space (Engle 3, Dana 2, Rushworth, Knight, and McKay one each). NASA used the international definition of space as beginning at 62 miles above the earth. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large

  2. Age groups of antarctic krill, Euphausia superba dana, in the Prydz Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Sun, Song; Wang, Ke; Li, Chao-Iun

    2000-06-01

    Age groups of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba Dana) in the Prydz Bay region were studied by distribution mixture analysis based on length/frequency data collected by R/V Jidi during the 1989/1990 and 1990/1991 austral summer. Five age groups were determined, i.e. 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, and 5+, or six age groups in all, if the 0+ larvae were included. The mean body length of 1+ to 5+ age groups was 25.70 mm, 40.47 mm, 45.52 mm, 50.52 mm and 54.52 mm respectively. Supposing the difference in body length between successive age groups is a reflection of the early growth, the maximum growth rate occurred during the period from 1+ juveniles to 2+ subadults (14.77 mm/a). From 2+ subadults to 3+ adults the growth rate dropped steeply (5.05 mm/a) because at this stage, increase of body length was substituted, to a great extent, by the growth of sexual products. From 3+ onwards the growth rate was maintained at a relatively low level and decreased slowly with age. The relative abundance of age groups 1+ and 2+, in our sample must be much lower than that in the real population owing to both the large mesh size we used and the distribution difference between juveniles and adults. If we left aside 1+ and 2+ age groups and just looked at the relative abundance of adults, we found that age group 3+ dominated the adult population and that the relative abundance decreased sharply with increasing age. If this situation is normal, one can expect an extremely high mortality rate in adults, 82.6% from 3+ to 4+ and 94.0% from 4+ to 5+. This is reasonably expectable for the Prydz Bay region.

  3. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (danae of this estuary. PMID:22349281

  4. DFCI Gene Index Project: Interactive Data Maps for Plant, Animal, Protist, and Fungi Organisims from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

    DOE Data Explorer

    Funding for the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) Gene Index Project ended and the database was taken down in July of 2014. However, this record links you to the "tombstone" page where you will find FTP addresses for the software tools and the data created.

  5. Statement of Facts for 1987 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Dana Barr, Plaintiff v. Kit Zuff, as Administrator of the Lorton Medium Security Facility, Defendant. MT-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its 16th annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides the material for a mock civil trial in which Dana Barr, a former corrections officer, brings suit against the Lorton Medium Security Facility for firing him on the basis of his status as Human…

  6. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented. PMID:26249444

  7. No evidence for induction or selection of mutant sodium channel expression in the copepod Acartia husdsonica challenged with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense

    PubMed Central

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E; Dam, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    Some species in the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium spp. produce a suite of neurotoxins that block sodium channels, known as paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which have deleterious effects on grazers. Populations of the ubiquitous copepod grazer Acartia hudsonica that have co-occurred with toxic Alexandrium spp. are better adapted than naïve populations. The mechanism of adaptation is currently unknown. We hypothesized that a mutation in the sodium channel could account for the grazer adaptation. We tested two hypotheses: (1) Expression of the mutant sodium channel could be induced by exposure to toxic Alexandrium fundyense; (2) in the absence of induction, selection exerted by toxic A. fundyense would favor copepods that predominantly express the mutant isoform. In the copepod A. hudsonica, both isoforms are expressed in all individuals in varying proportions. Thus, in addition to comparing expression ratios of wild-type to mutant isoforms for individual copepods, we also partitioned copepods into three groups: those that predominantly express the mutant (PMI) isoform, the wild-type (PWI) isoform, or both isoforms approximately equally (EI). There were no differences in isoform expression between individuals that were fed toxic and nontoxic food after three and 6 days; induction of mutant isoform expression did not occur. Furthermore, the hypothesis that mutant isoform expression responds to toxic food was also rejected. That is, no consistent evidence showed that the wild-type to mutant isoform ratios decreased, or that the relative proportion of PMI individuals increased, due to the consumption of toxic food over four generations. However, in the selected line that was continuously exposed to toxic food sources, egg production rate increased, which suggested that adaptation occurred but was unrelated to sodium channel isoform expression. PMID:25535562

  8. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST)

    PubMed Central

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E.; Dam, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed. PMID:26075900

  9. First report of the presence of Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907 (Copepoda, Calanoida) in a semi-enclosed Bay (Sharm El-Maya), northern Red Sea with some notes on its seasonal variation in abundance and body size

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The calanoid copepod, Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907, is reported for the first time in the Red Sea, where it is found to be an important copepod in the mesozooplankton community structure of the Sharm El-Maya Bay. Female and male are fully redescribed and illustrated of as the mouthparts of this species have never previously been described and figured. Acartia bispinosa was collected in the plankton samples throughout the year and showed two peaks of abundance, a pronounced one in April (4234 individuals m-3), and second smaller peak during November (1784 individuals m-3). The average total length of females varied between 1.32 and 1.53 mm at the end of June and January respectively. For males, the average total length fluctuated between 1.07 and 1.16 mm at end of June and March respectively. Temperature showed an inverse relationship with the body length (P > 0.001) and seemed to be one of the prime factors affecting the body length of both sexes. PMID:25349502

  10. A review of Chiromantes obtusifrons (Dana, 1851) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae), with descriptions of four new sibling-species from Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), Guam and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Davie, Peter J F; Ng, Peter K L

    2013-01-01

    The identity of Chiromantes obtusifrons (Dana, 1851), previously considered widespread in the tropical West Pacific region to the eastern Indian Ocean, is revised and found to be a species-complex. Chiromantes obtusifrons is now considered endemic to the Hawaiian Is., and four new species are described from Guam, Taiwan and Christmas Island. Two species live sympatrically in Taiwan. Species separation is based on carapace and frontal shape and granulation, leg proportions, abdominal somite proportions, and distinctive live colouration. PMID:24699569

  11. Review of the fish parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from South Africa, including the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kerry A.; Bruce, Niel L.; Smit, Nico J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 is revised for South African waters and re-diagnosed. Ceratothoa retusa (Schioedte & Meinert, 1883) is recorded from the eastern coast, and Ceratothoa africanae sp. n. and C. famosa sp. n. are described; C. imbricata (Fabricius, 1775) and C. trigonocephala (Leach, 1818), are redescribed, revised and excluded from the South African fauna. Ceratothoa africanae sp. n. can be distinguished by the stout body shape of the female; triangular cephalon with a pointed rostrum; short uropods which do not extend past the pleotelson; large carinae on the pereopod basis; a broad pleon; and large medial lobes on female pleopods. Ceratothoa famosa sp. n. is characterised by the long rectangular body shape; pereonite 1 with a raised medial protrusion; narrow antenna with antennule article 1 expanded; uropods which reach the posterior margin of the pleotelson; narrow rami on uropods; and no appendix masculina on pleopod 2 of the male specimens. PMID:24843254

  12. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia under Treatment with the Protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 00-01

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; Arellano-Galindo, José; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Ortíz-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ortíz-Fernández, Antonio; Marín-Palomares, Teresa; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1–9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count <50 × 109/L, precursor B cell immunophenotype, no mediastinal mass, CSF free of blasts, and a good response to prednisone. The rest of the patients were defined as high risk. Of a total of 302 children, 51.7% were at high risk. The global survival rate was 63.9%, and the event-free survival rate was 52.3% after an average follow-up of 3.9 years. The percentages of patients who died were 7% on induction and 14.2% in complete remission; death was associated mainly with infection (21.5%). The relapse rate was 26.2%. The main factor associated with the occurrence of an event was a leucocyte count >100 × 109/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population. PMID:25922837

  13. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852, is revised for Australian waters. Ceratothoa is represented in Australia by nine species, including two new species: Ceratothoa barracuda sp. nov. described from Cairns and Ceratothoa globulus sp. nov. described from Lord Howe Island. Ceratothoa imbricata Fabricius, 1775 is redescribed, with Ceratothoa trillesi (Avdeev, 1979) and Ceratothoa huttoni Filhol, 1885 placed into junior synonymy; the preferred hosts are species of the genus Trachurus (Carangidae). Ceratothoa banksii (Leach, 1818) is validated and brought out of synonymy with Ceratothoa imbricata; host species are from the families Kyphosidae, Scombridae, Latridae, Carangidae, Mugilidae, Salmonidae, Scatophagidae, Pomatomidae and Hemiramphidae. Species excluded from the Australian fauna are Ceratothoa trigonocephala (Leach, 1818) with an unknown host identity and type locality; and Ceratothoa lineata Miers, 1876a, that here is transferred to the genus Mothocya Costa, 1851, with Mothocya ihi Bruce, 1986 placed into junior synonymy. Ceratothoa contracta (Miers, 1880), the New Zealand Ceratothoa novaezelandiae Filhol, 1885 and the East Pacific Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Milne Edwards, 1840) are regarded here as species inquirenda. A key to the Australian species of Ceratothoa is presented. PMID:26249402

  14. First results on the genetic diversity of the invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852) in Europe using novel microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Froufe, E; Varandas, S; Teixeira, A; Sousa, R; Filipová, L; Petrusek, A; Edsman, L; Lopes-Lima, M

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of non-native crayfish in aquatic ecosystems is very common due to human activities (e.g. aquaculture, recreational and commercial fisheries). The signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852), is one of the most widespread invasive species in Europe. Although several important ecological and economic impacts of this species have been reported, its European population genetic characterisation has never been undertaken using nuclear markers. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and characterise new microsatellite markers for signal crayfish that can be useful in future studies in its invaded range, since only five are available so far. In total, 93 individuals from four geographically distinct European populations (Portugal, Great Britain, Finland and Sweden) were scored for the new markers and for those previously described, with the Bayesian analysis revealing a clear distinction among populations. These markers are suitable for future studies of the population genetic structure of this important invasive species, by increasing information about the possible pathways of introduction and dispersal, and by giving insights about the most important vectors of introduction. PMID:25638230

  15. Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France).

    PubMed

    Delpy, Floriane; Pagano, Marc; Blanchot, Jean; Carlotti, François; Thibault-Botha, Delphine

    2012-09-01

    The Berre Lagoon has been under strong anthropogenic pressure since the early 1950s. The opening of the hydroelectric EDF power plant in 1966 led to large salinity drops. The zooplankton community was mainly composed of two common brackish species: Acartia tonsa and Brachionus plicatilis. Since 2006, European litigation has strongly constrained the input of freshwater, maintaining the salinity above 15. A study was performed between 2008 and 2010 to evaluate how these modifications have impacted the zooplankton community. Our results show that the community is more diverse and contains several coastal marine species (i.e., Centropages typicus, Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi). A. tonsa is still present but is less abundant, whereas B. plicatilis has completely disappeared. Strong predatory marine species, such as chaetognaths, the large conspicuous autochtonous jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, are now very common as either seasonal or permanent features of the lagoon. PMID:22776776

  16. The ability of the branchiopod, Artemia salina, to graze upon harmful algal blooms caused by Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoval, M. Alejandra; Pan, Jerónimo; Tang, Yingzhong; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    We present experiments that examined the grazing and survivorship of zooplankton native (Acartia tonsa) and non-native (Artemia salina) to NY (USA) estuaries when exposed to blooms and cultures of the three harmful algae native to NY, Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens (strains CCMP 1850 and CCMP 1984) and Cochlodinium polykrikoides. During experiments with cultures of A. anophagefferens, clearance rates (CR) of A. salina were significantly greater than those of A. tonsa for both algal strains examined. A. salina fed on cultures of C. polykrikoides at higher rates than all phytoplankton species examined, including the control diet (Rhodomonas salina), and faster than rates of A. tonsa fed C. polykrikoides. During experiments with A. fundyense, A. salina actively grazed all cell concentrations (250-1500 cells ml-1) while A. tonsa did not feed at any concentration. Percent mortality of A. salina and A. tonsa fed A. fundyense for 48 h were 43 ± 7.7% and 72 ± 7.8%, respectively, percentages significantly higher than those of individuals fed all other algal diets. During 25 field experiments using natural blooms of the three HAB species performed across six NY estuaries, A. salina significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cell densities of A. anophagefferens, C. polykrikoides, and A. fundyense relative to the control treatments in all but one experiment. The sum of these findings demonstrates that a failure to graze these HABs by the indigenous copepod, A. tonsa, may permit blooms to occur. In addition, the ability of A. salina to graze these HABs at densities that were inhibitory to A. tonsa suggests that A. salina could, in some circumstances, be considered as a part of mitigation strategy for these events.

  17. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. PMID:27203468

  18. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  19. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  20. Species composition of Black Sea marine planktonic copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubanova, A.; Altukhov, D.; Stefanova, K.; Arashkevich, E.; Kamburska, L.; Prusova, I.; Svetlichny, L.; Timofte, F.; Uysal, Z.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the changes in the marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea species' list from the beginning of taxonomic research to the present day. The study was based on the SESAME biological database, unpublished data, literature and data obtained during the course of the SESAME project. Comparisons were made with the Guidebook for Marine Fauna of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, which revealed changes both in the taxonomic status of some species and in the structure of the copepod community. The taxonomic status of two species (Acartia clausi small form and Centropages kroyeri pontica) and the nomenclature of two species (Oihona minuta and Calanus helgolandicus) have been changed. Three native species (Acartia margalefi, Oithona nana, and Paracartia latisetosa) have disappeared. Two non-indigenous copepods (Acartia tonsa and Oithona davisae) became established in the Black Sea ecosystem in the 1970s and 2000s, respectively. The success of their establishment was determined by biological features of the species and vulnerability of the native copepod community to invasions. It is highly probable that both species were introduced to the Black Sea by vessel ballast water. The hypothesis of "mediterranization" of the Black Sea fauna does not appear to hold true for zooplankton. Numerous claims of alien copepod species in the Black Sea remain largely unverified due to insufficient information. Data on newly discovered species of the Acartia genus are not authenticated. An updated list of marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea is hereby presented.

  1. Copepod Behavior in ``Cryptic Blooms'' of Toxic Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, A. C.; Webster, D. R.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2014-11-01

    Copepods,Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis, were exposed to thin layers of exudates from the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (1 - 10,000 cells/mL) (i.e. models of ``cryptic blooms'' of toxic phytoplankton). Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the layer allowing for correlation of behavioral responses with toxin levels. Both species explicitly avoided the exudate layer and the vicinity of the layer. Measures of path kinematics (swimming speed, turn frequency) by location (in-layer vs. out-of-layer) and exposure (pre-contact vs. post-contact) revealed some similarities, but also significant differences, in trends for each species. A. tonsa significantly increases swimming speed and swimming speed variability in the exudate layer and post-contact, whereas T. longicornis slightly increases both in-layer and slightly reduces both post-contact. Both species increase turn frequency in-layer and post-contact with increasing K. brevis exudate concentration. Path fracticality indicates that A. tonsatrajectories became more diffuse/sinuous and T. longicornis trajectories became more linear/ballistic (trending effects). Regression analyses revealed that the rate of change of behavior with increasing exudate concentration for A. tonsa was thrice to fifty times that of T. longicornis. Toxic K. brevis can essentially eliminate top-down grazer control ,another sinister means by which it gains a competitive advantage over the local phytoplankton taxa.

  2. Habitat temperature is an important determinant of cholesterol contents in copepods

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, R. Patrick; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Effects of habitat and acclimation temperature on cholesterol contents were examined in oceanic and inshore species of copepods. The cholesterol content of five species of thermally acclimated copepods was determined, and nine species (representing six families) were sampled to assess the role of habitat temperature. The species selected have maximum habitat temperatures (and temperature tolerances) that vary at least twofold. Levels of dietary cholesterol required to achieve maximum growth were also studied at different acclimation temperatures in a eurythermal copepod. Both eggs and copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus had higher cholesterol levels at the warm acclimation temperature (16°C) than at the cooler temperature (6°C). Neither Acartia tonsa, Acartia hudsonica, Temora longicornis nor Eurytemora affinis altered cholesterol contents with acclimation temperature. Maximum growth rates were achieved at fourfold higher concentrations of dietary cholesterol in warm-acclimated Eurytemora affinis than in cold-acclimated animals. The most consistent trend is the positive relationship between cholesterol content and habitat temperature. Species residing in warmer habitats (e.g. Centropages typicus, Eurytemora affinis) had approximately twice the cholesterol of species living in colder waters (e.g. Calanus glacialis, Euchaeta norvegica). A similar pattern was observed for comparisons of species within genera (Calanus, Acartia and Centropages), with the species abundant at lower latitudes having more cholesterol than the northern congener. These data indicate that habitat temperature is an important determinant of cholesterol content, and cholesterol endows membranes with the stability required for a range of body temperatures. PMID:19088212

  3. Pilot Bill Dana in HiMAT cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) simulator was used from 1978 to 1983. The HiMAT was a remotely piloted research vehicle built to develop high-performance fighter technology that included advanced structures, and integrated controls and propulsion systems. The simulator was used in support of the flight program.

  4. Research Review: The Dana Foundation and ArtsConnection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susannah

    2007-01-01

    In this Research Review, various models of research found in a recent publication from ArtsConnection, New York, are discussed. The researchers for the first study look at research from each person's unique perspective and value the descriptive and analytical process of inquiry. The researchers in the second study focus on research as a heuristic…

  5. 33 CFR 110.93 - Dana Point Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Harbor, Calif. commencing at a point at latitude 33°27′36.2″ N., longitude 117°42′20.4″ W.; thence 016°20′ True for 612 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′42.1″ N., longitude 117°42′18.4″ W.; thence 106°20′ True for 85 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′41.8″ N., longitude 117°42′17.7″ W.; thence 196°20′ True...

  6. 33 CFR 110.93 - Dana Point Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Harbor, Calif. commencing at a point at latitude 33°27′36.2″ N., longitude 117°42′20.4″ W.; thence 016°20′ True for 612 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′42.1″ N., longitude 117°42′18.4″ W.; thence 106°20′ True for 85 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′41.8″ N., longitude 117°42′17.7″ W.; thence 196°20′ True...

  7. 33 CFR 110.93 - Dana Point Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor, Calif. commencing at a point at latitude 33°27′36.2″ N., longitude 117°42′20.4″ W.; thence 016°20′ True for 612 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′42.1″ N., longitude 117°42′18.4″ W.; thence 106°20′ True for 85 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′41.8″ N., longitude 117°42′17.7″ W.; thence 196°20′ True...

  8. 33 CFR 110.93 - Dana Point Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Harbor, Calif. commencing at a point at latitude 33°27′36.2″ N., longitude 117°42′20.4″ W.; thence 016°20′ True for 612 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′42.1″ N., longitude 117°42′18.4″ W.; thence 106°20′ True for 85 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′41.8″ N., longitude 117°42′17.7″ W.; thence 196°20′ True...

  9. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Functional Annotation of Cancer Genomes Principal Investigator: William C. Hahn, M.D., Ph.D. The comprehensive characterization of cancer genomes has and will continue to provide an increasingly complete catalog of genetic alterations in specific cancers. However, most epithelial cancers harbor hundreds of genetic alterations as a consequence of genomic instability. Therefore, the functional consequences of the majority of mutations remain unclear.

  10. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface. PMID:25534626

  11. Changes in zooplankton communities along a mercury contamination gradient in a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Patrícia Gonçalves; Marques, Sónia Cotrim; D'Ambrosio, Mariaelena; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando Costa; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2013-11-15

    The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the impact of mercury on the zooplankton communities' structure and functioning and their bioaccumulation patterns along a contamination gradient in a temperate coastal lagoon. Our results demonstrated that total abundance was not negatively affected by Hg contamination, since the most contaminated areas presented the highest values, being the copepod Acartia tonsa the dominant species, which means that it is a very well adapted and tolerant species to mercury. Nevertheless, negative effects were observed in terms of species diversity, since the most contaminated areas presented the lowest values of species richness, evenness and heterogeneity. Moreover, the spatial mercury gradient was reflected on the bioaccumulation patterns of the zooplankton communities. This reinforces the idea that zooplankton can be considered as an important vehicle of mercury transfer through the food pelagic web since it constitutes a primordial food resource for several commercial fish species. PMID:24064374

  12. Morphology of seahorse head hydrodynamically aids in capture of evasive prey.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, Brad J; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    Syngnathid fish (seahorses, pipefish and sea dragons) are slow swimmers yet capture evasive prey (copepods) using a technique known as the 'pivot' feeding, which involves rapid movement to overcome prey escape capabilities. However, this feeding mode functions only at short range and requires approaching very closely to hydrodynamically sensitive prey without triggering an escape. Here we investigate the role of head morphology on prey capture using holographic and particle image velocimetry (PIV). We show that head morphology functions to create a reduced fluid deformation zone, minimizing hydrodynamic disturbance where feeding strikes occur (above the end of the snout), and permits syngnathid fish to approach highly sensitive copepod prey (Acartia tonsa) undetected. The results explain how these animals can successfully employ short range 'pivot' feeding effectively on evasive prey. The need to approach prey with stealth may have selected for a head shape that produces lower deformation rates than other fish. PMID:24281430

  13. Ecological-evaluation of organotin-contaminated sediment. Final report, March-June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1985-07-01

    A standard dredged material bioassay was conducted with high levels of organotins to assess the toxicity and bioavailability of organotins associated with sediment and to determine if this sediment would qualify for ocean disposal. This study concluded that high levels of organotins in sediments do not a priori indicate a significant adverse impact on the marine environment after ocean disposal. The sediment tested would qualify for ocean disposal under the present guidelines administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers. Particulate-phase tests were conducted with Acanthomysis sculpta (mysid), Citharichthys stigmaeus (flatfish), and Acartia tonsa (copepod). Solid-phase tests were conducted with A. sculpta, Macoma nasuta (clam), and Neanthes arenaceodentata (polychaete worm). The bioassay also included an estimate of the potential for bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, silver, pesticides, PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and organotins. Survival was high in all particulate-phase and solid-phase tests.

  14. Evaluation of auxiliary tempering pump effectiveness at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, L.C.; Holland, A.F.

    1989-08-01

    The effectiveness of auxiliary tempering pump operation at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station (SES) at reducing plant-induced mortality of aquatic biota was evaluated. Several Representative Important Species (RIS) and dominant benthic and zooplankton species were used in the evaluation as indicators of overall system-wide responses. Expected mortality with and without auxiliary pump operation was estimated using thermal tolerance data available from the scientific literature for blue crabs, white perch, striped bass, spot, Macoma balthica and Acartia tonsa. The evaluation led to the conclusion that the operation of auxiliary tempering pumps at Chalk Point SES increases plant-induced mortality of spot, white perch, striped bass, and zooplankton. Operation of the tempering pumps may reduce blue crab mortality slightly under certain circumstances, and Macoma balthica mortality is probably largely unaffected by their operation.

  15. Sewage pollution effects on mesozooplankton structure in a shallow temperate estuary.

    PubMed

    Biancalana, Florencia; Menéndez, María C; Berasategui, Anabela A; Fernández-Severini, Melisa D; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of a sewage effluent with no treatment on the mesozooplankton structure and the environmental quality were evaluated in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, during June to November 1995. The highest values of particulate organic matter, nutrients and specially phosphate, were observed in the effluent discharge zone. In addition, taxa richness, mesozooplankton abundance and Shannon diversity values were lower in the sewage discharge area compared with the less polluted area. Eurytemora americana and Acartia tonsa as well as larvae of Balanus glandula, Neohelice granulata and Spionidae were found in the discharge area with lower densities. These results highlight the importance of sewage effluent effects on mesozooplankton community providing background data to use in other monitoring programmes. PMID:21814721

  16. Lipid nanocapsules as a new delivery system in copepods: Toxicity studies and optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Stancheva, Stefka; Souissi, Anissa; Ibrahim, Ali; Barras, Alexandre; Spriet, Corentin; Souissi, Sami; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the potential of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as a delivery system of small hydrophobic molecules, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, in the copepod Acartia tonsa. The LNCs were produced by a phase inversion process with a nominal size of 50 nm. These nanocapsules were obtained without organic solvent and with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. The PAHs-LNCs displayed a stable monodisperse size distribution and a good stability in sea water for 7 days. By using fluorescent LNCs, it was possible to evidence LNCs ingestion by the copepods using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While blank LNCs are not toxic to copepods at tested concentrations, PAH-loaded LNCs were found to be very toxic on A. tonsa with a high mortality rate reaching 95% after 72 h exposure to 200 nM pyrene-loaded LNCs. On the other hand, when acetone is used to dissolve an equivalent concentration of PAHs in sea water, the copepod mortality is 10 times lower than using LNCs as nano-delivery system. This confirms the efficiency of using LNCs to deliver molecules directly in the gut or copepod carapace. The small size and non toxicity of these delivery nano-systems make them suitable for drug delivery to copepods. PMID:26280818

  17. Effect of advection on variations in zooplankton at a single location near Cabo Nazca, Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S L; Brink, K H; Santander, H; Cowles, T J; Huyer, A

    1980-04-01

    Temporal variations in the biomass and species composition of zooplankton at a single midshelf station in an upwelling area off Peru can be explained to a large extent by onshore-offshore advection in the upper 20 m of the water column. During periods of strong or sustained near-surface onshore flow, peaks in biomass of zooplankton were observed at midshelf and typically oceanic species of copepod were collected. In periods of offshore flow at the surface, a copepod capable of migrating into oxygen-depleted layers deeper than 30 m was collected. A simple translocation model of advection applied to the cross-shelf distribution of Paracalanus parvus suggests that the fluctuations in P. pavus observed in the midshelf time-series were closely related to onshore-offshore flow in the upper 20 m. Fluctuations in abundance of the numerically dominant copepod, Acartia tonsa, were apparently affected by near surface flow also. The population age-structure suggests that A. tonsa was growing at maximal rates, due in part to its positive feeding response to the dinoflagellate/diatom assemblage of phytoplankton.

  18. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  19. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  20. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  1. Seasonal variation in the copepod community structure from a tropical Amazon estuary, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, André; Leite, Natália da R; Silva, João G S; Pereira, Luci C C; Costa, Rauquírio M da

    2009-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of copepod community structure during the months of July, September and November 2003 (dry season) and January, March and May 2004 (rainy season) in the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle 200microm mesh net tows from a small powerboat. Measurements of surface water conductivity were accomplished in situ using an electronic conductivimeter and salinity was later obtained through the transformation of the conductivity values. Salinity varied seasonally from 7.2 +/- 0.1 to 39.2 +/- 1.8 (mean +/- standard deviation) and was influenced mainly by differences in the amount of rainfall between the studied sampling seasons. In total, 30 Copepoda taxa were identified and Acartia tonsa comprised the most representative species throughout the entire studied period followed by Acartia lilljeborgii, Subeucalanus pileatus and Paracalanus quasimodo. In the present study, the density values, ecological indexes and copepod species dominance presented a clear seasonal pattern, showing that the studied area may be considered seasonally heterogeneous in relation to the investigated parameters. PMID:19488623

  2. Comparison of different DNA-extraction techniques to investigate the bacterial community of marine copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Petra; Gerdts, Gunnar; Boersma, Maarten; Wiltshire, Karen H.; Wichels, Antje

    2010-12-01

    Marine zooplanktic organisms, such as copepods, are usually associated with large numbers of bacteria. Some of these bacteria live attached to copepods’ exoskeleton, while others prevail in their intestine and faecal pellets. Until now, general conclusions concerning the identity of these bacteria are problematic since the majority of previous studies focused on cultivable bacteria only. Hence, to date little is known on whether copepod genera or species harbour distinct bacterial populations and about the nature of this association. To shed more light on these copepod/bacteria consortia, the focus of this study was the development and evaluation of a suitable approach to extract bacterial DNA from different North Sea copepod genera. Furthermore, the bacterial DNA was analysed by PCR-DGGE and subsequent sequencing of excised bands. The result of this work was an appropriate extraction method for batches of ten to one copepod specimens and offered first insights as to which bacteria are attached to the copepods Acartia sp . and Temora sp . from Helgoland Roads (German Bight) and a laboratory-grown Acartia tonsa culture. It revealed the prevalence of Alphaproteobacteria.

  3. Relationships between copepod community structure, rainfall regimes, and hydrological variables in a tropical mangrove estuary (Amazon coast, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, André; Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; da Costa, Rauquírio Marinho

    2015-03-01

    The influence of rainfall and hydrological variables on the abundance and diversity of the copepod community was investigated on a monthly basis over an annual cycle in the Taperaçu mangrove estuary. In general, the results show that there were no clear spatial or tidal patterns in any biological variables during the study period, which was related to the reduced horizontal gradient in abiotic parameters, determined mainly by the morphological and morphodynamic features of the estuary. Nevertheless, seasonal and monthly trends were recorded in both the hydrological data and the abundance of the dominant copepod species. In particular, Pseudodiaptomus marshi (6,004.6 ± 22,231.6 ind m-3; F = 5.0, p < 0.05) and Acartia tonsa (905.6 ± 2,400.9 ind m-3; F = 14.6, p < 0.001) predominated during the rainy season, whereas Acartia lilljeborgii (750.8 ± 808.3 ind m-3; U = 413.0, p < 0.01) was the most abundant species in the dry season. A distinct process of succession was observed in the relative abundance of these species, driven by the shift in the rainfall regime, which affected hydrological, in particular salinity, and consequently the abundance of copepod species. We suggest that this may be a general pattern governing the dynamics of copepod populations in the estuaries of the Brazilian Amazonian region.

  4. Fatty acid profiling reveals seasonal and spatial shifts in zooplankton diet in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Azeiteiro, U. M.; Pardal, M. A.; De Troch, M.

    2012-08-01

    Fatty acids composition of copepod and cladoceran species and their possible food sources was investigated in the Mondego estuary (southern Europe) in order to explain the seasonal variation of the small copepods Acartia clausi, Acartia tonsa, Copidodiaptomus numidicus, Temora longicornis and the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina. A total of 12 zooplankton species (7 marine, 2 estuarine and 3 freshwater species) were studied. A multivariate analysis revealed a clear seasonal distribution of zooplankton species in terms of fatty acids composition and abundance, with winter and spring zooplankton species showing maximal concentrations and diversity of total fatty acids. These findings underline the role of lipids as storage during the colder seasons in a highly variable environment like an estuary. Estuarine and freshwater species showed a more diverse array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids rather than marine species, except for Centropages typicus. Fatty acids markers of trophic position indicated the presence of two trophic levels: copepod species were primarily omnivorous, whereas cladocerans showed to be herbivorous. Our results suggest that feeding patterns of plankton change spatially and temporally, reflecting the shifts in dominance between diatoms and flagellates as well as between dinoflagellates/diatoms and small animals.

  5. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  6. Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria Support Copepod Reproduction and Development in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H.; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999–2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  7. Mesozooplankton assemblages and their relationship with environmental variables: a study case in a disturbed bay (Beagle Channel, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Biancalana, Florencia; Dutto, M Sofía; Berasategui, Anabela A; Kopprio, Germán; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on the seasonal and spatial analysis of the mesozooplankton community in a human-impacted subantarctic bay in Argentina and aimed to detect assemblages associated with environmental variability. Mesozooplankton samples and environmental data were obtained in the Ushuaia Bay (UB) seasonally, from August 2004 to June 2005, and spatially, from coastal (more polluted), middle (less influenced) and open sea water (free polluted) sampling stations. Remarkable seasonal changes on the mesozooplankton community were observed. Nitrogenated nutrients, chlorophyll a, salinity and temperature were the prevailing environmental conditions likely associated with the different mesozooplankton assemblages found in the bay. The copepods Eurytemora americana, Acartia tonsa, Podon leuckarti and Nematoda were particularly observed on the northwest coast of the bay, characterized by the highest level of urban pollution, eutrophicated by sewage and freshwater inputs from the Encerrada Bay which is connected to it. The stations situated in the northeast area, mostly influenced by freshwater input from rivers and glacier melting, showed low mesozooplankton abundances and an important contribution of adventitious plankton. The copepods Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus brevipes and Drepanopus forcipatus were mostly observed at the stations located near the Beagle Channel, characterized by open sea and free polluted waters. Our findings suggest that the variations observed in the mesozooplankton assemblages in the UB seem to be modulated by environmental variables associated with the anthropogenic influence, clearly detected on the coast of the bay. Certain opportunistic species such as A. tonsa and E. americana could be postulated as potential bioindicators of water quality in subantarctic coastal ecosystems. PMID:25204897

  8. Ocean Acidification Affects the Phyto-Zoo Plankton Trophic Transfer Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Gemma; Flynn, Kevin J; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2016-01-01

    The critical role played by copepods in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry warrants an understanding of how these animals may respond to ocean acidification (OA). Whilst an appreciation of the potential direct effects of OA, due to elevated pCO2, on copepods is improving, little is known about the indirect impacts acting via bottom-up (food quality) effects. We assessed, for the first time, the chronic effects of direct and/or indirect exposures to elevated pCO2 on the behaviour, vital rates, chemical and biochemical stoichiometry of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Bottom-up effects of elevated pCO2 caused species-specific biochemical changes to the phytoplanktonic feed, which adversely affected copepod population structure and decreased recruitment by 30%. The direct impact of elevated pCO2 caused gender-specific respiratory responses in A.tonsa adults, stimulating an enhanced respiration rate in males (> 2-fold), and a suppressed respiratory response in females when coupled with indirect elevated pCO2 exposures. Under the combined indirect+direct exposure, carbon trophic transfer efficiency from phytoplankton-to-zooplankton declined to < 50% of control populations, with a commensurate decrease in recruitment. For the first time an explicit role was demonstrated for biochemical stoichiometry in shaping copepod trophic dynamics. The altered biochemical composition of the CO2-exposed prey affected the biochemical stoichiometry of the copepods, which could have ramifications for production of higher tropic levels, notably fisheries. Our work indicates that the control of phytoplankton and the support of higher trophic levels involving copepods have clear potential to be adversely affected under future OA scenarios. PMID:27082737

  9. Ocean Acidification Affects the Phyto-Zoo Plankton Trophic Transfer Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Gemma; Flynn, Kevin J.; Lindeque, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The critical role played by copepods in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry warrants an understanding of how these animals may respond to ocean acidification (OA). Whilst an appreciation of the potential direct effects of OA, due to elevated pCO2, on copepods is improving, little is known about the indirect impacts acting via bottom-up (food quality) effects. We assessed, for the first time, the chronic effects of direct and/or indirect exposures to elevated pCO2 on the behaviour, vital rates, chemical and biochemical stoichiometry of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Bottom-up effects of elevated pCO2 caused species-specific biochemical changes to the phytoplanktonic feed, which adversely affected copepod population structure and decreased recruitment by 30%. The direct impact of elevated pCO2 caused gender-specific respiratory responses in A.tonsa adults, stimulating an enhanced respiration rate in males (> 2-fold), and a suppressed respiratory response in females when coupled with indirect elevated pCO2 exposures. Under the combined indirect+direct exposure, carbon trophic transfer efficiency from phytoplankton-to-zooplankton declined to < 50% of control populations, with a commensurate decrease in recruitment. For the first time an explicit role was demonstrated for biochemical stoichiometry in shaping copepod trophic dynamics. The altered biochemical composition of the CO2-exposed prey affected the biochemical stoichiometry of the copepods, which could have ramifications for production of higher tropic levels, notably fisheries. Our work indicates that the control of phytoplankton and the support of higher trophic levels involving copepods have clear potential to be adversely affected under future OA scenarios. PMID:27082737

  10. Toxicological effects of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on marine planktonic organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Vitiello, Valentina; Pellegrini, David; Wu, Changwen; Morelli, Elisabetta; Buttino, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dot nanoparticles (QDs) are proposed as novel materials for photovoltaic technologies, light emitting devices, and biomedical applications. In this study we investigated the effect of CdSe/ZnS QDs on the growth rate of four microalgae: the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the cryptophyte Rhinomonas reticulata, the prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana and the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In addition we analyzed the effect of QDs on the copepod Acartia tonsa. A classical acute test (48-h) with embryos was carried out to evaluate naupliar survival. Moreover, a 4-day chronic test with adult copepods was conducted to evaluate their fecundity (embryos f(-1)day(-1)) and egg hatching success. QDs in the range from 1 to 4nM gradually inhibited the growth rate of P. tricornutum, I. galbana, R. reticulata and D. tertiolecta with an EC50 of 1.5, 2.4, 2.5 and 4.2nM, respectively. Acute tests with A. tonsa (QD concentration tested from 0.15 to 1.5nM) showed an increased naupliar mortality in response to QD treatment, exhibiting an EC50 of 0.7nM. Chronic test showed no negative effect on egg production, except on the last two days at the highest QD concentration (2.5nM). No significant reduction of the percentage of egg hatching success was recorded during the exposure. Toxicity assessment of QDs was also investigated at the molecular level, studying heat shock protein 70 gene expression (hsp 70). Our results indicate that hsp70 was upregulated in adults exposed 3 days to 0.5nM QDs. Overall, these results suggest that species unable to swim along the water column, like P. tricornutum and early hatched copepods, could be more exposed to toxic effects of QDs which tend to aggregate and settle in seawater. PMID:26409651

  11. Production of Excirolana armata (Dana, 1853) (Isopoda, Cirolanidae) on an exposed sandy beach in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Cardoso, Ricardo Silva; Turra, Alexander; Corbisier, Thais Navajas

    2012-09-01

    The somatic and gonad productions of the cirolanid isopod Excirolana armata were analyzed by taking monthly samples from December 2003 to November 2005 on Una beach, São Paulo state (24°S), southeastern Brazil. Sampling was performed along three fixed transects established from the base of the foredunes to the waterline. Weight-specific growth rate was used to estimate the E. armata somatic production for 2004 and 2005, separately. The gonad production was estimated based on the monthly reproductive potential (mean number of eggs/embryos per female × monthly abundance of ovigerous females with near-release broods) for 2004. The annual somatic production of E. armata population varied from 15.57 to 17.25 g AFDW m-1 year-1 and the somatic production/biomass ratio ( P s/ B) from 3.55 to 3.14 year-1 for 2004 and 2005, respectively. The P s/ B ratios were higher for males (4.02 and 3.19 year-1 for 2004 and 2005) than for females (3.10 year-1 for both years). The annual gonad production ( P g = 1.07 g AFDW m-1 year-1) contributed about 15 and 6% to the total production ( P s + P g) of females and the population, respectively. The proportion of gonad to somatic production of females ( P g/ P s) increased with individual size (ca 90% in the 7.5 mm size class), and the annual weight-specific gonad production ( P g/ B ratio) was estimated to 0.24 year-1. The high P s/ B ratios estimated for E. armata derive from the fast growth of individuals and show the importance of this population to the energy flow on Una beach ecosystem. However, the low percentage of juveniles verified in this population and in other studies of populations of the genus Excirolana is discussed as an important source of underestimation of P s/ B ratio.

  12. Barriers to Care for Transgender People: A Conversation With Dana Hines, PhD, MSN, RN

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Donna J.; Hines, Dana

    2016-01-01

    A public health nurse talks about her career trajectory, her entry into nursing research, and her research career in transgender health. Transgender people encounter many health and social disparities, yet medical and nursing professionals are often ill-prepared to care for this population of individuals. The nursing profession is well known for its contributions to population health and for developing nursing-led interventions to improve the health outcomes of marginalized populations. Hines urges nursing to take a more active stance in transgender health and is leading this effort by example. PMID:27587944

  13. Habitat shifts and spatial distribution of the intertidal crab Neohelice ( Chasmagnathus ) granulata Dana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casariego, Agustina Mendez; Alberti, Juan; Luppi, Tomás; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Intertidal zones of estuaries and embayments of the SW Atlantic are dominated by the semiterrestrial burrowing grapsid crab, Neohelice ( Chasmagnathus) granulata, and characterized by extensive mud flats surrounded by salt marshes. In this work we examined spatial patterns of distribution of N. granulata during two years to explain their movement patterns. The results of the population sampling showed segregation by sex and size throughout the intertidal, with seasonal variations in densities and different condition indices for adults and juveniles at the different zones. The comparison of seasonal activity (ambulatory activity outside burrows) between marshes and mudflats shows that short term (e.g. daily) variations in activity were controlled by tides. Crabs were active at high tides but increased their activity on days with higher tidal amplitude. Seasonal activity showed that at both areas, females remain with low activity except for a peak in winter, while males showed the highest activity during summer in the mudflat zone, but not so in the marsh. This pattern can be the response to differences in stress tolerance, suggesting that high temperatures are limiting the performance of adult crabs during summer, especially at the marsh where physical conditions can be more critical. The spatial size segregation can be explained by differential mortality in each zone (estimated with tethered crabs), and by the juvenile movement between these zones (estimated with movement traps). Juvenile mortality is higher at the mudflat, while adult mortality is higher in the marsh. Smaller juveniles moved to the marsh, where the mortality is lower, and the larger juveniles moved towards the mudflat. This mortality is due almost exclusively to cannibalism, so our results suggest that this movement of different size classes between zones is controlled, at least in part, by intraspecific predation.

  14. A new species of Paratanais Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Peracarida, Tanaidacea, Paratanaidae) from Puerto Rico, northwestern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G.; Heard, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Paratanais rosadi sp. n. described from Puerto Rican coastal waters represents the first species of the genus from the northwestern Atlantic. It is distinguished from the other Paratanais species by a combination of characters, including article-2 of the maxilliped palp with a geniculate, finely-serrulate seta on inner margin; chela with stiff, geniculate, seta arising from propodus between fixed finger and dactylus and with short, stout, finely serrulate, seta on inner distal face of propodus adjacent to base of dactylus; carpus of pereopods 4−6 having three, instead of four stout modified spiniform setae distally, uropodal exopod distinctly shorter than endopodal article-1; and uropodal endopod with articles of about of equal in length. A key for the separation of Paratanais species from the Atlantic Ocean is presented. PMID:24715797

  15. GAMETOGENESIS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEMPERATE CORAL 'ASTRANGIA DANAE' (ANTHOZOA: SCLERACTINIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing interest in coral reefs and coral biology has not led to many studies of reproduction. While it seems likely that patterns of reproduction in corals may be similar to those in anemones, the authors lack detailed studies of the corals themselves. Our present knowledge ...

  16. 77 FR 51064 - Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... findings that the subject firm did not shift production of gaskets and exhausts to a foreign country nor... request for reconsideration alleged that increased aggregate imports of gaskets (and like and directly... like or directly competitive with the gaskets and exhausts produced by workers at the subject...

  17. 78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... production of gaskets. The reconsideration investigation revealed that the subject workers do not produce... separations at the subject firm are related to a shift in a portion of the production of gaskets (or like or... to the production of gaskets, meet the worker group certification criteria under Section 222(a)...

  18. 76 FR 43348 - Dana Structural Manufacturing, LLC, Structures Division, Longview, TX; Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... March 10, 2011 (76 FR 13230). At the request of the State Agency, the Department reviewed the... Federal Register on December 30, 2008 (73 FR 79915). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage... the automotive industry. The review shows that on December 10, 2008, a certification of eligibility...

  19. A transcriptome resource for Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) exposed to short-term stress.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria João F; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Anjos, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M; Agusti, Susana; Serrão, Ester A; Pearson, Gareth A

    2015-10-01

    Euphausia superba is a keystone species in Antarctic food webs. However, the continued decrease in stock density raises concerns over the resilience and adaptive potential of krill to withstand the current rate of environmental change. We undertook a transcriptome-scale approach (454 pyrosequencing) as a baseline for future studies addressing the physiological response of krill to short-term food shortage and natural UV-B stress. The final assembly resulted in a total of 26,415 contigs, 39.8% of which were putatively annotated. Exploratory analyses indicate an overall reduction in protein synthesis under food shortage while UV stress resulted in the activation of photo-protective mechanisms. PMID:25957695

  20. Life in the extreme environment at a hydrothermal vent: haemoglobin in a deep-sea copepod.

    PubMed Central

    Sell, A F

    2000-01-01

    This is the first study, to my knowledge, quantifying the respiratory pigment haemoglobin discovered in a deep-sea copepod. Haemoglobin in copepods has previously been documented in only one other species from the deep water of an Italian lake. Specimens of the siphonostomatoid Scotoecetes introrsus Humes were collected during submersible dives at 2500 m depth near a hydrothermal vent at the East Pacific Rise (9 degrees N). The haemoglobin content in the copepods' haemolymph was 4.3 +/- 0.6 micrograms per individual female (n = 6) and 1.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms per individual male (n = 6). Weight-specific concentrations of haemoglobin were identical for females and males (0.25 +/- 0.04 and 0.26 +/- 0.02 microgram per microgram dry weight, respectively). These haemoglobin concentrations are higher than those found in other small crustaceans. Activity of the electron transport system indicated that the respiration rates in S. introrsus (13.7 +/- 7.7 microliters O2 per milligram dry weight per hour) were similar to those in the shallow-water copepod Acartia tonsa (9.1 +/- 1.3 microliters O2 per milligram dry weight per hour). It was concluded that the possession of highly concentrated haemoglobin allows S. introrsus to colonize a geologically young, thermally active site such as the vicinity of a hydrothermal vent, despite the prevailing oxygen depletion. PMID:11413650

  1. Assimilation and regeneration of trace elements by marine copepods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Reinfelder, J.R.; Lee, B.-G.; Fisher, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of five trace elements (Am, Cd, Co, Se, and Zn) and carbon by neritic copepods (Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis) feeding at different food concentrations and on different food types (diatoms, green algae, flagellates, dinoflagellates, and Fe oxides) were measured with radiotracer techniques. Food concentration had little influence on AEs of C, Cd, Co, and Se within a range of 16-800 ?? C liter-1. AEs of Am and Zn were highest at low food concentrations (16-56 ??g C liter-1) but remained relatively constant when food levels exceeded 160 ??g C liter-1. Different algal diets had no major influence on AEs, which generally were in the order Cd > Se > Zn > Co > Am. Metals (Cd, Co, and Zn) were assimilated from Fe oxides with 50% less efficiency than from algal cells. Element regeneration into the dissolved phase was a significant route for the release of ingested elements by copepods and increased with increased food concentration. Element regeneration rates for Cd, Se, and Zn were comparable to the regeneration rates of major nutrients such as P (30-70% daily). Retention half-times of elements in decomposing fecal pellets ranged from 10 d (Am). The efficient assimilation and regeneration of Cd, Se, and Zn can significantly lengthen the residence time of these elements in ocean surface waters.

  2. Water flow controls distribution and feeding behavior of two co-occurring coral reef fishes: II. Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. D.; Finelli, C. M.; Buskey, E. J.

    2009-06-01

    The chaenopsid blenny Acanthemblemaria spinosa occupies topographically high locations on coral reefs where flow speeds and turbulence are frequently greater than those experienced by its congener, A. aspera, which occupies locations close to the reef surface. To investigate the adaptive mechanisms resulting in this microhabitat differentiation, the foraging effort and success of these fishes were determined in laboratory flumes that produced flow conditions approximating those experienced in the field. Individual fish were subjected to unidirectional (smooth and turbulent) and oscillatory flows while they fed on calanoid copepods, Acartia tonsa, whose vulnerability to predation varies with water flow. In unidirectional flow both blenny species had their greatest foraging success at intermediate flow speeds (ca. 10 cm s-1) and under turbulent flow. Under all conditions, Acanthemblemaria spinosa exhibited greater foraging effort and attacked at greater distances, greater mean water speeds, and in oscillatory flow, over a greater proportion of the wave cycle than did A. aspera. A. spinosa also exhibited greater foraging success under turbulent flow conditions. These differences in feeding patterns allow A. spinosa, with its higher metabolic rate, to occupy the more energetic higher locations in corals where planktonic food is more abundant. A. aspera occupies the poorer quality habitat in terms of planktonic food availability but its lower metabolic rate allows it to thrive there. Consequently, these species divide the resource in short supply, i.e., shelter holes, based on their differing abilities to capture prey in energetic water conditions in conjunction with their differing food energy requirements.

  3. Copepod behavior in thin layers of attractive and deterrent chemical cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, M.; Webster, D. R.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the oceanographic distribution of mobile zooplankton can be attributed, at least in part, to foraging and aggregative behaviors. A laboratory system was developed to test the cues that induce these behaviors. The system mimics thin layer structure in the ocean, and the research has focused on calanoid copepods, specifically Temora longicornis and Acartia tonsa. Responses are directly observed as copepod cultures are subjected to different attractive and deterrent chemical cues, such as phytoplankton (food) and harmful algal bloom metabolites. Behaviors are quantified using three behavioral markers: proportional residence time in the thin layer, swimming speed, and turn frequency. These three markers are measured using video-based observation, which quantifies path kinematics and swimming behavior. Previous experiments have shown that attractive chemical exudates elicite behaviors such as increased swimming speed and excited area-restricted search behavior. Thus, understanding how zooplankton behave in response to chemicals from toxic species will extend our understanding of zooplankton interaction with thin layers and the potential consequences for population dynamics, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity in coastal and pelagic ecosystems.

  4. Predation by the Dwarf Seahorse on Copepods: Quantifying Motion and Flows Using 3D High Speed Digital Holographic Cinematography - When Seahorses Attack!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmell, Brad; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Ed

    2008-11-01

    Copepods are an important planktonic food source for most of the world's fish species. This high predation pressure has led copepods to evolve an extremely effective escape response, with reaction times to hydrodynamic disturbances of less than 4 ms and escape speeds of over 500 body lengths per second. Using 3D high speed digital holographic cinematography (up to 2000 frames per second) we elucidate the role of entrainment flow fields generated by a natural visual predator, the dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) during attacks on its prey, Acartia tonsa. Using phytoplankton as a tracer, we recorded and reconstructed 3D flow fields around the head of the seahorse and its prey during both successful and unsuccessful attacks to better understand how some attacks lead to capture with little or no detection from the copepod while others result in failed attacks. Attacks start with a slow approach to minimize the hydro-mechanical disturbance which is used by copepods to detect the approach of a potential predator. Successful attacks result in the seahorse using its pipette-like mouth to create suction faster than the copepod's response latency. As these characteristic scales of entrainment increase, a successful escape becomes more likely.

  5. Evaluation of antibiotics as a methodological procedure to inhibit free-living and biofilm bacteria in marine zooplankton culture.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Vanessa O; Macedo, Alexandre J; Muxagata, Erik

    2016-01-01

    There is a problem with keeping culture medium completely or partially free from bacteria. The use of prokaryotic metabolic inhibitors, such as antibiotics, is suggested as an alternative solution, although such substances should not harm non-target organisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments in inhibiting free-living and biofilm bacteria and their half-life in artificial marine environment using the copepod Acartia tonsa as bioindicador of non-harmful antibiotic combinations. Regarding to results, the application of 0.025 g L-1 penicillin G potassium + 0.08 g L-1 streptomycin sulphate + 0.04 g L-1 neomycin sulphate showed great potential for use in marine cultures and scientific experiments without lethal effects to non-target organisms. The effect of this combination starts within the first six hours of exposure and reduces up to 93 % the bacterial density, but the half-life is short, requiring replacement. No adverse changes in water quality were observed within 168 hours of exposure. As a conclusion, we can infer that this treatment was an effective procedure for zooplankton cultures and scientific experiments with the aim of measuring the role of free-living and biofilm in the marine community. PMID:27168369

  6. Dissolution of coccolithophorid calcite by microzooplankton and copepod grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antia, A. N.; Suffrian, K.; Holste, L.; Müller, M. N.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Simonelli, P.; Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.

    2008-01-01

    Independent of the ongoing acidification of surface seawater, the majority of the calcium carbonate produced in the pelagial is dissolved by natural processes above the lysocline. We investigate to what extent grazing and passage of coccolithophorids through the guts of copepods and the food vacuoles of microzooplankton contribute to calcite dissolution. In laboratory experiments where the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was fed to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the heterotrophic flagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the copepod Acartia tonsa, calcite dissolution rates of 45-55%, 37-53% and 5-22% of ingested calcite were found. We ascribe higher loss rates in microzooplankton food vacuoles as compared to copepod guts to the strongly acidic digestion and the individual packaging of algal cells. In further experiments, specific rates of calcification and calcite dissolution were also measured in natural populations during the PeECE III mesocosm study under differing ambient pCO2 concentrations. Microzooplankton grazing accounted for between 27 and 70% of the dynamic calcite stock being lost per day, with no measurable effect of CO2 treatment. These measured calcite dissolution rates indicate that dissolution of calcite in the guts of microzooplankton and copepods can account for the calcite losses calculated for the global ocean using budget and model estimates.

  7. Host-Specific and pH-Dependent Microbiomes of Copepods in an Extensive Rearing System.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro-Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are to an increasing extent cultivated as feed for mariculture fish larvae with variable production success. In the temperate climate zone, this production faces seasonal limitation due to changing abiotic factors, in particular temperature and light. Furthermore, the production of copepods may be influenced by biotic factors of the culture systems, such as competing microorganisms, harmful algae, or other eukaryotes and prokaryotes that may be non-beneficial for the copepods. In this study, the composition of bacteria associated with copepods was investigated in an extensive outdoor copepod production system. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were primarily found attached to the exoskeleton of copepods although a few bacteria were also found in the gut as well as internally in skeletal muscle tissue. Through 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes. PMID:26167852

  8. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-12-31

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea.

  9. Selected alternatives to conventional chlorination. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garey, J.F.

    1980-10-01

    This study was jointly funded by EPRI and five electric utility companies in New England (New England Power, Northeast Utilities, United Illuminating, Vermont Yankee Nuclear, and Public Service of New Hampshire). Previous investigations had identified three major areas for further study: continuous low-level chlorination, dechlorination, and condenser biofouling control. Continuous low-level chlorination, studied at two locations, one on open coastal water and the other in an industrialized estuarine area, showed that 0.1 ppM total residual oxidant (TRO) prevented attachment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to concrete surfaces. Chronic bioassays showed that 0.075 ppM TRO reduced biofouling by indigenous organisms; 0.1 ppM TRO slightly increased mortalities of the Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) but had no effect on the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Dechlorination investigations showed that threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia), larval bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and the copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to water chlorinated to 0.5 ppM TRO for 10, 100, and 1000 seconds, followed by dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate, all suffered significant toxic effects. Condenser tube biofouling studies showed that there was a strong correlation between condenser performance and condenser tube biofouling; biofilm induction varied inversely with ambient water temperature, but orientation of the tubes had no effect on biofilm formation; and all chemicals tested (mono-, di-, and trisodium phosphate; Polident; and TRO at 0.1 ppM) reduced but did not remove biofilms.

  10. Parental exposure to elevated pCO2 influences the reproductive success of copepods

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Gemma; Lindeque, Penelope; Flynn, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial variations are reported for egg production and hatching rates of copepods exposed to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2). One possible explanation, as found in other marine taxa, is that prior parental exposure to elevated pCO2 (and/or decreased pH) affects reproductive performance. Previous studies have adopted two distinct approaches, either (1) expose male and female copepoda to the test pCO2/pH scenarios, or (2) solely expose egg-laying females to the tests. Although the former approach is more realistic, the majority of studies have used the latter approach. Here, we investigated the variation in egg production and hatching success of Acartia tonsa between these two experimental designs, across five different pCO2 concentrations (385–6000 µatm pCO2). In addition, to determine the effect of pCO2 on the hatching success with no prior parental exposure, eggs produced and fertilized under ambient conditions were also exposed to these pCO2 scenarios. Significant variations were found between experimental designs, with approach (1) resulting in higher impacts; here >20% difference was seen in hatching success between experiments at 1000 µatm pCO2 scenarios (2100 year scenario), and >85% at 6000 µatm pCO2. This study highlights the potential to misrepresent the reproductive response of a species to elevated pCO2 dependent on parental exposure. PMID:25221371

  11. Copepod Trajectory Characteristics in Thin Layers of Toxic Algal Exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2013-11-01

    Recently documented thin layers of toxic phytoplankton (``cryptic blooms'') are modeled in a custom flume system for copepod behavioral assays. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the chemical layers ensuring a close match to in situ bloom conditions and allowing for quantification of threshold dissolved toxin levels that induce behavioral responses. Assays with the copepods Acartia tonsa (hop-sinker) and Temora longicornis (cruiser) in thin layers of toxic exudates from the common dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (cell equivalent ~ 1 - 10,000 cells/mL) examine the effects of dissolved toxic compounds and copepod species on swimming trajectory characteristics. Computation of parameters such as swimming speed and the fractal dimension of the two-dimensional trajectory (F2D) allows for statistical evaluation of copepod behavioral responses to dissolved toxic compounds associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Changes in copepod swimming behavior caused by toxic compounds can significantly influence predator, prey, and mate encounter rates by altering the fracticality (``diffuseness'' or ``volume-fillingness'') of a copepod's trajectory. As trophic mediators linking primary producers and higher trophic levels, copepods can significantly influence HAB dynamics and modulate large scale ecological effects through their behavioral interactions with toxic blooms.

  12. Hydrodynamics and energetics of jumping copepod nauplii and copepodids.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Navish; Andersen, Anders; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Within its life cycle, a copepod goes through drastic changes in size, shape and swimming mode. In particular, there is a stark difference between the early (nauplius) and later (copepodid) stages. Copepods inhabit an intermediate Reynolds number regime (between ~1 and 100) where both viscosity and inertia are potentially important, and the Reynolds number changes by an order of magnitude during growth. Thus we expect the life stage related changes experienced by a copepod to result in hydrodynamic and energetic differences, ultimately affecting the fitness. To quantify these differences, we measured the swimming kinematics and fluid flow around jumping Acartia tonsa at different stages of its life cycle, using particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry. We found that the flow structures around nauplii and copepodids are topologically different, with one and two vortex rings, respectively. Our measurements suggest that copepodids cover a larger distance compared to their body size in each jump and are also hydrodynamically quieter, as the flow disturbance they create attenuates faster with distance. Also, copepodids are energetically more efficient than nauplii, presumably due to the change in hydrodynamic regime accompanied with a well-adapted body form and swimming stroke. PMID:24948628

  13. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton. PMID:27003367

  14. Changes in zooplankton diversity and distribution pattern under varying precipitation regimes in a southern temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Ana Lígia; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Marques, Sónia Cotrim; Martinho, Filipe; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2009-04-01

    The influence of climate variability on the diversity and distribution patterns of zooplankton communities was investigated in the Mondego estuary (Portugal) during four consecutive years characterized by highly variable precipitation and, consequently, river flow regime. Monthly samples were collected along the estuarine gradient at five sampling stations. Seasonal, inter-annual and spatial distributions were evaluated by multivariate analyses and three diversity indices were applied (Species number, Shannon Diversity and Average Taxonomic Distinctness). A two-year drought period presented significant differences in salinity values, especially in 2005 (extreme drought event). During the study period, copepoda was the main dominant group and Acartia tonsa the most abundant species, with the exception of autumn 2006, where high abundances of the cladoceran Penilia avirostris were noticed. Multivariate analysis indicated that zooplankton communities changed from a pre- to a post-drought period indicating the influence of hydrological parameters in communities' structure. The dry period was associated with an increase in zooplankton density, a reduction in seasonality and higher abundance and prevalence of marine species throughout the year. Seasonally, winter/spring communities were distinct from those in summer/autumn. Spatially, salinity-associated differences between upstream and downstream communities were reduced during the drought years, but during the post-drought year, these differences were detected again.

  15. Zooplankton and Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Kristen M.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Neely, Merry B.; Spence, Danylle N.; Murasko, Susan; Hopkins, Thomas L.; Sutton, Tracey T.; Burghart, Scott E.; Bohrer, Richard N.; Remsen, Andrew W.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Walsh, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis are common in the Gulf of Mexico, yet no in situ studies of zooplankton and K. brevis have been conducted there. Zooplankton abundance and taxonomic composition at non-bloom and K. brevis bloom stations within the Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) study area were compared. At non-bloom stations, the most abundant species of zooplankton were Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oithona colcarva, and Paracalanus quasimodo at the 5-m isobath and P. quasimodo, O. colcarva, and Oikopleura dioica at the 25-m isobath. There was considerable overlap in dominance of zooplankton species between the 5 and 25-m isobaths, with nine species contributing to 90% of abundance at both isobaths. At stations within K. brevis blooms however, Acartia tonsa, Centropages velificatus, Temora turbinata, Evadne tergestina, O. colcarva, O. dioica, and P. crassirostris were dominant. Variations in abundance between non-bloom and bloom assemblages were evident, including the reduction in abundance of three key species within K. brevis blooms.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Zooplankton Community of Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios-Jara, E.

    1998-06-01

    Nocturnal variations of zooplankton abundance and hydrographic conditions were examined at three locations (centre, north shore and south shore) in Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico, from May 1992 through April 1993. Seven taxa accounted for approximately 96% of the annual mean zooplankton abundance: Oithonaspp. (43·5%), Acartia tonsa(31·5%), copepod nauplii (8·8%), Paracalanusspp.(6·7%), gastropod veligers (2·5%), larvaceans (1·7%) and Pseudo-diaptomus cokeri(1·6%). Copepods dominated numerically throughout the year and comprised 94·3% of total zooplankton. Higher abundance of zooplankton (mean±1 SD=252 259±176 797 individuals m -3) was associated with cool water temperatures (24·9-27·4 °C) and dry conditions (0·3-2·9 cm precipitation/month) which prevailed between December and March relative to the period between April and November (warm/wet season) (mean±1 SD=59 773±26 861 individuals m -3), when temperature and precipitation were higher (27·3-30·3 °C, 3·1-20·6 cm month -1). Fluctuations of zooplankton populations, particularly copepods, followed progressive increments in chlorophyll aconcentrations. This abundance pattern was consistent at the three sampling stations. Zooplankton abundance was higher on the north shore of the bay. The taxonomic composition of zooplankton was similar at the sampling stations studied.

  17. Zooplankton research off Peru: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón, Patricia; Criales-Hernandez, Maria I.; Schwamborn, Ralf; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    A review of zooplankton studies conducted in Peruvian marine waters is given. After a short history of the development of zooplankton research off Peru, we review zooplankton methodology, taxonomy, biodiversity, spatial distribution, seasonal and interannual variability, trophodynamics, secondary production, and modelling. We review studies on several micro-, meso-, macro-, and meroplankton groups, and give a species list from both published and unpublished reports. Three regional zooplankton groups have been identified: (1) a continental shelf group dominated by Acartia tonsa and Centropages brachiatus; (2) a continental slope group characterized by siphonophores, bivalves, foraminifera and radiolaria; (3) and a species-rich oceanic group. The highest zooplankton abundances and biomasses were often found between 4-6°S and 14-16°S, where continental shelves are narrow. Species composition changes with distance from the shore. Species composition and biomass also vary strongly on short time scales due to advection, peaks of larval production, trophic interactions, and community succession. The relation of zooplankton to climatic variability (ENSO and multi-decadal) and fish stocks is discussed in the context of ecological regime shifts. An intermediate upwelling hypothesis is proposed, based on the negative effects of low upwelling intensity in summer or extremely strong and enduring winter upwelling on zooplankton abundance off Peru. According to this hypothesis, intermediate upwelling creates an optimal environmental window for zooplankton communities. Finally, we highlight important knowledge gaps that warrant attention in future.

  18. Host-Specific and pH-Dependent Microbiomes of Copepods in an Extensive Rearing System

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro-Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are to an increasing extent cultivated as feed for mariculture fish larvae with variable production success. In the temperate climate zone, this production faces seasonal limitation due to changing abiotic factors, in particular temperature and light. Furthermore, the production of copepods may be influenced by biotic factors of the culture systems, such as competing microorganisms, harmful algae, or other eukaryotes and prokaryotes that may be non-beneficial for the copepods. In this study, the composition of bacteria associated with copepods was investigated in an extensive outdoor copepod production system. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were primarily found attached to the exoskeleton of copepods although a few bacteria were also found in the gut as well as internally in skeletal muscle tissue. Through 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes. PMID:26167852

  19. Does gender really matter in contaminant exposure? A case study using invertebrate models.

    PubMed

    McClellan-Green, Patricia; Romano, Jocelyn; Oberdörster, Eva

    2007-05-01

    Exposure to contaminants in the environment is indiscriminate and multiple species/populations of all sexes are potentially at risk. In this paper we examine the current information available on gender specific differences in invertebrates following exposure to environmental contaminants. Because of their close association with the environment and diversity of habitats, invertebrates are uniquely at risk for adverse responses to pollutants. Since 97% of all animal species are invertebrates, it would be impossible to cover each of the phyla in this review. Instead, this paper discusses major invertebrate species including insects (Periplaneta americana, Panorpa vulgaris, Lycosa hilaris, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), and Drosophilia melanogaster), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), crustaceans (Streptocephalus dichotomus, Amphiascus tenuiremis, Microarthridion littorale, Tisbe bulbisetosa, Acartia tonsa, and Palaemonetes pugio), mollusks (Pinctada fucata martensii, Ilyanassa obsoleta, Nucella lapillus, Hinia reticulata, Thais clavigera, and Mercenaria mercenaria), corals (Euphyllia ancora and Montipara capitata), and echinoderms (Asterias rubens) that have been used in studies examining the differences between males and females. Our discussion focuses on gender differences that occur in both toxicokinetic mechanisms (uptake and elimination, metabolism and physiology) and other toxicological endpoints (survival and behavior as well as morphology and development). It will become evident that the endocrine systems of invertebrates have many traits and/or pathways that are comparable to those observed in higher organisms. Yet the sensitivity of some elements of the invertebrate endocrine system, e.g., disruption of neuropeptide hormone signaling following TBT exposure, highlights the uniqueness of their systems and their potential for disruption. PMID:17097631

  20. Biochemical and toxicological effects of organic (herbicide Primextra(®) Gold TZ) and inorganic (copper) compounds on zooplankton and phytoplankton species.

    PubMed

    Filimonova, Valentina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Marques, João C; De Troch, Marleen; Gonçalves, Ana M M

    2016-08-01

    In Europe, mainly in the Mediterranean region, an intensive usage of pesticides was recorded during the past 30 years. According to information from agricultural cooperatives of the Mondego valley (Figueira da Foz, Portugal), Primextra(®) Gold TZ is the most used herbicide in corn crop fields and one of the 20 best-selling herbicides in Portugal. Copper is mainly used in pesticide formulations. This study aims to determine the ecotoxicological and biochemical (namely fatty acid profiles) effects of the herbicide Primextra(®) Gold TZ and the metal copper on marine plankton. The organisms used in this study are three planktonic species: the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa and nauplii of the marine brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Fatty acids (FAs) are one of the most important molecules transferred across the plant-animal interface in aquatic food webs and can be used as good indicators of stress. The conducted lab incubations show that T. weissflogii is the most sensitive species to the herbicide followed by A. tonsa (EC50=0.0078mg/L and EC50=0.925mg/L, respectively), whereas the copepod was the most sensitive species to the metal followed by T. weissflogii (EC50=0.234mg/L and EC50=0.383mg/L, respectively). A. franciscana was the most tolerant organism both to the herbicide and to the metal (EC50=20.35mg/L and EC50=18.93mg/L, respectively). Changes in the FA profiles of primary producer and primary consumers were observed, with the increase of saturated FA and decrease of unsaturated FA contents, especially of highly unsaturated FAs that can be obtained mainly from food and therefore are referred to as 'essential FA'. The study suggests that discharges of Primextra(®) Gold TZ or other pesticides mainly composed by copper may be a threat to plankton populations causing changes in the FA contents and thus in their nutritive value, with severe repercussions for higher trophic levels and thus the entire food web. PMID

  1. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa - Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, C.; Kühnel, D.; Richter, V.; Krug, H. F.; Mathes, B.; Steinbach, C.; Nau, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a "Literature Criteria Checklist" has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  2. Redescription of poorly known species of Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), based on original type material.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Kerry A; Bruce, Niel L; Smit, Nico J

    2016-01-01

    Due to the difficulty in accurately identifying cymothoids, these parasitic isopods are often incorrectly named or confused with other species. Within the genus Ceratothoa, a number of recent studies have aimed at clarifying some of the problematic species; however, several of the less studied species still require revision. This paper redescribes, from type material, several poorly known Ceratothoa species including Ceratothoa angulata, Ceratothoa capri, Ceratothoa carinata, Ceratothoa collaris, Ceratothoa gilberti, Ceratothoa gobii, Ceratothoa guttata, Ceratothoa italica, Ceratothoa oestroides, and Ceratothoa verrucosa, further resolving taxonomic uncertainties within the genus. PMID:27408544

  3. High-performance thin-layer chromatography for quantification of 1-octacosanol in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenfang; Liu, Daicheng; Su, Shupeng

    2015-01-01

    1-Octacosanol is a straight-chain aliphatic 28-carbon fatty alcohol with well-known anti-fatigue function. In this study, 1-octacosanol was extracted from Antarctic krill for the first time. Separation of 1-octacosanol was achieved using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with a mobile phase consisting of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/toluene (4 : 1 : 0.05, v/v/v) on precoated silica gel GF254 high-performance TLC plates. The separated 1-octacosanol was quantified using spectrodensitometry with distilled water/bromothymol blue/sodium hydroxide (100 : 0.1 : 0.7, v/w/w) as a chromogenic system. The high-performance TLC method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, intra- and interplate variation. The stability of the 1-octacosanol-chromogen complex and recovery of 1-octacosanol were also evaluated. Containing ~10.6 µg/mg 1-octacosanol, Antarctic krill is potentially a rich and renewable source of 1-octacosanol. PMID:25146498

  4. The Adult Patient with Eisenmenger Syndrome: A Medical Update After Dana Point Part I: Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects and Diagnostic Options

    PubMed Central

    Kaemmerer, Harald; Mebus, Siegrun; Schulze-Neick, Ingram; Eicken, Andreas; Trindade, Pedro T; Hager, Alfred; Oechslin, Erwin; Niwa, Koichiro; Lang, Irene; Hess, John

    2010-01-01

    Eisenmenger syndrome is the most severe form of pulmonary arterial hypertension and arises on the basis of congenital heart disease with a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt. Due to the chronic slow progressive hypoxemia with central cyanosis, adult patients with the Eisenmenger syndrome suffer from a complex and multisystemic disorder including coagulation disorders (bleeding complications and paradoxical embolisms), renal dysfunction, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, heart failure, reduced quality of life and premature death. For a long time, therapy has been limited to symptomatic options or lung or combined heart-lung transplantation. As new selective pulmonary vasodilators have become available and proven to be beneficial in various forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, this targeted medical treatment has been expected to show promising effects with a delay of deterioration also in Eisenmenger patients. Unfortunately, data in Eisenmenger patients suffer from small patient numbers and a lack of randomized controlled studies. To optimize the quality of life and the outcome, referral of Eisenmenger patients to spezialized centers is required. In such centers, specific interdisciplinary management strategies of physicians specialized on congenital heart diseases and PAH should be warranted. This medical update emphasizes the current diagnostic and therapeutic options for Eisenmenger patients with particularly focussing on epidemiology, clinical aspects and specific diagnostic options. PMID:22043211

  5. Redescription of poorly known species of Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), based on original type material

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kerry A.; Bruce, Niel L.; Smit, Nico J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Due to the difficulty in accurately identifying cymothoids, these parasitic isopods are often incorrectly named or confused with other species. Within the genus Ceratothoa, a number of recent studies have aimed at clarifying some of the problematic species; however, several of the less studied species still require revision. This paper redescribes, from type material, several poorly known Ceratothoa species including Ceratothoa angulata, Ceratothoa capri, Ceratothoa carinata, Ceratothoa collaris, Ceratothoa gilberti, Ceratothoa gobii, Ceratothoa guttata, Ceratothoa italica, Ceratothoa oestroides, and Ceratothoa verrucosa, further resolving taxonomic uncertainties within the genus. PMID:27408544

  6. Written Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing: Connors & Lunsford (1988); Lunsford & Lunsford (2008); Lalande (1982) Dana Ferris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Written corrective feedback (CF) has been the most heavily researched topic in second language (L2) writing over the past 20 years. As a recent research timeline article in this journal (Ferris 2012; see also Bitchener & Ferris 2012) shows, studies of error correction in student writing have crossed disciplines (composition and rhetoric,…

  7. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Dungeness crab. [Cancer magister dana

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, G.B.; Armstrong, D.A.; Heun, T.W.

    1986-08-01

    The Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) is found off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and southern British Columbia, as well as in the estuarine waters of this geographic area. It is a shellfish highly prized and sought after by both commercialand sport fishermen. In Washington and Oregon, only male crabs may be retained by sport and commercial fishermen. Commercial crab catches are highly variable from year to year, but the catches from Washington and Oregon follow a very similar pattern. The highest sport catches take place on low tides ranging from -0.60 to -0.74 m. Dungeness crab go through a life cycle that involves several metamorphic stages: zoea, megalops, postlarval crab, and adult crab. Hatching success decreases as water temperature increases from 10 to 17/sup 0/C; the optimal temperature for larval crabs is between 10 and 14/sup 0/C. Salinity is not as important to egg development and hatching as temperature, but optimum hatching occurs at about 15 ppt.

  8. The reaction of European lobster larvae (Homarus gammarus) to different quality food: effects of ontogenetic shifts and pre-feeding history.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Schmalenbach, Isabel; Boersma, Maarten

    2014-02-01

    Young larval stages of many organisms represent bottlenecks in the life-history of many species. The high mortality commonly observed in, for example, decapod larvae has often been linked to poor nutrition, with most studies focussing on food quantity. Here, we focus instead on the effects of quality and have investigated its effects on the nutritional condition of lobster larvae. We established a tri-trophic food chain consisting of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. In a set of experiments, we manipulated the C:N:P stoichiometry of the primary producers, and accordingly those of the primary consumer. In a first experiment, R. salina was grown under N- and P-limitation and the nutrient content of the algae was manipulated by addition of the limiting nutrient to create a food quality gradient. In a second experiment, the effect on lobster larvae of long- and short-term exposure to food of varying quality during ontogenetic development was investigated. The condition of the lobster larvae was negatively affected even by subtle N- and P-nutrient limitations of the algae. Furthermore, younger lobster larvae were more vulnerable to nutrient limitation than older ones, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in the capacity of lobster larvae to cope with low quality food. The results presented here might have substantial consequences for the survival of lobster larvae in the field, as, in the light of future climate change and re-oligotrophication of the North Sea, lobster larvae might face marked changes in temperature and nutrient conditions, thus significantly altering their condition and growth. PMID:24072442

  9. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data.

    PubMed

    Heijerick, D G; Regoli, L; Stubblefield, W

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO(4)(2-)). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC(marine) using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC(10) levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC(5,50%) (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74(mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  10. Sample variability of zooplankton in the nearshore off Louisiana with consideration of sampling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chul; Wormuth, John H.; Wolff, Gary A.

    1989-02-01

    Variability in zooplankton samples was examined to identify a proper sampling design for unbiased estimates of zooplankton abundances. Samples were selected in the nearshore about 16 km south of Louisiana during one night and 2 days in October 1985 using a 1 m 2 multiple Opening/Closing net and Environmental Sensing System fitted with 0.333 mm mesh nets. Data obtained from 21 tows of three different tow lengths at mid depth (about 5 m, water depth 10 m) were analysed. There seemed to be different patterns of vertical migration and these vertical migrations were shown to explain about 75% of total sample variability in the study area. These were: usual vertical migration ( Centropages velificatus, Chaetognatha, Eucalanus spp., Phialidium spp., Paracalanus spp. and Temora turbinata), weak vertical migration with elapsed phase (Doliolida A and Oikopleura spp.), and reversed vertical migration ( Acartia tonsa). The relationship between mean abundances and tow distance was weak, but the variance of the abundance estimates showed an exponentially decreasing trend with an increase of tow distance when populations were at their maximum, probably due to vertical migration. From nonlinear regression analyses with the model (variance)= A + B e c(tow distance), the minimum tow distance that would provide a stabilized variance of abundance estimate was determined. It varied among taxa from 43 to 140 m with an average of 80 m. Vertically stratified sampling with a minimum tow distance of about 140 m is suggested as a proper sampling scheme for the unbiased estimation of abundances in a nearshore environment like the sampling site of this study.

  11. Feast or flee: bioelectrical regulation of feeding and predator evasion behaviors in the planktonic alveolate Favella sp. (Spirotrichia).

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Taylor, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    Alveolate (ciliates and dinoflagellates) grazers are integral components of the marine food web and must therefore be able to sense a range of mechanical and chemical signals produced by prey and predators, integrating them via signal transduction mechanisms to respond with effective prey capture and predator evasion behaviors. However, the sensory biology of alveolate grazers is poorly understood. Using novel techniques that combine electrophysiological measurements and high-speed videomicroscopy, we investigated the sensory biology of Favella sp., a model alveolate grazer, in the context of its trophic ecology. Favella sp. produced frequent rhythmic depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming and are responsible for endogenous swimming patterns relevant to foraging. Contact of both prey cells and non-prey polystyrene microspheres at the cilia produced immediate mechanostimulated depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming, and likely underlie aggregative swimming patterns of Favella sp. in response to patches of prey. Contact of particles at the peristomal cavity that were not suitable for ingestion resulted in depolarizations after a lag of ∼600 ms, allowing time for particles to be processed before rejection. Ingestion of preferred prey particles was accompanied by transient hyperpolarizations (∼1 s) that likely regulate this step of the feeding process. Predation attempts by the copepod Acartia tonsa elicited fast (∼20 ms) animal-like action potentials accompanied by rapid contraction of the cell to avoid predation. We have shown that the sensory mechanisms of Favella sp. are finely tuned to the type, location, and intensity of stimuli from prey and predators. PMID:26567352

  12. Differential effects of nutrient-limited primary production on primary, secondary or tertiary consumers.

    PubMed

    Malzahn, Arne M; Hantzsche, Florian; Schoo, Katherina L; Boersma, Maarten; Aberle, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional imbalances between predator and prey are the rule rather than the exception at the lower end of food webs. We investigated the role of different grazers in the propagation of nutritionally imbalanced primary production by using the same primary producers in a three-trophic-level food chain and a four-trophic-level food chain experimental setup. The three-trophic-level food chain consisted of a classic single-cell primary producer (Rhodomonas salina), a metazoan grazer (the copepod Acartia tonsa) and a top predator (the jellyfish Gonionemus vertens), while we added a protozoan grazer (Oxyrrhis marina) as primary consumer to the food chain to establish the four-trophic-level food chain. This setup allowed us to investigate how nutrient-limitation effects change from one trophic level to another, and to investigate the performance of two components of our experimental food chains in different trophic positions. Stoichiometry and fatty acid profiles of the algae showed significant differences between the nutrient-depleted [no N and no P addition (-P), respectively] and the nutrient-replete (f/2) treatments. The differences in stoichiometry could be traced when O. marina was the first consumer. Copepods feeding on these flagellates were not affected by the nutritional imbalance of their prey in their stoichiometry, their respiration rates nor in their developmental rates. In contrast, when copepods were the primary consumer, those reared on the -P algae showed significantly higher respiration rates along with significantly lower developmental rates. In neither of our two experimental food chains did the signals from the base of the food chains travel up to jelly fish, our top predator. PMID:19784675

  13. Multiple vs. single phytoplankton species alter stoichiometry of trophic interaction with zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Plum, Christoph; Hüsener, Matthias; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    Despite the progress made in explaining trophic interactions through the stoichiometric interplay between consumers and resources, it remains unclear how the number of species in a trophic group influences the effects of elemental imbalances in food webs. Therefore, we conducted a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that multispecies producer assemblages alter the nutrient dynamics in a pelagic community. Four algal species were reared in mono- and polycultures under a 2 x 2 factorial combination of light and nutrient supply, thereby contrasting the stoichiometry of trophic interactions involving single vs. multiple producer species. After 9 d, these cultures were fed to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, and we monitored biomass, resource use, and C:N:P stoichiometry in both phyto- and zooplankton. According to our expectations, light and N supply resulted in gradients of phytoplankton biomass and nutrient composition (C:N:P). Significant net diversity effects for algal biomass and C:N:P ratios reflected the greater responsiveness of the phytoplankton polyculture to altered resource supply compared to monocultures. These alterations of elemental ratios were common, and were partly triggered by changes in species frequency in the mixtures and partly by diversity-related changes in resource use. Copepod individual biomass increased under high light (HL) and N-reduced (-N) conditions, when food was high in C:N but low in C:P and N:P, whereas copepod growth was obviously P limited, and copepod stoichiometry was not affected by phytoplankton elemental composition. Correspondingly, copepod individual biomass reflected significant net diversity effects: compared to expectations- derived from monocultures, copepod individuals feeding on algal polycultures remained smaller than predicted under HL and N-sufficient (+N) conditions but grew larger than predicted under HL, -N and low light +N conditions. In conclusion, multiple producer species altered the

  14. Methyl mercury uptake by diverse marine phytoplankton and trophic transfer to zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Fisher, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    While it is well known that methylmercury (MeHg) biomagnifies in aquatic food chains, few studies have quantified its bioaccumulation in marine phytoplankton from seawater, even though that is overwhelmingly the largest bioaccumulation step. Aquatic animals acquire MeHg mainly from dietary exposure and it is important to evaluate the bioaccumulation of this compound in planktonic organisms that form the base of marine food webs. We used a gamma-emitting radioisotope, 203Hg, to assess the rate and extent of MeHg uptake in marine diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, cryptophytes chlorophytes, and cyanobacteria held in unialgal cultures under varying temperature and light conditions. For experimental conditions in which the dissolved MeHg was at 300 pM, the uptake rates in all species ranged from 0.004 to 0.75 amol Hg μm-3 cell volume d-1 and reached steady state within 2 d. Volume concentration factors (VCFs) ranged from 0.4 to 60 x 105 for the different species. Temperature and light conditions had no direct effect on cellular MeHg uptake but ultimately affected growth of the cells, resulting in greater suspended particulate matter and associated MeHg. VCFs strongly correlated with cell surface area to volume ratios in all species. Assimilation efficiencies of MeHg from phytoplankton food (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Dunaliella tertiolecta and Rhodomonas salina) in a marine copepod grazer (Acartia tonsa) ranged from 74 to 92%, directly proportional to the cytoplasmic partitioning of MeHg in the phytoplankton cells. MeHg uptake in copepods from the aqueous phase was low and modeling shows that nearly all the MeHg acquired by this zooplankter is from diet. Herbivorous zooplankton can be an important link from phytoplankton at the base of the food web to fish higher in the food chain.

  15. Origin of resources and trophic pathways in a large SW Atlantic estuary: An evaluation using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botto, Florencia; Gaitán, Esteban; Mianzan, Hermes; Acha, Marcelo; Giberto, Diego; Schiariti, Agustín; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    The Río de la Plata (34° 36' S, 55° 58' W; Argentina and Uruguay) estuary, one of the most important South American estuarine environments, is characterized by weak seasonal freshwater discharge, low tidal amplitude (<1 m), a wide and permanent connection to the sea, and a salt-wedge regime. Using stable isotope analysis, we explored the relative importance of the different sources of primary production in the food web. Our results show that phytoplankton and macrodetritus from terrestrial salt and freshwater marshes both contribute to the food web of the Río de la Plata estuary. On the basis of the sampled species, we identified four trophic levels. The clam Mactra isabelleana, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, and the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana are the primary consumers. The rays Atlantoraja castelnaui and Squatina guggenheim and the shark Galeorhinus galeus are the top predators. The Río de la Plata food web shows an important input of nutrients derived from phytoplankton. Rays, sharks, and predatory gastropods reveal an important contribution of C4 plants (likely Spartina spp.). However, production derived from C3 plants is also important for some species. The fishes Brazilian menhaden, Brevoortia aurea; the stripped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa; and the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, showed differences in their isotopic signatures as juveniles and adults, indicating different food sources, and they were therefore treated as different components of the food web. Our data suggest that detritus from salt and freshwater marshes is reaching the Río de la Plata estuary and can be an important allocthonous source of energy to this environment.

  16. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. PMID:26586632

  17. 78 FR 49753 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    .... Schuele and Dana C. Bradford, co-trustees, all of Omaha, Nebraska; Todd P. Clevenger, Omaha, Nebraska; and the Dana C. Bradford IV Revocable Trust, Dana C. Bradford, trustee, both of Omaha, Nebraska; all...

  18. Terrigenous clay deposition on estuarine sandflats: using stable isotopes to determine the role of the mud crab, Helice crassa Dana, in the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, M; Thrush, S; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Clay slurries, mixed in seawater, were deposited on intertidal mudflats in two contrasting estuaries in an experiment designed to evaluate the potential impact of soil erosion from adjacent urban developments on the biodiversity of the benthic communities, and the subsequent recovery mechanisms. Profiles of the natural abundance of stable isotopes from sediment cores where examined to determine immediate and longer-term impacts of the clay on the ambient sediments. The source clays with delta13C values of about -26 per thousand were easily distinguished from natural sediments with delta13C values of -19.7 +/- 1.1 per thousand at site OK and -14.2 +/- 0.9 per thousand at site WP, and bioturbation was seen to generate a gradient between these values. Physical processes of burial, or erosion and dispersal by estuarine flows initiated the recovery process. Repeated drying cycles left the clay surface cracked and able to trap natural sediments and food on the otherwise barren surface. Colonisation of the clay plots by the mud crab, Helice crassa, was important to the recovery process and depended on proximity to adjacent crab colonies. Burrowing activity by larger crabs enhanced the erosion of the clay surface while the resultant bioturbation blended the clay into the underlying sediments. Smaller crabs had less effect on erosion and bioturbation from their burrowing was mostly confined within the clay layer. Where the clay was more than 3 cm thick, they did not break through the bottom of the clay and the interface between clay and sediment was still sharp after 12 months. 13C variations also indicated that crab burrows and cracking of the clay surface moved natural sediment deep into the plots where it could be worked into the clay by subsequent crab burrowing activities thus enhancing recovery from the clay impact. PMID:11761401

  19. F-104 #826, T-38 #821, and F-18 #841 in formation flight to commemorate pilot Bill Dana 30 year anni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Three types of aircraft used as chase aircraft in support of research flights at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, fly in formation over nearby mountains. They are, (bottom) the Lockheed F-104G, (upper left) the Northrop T-38A, and the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A. Chase aircraft are flown by NASA pilots who accompany primary research aircraft in flight as safety observers, provide photographic coverage, and assist by radio and visually - when applicable - with various maneuvers and test points to be flown by the research pilot. Chase pilots are in constant communications with the research aircraft and the Dryden mission control room and serve as a backup 'set of eyes and ears' to help the research pilot coordinate and conduct the research flights.

  20. Systematic status of the caridean families Gnathophyllidae Dana and Hymenoceridae Ortmann (Crustacea: Decapoda): a further examination based on molecular and morphological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng; Kou, Qi; Chan, Tinyam; Chu, Kahou; Huang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The four palaemonoid (sub)families Anchistioididae, Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, and Pontoniinae are similar in morphology, and all live in marine habitats. Their systematic relationships are controversial. In this study, we used sequences from a mitochondrial ribosomal gene (16S rRNA) and three nuclear genes (H3, NaK, and enolase) to explore the phylogenetic relationships of these four taxa. Our tree based on 43 species belonging to 28 genera shows that Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae are nested within Pontoniinae. This result is consistent with evidence from larval morphology. The defining characteristics of Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae, a vestigial or missing mandibular incisor process and a broadened third maxilliped, can also be found in Pontoniinae; conversely, on the basis of published species descriptions, gnathophyllids and hymenocerids meet most of the defining characteristics of Pontoniinae. The peculiar form of the third maxilliped in gnathophyllids and hymenocerids might be the result of adaptive evolution, as these particular features are also present in pontoniines. According to our phylogenetic tree, Anchistioididae are more remote from Pontoniinae, which is consistent with the distinct morphological differences in the pleopods. The pontoniine genera analyzed (together with Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae) are divided into two clades. The members of Clade I exhibit primordial characteristics similar to those of the Palaemoninae, and might be direct descendants of the ancestor of the Pontoniinae; members of Clade II are more specialized.

  1. The competitive and predatory impacts of the nonindigenous crab Carcinus maenas (L.) on early benthic phase Dungeness crab Cancer magister Dana.

    PubMed

    McDonald, P S.; Jensen, G C.; Armstrong, D A.

    2001-03-30

    We evaluate the potential competitive and predatory impacts of nonindigenous European green crab Carcinus maenas on native Dungeness crab Cancer magister in the northeast Pacific. The coastal estuaries of Washington State, USA, provide appropriate habitat for recently introduced green crab, yet these areas are important nursery grounds for Dungeness crab and contribute greatly to the coastal crab fishery. Juvenile Dungeness crabs are dependent on limited intertidal epibenthic shell for refuge habitat during early benthic life and experience increased mortality on open sand and mud as a result of predation by fish and birds. Early juveniles throughout the subtidal are similarly at risk due to predation by fish and especially adult conspecifics. Laboratory experiments and infrared video observations revealed that juvenile green crab displace Dungeness crab of equal size from shelters during one-on-one competition. Green crab also consistently win nocturnal foraging trials in which the species compete for fresh, damaged clams. Field and laboratory enclosure experiments show that juvenile Dungeness crab emigrate from oyster shell habitat as a result of competition and predation by adult green crab. Depending on the extent to which the two species overlap, interactions with the dominant nonindigenous species could have a negative influence on juvenile Dungeness crab survival and could conceivably impact recruitment to the fishery. However, current evidence indicates that the distribution of green crab in Washington State is far removed from nursery areas of Dungeness crab. PMID:11239624

  2. Tolerance to Elevated Temperature and Ocean Acidification of the Larvae of the Solitary Corals Fungia fungites (Linnaues, 1758) and Lithophyllon repanda (Dana, 1846).

    PubMed

    Baria, Maria Vanessa B; Kurihara, Haruko; Harii, Saki

    2015-10-01

    Increase in atmospheric CO₂is the main driver of global climate change and is projected to elevate sea surface temperature by at least 2°C and to decrease oceanic pH by 0.3 to 0.4 units by the end of the century. These factors seriously threaten coral reef ecosystems worldwide. In Okinawa, solitary corals are an important feature of the coral community structure. While previous studies on the effects of ocean warming (OW), ocean acidification (OA) and its combination on larval survival focused on colonial coral species, the present study assessed the effect of high temperature on larvae from solitary corals. In this study, we examined the influence of OW (control = 28°C; control +3 = 31°C; control + 6 = 34°C) and OA (control, pCO₂= 400 to 500 μatm; medium, pCO₂= 1000 to 1300 μatm; high, pCO₂= 1700 to 2200 μatm) on the larval survival of two solitary corals, Fungia fungites and Lithophyllon repanda for eight days. Results showed that F. fungites was neither affected by OW, OA, nor its combination. Similarly, survival of L. repanda was not affected by OA however it was significantly affected by temperature. Temperature tolerance varies between species; L. repanda (+3°C above ambient) has lower tolerance than F. fungites (+6°C above ambient). This observation suggests that fungiid larvae had higher tolerance to elevated temperature stress relative to other scleractinian corals. With the projected increase in OW and OA in the future, fungiidsmay retain good potential to widely disperse and successfully recruit to natal and other neighbouring reefs. PMID:26428722

  3. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  4. First species of Leptochelia Dana, 1849 (Crustacea: Tanaidacea) from the Eastern Pacific, with an annotated checklist and identification keys for the genus.

    PubMed

    Jarquín-González, Jani; García-Madrigal, María Del Socorro; Carrera-Parra, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Forty three species of leptocheliids are known worldwide. In the American region only eight species have been described from the Western Atlantic, while for the Eastern Pacific none have been described, suggesting that the diversity of this family has been severely underestimated in this region. Here we describe the first species of Leptochelia from the Eastern Pacific, Leptochelia mexicana n. sp., which is characterized by the males having a spiniform seta on the second segment of uropodal endopod, a novel feature for the genus. In addition, the first annotated checklist and a taxonomic key with illustrations for Leptochelia species are included. The list includes the type locality, type depository, distribution, habitat and, in some cases, remarks. PMID:25781398

  5. Department of Education: Efforts by the Office for Civil Rights To Resolve Asian-American Complaints. Report to the Honorable Dana Rohrabacher, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horinko, Larry; And Others

    With the Department of Education's staff remaining stable during a period of increased civil rights complaints, this study examined the Department's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) investigations of discrimination cases involving Asian-Americans. In particular the evaluation looked at 13 specific cases, timeliness and outcomes for fiscal years…

  6. The effects of dietary silver on larval growth in the echinoderm Lytechinus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Gillette, Phillip; Pourmand, Ali; Capo, Tom R; Grosell, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa is extremely sensitive to dietborne silver (Ag) exposure, with a 20 % inhibition (EC(20)) of survival occurring when copepods are fed algae with 1.6 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) Ag, corresponding to a waterborne Ag concentration of 0.46 μg l(-1) Ag. In contrast, 43 μg l(-1) Ag is required to elicit similar effects in copepods exposed to Ag by way of water. In the current study, we investigated whether another planktonic marine organism might also be sensitive to dietary Ag. Specifically, we tested larvae of the echinoderm, Lytechinus variegatus in an 18-day study in which larvae were continuously exposed to Ag-laden algae (Isochrysis galbana). After 7 days of exposure, no significant effects were observed on larval growth up to the highest concentration tested (10.68 μg g(-1) dw Ag in algae after exposure to 3.88 μg l(-1) waterborne Ag). After 18 days, significant effects were observed in all Ag treatments resulting in a lowest-observable effect concentration of 0.68 μg g(-1) dw Ag in algae and corresponding waterborne Ag concentration of 0.05-0.07 μg l(-1) Ag (depending on background Ag [see Results]). However, the dose-response relationship was quite flat with a similar level of growth inhibition (approximately 15 %) in all Ag treatments, resulting in an EC(20) of >10.68 μg g(-1) dw Ag in algae (>3.88 μg l(-1) Ag in water). This flat dose-response relationship is characteristic of dietary metal (silver, copper, cadmium, nickel, and zinc) toxicity to copepods as well, although the effect is slightly more robust (approximately 20-30 % inhibition of survival or reproduction). We conclude that echinoderm larvae may be similar to copepods in their sensitivity to dietary Ag, although a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the apparent flat dose-response relationships is clearly needed. PMID:22434452

  7. A three-dimensional biophysical model of Karenia brevis dynamics on the west Florida shelf: A look at physical transport and potential zooplankton grazing controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Scott P.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; He, Ruoying; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.; Lester, Kristen M.; Steidinger, Karen A.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Walsh, John J.; Weisberg, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The development of accurate predictive models of toxic dinoflagellate blooms is of great ecological importance, particularly in regions that are most susceptible to their detrimental effects. This is especially true along the west Florida shelf (WFS) and coast, where episodic bloom events of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis often wreak havoc on the valuable commercial fisheries and tourism industries of west Florida. In an effort to explain the dynamics at work within the maintenance and termination phases of a red tide, a simple three-dimensional coupled biophysical model was used in the analysis of the October 1999 red tide offshore Sarasota, Florida. Results of the numerical experiments indicate that: (1) measured and modeled flowfields were capable of transporting the observed offshore inoculum of K. brevis to within 16 km of the coastal boundary; (2) background concentrations (1000 cells L -1) of K. brevis could grow to a red tide of over 2×10 6 cells L -1 in little more than a month, assuming an estuarine initiation site with negligible offshore advection, no grazing losses, negligible competition from other phytoplankton groups, and no nutrient limitation; (3) maximal grazing pressure could not prevent the initiation of a red tide or cause its termination, assuming no other losses to algal biomass and a zooplankton community ingestion rate similar to that of Acartia tonsa; and (4) the light-cued ascent behavior of K. brevis served as an aggregational mechanism, concentrating K. brevis at the 55 μE m -2 s -1 isolume when mean concentrations of K. brevis exceeded 100,000 cells L -1. Further improvements in model fidelity will be accomplished by the future inclusion of phytoplankton competitors, disparate nutrient availability and limitation schemes, a more realistic rendering of the spectral light field and the attendant effects of photo-inhibition and compensation, and a mixed community of vertically-migrating proto- and metazoan grazers. These model

  8. The nearshore zone during coastal upwelling: Daily variability and coupling between primary and secondary production off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, William T.; Arcos, Dagoberto F.; McManus, George B.; Dam, Hans; Bellantoni, Diane; Johnson, Thomas; Tiselius, Peter

    The nearshore region of central Chile is important for spawning of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) and jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyii) and the importance of fisheries for these species has led to an interest in factors controlling the area's productivity. We studied daily variations in productivity at a nearshore station (25m depth) off Dichato, Chile (36°30‧S) during January 1986 to understand how wind-driven variability in the hydrography is translated into pulses of primary and secondary production of the plankton. During the study period, we observed three complete cycles of upwelling favourable/unfavourable winds. Water column destratification, as indicated by the surface-to-bottom gradient of sigma-t, lagged the wind by about one day. During active upwelling, cold water (<11.5°C) of high nitrate and low oxygen concentration (20-25μM and 1-2ml 1 -1 respectively) was found near the surface. During subsequent relaxation of upwelling, the water column became stratified as temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll increased. The size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton varied from one event to the next. Over the course of the study, from 15-100% of the chlorophyll could pass a 20μm mesh screen. Chain-forming diatoms, microflagellates, and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum dominated the first, second and third events, respectively. In rank order of abundance, Paracalanus parvus, Centropages brachiatus, Oithona spp., Acartia tonsa, Oncaea spp., Calanoides patagoniensis and Calanus chilensis dominated the copepod community. Changes in abundance of most species did not closely follow the upwelling cycle. Possibly, vertical movements or other behavioural responses caused zooplankton distributions to be uncorrelated with movements of the surface Ekman layer. Fecundity of several of the important copepod species was measured using the egg ratio and bottle incubation techniques. Compared to values reported in the literature

  9. Hydrographic structure and zooplankton abundance and diversity off Paita, northern Peru (1994 to 2004) — ENSO effects, trends and changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronés, Katia; Ayón, Patricia; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify possible spatial, seasonal, and inter-annual changes in the zooplankton off Paita (northern Peru), an upwelling area located closely to the limits of cold Humboldt Current and warm Equatorial Surface Waters. Zooplankton was sampled at subsurface on 53 occasions from August 1994 to December 2004 at four stations located 2 to 30 km offshore with a WP-2 net (300 µm). Extremely high surface water temperatures combined with low salinities were observed during the 1997/98 El Niño up to 29.0 °C) and in April 2002 (up to 25.0 °C). Temperatures more than 2 °C above monthly average were also observed in October 1994, in April 2000, and in November 2004. Significant trends were observed for oxygen concentration (increase) and several horizontal and vertical gradients. Among the copepods (72% of all individuals), the most abundant species were Paracalanus parvus (28%), Acartia tonsa (26%), and Calanus sp. (10%). The strong 1997-98 El Niño (EN) event led to drastic changes in species composition that were reversed during the 1998-99 La Niña (LN) event. Community parameters such as total abundance, diversity, equitability and species richness displayed marked variations associated with the 1997-98 EN and long-term trends. Long-term trends were significant for several vertical and horizontal temperature and oxygen gradients, indicating an increase in upwelling intensity at the shelf during the study period. 10-year-trends were also significant for total zooplankton abundance (increase) and community evenness ( J, decline). Our data confirmed the importance of the weak EN in 2002/03 for the study region. Within the trend of increasing zooplankton abundance, a sharp step or shift was observed from 1999 to 2000. When using sequential t-tests to detect shifts in ( x + 1) transformed abundance data, a significant rupture was found between the last sampling in 1999 and the first sampling in 2000. Also, a substantial decrease in

  10. Assimilation and retention of selenium and other trace elements from crustacean food by juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, Stephen B.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Stewart, Robin

    2002-01-01

     Estimates of the assimilation and retention of trace elements from food by fish are useful for linking toxicity with the biogeochemical cycling of these elements through aquatic food webs. Here we use pulse-chase radiotracer techniques to estimate the assimilation and retention of Se and four trace metals, Ag, Am, Zn, and Cd, by 43- and 88-d-old juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from crustacean food. Brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia franciscana, or adult copepods,Acartia tonsa, were fed radiolabeled diatoms and then fed to juvenile striped bass. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs ± SD) for 43-d-old fish were 18 ± 2%, 6 ± 1%, 23 ± 4%, 33 ± 3%, and 23 ± 2% for Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. For 88-d-old fish, the AEs were 28 ± 1%, 42 ± 5%, and 40 ± 5% for Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. The higher AEs in the older fish may result from longer gut passage times for larger fish. The 44-d-old fish excreted 5 ± 0.8%, 4 ± 2.0%, 7 ± 0.3%, 9 ± 0.4%, and 1.3 ± 0.9% of the Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively, they ingested from food per day, whereas the 88-d-old fish excreted 3 ± 1.0%, 8 ± 0.5%, and 3 ± 0.5% of the assimilated Cd, Se, and Zn per day, respectively. Predictions of steady state Se concentrations in juvenile striped bass tissues made using a biokinetic model and the measured AE and efflux rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 mg Se g-1dry wt for muscle tissue and 6.8 to 11.6 mg Se g-1 dry wt for gut tissue. These predictions agreed well with average values of 2.1 and 13 mg Se g-1 dry wt measured independently in North San Francisco Bay, where elevated Se concentrations are of concern. The model results imply that the planktonic food web, including juvenile striped bass, does not transfer Se as efficiently to top consumers as does the benthic food web.

  11. 75 FR 9602 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... 442, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-2034: 1. Dana A. Bode, Mound City, Illinois, individually, and as a member of the Bode Family Control Group, which consists of Dana A. Bode, Carl E. Bode, the Dana A Bode Trust U/A 01/26/07 with Dana A. Bode and Carl E. Bode as trustees; the Allison L. Bode Trust U/A...

  12. 76 FR 22078 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    .... Victor Ashe--No. Susan McCue--Yes. Michael Meehan--Yes. Dennis Mulhaupt--Yes. Dana Perino--Yes. S. Enders.... Michael Meehan, BBG Member. Dennis Mulhaupt, BBG Member. Dana Perino, BBG Member. S. Enders Wimbush,...

  13. 77 FR 48497 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Dennis Mulhaupt--Yes Dana Perino--Yes Tara Sonenshine--Yes Statements from individual Board members... telephone) Dana Perino, BBG Member (via telephone) Tara Sonenshine, Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy...

  14. Reply to "Comment on: Structure, transport, and vertical coherence of the Gulf Stream from the Straits of Florida to the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, by Meinen and Luther" by Dana K. Savidge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinen, Christopher S.; Luther, Douglas S.

    2016-06-01

    Savidge (2016) raises a concern about how the spatial averaging embodied in our Gulf Stream analysis of vertical coherence (Meinen and Luther, 2016) might contribute to the low coherence found. This response addresses the concerns raised in the Savidge (2016) short comment.

  15. Reply to "Comment on: Structure, transport, and vertical coherence of the Gulf Stream from the Straits of Florida to the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, by Meinen and Luther" by Dana K. Savidge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinen, Christopher S.; Luther, Douglas S.

    2016-05-01

    Savidge (2016) raises a concern about how the spatial averaging embodied in our Gulf Stream analysis of vertical coherence (Meinen and Luther, 2016) might contribute to the low coherence found. This response addresses the concerns raised in the Savidge (2016) short comment.

  16. Reply to "Comment on 'Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change' by Dana Nuccitelli et al."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.-B.

    2014-04-01

    In the Comment by Nuccitelli et al., they make many false and invalid criticisms of the CFC-warming theory in my recent paper, and claim that their anthropogenic forcings including CO2 would provide a better explanation of the observed global mean surface temperature (GMST) data over the past 50 years. First, their arguments for no significant discrepancy between modeled and observed GMST changes and for no pause in recent global warming contradict the widely accepted fact and conclusion that were reported in the recent literature extensively. Second, their criticism that the key data used in my recent paper would be "outdated" and "flawed" is untrue as these data are still used in the recent or current literature including the newest (2013) IPCC Report and there is no considerable difference between the UK Met Office HadRCUT3 and HadRCUT4 GMST datasets. The use of even more recently computer-reconstructed total solar irradiance data (whatever have large uncertainties) for the period prior to 1976 would not change any of the conclusions in my paper, where quantitative analyses were emphasized on the influences of humans and the Sun on global surface temperature after 1970 when direct measurements became available. For the latter, the solar effect has been well shown to play only a negligible role in global surface temperature change since 1970, which is identical to the conclusion made in the 2013 IPCC Report. Third, their argument that the solar effect would not play a major role in the GMST rise of 0.2°C during 1850-1970 even contradicts the data and conclusion presented in a recent paper published in their Skeptical Science by Nuccitelli himself. Fourth, their comments also indicate their lack of understandings of the basic radiation physics of the Earth system as well as of the efficacies of different greenhouse gases in affecting global surface temperature. Their listed "methodological errors" are either trivial or non-existing. Fifth, their assertion that "the climate system takes centuries to millennia to fully equilibrate" is lack of scientific basis. Finally, their model calculations including an additional fitting parameter do not reduce the discrepancy with observed GMST data even after their adjustments. Instead, their modeled results give a sharp GMST rise over the past 16 years, which obviously disagrees with the observed data.

  17. 76 FR 38611 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews...) (3rd Dana Mermelstein (202) Review). 482-1391 Silicomanganese from Ukraine (A-823-805) (3rd Dana... France (A- Dana Mermelstein (202) 427-801)(3rd Review). 482-1391 Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof...

  18. 77 FR 103 - JD Products, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be required. Nevertheless, this meeting will satisfy the... Suites by Hilton Hotel Doheny Beach--Dana Point, 34402 Pacific Coast Highway, Dana Point, California... p.m. Location: DoubleTree Suites by Hilton Hotel Doheny Beach--Dana Point, 34402 Pacific...

  19. 76 FR 38613 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Review). A-533-808 731-TA-638 India Stainless Steel Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. Wire Rod (3rd.... Stainless Steel Pipe (3rd Review). A-583-815 731-TA-541 Taiwan Welded ASTM A-312 Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. Stainless Steel Pipe (3rd Review). A-583-008 731-TA-132 Taiwan Certain Circular Dana...

  20. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California Annual Marine Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15 to the... 118°−17.553′ W. 4. Dana Point Tall Ship Festival Sponsor Dana Point Marine Institute Event Description Tall ship festival. Date Annually in September. Location Dana Point Harbor, CA. Regulated Area...

  1. An Overview of Ecological Processes in the Rio de la Plata Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acha, M.; Mianzan, H.

    2005-05-01

    The Rio de la Plata, one of the most important estuarine environments in South America, is characterized by a salt-wedge regime. Large extension and shallow water depth make the estuary highly susceptible to atmospheric forcing. The estuary is a highly productive area, which sustain important artisanal and coastal fisheries in Uruguay and Argentina, mainly based on the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri. The main goal of this paper is to summarize recent knowledge on this system, integrating physical, chemical and biological studies. This estuary is characterized by strong vertical salinity stratification, with marine waters (saltier and denser) penetrating deeper into the estuary along the bottom, while fresh waters advance ocean-ward on the surface, forming a salt wedge. The upstream reach of the salt wedge defines a bottom salinity fronts, whose location is controlled by the topography, a submerged shoal called Barra del Indio and at the opposite area, the convergence between the estuarine and marine waters define a surface salinity front. The convergence of water masses and the strong picnoclines at the head of the salt wedge produce the accumulation and retention of plankton, including the eggs of those fishes that concentrate here to spawn (e.g. Micropogonias furnieri and Brevoortia aurea) and even debris. High turbidity constrains here photosynthetic production and food chains are probably detritus based, supporting high densities of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) and Neomysis americana (Mysid), both omnivorous species that complete its entire life-cycle within the estuary. In agreement, heterotophic microzooplankton is abundant. Moreover, high deposition of suspended matter support dense beds of the deposit feeding clams Mactra isabelleana. As soon as the water become less turbid, an extremely high chlorophyll signal is observed. The largest portion of the salt wedge regime (more than 200 km) is characterized by dense plankton aggregations below the

  2. Regenerated Fe is tasty!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuester, J.; Twining, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    phytoplankton. In an experiment using the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana as prey and regrowth organism and the copepod Acartia tonsa as grazer, ~45% of regenerated Fe was taken up in the regrowth phase within 30 minutes. After 24 hours almost all regenerated Fe was taken up by T. pseudonana. In contrast, only ~10% and ~60% of inorganic Fe was associated with T. pseudonana cells after 0.5 and 24 hours, respectively. Furthermore, inorganic Fe adsorbed strongly to the frustule of T. pseudonana. At 0.5 hours almost 60% of cell-associated Fe was adsorbed in the inorganic uptake experiment. In contrast, experiments with regenerated Fe showed that all cell associated Fe was taken up after 30 min. These results indicate that copepod grazing produces readily bioavailable Fe.Results from additional experiments probing the effects of grazer taxonomy and chemical composition of prey on the bioavailability of regenerated Fe will be presented as well.

  3. Feasibility of growing hardwood species on a borrow pit amended with either fertilizer and lime or sewage sludge. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous research on other sites showed that 15 tons/A of dried sewage sludge followed by subsoiling is sufficient to promote rapid growth of pines and sweetgum on borrow pits. During the past year, data have been obtained from this experiment showing that 30 tons/A of sewage sludge, well incorporated and followed by subsoiling, will promote very rapid first-year growth of green ash, yellow poplar, sycamore, and sawtooth oak. Loblolly pine and sweetgum also grew well as in previous studies. In most cases, seedlings of these species grew significantly faster with sewage sludge than with 1000 lbs./Aof 10-10-10 fertilizer and 2 tons/A of lime. Yellow poplar and sycamore grew the faster of all species, attaining heights during the first growing season of 134 and 209 cms, respectively. Sweetgum, green ash, and sawtooth oak all attained heights over 100 cms.

  4. 78 FR 48773 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

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    2013-08-09

    ... HUMBERTO CASANOVA DAWN ELIZABETH CASTILLO CHRISTINE WYSS MARTINEZ CAULFIELD DANA MINET CHAMBERLAIN... PATRIZIA MARQUARDT JUDITH MARGARET MARSHALL FRANCES ELIZABETH MARTIN MICHELLE SUZAN MARTINEZ DE LECEA...

  5. Paralysis: Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the county. > Christopher's exercise program Learn more about Christopher Reeve’s intensive approach to fitness. This project was supported, ... in other languages Made with ♡ in New Jersey Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation © 2016 The Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation is ...

  6. 75 FR 53637 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews...). Porcelain-On-Steel Cooking Ware from Taiwan (A- Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. 583-508) (3rd Review). Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. from South Korea...

  7. 75 FR 45095 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Terephthalate (PET) Film from Dana Mermelstein South Korea (A-580-807) (3rd Review). (202) 482-1391. Stainless.... Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings Dana Mermelstein from South Korea (A-580-813) (3rd Review). (202... Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year...

  8. Ethical Elders: Campus Role Models for Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddell, Debora L.; Cooper, Diane L.; Healy, Margaret A.; Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2010-01-01

    Dana is a graduate assistant in the second year of a master's program in student personnel. In a class discussion of assistantship issues, Dana reveals that he has decided not to enforce the university's policy of "writing up" all underage students who are in a residence hall room where alcohol is present. He says that in his opinion the punitive…

  9. 75 FR 16738 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year...) (3rd Review). 482-5047. Iron Construction Castings from Brazil (A-351- Dana Mermelstein, 503) (3rd Review). (202) 482-1391. Iron Construction Castings from Canada (A-122- Dana Mermelstein, 503)...

  10. 78 FR 13857 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews... Tube from Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. Korea (A-580-859) (1st Review). Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. Mexico (A-201-836) (1st Review)....

  11. 76 FR 31587 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of... Steel Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. Pipe & Tube from Taiwan (A-583-803) (3rd Review). Stainless Steel Wire Rod from India (A-533-808) Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. (3rd Review). Welded...

  12. 78 FR 25321 - Agency Forms Submitted for OMB Review, Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... the initial 60-day notice (78 FR 13914 on March 1, 2013) required by 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2). That.... Additional Information or Comments: Copies of the form and supporting documents can be obtained from Dana Hickman at (312) 751- 4981 or Dana.Hickman@RRB.GOV . Comments regarding the information collection...

  13. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... updates about our impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in other languages Made with ♡ in New Jersey Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation © 2016 The Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation is a registered 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization

  14. Exploring Urban Literacy & Developmental Education. CRDEUL Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: "Introduction: Why Should We Discuss 'Urban Literacy' in Developmental Education?" (Dana Britt Lundell and Jeanne L. Higbee); "History of the Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy: 1996-2002" (Dana Britt Lundell); "The Traveling City: The Hudson's Store, Urban Literacy, and Access in…

  15. The impact of induction duration and the number of high-dose cycles on the long-term survival of women with metastatic breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue: an analysis of sequential phase I/II trials from the Dana-Farber/Beth Israel STAMP program.

    PubMed

    Elias, A D; Ibrahim, J; Richardson, P; Avigan, D; Joyce, R; Reich, E; McCauley, M; Wheeler, C; Frei, E

    2002-01-01

    Although high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with stem cell rescue for the treatment of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is currently a controversial strategy, we report the long-term outcomes of women undergoing high-dose therapy for MBC over the past 12 years while participating in a sequence of research studies transitioning between a single to a double intensification approach. Univariate and multivariate analyses provide a framework to understand the prognostic factors important for event-free and overall survival. Between May 1988 and April 1998, we enrolled 188 women with MBC into 3 trials of previously reported sequential transplantation strategies. Trial I (long induction/single transplantation) accepted 62 women in partial or complete response to an unspecified induction therapy and treated them with high-dose CTCb (cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin) supported by marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC). Trial II (long induction/double transplantation) accepted 68 women in partial or complete response to an unspecified induction therapy, and mobilized stem cells with 2 cycles of AF (doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). These women then received 1 cycle of high-dose single-agent melphalan followed 3 to 5 weeks later by CTCb, each with marrow or PBPC support. Trial III (short induction/double transplantation) enrolled 58 women prior to chemotherapy treatment for metastatic disease. Induction/mobilization consisted of 2 cycles given 14 days apart of doxorubicin and G-CSF. In contrast to trials I and II, patients with stable disease or better response to induction were eligible to proceed ahead with 2 cycles of HDC, 1 being CTCb and the other being dose escalated paclitaxel together with high-dose melphalan (TxM). These 2 HDC regimens were administered 5 weeks apart. TxM was given first in 32 patients and CTCb was given first in 26 patients. The median follow-up periods for trials I, II, and III were 98, 62, and 39 months from the initiation of induction chemotherapy and 92, 55, and 36 months from last high-dose therapy, respectively. The patient characteristics upon entry into these trials were similar. Important differences were that only those patients achieving a partial response or better to induction therapy were enrolled and analyzed for trials I and II, but all patients were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis for trial III, including those who did not receive intensification. The median event-free survival (EFS) times from induction chemotherapy were 13, 19, and 27 months for trials I, II, and III, respectively (III versus I + II, P = .0004; III versus I, P = .0005; III versus II, P = .005; II versus I, P = .25). The median overall survival (OS) times from induction chemotherapy were 30, 29, and 57 months for trials I, II, and III, respectively (III versus I + II, P = .002; III versus I, P = .003; III versus II, P = .009; II versus I, P = .47). By multivariate Cox regression, participation in the short induction/double transplantation trial III and having no prior adjuvant chemotherapy remained favorable prognostic factors for both EFS and OS. The presence of visceral disease shortened EFS, and hormone sensitivity was of borderline significance. No substantive differences in the characteristics of the patient populations between the 3 trials appeared to interact with outcomes. In conclusion, we found that single transplantation in responding patients after long induction achieves a small cohort of long-term survivors, similar to the results reported by other transplantation centers. Adding a cycle of single-agent high-dose melphalan in this context delayed median time to relapse but did not affect long-term EFS or OS. The double transplantation approach using CTCb and TxM early in the course of treatment was associated with the best EFS and overall survival and was safe, feasible, and tolerable. Treatment duration was only 14 weeks, and this treatment option eliminated lengthy induction chemotherapy. Although selection biases may have in

  16. School Improvement Change Grant Community Survey, Final Report. A Report to Toluca Community Unit School District #2, El Paso Community Unit School District #375, Lowpoint-Washburn Community Unit School District #21, Minonk-Dana-Rutland Community Unit School District #108, and Roanoke-Benson Community Unit School District #60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Patricia A.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a collaborative study undertaken by five rural, unit school districts in Illinois to provide data to be used in planning for school improvement. Information was gathered from on-site visits by teams of constituents from other districts and through a survey of perceptions of local community persons regarding…

  17. 75 FR 60720 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset... Chromium from Japan (A-588-866). Dana Mermelstein (202) 482-1391. Cased Pencils from the People's...

  18. 77 FR 12561 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of... Pressure Pipe From Germany Dana Mermelstein (202) 482-1391. (A-428-820) (3rd Review). ] Countervailing...

  19. 78 FR 7752 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 53863, 53864 (September 4, 2012... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 65858 (October 31, 2012... INFORMATION CONTACT: Hilary Sadler or Dana Mermelstein, Import Administration, International...

  20. Genetics and the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Lab Grants About Dana Grants David Mahoney Neuroimaging Program Clinical Neuroscience Research Discontinued Grant Programs News > ... FAQs General Guidelines Grantee Q&As David Mahoney Neuroimaging Program How to Apply Current Grantees Previous Awardees ...

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Art Library, Yale University ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Art Library, Yale University FRONT (EAST) ELEVATION PRIOR RO ADDITION OF 1896 - James Dwight Dana House, 24 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 76 FR 11198 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Five-year (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR... & Dana Mermelstein Pressure Pipe (Under 4\\1/2\\ Inches) from (202) 482-1391. Romania (A-485-805)...

  3. 76 FR 18153 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year... Hancock, 570-899). (202) 482-1394. Gray Portland Cement and Dana Mermelstein, Cement Clinker from Japan...

  4. 21. General view from the southwest, c.1862 Photocopied from an ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General view from the southwest, c.1862 Photocopied from an advertisement, 'Whitney's Improved Fire-Arms,' Dana Scrapbook v. 61, p. 68, NHCHSL. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  5. Syringomyelia

    MedlinePlus

    ... org Tel: 916-632-0922; 800-533-3231 Fax: 916-652-8190 American Syringomyelia & Chiari Alliance Project ( ... 903-236-7079; 800-ASAP-282 (272-7282) Fax: 903-757-7456 Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation ...

  6. 76 FR 61087 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998) . The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...). Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. the Philippines...

  7. 77 FR 53862 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of Initiation of Five-Year...) Dana Mermelstein (202) (2nd Review). 482-1391 Silicomanganese from Venezuela (A-307-820) (2nd...

  8. Teen Smoking Down, E-Cigarette Use Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, said, "While cigarette smoking in high school students ... D., pulmonary specialist, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City; Dana Angelo White, M.S., R.D., clinical assistant ...

  9. Which Genes Drive Cancers? - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Associate Professor of Medicine at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, William Hahn, describes the method his lab has developed to tease apart the crucial driver mutations from passenger mutations in ovarian cancer.

  10. 75 FR 78731 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0115, Application for Training, National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... for Training, National Conservation Training Center AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... information about this IC, contact Dana Dennison, National Conservation Training Center, at (304) 876-7481... Service National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, provides natural...

  11. Pagurus Asper H. Milne Edwards, 1848, a subjective synonym of Clibanarius longitarsus (De Haan, 1849) and reversal of precedence (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae).

    PubMed

    Low, Martyn E Y; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo

    2014-01-01

    The species-group name Pagurus longitarsus was proposed by De Haan (1849: 211, pl. 50, fig. 3) for a species of hermit crab collected from Japan (see Yamaguchi & Baba 1993: 272, 273). Dana (1852b: 464) transferred Pagurus longitarsus to the genus Clibanarius Dana, 1852 (first established in Dana 1852a). Dana (1852b: 464) also suggested that Pagurus longitarsus De Haan, 1849, and Pagurus asper H. Milne Edwards, 1848, were possibly synonymous by listing "Pagurus asper ? Edwards, Ann. des Sci. Nat., 1848(3), v. [sic] 62" in the synonymy of Pagurus longitarsus De Haan, 1849. Fize & Serène (1955: 72) repeated Dana's (1852b: 464) opinion regarding the synonymy Pagurus longitarsus and Pagurus asper. McLaughlin (2002: 399) and McLaughlin et al. (2010: 20) also considered Pagurus longitarsus De Haan, 1849, and Pagurus asper H. Milne Edwards, 1848, to be possibly conspecific, but considered Clibanarius longitarsus (De Haan, 1849), to be the valid name. PMID:24943178

  12. Review of the buccal-attaching fish parasite genus Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert, 1883 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2015-01-01

    Two species of Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert, 1883 are known from Australia: Glossobius anctus Bruce & Bowman, 1989 and Glossobius impressus (Say, 1818), the latter recorded here for the first time from Australia and southern Africa. Glossobius ogasawarensis Nunomura, 1994 is here placed in synonymy with Glossobius auritus Bovallius, 1885; whereas Glossobius crassa (Dana, 1853) is removed from synonymy with G. auritus and placed into nomen dubium. Glossobius arimae Nunomura, 2001 is transferred to the genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852. A key to the species of Glossobius is presented. PMID:26249863

  13. Controllability of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

  14. Spatial heterogeneity of zooplankton abundance and diversity in the Saudi coastal waters of the Southern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen; Mantha, Gopikrishna

    2013-04-01

    The horizontal distribution, abundance and diversity of zooplankton has been studied at 50 stations along the Saudi coastal waters of the southern Red Sea (27 stations around Farasan archipelago, 9 around Al-Qunfodah and 14 around Al-Lith) during March-April 2011 using a plankton net of 150 µm. The zooplankton standing crop fluctuated between 1058 and 25787 individuals/m3 with an average of 5231 individuals/m3. Zooplankton was dominated by holoplanktonic forms that representing 80.26 % of total zooplankton, while meroplanktonic constituting 19.74% and dominated by mollusc larvae. Copepods appeared to be the predominant component, formed an average of 69.69 % of the total zooplankton count followed by chaetognaths and urochordates (4.5 and 4.1% of total zooplankton respectively). A total of 100 copepods species in addition to several species of other planktonic groups (cladocerans, chaetognaths, urochordates) were recorded in the study area. The copepod diversity decreased northward (94, 69 and 62 species at Farasan, Al-Qunfodah and Al-Lith respectively). In general, adult cyclopoid copepods dominated the zooplankton community in term of abundance and species number (19.55 %, 65 species) with dominance of Oncaea media, Oithona similis and Farranula carinata followed by adult calanoid copepods (19.38%, 35 species) with dominance of Paracalanus aculeatus, Clausocalanus minor, Acartia (Acanthacartia) fossae and Centropages orsinii. Harapacticoids densities were low in abundance, represented only by 5 species and dominated mainly by Euterpina acutifronis. Some copepod species decreased northward: Acartia amboinensis, Canthocalanus pauper, Labidocera acuta, Corycaeus flaccus, C. typicus, C. agilis, C. catus, C. giesbrechti, C. latus, C. furcifer and Euterpina acutifronis, while others increased northward (Acartia fossae, Undinula vulgaris and Centropages orsinii). Among copepod orders, Monstrilloida and Siphonostomatoida were observed only in southern area (Farasan

  15. How Schools Can Help: California Teachers Recall the Wildfires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Dana; Madueno, Marcelina; Atlas, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    This article draws from and builds on the experience of schools in San Diego County following the forest fires that wrought havoc on the area last October. Three teachers (Dana Riggs, Marcelina Madueno and Miriam Atlas) provide a moving account of the personal experiences of their students, who lived through the fires. Their recollections…

  16. 76 FR 11202 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005... (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16... Fiber (2nd Dana Mermelstein (202) 482-1391. Review). A-821-811 731-TA-856......... Russia...

  17. Longitude - critical examination of a bestselling book (German Title: Längengrad - Kritische Betrachtung eines Bestsellers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühning, Felix

    The history of longitude determination at sea in connection with John Harrison's clock constructions was widely disseminated by Dana Sobel's novel. It is shown that this novel, however, is very inaccurate and even flawed in its basic concept and in many details. This contribution traces the true historical courses and yields distinct insights in the history of the longitude problem.

  18. 75 FR 60731 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005... (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16........... Top-of-the-Stove Dana Mermelstein Stainless Steel (202) 482-1391. Cooking Ware (3rd Review)....

  19. Handbook of Cross-Cultural and Multicultural Personality Assessment. Personality and Clinical Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Richard H., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: (1) "An Assessment-Intervention Model for Research and Practice with Multicultural Populations" (Richard H. Dana); (2) "An Africentric Perspective for Clinical Research and Practice" (Edward F. Morris); (3) "Myths about the Null Hypothesis and the Path to Reform" (Robert G. Malgady); (4) "A Construct-Based…

  20. 76 FR 2399 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel, Member Conflict: Motor Function, Speech and... Call.) Contact Person: Dana Jeffrey Plude, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific...

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy ORIGINAL FRONT AND SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy ORIGINAL FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, c. 1849 ARCHITECT, HENRY AUSTIN Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Beinecke Rare Book Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. - James Dwight Dana House, 24 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy PRINCIPAL FLOOR PLAN, CHAMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy PRINCIPAL FLOOR PLAN, CHAMBER PLAN, ORIGINAL DRAWINGS, HENRY AUSTIN, ARCHITECT Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Beinecke Rare Book Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. - James Dwight Dana House, 24 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF DEHP IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    TITLE: Transgenerational Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in the Male Rat. AUTHORS (ALL): Gray, Leon Earl1; Barlow, Norman J2; Furr, Johnathan R1; Brock, John 3; Silva, Manori J3; Barr, Dana B3; Ostby, Joseph S1

    SPONSOR NAME:

    INSTITUTIONS (AL...

  4. Collaborating on Global Priorities: Science Education for Everyone--Any Time and Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such…

  5. Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 report for MaizeGDB lists the new hires who will focus on curation/outreach and the genome sequence, respectively. Currently all sequence in the database comes from a PlantGDB pipeline and is presented with deep links to external resources such as PlantGDB, Dana Farber, GenBank, the Arizona...

  6. Joint Authorship: Faculty Members from Six Institutions Collaborate to Measure Writing Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleniewski, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Southeastern Massachusetts is home to six public institutions of higher education. In 2003, at the invitation of Bridgewater President Dana Mohler-Faria, five of them joined together to form a regional collaborative called CONNECT. (The original members were Bridgewater State College, Bristol, Cape Cod and Massasoit community colleges, and the…

  7. Great Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2013-01-01

    Like the best teachers in any subject, Dana Hamant is a consummate student. In his 31 years as a music instructor, he has attended every single annual Music Educators Association conference in his home state of Kansas and missed only two Kansas Bandmasters Association conferences. (He is also a frequent attendee at NAfME and other professional…

  8. A Conversation with Uri Treisman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treisman, Uri

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Uri Treisman, professor of mathematics and public affairs at The University of Texas at Austin and the director of the Charles A. Dana Center, has deep and active roots in mathematics and mathematics education. Dr. Treisman is well known for his early work at the University of California at Berkeley, where he developed the Calculus Workshop…

  9. Developing Caring Relationships among Parents, Children, Schools, and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Dana R.

    2007-01-01

    This book looks at parent-professional-child relations very differently than other books in this area. Author Dana McDermott focuses on parents and teachers as adult learners who should be growing and learning along with the children in their care. Accessibly written, the book synthesizes the latest theories and research on parent-and adult-child…

  10. Lessons from China and Japan for Preschool Practice in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Yi; Hayashi, Akiko; Tobin, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    For the past six years the authors have been working together on a major study of early childhood education in China, Japan, and the United States. This study, "Continuity and Change in Preschools in Three Cultures," is a sequel to "Preschools in Three Cultures," a book by Joseph Tobin, David Wu, and Dana Davidson that was published in 1989. In…

  11. The Current Women Superintendents in Texas: Still in the Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Pauline; Davenport, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The superintendent is the highest ranking administrator in a school district (Katz, 2005). Despite increasing trends of women advancing in the fields of business and government, the superintendent position in school districts still has relatively few women (Brunner & Grogan, 2007; Dana & Bourisaw, 2006; Glass, 2000; Grogan & Brunner, 2005; Katz,…

  12. Straddling the Stream of "Us and Them"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jamie Sussel

    2005-01-01

    It was early into my mentoring relationship with Dana, a third-grade teacher in our school and an aspiring principal, that I kept having this nagging feeling. And then it hit me--the realization that our school culture reflected an "us and them" dynamic.

  13. Educational Leadership and the Imperative of Including Student Voices, Student Interests, and Students' Lives in the Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Smyth introduces this special issue with the claim that the question of "how to pursue forms of leadership that listen to and attend to the voices of...young people" is the "most urgent issue of our times". Dana Mitra's article describes what seem to be serious and elaborate attempts to involve students in school decision-making and, more…

  14. The Co-Construction of Learning Difficulties in Mathematics--Teacher-Student Interactions and Their Role in the Development of a Disabled Mathematical Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyd-Metzuyanim, Einat

    2013-01-01

    Leaning on a communicational framework for studying social, affective, and cognitive aspects of learning, the present study offers a new look at the construction of an identity of failure in mathematics as it occurs through teaching-learning interactions. Using the case of Dana, an extremely low-achieving student in 7th grade mathematics, I…

  15. Neuroscience Workshops for Fifth-Grade School Children by Undergraduate Students: A University-School Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Judith G.; Feldman, Marissa; Lin, Edward; Mahoney, Margaret; Sjoblom, Chelsea

    2006-01-01

    The National Science Education Standards recommend that science be taught using inquiry-based approaches. Inspired by the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives, we examined whether undergraduate students could learn how to conduct field research by teaching elementary school children basic neuroscience concepts in interactive workshops. In an…

  16. Ethnographic Research and Globalization: A Discussion of Joseph Tobin's Model of Video-Cued Multivocal Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joseph Tobin made an impact on the field of comparative education in 2009 when he used a unique form of ethnography to illuminate the effects of world-wide forces, such as modernization, on schools in specific countries. Earlier, in 1989, he published "Preschool in Three Cultures" with co-authors David Wu and Dana Davidson. The…

  17. Culture vs. Entertainment: Challenging Pleasures or Easy Comforts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioia, Dana

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an excerpt from a speech delivered by Dana Gioia, poet, critic, and chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, at the Stanford University commencement on June 17, 2007. In this speech, Gioia communicates his concerns about the diminished role of the arts in contemporary North American culture and the failure of school…

  18. Parsimonious Testing of Transitive or Intransitive Preferences: Reply to Birnbaum (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Guo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Birnbaum raised important challenges to testing transitivity. We summarize why an approach based on counting response patterns does not solve these challenges. Foremost, we show why parsimonious tests of transitivity require at least 5 choice alternatives. While the approach of Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober achieves high power with modest…

  19. Astro Camp Plus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's new Astro Camp Plus camp kicked off June 19 for teens ages 13-15. The new camp delves more deeply into the science, math and technology concepts introduced in the center's popular Astro Camp series. Campers including Jasmyne White (left) and Dana Yingst, both of Slidell, La., learn how NASA uses 'podcasting' to broadcast video, and made their own podcasts.

  20. Focus on Collaborative Learning. Classroom Practices in Teaching English, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Jeff; And Others

    Written by English teachers considered successful in directing collaborative learning, this collection of essays focuses on the effective use of collaborative learning in the English language arts classroom. The essays and their authors are, as follows: (1) "None of Us Is as Smart as All of Us" (Dana Herreman); (2) "Collaborative Learning and…

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Miscellaneous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous section of the proceedings contains the following papers: "Hype versus Substance in the Final Weeks of the Broadcast Television Networks' 2000 Presidential Election Campaign Coverage" (Julia R. Fox and James Angelini); "Commercial Quality Influence on Perceptions of Television News" (Stephen Perry, Dana Trunnell; Chris Moore, and…

  2. Governor's Conference on Drug Dependence and Abuse. An Occasional Paper of the Honors College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliken, William G.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Following Governor Milliken's address, Dr. Dana Farnsworth defines the problem in terms of who's involved, to what extent, and with which drugs. His presentation focuses primarily on the motives of affluent young people who experiment with or become dependent upon hallucinogens, marihuana and amphetamines. He deals extensively with the drastically…

  3. Photocopy of photograph (original negative in possession of LSA Associates, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original negative in possession of LSA Associates, Irvine, California) Dana Privett, Photographer, August 1982 WEST (REAR), LOOKING EAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  4. Photocopy of photograph (original negative in possession of LSA Associates, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original negative in possession of LSA Associates, Irvine, California) Dana Privett, Photographer, August 1982 EAST (FRONT), LOOKING WEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  5. Defining Developmental Education: Theory, Research, & Pedagogy. NADE Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.; Dwinell, Patricia L., Ed.

    This monograph presents seven papers on the research, and pedagogical aspects of developmental education and implications for a definition of developmental education. After an introductory paper by the editors, the papers are: (1) "The New Science: Connections with Developmental Education" (Dana D. Darby); (2) "Issues Affecting the Definition of…

  6. 40 CFR 52.1832 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 52.1832 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... letter to Douglas M. Skie, EPA, dated May 11, 1988, Dana K. Mount, Director, Division of Environmental Engineering stated: * * * We are submitting this letter to allow EPA to continue to process our current...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1832 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 52.1832 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... letter to Douglas M. Skie, EPA, dated May 11, 1988, Dana K. Mount, Director, Division of Environmental Engineering stated: * * * We are submitting this letter to allow EPA to continue to process our current...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1832 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 52.1832 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... letter to Douglas M. Skie, EPA, dated May 11, 1988, Dana K. Mount, Director, Division of Environmental Engineering stated: * * * We are submitting this letter to allow EPA to continue to process our current...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1832 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 52.1832 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... letter to Douglas M. Skie, EPA, dated May 11, 1988, Dana K. Mount, Director, Division of Environmental Engineering stated: * * * We are submitting this letter to allow EPA to continue to process our current...

  10. Training Physician-Scientists for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joseph B.

    1991-01-01

    The article examines trends in the supply of physician-scientists, with emphasis on M.D.-Ph.D. programs to train biomedical researchers. New initiatives, such as the National Institutes of Health Physician-Scientist Training Awards and the Dana Foundation Training Program in the Neurosciences, are described and general recommendations are offered.…