Sample records for accelerated life-time testing

  1. Thermoanalytical life time testing of energetic poly(glycidyl azide) and its precursor, poly(epichlorodydrin)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet S. Ero?lu

    1998-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a The life time analysis of energetic liquid prepolymers, polyglycidyl azide (PGA), and its precursor, polyepichlorohydrin (PECH),\\u000a was carried out to estimate their useful storage time as a function of storage temperature using thermoanalytical method.\\u000a Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the decomposition kinetics of prepolymers. For this purpose, Thermal\\u000a Gravimetry (TG) curves of prepolymers were recorded at different

  2. TESTS FOR EQUALITY OF TWO DISTRIBUTIONS WITH CORRELATED INTERVAL CENSORED LIFE-TIMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-Soo Kang

    2002-01-01

    Large sample properties of Life-Table estimator are discussed for interval censored bivariate survival data. We restrict our attention to the situation where response times within pairs are not distinguishable, and the univariate survival distribution is the same for any individual within any pair. The large sample properties are applied to test for equality of two distributions with correlated response times

  3. The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Jialin, Xie; Kirk, H.G.; Parsa, Z.; Palmer, R.B.; Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Sheehan, J.; Tsang, T.Y.F.; Ulc, S.; Van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Zhang, R.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); McDonald, K.T.; Russell, D.P. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Jiang, Z.Y. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (Un

    1990-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), presently under construction at Brookhaven National laboratory, is described. It consists of a 50-MeV electron beam synchronizable to a high-peak power CO{sub 2} laser. The interaction of electrons with the laser field will be probed, with some emphasis on exploring laser-based acceleration techniques. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Batchelor; I. Ben-Zvi; R. C. Fernow; J. Fischer; A. S. Fisher; J. Gallardo; Xie Jialin; H. G. Kirk; Z. Parsa; R. B. Palmer; T. Rao; J. Rogers; J. Sheehan; T. Y. F. Tsang; S. Ulc; A. Van Steenbergen; M. Woodle; R. S. Zhang; K. T. McDonald; D. P. Russell; Z. Y. Jiang

    1990-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), presently under construction at Brookhaven National laboratory, is described. It consists of a 50-MeV electron beam synchronizable to a high-peak power COâ laser. The interaction of electrons with the laser field will be probed, with some emphasis on exploring laser-based acceleration techniques. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Accelerated testing of space batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.; Waite, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated life test program for space batteries is presented that fully satisfies empirical, statistical, and physical criteria for validity. The program includes thermal and other nonmechanical stress analyses as well as mechanical stress, strain, and rate of strain measurements.

  6. Experimental test accelerator (ETA) II

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Birx, D.L.

    1981-03-06

    The Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) is designed to produce a 10 kAmp electron beam at an energy of 4.5 MeV in 40 nsec pulses at an average rate of 2 pps. The accelerator also operates in bursts of 5 pulses spaced by as little as one millisec at an average rate of 5 pps. The machine is currently operating near 80% of its design values and has accumulated over 2.5 million pulses - mostly at a rate of one pps. The plasma cathode electron source, the remainder of the accelerator, and the operating characteristics of the machine are discussed.

  7. Accelerated leach test development program

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1990-11-01

    In FY 1989, a draft accelerated leach test for solidified waste was written. Combined test conditions that accelerate leaching were validated through experimental and modeling efforts. A computer program was developed that calculates test results and models leaching mechanisms. This program allows the user to determine if diffusion controls leaching and, if this is the case, to make projections of releases. Leaching mechanisms other than diffusion (diffusion plus source term partitioning and solubility limited leaching) are included in the program is indicators of other processes that may control leaching. Leach test data are presented and modeling results are discussed for laboratory scale waste forms composed of portland cement containing sodium sulfate salt, portland cement containing incinerator ash, and vinyl ester-styrene containing sodium sulfate. 16 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Accelerated testing of space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, S. Frank; Heshmat, Hooshang

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of various existing life prediction techniques used for a wide range of space mechanisms. Life prediction techniques utilized in other non-space fields such as turbine engine design are also reviewed for applicability to many space mechanism issues. The development of new concepts on how various tribological processes are involved in the life of the complex mechanisms used for space applications are examined. A 'roadmap' for the complete implementation of a tribological prediction approach for complex mechanical systems including standard procedures for test planning, analytical models for life prediction and experimental verification of the life prediction and accelerated testing techniques are discussed. A plan is presented to demonstrate a method for predicting the life and/or performance of a selected space mechanism mechanical component.

  9. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  10. The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility comprises a 50 MeV traveling wave electron linear accelerator utilizing a high gradient, photo-excited, raidofrequency electron gun as an injector and an experimental area for study of new acceleration methods or advanced radiation sources using free electron lasers. Early operation of the linear accelerator system including calculated and measured beam parameters are presented together with the experimental program for accelerator physics and free electron laser studies.

  11. The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Chou, T.S.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Gallardo, J.; Kirk, H.G.; Koul, R.; Palmer, R.B.; Pellegrini, C.; Sheehan, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) will consist of a 50--100 MeV/c electron linac and a 100 GW CO/sub 2/ laser system. A high brightness RF-gun operating at 2856 MHz is to be used as the injector into the linac. The RF-gun contains a Nd:Yag-laser-driven photocathode capable of producing a stream of six ps electron pulses separated by 12.5 ns. The maximum charge in a micropulse will be one nano-Coulomb. The CO/sub 2/ laser pulse length will be a few picoseconds and will be synchronized with the electron pulse. The first experimental beam is expected in Fall 89. The design electron beam parameters are given and possible initial experiments are discussed. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Accelerated Life Testing of Flexible Printed Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Boddy; R. H. Delaney; J. N. Lahti; E. F. Landry; R. C. Restrick

    1976-01-01

    Part I of this paper describes a facility which has recently been developed to conduct accelerated life tests on-printed wiring products. Procedures developed for the evaluation of flexible printed circuits are outlined, and a representative set of life test data is reviewed to illustrate the kinds of information obtainable with this facility. In conducting accelerated life tests on fineline flexible

  13. DARHT II Scaled Accelerator Tests on the ETA II Accelerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Weir; E M Anaya Jr; G. J. Caporaso; F. W. Chambers; Yu-Jiuan Chen; S. Falabella; B. S. Lee; A. C. Paul; B. A. Raymond; R. A. Richardson; J. A. Watson; D. Chan; H. A. Davis; L. A. Day; R. D. Scarpetti; M. E. Schultze; T. P. Hughes

    2005-01-01

    The DARHT II accelerator at LANL is preparing a series of preliminary tests at the reduced voltage of 7.8 Me V. The transport hardware between the end of the accelerator and the final target magnet was shipped to LLNL and installed on ETA II. Using the ETA II beam at 5.2 MeV we completed a set of experiments designed reduce

  14. ACCELERATED EXPOSURE TESTING Accelerated exposure testing has become increasingly

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Clark R.

    environments simulation Corrosion evaluation and mitigation technologies Thermal stability testing Thermal and verification Materials research and evaluation Fire performance evaluation Fire testing Electrical

  15. Solid oxide materials research accelerated electrochemical testing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Windisch, C.; Arey, B.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to develop methods for accelerated testing of cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells under selected operating conditions. The methods would be used to evaluate the performance of LSM cathode material.

  16. DARHT II Scaled Accelerator Tests on the ETA II Accelerator*

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J T; Anaya Jr, E M; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Chen, Y; Falabella, S; Lee, B S; Paul, A C; Raymond, B A; Richardson, R A; Watson, J A; Chan, D; Davis, H A; Day, L A; Scarpetti, R D; Schultze, M E; Hughes, T P

    2005-05-26

    The DARHT II accelerator at LANL is preparing a series of preliminary tests at the reduced voltage of 7.8 MeV. The transport hardware between the end of the accelerator and the final target magnet was shipped to LLNL and installed on ETA II. Using the ETA II beam at 5.2 MeV we completed a set of experiments designed reduce start up time on the DARHT II experiments and run the equipment in a configuration adapted to the reduced energy. Results of the beam transport using a reduced energy beam, including the kicker and kicker pulser system will be presented.

  17. Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing of MEMS Accelerometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marius Bâzu; Virgil Emil Ilian; Jerome Loicq; Serge Habraken; Jean-Paul Collette

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing (QALT) is a solution for assessing the reliability of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). A procedure for QALT is shown in this paper and an attempt to assess the reliability level for a batch of MEMS accelerometers is reported. The testing plan is application-driven and contains combined tests: thermal (high temperature) and mechanical stress. Two variants

  18. ACCELERATED DESTRUCTIVE DEGRADATION TESTS: DATA, MODELS,

    E-print Network

    ACCELERATED DESTRUCTIVE DEGRADATION TESTS: DATA, MODELS, AND ANALYSIS Luis A. Escobar Dept. of Statistics Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011, USA Danny L. Kugler and Laura L. Kramer Imaging & Printing the physical/mechanical characteristics of test units. In such applications, only one meaningful measurement

  19. Results from the SLAC NLC test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The design for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) at SLAC is based on two 11.4 GHz linacs operating at an unloaded acceleration gradient of 50 MV/m increasing to 85 MV/m as the energy is increased from 1/2 TeV to 1 TeV in the center of mass. During the past several years there has been tremendous progress on the development of 11.4 GHz (X-band) RF systems. These developments include klystrons which operate at the required powder and pulse length, pulse compression systems that achieve a factor of four power multiplication and structures that are specially designed to reduce long-range wakefields. Together with these developments, we have constructed a 1/2 GeV test accelerator, the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA). The NLCTA will serve as a test bed as the design of the NLC is refined. In addition to testing the RF system, the NLCTA is designed to address many questions related to the dynamics of the beam during acceleration, in particular, multibunch beam-loading compensation and transverse beam break-up. In this paper we describe the NLCTA and present results from initial experiments.

  20. Manufacturing and Testing of Accelerator Superconducting Magnets

    E-print Network

    Rossi, L

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing of superconducting magnet for accelerators is a quite complex process that is not yet fully industrialized. In this paper, after a short history of the evolution of the magnet design and construction, we review the main characteristics of the accelerator magnets having an impact on the construction technology. We put in evidence how the design and component quality impact on construction and why the final product calls for a total-quality approach. LHC experience is widely discussed and main lessons are spelled out. Then the new Nb3Sn technology, under development for the next generation magnet construction, is outlined. Finally, we briefly review the testing procedure of accelerator superconducting magnets, underlining the close connection with the design validation and with the manufacturing process.

  1. Accelerated test plan for nickel cadmium spacecraft batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated test matrix is outlined that includes acceptance, baseline and post-cycling tests, chemical and physical analyses, and the data analysis procedures to be used in determining the feasibility of an accelerated test for sealed, nickel cadmium cells.

  2. Tests of compressed geometry acceleration tubes in the Oak Ridge 25URC tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.M.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Mitchell, J.T.; Ziegler, N.F.; Raatz, J.E.; Rathmell, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to further improve voltage performance of the Oak Ridge 25URC accelerator, the original acceleration tubes will be replaced with NEC compressed geometry acceleration tubes. In this paper, we report on tests in the 25URC accelerator of two prototype compressed geometry acceleration tube designs. One of the designs utilizes a novel aperture which provides enhanced electron and ion trapping.

  3. BNL ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    MALONE,R.; BEN-ZVI,I.; WANG,X.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.

  4. The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility injection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Wang; H. G. Kirk; C. Pellegrini; K. T. McDonald; D. P. Russell

    1989-01-01

    The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) consists of a 50-MeV\\/c electron linac and a high-brightness RF gun, both operating at 2856 MHz. An extremely short (a few picoseconds) electron pulse with a low transverse emittance is generated by the RF gun. In order to preserve both longitudinal and transverse emittances, great care must be taken in transporting the electron beam

  5. Testing a combined vibration and acceleration environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard Alan; Romero, Edward F.

    2005-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has previously tested a capability to impose a 7.5 g-rms (30 g peak) radial vibration load up to 2 kHz on a 25 lb object with superimposed 50 g acceleration at its centrifuge facility. This was accomplished by attaching a 3,000 lb Unholtz-Dickie mechanical shaker at the end of the centrifuge arm to create a 'Vibrafuge'. However, the combination of non-radial vibration directions, and linear accelerations higher than 50g's are currently not possible because of the load capabilities of the shaker and the stresses on the internal shaker components due to the combined centrifuge acceleration. Therefore, a new technique using amplified piezo-electric actuators has been developed to surpass the limitations of the mechanical shaker system. They are lightweight, modular and would overcome several limitations presented by the current shaker. They are 'scalable', that is, adding more piezo-electric units in parallel or in series can support larger-weight test articles or displacement/frequency regimes. In addition, the units could be mounted on the centrifuge arm in various configurations to provide a variety of input directions. The design along with test results will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the new piezo-electric Vibrafuge.

  6. Predicting edge seal performance from accelerated testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardikar, Kedar; Vitkavage, Dan; Saproo, Ajay; Krajewski, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Degradation in performance of a PV module attributable to moisture ingress has received significant attention in PV reliability research. Assessment of field performance of PV modules against moisture ingress through product-level testing in temperature-humidity control chambers poses challenges. Development of a meaningful acceleration factor model is challenging due to different rates of degradation of components embedded in a PV module, when exposed to moisture. Test results are typically a convolution of moisture barrier performance of the edge seal and degradation of laminated components when exposed to moisture. It is desirable to have an alternate method by which moisture barrier performance of the edge seal in its end product form can be assessed in any given field conditions, independent of particular cell design. In this work, a relatively inexpensive test technique was developed to test the edge seal in its end product form in a manner that is decoupled from other components of the PV module. A theoretical framework was developed to assess moisture barrier performance of edge seal with desiccants subjected to different conditions. This framework enables the analysis of test results from accelerated tests and prediction of the field performance of the edge seal. Results from this study lead to the conclusion that the edge seal on certain Miasole glass-glass modules studied is effective for the most aggressive weather conditions examined, beyond the intended service.

  7. Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing of MEMS Accelerometers

    PubMed Central

    Bâzu, Marius; G?l??eanu, Lucian; Ilian, Virgil Emil; Loicq, Jerome; Habraken, Serge; Collette, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing (QALT) is a solution for assessing the reliability of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). A procedure for QALT is shown in this paper and an attempt to assess the reliability level for a batch of MEMS accelerometers is reported. The testing plan is application-driven and contains combined tests: thermal (high temperature) and mechanical stress. Two variants of mechanical stress are used: vibration (at a fixed frequency) and tilting. Original equipment for testing at tilting and high temperature is used. Tilting is appropriate as application-driven stress, because the tilt movement is a natural environment for devices used for automotive and aerospace applications. Also, tilting is used by MEMS accelerometers for anti-theft systems. The test results demonstrated the excellent reliability of the studied devices, the failure rate in the “worst case” being smaller than 10-7h-1.

  8. Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1986-09-01

    A computerized data base of LLW leaching data has been developed. Long-term tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms containing simulated wastes are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms.

  9. The Brookhaven accelerator test facility injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Kirk, H.G.; Pellegrini, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Russell, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) consists of a 50-MeV/c electron linac and a high-brightness RF-gun both operating at 2856 MHz. An extremely short (a few picoseconds) electron pulse with low transverse emittance is generated by the RF-gun. In order to preserve both longitudinal and transverse emittances, great care must be taken in transporting the electron beam from the RF-gun to the linac. We describe the injection line, present first- and second-order lattice studies of the injection line, and study nonlinear effects on the emittance. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Using Accelerated Testing to Predict Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term reliability is critical to the cost effectiveness and commercial success of photovoltaic (PV) products. Today most PV modules are warranted for 25 years, but there is no accepted test protocol to validate a 25-year lifetime. The qualification tests do an excellent job of identifying design, materials, and process flaws that are likely to lead to premature failure (infant mortality), but they are not designed to test for wear-out mechanisms that limit lifetime. This paper presents a method for evaluating the ability of a new PV module technology to survive long-term exposure to specific stresses. The authors propose the use of baseline technologies with proven long-term field performance as controls in the accelerated stress tests. The performance of new-technology modules can then be evaluated versus that of proven-technology modules. If the new-technology demonstrates equivalent or superior performance to the proven one, there is a high likelihood that they will survive versus the tested stress in the real world.

  11. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  12. Hurricane Isabel gives accelerators a severe test

    SciTech Connect

    Swapan Chattopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel was at category five--the most violent on the Saffir-Simpson scale of hurricane strength--when it began threatening the central Atlantic seaboard of the US. Over the course of several days, precautions against the extreme weather conditions were taken across the Jefferson Lab site in south-east Virginia. On 18 September 2003, when Isabel struck North Carolina's Outer Banks and moved northward, directly across the region around the laboratory, the storm was still quite destructive, albeit considerably reduced in strength. The flood surge and trees felled by wind substantially damaged or even devastated buildings and homes, including many belonging to Jefferson Lab staff members. For the laboratory itself, Isabel delivered an unplanned and severe challenge in another form: a power outage that lasted nearly three-and-a-half days, and which severely tested the robustness of Jefferson Lab's two superconducting machines, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the superconducting radiofrequency ''driver'' accelerator of the laboratory's free-electron laser. Robustness matters greatly for science at a time when microwave superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) are not only being considered, but in some cases already being built for projects such as neutron sources, rare-isotope accelerators, innovative light sources and TeV-scale electron-positron linear colliders. Hurricane Isabel interrupted a several-week-long maintenance shutdown of CEBAF, which serves nuclear and particle physics and represents the world's pioneering large-scale implementation of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology. The racetrack-shaped machine is actually a pair of 500-600 MeV SRF linacs interconnected by recirculation arc beamlines. CEBAF delivers simultaneous beams at up to 6 GeV to three experimental halls. An imminent upgrade will double the energy to 12 GeV and add an extra hall for ''quark confinement'' studies. On a smaller scale, Jefferson Lab's original kilowatt-scale infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is ''driven'' by a high-current cousin of CEBAF, a 70 MeV SRF linac with a high-current injector. The FEL serves multidisciplinary science and technology as the world's highest-average-power source of tunable coherent infrared light. An upgrade to 10 kW is in commissioning--as it was when Isabel began threatening.

  13. Planck Scale Gravity Test with Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharibyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10-35m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10-19m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10-31m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.

  14. DNA Bubble Life Time in Denaturation

    E-print Network

    Zh. S. Gevorkian; Chin-Kun Hu

    2010-10-11

    We have investigated the denaturation bubble life time for a homogeneous as well as for a heterogeneous DNA within a Poland-Scheraga model. It is shown that at criticality the bubble life time for a homogeneous DNA is finite provided that the loop entropic exponent c>2 and has a scaling dependence on DNA length for c<2. Heterogeneity in the thermodynamical limit makes the bubble life time infinite for any entropic exponent.

  15. Operation of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Botke, I.; Chou, T.S.; Fernow, R.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Malone, R.; Palmer, R.; Parsa, Z.; Pogorelsky, I.; Rogers, J.; Sheehan, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.; Ulc, S.; van Steenbergen, A.; Wang, X.J.; Woodle, M.; Yu, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Early operation of the 50 MeV high brightness electron linac of the Accelerator Test Facility is described along with experimental data. This facility is designed to study new linear acceleration techniques and new radiation sources based on linacs in combination with free electron lasers. The accelerator utilizes a photo-excited, metal cathode, radio frequency electron gun followed by two travelling wave accelerating sections and an Experimental Hall for the study program.

  16. Operation of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Botke, I.; Chou, T.S.; Fernow, R.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Malone, R.; Palmer, R.; Parsa, Z.; Pogorelsky, I.; Rogers, J.; Sheehan, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.; Ulc, S.; van Steenbergen, A.; Wang, X.J.; Woodle, M.; Yu, L.H.

    1992-10-01

    Early operation of the 50 MeV high brightness electron linac of the Accelerator Test Facility is described along with experimental data. This facility is designed to study new linear acceleration techniques and new radiation sources based on linacs in combination with free electron lasers. The accelerator utilizes a photo-excited, metal cathode, radio frequency electron gun followed by two travelling wave accelerating sections and an Experimental Hall for the study program.

  17. A Survey of Methods for Planning and Analyzing Accelerated Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Nelson

    1974-01-01

    This paper surveys methods for planning and analyzing accelerated life tests. Many of these methods are new and providemore informative results for less time and cost than do previous methods. These methods are of value to all who plan and analyze accelerated tests on any product or material.

  18. An Accelerated Stress Test Method for Electrostatically Driven MEMS Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinyu J. Ruan; Nicolas Monnereau; David Trémouilles; Nicolas Mauran; Fabio Coccetti; Nicolas Nolhier; Robert Plana

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses an innovative solution to develop a circuit to perform accelerated stress tests of capacitive microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) switches and shows the use of instruments and equipment to monitor physical aging phenomena. A dedicated test circuit was designed and fabricated in order to meet the need for accelerated techniques for those structures. It integrated an in-house miniaturized circuit connected

  19. Bayesian Methods for Accelerated Destructive Degradation Test Planning

    E-print Network

    Bayesian Methods for Accelerated Destructive Degradation Test Planning Ying Shi Dept. of Statistics methods for ADDT planning under a class of nonlinear degradation models with one accelerating variable. We quantile at use conditions to find optimum test plans. A large-sample approximation for the posterior

  20. Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-To-Failure Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2008-03-01

    This technical report documents a test-to-failure protocol that may be used to obtain quantitative information about the reliability of photovoltaic modules using accelerated testing in environmental temperature-humidity chambers.

  1. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The 250 C, 200C and 125C accelerated tests are described. The wear-out distributions from the 250 and 200 C tests were used to estimate the activation energy between the two test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear-out region. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three devices types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment is assessed. Guidlines for the development of accelerated life-test conditions are proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life-test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits is described.

  2. Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF) upgrade plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; Ho, C.; Konecny, R.; Mtingwa, S.; Norem, J.; Rosenzweig, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.; Cole, B.; Rosing, M.

    1989-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated the principles of wake-field acceleration using structures (cavity, dielectric) and plasmas as wake-field devices using the AATF at Argonne National Laboratory. Due to the limited driver electron pulse intensity and relative long pulse length, only modest accelerating gradients were observed. In order to study the wake field effects in much greater detail and demonstrate the feasibility of wake-field accelerator for high energy physics, we are considering construction of a laser photocathode injector on the existing 20 MeV Chem-Linac to produce very intense and short electron pulses. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerone C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of metal-based structures has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites to determine corrosion resistance in marine environments. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions of the corrosive environment. Their success for correlation to atmospheric exposure is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated laboratory testing, which often focuses on the electrochemical reactions that occur during corrosion conditions, has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long term service life of a metal despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard and their use is imperative, a method that correlates timescales from atmospheric exposure to accelerated testing would be very valuable. This work uses surface chemistry to interpret the chemical changes occurring on low carbon steel during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions with the objective of finding a correlation between its accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The current results of correlating data from marine atmospheric exposure conditions at the Kennedy Space Center beachside corrosion test site, alternating seawater spray, and immersion in typical electrochemical laboratory conditions, will be presented. Key words: atmospheric exposure, accelerated corrosion testing, alternating seawater spray, marine, correlation, seawater, carbon steel, long-term corrosion performance prediction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. Acceleration of fatigue tests for built-up titanium components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the feasibility of a room-temperature scheme of accelerating fatigue tests for Mach 3 advanced supersonic transport aircraft. The test scheme used equivalent room-temperature cycles calculated for supersonic flight conditions. Verification tests were conducted using specimens representing titanium wing lower surface structure. Test-acceleration parameters were developed for the test with an auxiliary test set. Five specimens were tested with a flight-by-flight load and temperature spectrum to simulate typical Mach 3 operation. Two additional sets of five specimens were tested at room temperature to evaluate the test-acceleration scheme. The fatigue behavior of the specimens generally correlated well with the proposed correction method.

  5. Beam Physics of Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V.V.; /Oak Ridge; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    Fermilab's Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron storage ring designed for testing advanced accelerator physics concepts, including implementation of nonlinear integrable beam optics and experiments on optical stochastic cooling. The machine is currently under construction at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator facility. In this report we present the goals and the current status of the project, and describe the details of machine design. In particular, we concentrate on numerical simulations setting the requirements on the design and supporting the choice of machine parameters.

  6. The Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven: Main capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimenko, Vitaly [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11790 (United States)

    2004-12-07

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL's) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is a user facility for accelerator- and beam- physics. Researchers from national and foreign universities, the DOE's national laboratories, and small businesses can carry out their experiments here, thereby relieving their institutions and companies from the large investment in accelerators, lasers, control and diagnostic equipment, and trained accelerator operators, all of which BNL's ATF offers. The main emphasis of this paper is on the capabilities of the ATF that I illustrate by discussing a few experiments. More detailed information can be obtained from the ATF web site: http://www.bnl.gov/atf.

  7. 46 CFR 160.072-5 - Accelerated weathering test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Distress Signals for Boats, Orange Flag § 160.072-5 Accelerated weathering test. ...tearing, (3) The flag does not retain its bright red/orange color, (4) The disc and square images no longer meet...

  8. Testing pulse forming networks with DARHT accelerator cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E. A. (Evan A.); Dalmas, D. A. (Dale Allen); Downing, J. N. (James N.), Jr.; Temple, R. D. (Rodney Dean)

    2001-01-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility [DARHT] at Los Alamos will use two induction linacs to produce high-energy electron beams. The electron beams will be used to generate x-rays from bremsstrahlung targets. The x-rays will be used to produce radiographs. The first accelerator is operational now, generating a 60-nanosecond electron beam. The second accelerator is under construction. It will generate a 2-microsecond electron beam. The 78 induction cells of the second axis accelerator will be driven by an equal number of pulse forming networks. Each pulse forming network [PFN] generates a nominal 200-kV, 2-microsecond pulse to drive an accelerator cell. Each pulse forming network consists of a set of four equal-capacitance sub-PFN's, stacked in a Marx configuration. The PFN Test Stand was configured to test newly constructed accelerator cells under conditions of full voltage and pulse duration. The PFN Test Stand also explored jitter, prefire and reliability issues for a pulse forming network operated into a purely resistive load. The PFN Test Stand provided experience operating a simple subsystem of the DARHT accelerator. This subsystem involved controls, diagnostics, data acquisition and archival, power supplies, trigger systems, core reset and a gas flow system for the spark gaps. Issues for the DARHT accelerator were investigated in this small-scale facility.

  9. TESTING PULSE FORMING NETWORKS WITH DARHT ACCELERATOR CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. ROSE; D.A. DALMAS; J.N. DOWNING; R.D. TEMPLE

    2001-06-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility [DARHT] at Los Alamos will use two induction linacs to produce high-energy electron beams. The electron beams will be used to generate x-rays from bremsstrahlung targets. The x-rays will be used to produce radiographs. The first accelerator is operational now, generating a 60- nanosecond electron beam. The second accelerator is under construction. It will generate a 2-microsecond electron beam. The 78 induction cells of the second axis accelerator will be driven by an equal number of pulse forming networks. Each pulse forming network [PFN] generates a nominal 200-kV, 2-microsecond pulse to drive an accelerator cell. Each pulse forming network consists of a set of four equal-capacitance sub-PFN's, stacked in a Marx configuration. The PFN Test Stand was configured to test newly constructed accelerator cells under conditions of full voltage and pulse duration. The PFN Test Stand also explored jitter, prefire and reliability issues for a pulse forming network operated into a purely resistive load. The PFN Test Stand provided experience operating a simple subsystem of the DARHT accelerator. This subsystem involved controls, diagnostics, data acquisition and archival, power supplies, trigger systems, core reset and a gas flow system for the spark gaps. Issues for the DARHT accelerator were investigated in this small-scale facility.

  10. Reliability Accelerated Testing of MEMS Acccelerometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bazu; L. Galateanu; V. E. Ilian; J. Loicq; S. Habraken; J.-P. Colette

    2007-01-01

    An attempt to assess the reliability of a batch of MEMS accelerometers is presented. The testing plan is application oriented and contains combined tests: thermal and mechanical stresses (two variants: vibration and tilting) were used. The results demonstrated the good reliability of the tested device, the failure rate being smaller than 6.10-8 h-1.

  11. Correlation between accelerated corrosion tests and atmospheric corrosion tests on steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuen-Chang Lin; Chi-Xiang Wang

    2005-01-01

    Three kinds of steel [soft steel (SPHC), carbon steel (SS400), and weathered steel (A588)] were prepared for accelerated corrosion and atmospheric corrosion tests. The results of atmospheric corrosion tests were similar to those of accelerated corrosion tests. A correlation was developed for prediction of atmospheric corrosion rates of steel using atmospheric corrosion factors (i.e. Cl- deposition fluxes, time of wetness,

  12. Accelerated battery-life testing - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Test program, employing empirical, statistical and physical methods, determines service life and failure probabilities of electrochemical cells and batteries, and is applicable to testing mechanical, electrical, and chemical devices. Data obtained aids long-term performance prediction of battery or cell.

  13. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  14. Preliminary description of the ground test accelerator cryogenic cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is part of the Neutral Particle Beam Program supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. The GTA is a full-sized test facility to evaluate the feasibility of using a negative ion accelerator to produce a neutral particle beam (NPB). The NPB would ultimately be used outside the earth's atmosphere as a target discriminator or as a directed energy weapon. The operation of the GTA at cryogenic temperature is advantageous for two reasons: first, the decrease of temperature caused a corresponding decrease in the rf heating of the copper in the various units of the accelerator, and second, at the lower temperature the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient also provides greater thermal stability and consequently, better operating stability for the accelerator. This paper discusses the cryogenic cooling system needed to achieve these advantages. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Accelerated carbonation and testing of concrete made with fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Duran Ati?

    2003-01-01

    An accelerated carbonation test was carried out in order to assess the carbonation of fly ash (FA) concrete. The process of carbonation was accelerated using a controlled environment. The concrete mixtures made with 0, 50 and 70% replacement of normal Portland cement (NPC) with fly ash were prepared. Water–cementitious material ratios were ranged from 0.28 to 0.55. Some concrete mixture

  16. Earth Scanner Bearing Accelerated Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Brian J.; VanDyk, Steven G.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) optical instrument for NASA Goddard will measure biological and physical processes on the Earth's surface and in the lower atmosphere. A key component of the instrument is an extremely accurate scan mirror motor/encoder assembly. Of prime concern in the performance and reliability of the scan motor/encoder is bearing selection and lubrication. This paper describes life testing of the bearings and lubrication selected for the program.

  17. Accelerated Durability Testing of Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C. E.; Zhang, J. G.; Benson, D. K.; Czanderna, A. W.; Deb, S. K.

    1998-12-29

    Prototype electrochromic windows made by several different U.S. companies have been tested in our laboratory for their long-term durability. Samples were subjected to alternate coloring and bleaching voltage cycles while exposed to simulated on 1-sun irradiance in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber with low relative humidity. The samples inside the chamber were tested under a matrix of different conditions. These conditions include: cycling at different temperatures (65 C, 85 C, and 107 C) under the irradiance, cycling versus no-cycling under the same irradiance and temperature, testing with different voltage waveforms and duty cycles with the same irradiance and temperature, cycling under various filtered irradiance intensities, and simple thermal exposure with no irradiance or cycling. The electro-optical characteristics of the samples were measured between 350 and 1,100 nm every 4,000 cycles for up to 20,000 cycles. Photographs of the samples were taken periodically wi th a digital camera to record cosmetic defects, the extent of residual coloration, and overall coloration and bleaching uniformity of the samples. Our results indicate that the most important cause of degradation is the combination of continuous cycling, elevated temperature, and irradiance. The relative importance of these variables, when considered synergistically or separately, depends on the particular device materials and design.

  18. Accelerated Testing of Polymeric Composites Using the Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Magid, Becky M.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    Creep properties of IM7/K3B composite material were obtained using three accelerated test methods at elevated temperatures. Results of flexural creep tests using the dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) were compared with results of conventional tensile and compression creep tests. The procedures of the three test methods are described and the results are presented. Despite minor differences in the time shift factor of the creep compliance curves, the DMA results compared favorably with the results from the tensile and compressive creep tests. Some insight is given into establishing correlations between creep compliance in flexure and creep compliance in tension and compression. It is shown that with careful consideration of the limitations of flexure creep, a viable and reliable accelerated test procedure can be developed using the DMA to obtain the viscoelastic properties of composites in extreme environments.

  19. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximow, B.

    1976-01-01

    An accelerated life test of sufficient duration to generate a minimum of 50% cumulative failures in lots of CMOS devices was conducted to provide a basis for determining the consistency of activation energy at 250 C. An investigation was made to determine whether any thresholds were exceeded during the high temperature testing, which could trigger failure mechanisms unique to that temperature. The usefulness of the 250 C temperature test as a predictor of long term reliability was evaluated.

  20. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility is presented including the design goals and computational results. The heart of the system is a radiofrequency electron gun utilizing a photo-excited metal cathode followed by a conventional electron linac. The Nd:YAG laser used to drive the cathode with 6 ps long pulses can be synchronized to a high peak power CO{sub 2} laser in order to study laser acceleration of electrons. Current operational status of the project will be presented along with early beam tests.

  1. Quick setup of unit test for accelerator controls system

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, W.; D'Ottavio, T.; Gassner, D.; Nemesure, S.; Morris, J.

    2011-03-28

    Testing a single hardware unit of an accelerator control system often requires the setup of a program with graphical user interface. Developing a dedicated application for a specific hardware unit test could be time consuming and the application may become obsolete after the unit tests. This paper documents a methodology for quick design and setup of an interface focused on performing unit tests of accelerator equipment with minimum programming work. The method has three components. The first is a generic accelerator device object (ADO) manager which can be used to setup, store, and log testing controls parameters for any unit testing system. The second involves the design of a TAPE (Tool for Automated Procedure Execution) sequence file that specifies and implements all te testing and control logic. The sting third is the design of a PET (parameter editing tool) page that provides the unit tester with all the necessary control parameters required for testing. This approach has been used for testing the horizontal plane of the Stochastic Cooling Motion Control System at RHIC.

  2. TESTING METGLAS FOR USE IN DARHT ACCELERATOR CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. ROSE; D.A. DALMAS; J.N. DOWNING; R.D. TEMPLE

    2001-06-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility [DARHT] at Los Alamos will use two induction linacs to produce high-energy electron beams. The electron beams will be used to generate x-rays from bremsstrahlung targets. The x-rays will be used to produce radiographs. The first accelerator is operational now, producing a 60-nanosecond electron beam. The second accelerator is under construction. It will produce a 2-microsecond electron beam. The 78 induction cells of the second axis accelerator require a total Metglas capacity of approximately 40 volt seconds of flux. Four Metglas cores are used in each of the 5-foot diameter accelerator cells. Each Metglas core weighs approximately 3000 pounds. This paper presents the measurement techniques and results of the Metglas tests. Routine automated analysis and archival of the pulse data provided hysteresis curves, energy loss curves and total flux swing in the operating regime. Results of the tests were used to help the manufacturer improve quality control and increase the average flux swing of the cores. Results of the tests were used to match Metglas cores and to assemble accelerator cells with equal volt-second ratings.

  3. TESTING METGLAS FOR USE IN DARHT ACCELERATOR CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E. A. (Evan A.); Dalmas, D. A. (Dale Allen); Downing, J. N. (James N.), Jr.; Temple, R. D. (Rodney Dean)

    2001-01-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility [DARHT] at Los Alamos will use two induction linacs to produce high-energy electron beams. The electron beams will be used to generate x-rays from bremsstrahlung targets. The x-rays will be used to produce radiographs. The first accelerator is operational now, producing a 60-nanosecond electron beam. The second accelerator is under construction. It will produce a 2-microsecond electron beam. The 78 induction cells of the second axis accelerator require a total Metglas capacity of approximately 40 volt seconds of flux. Four Metglas cores are used in each of the 5-foot diameter accelerator cells. Each Metglas core weighs approximately 3000 pounds. This paper presents the measurement techniques and results of the Metglas tests. Routine automated analysis and archival of the pulse data provided hysteresis curves, energy loss curves and total flux swing in the operating regime. Results of the tests were used to help the manufacturer improve quality control and increase the average flux swing of the cores. Results of the tests were used to match Metglas cores and to assemble accelerator cells with equal volt-second ratings.

  4. The test pulse line ion accelerator in Lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiao-Kang; Cao, Shu-Chun; Zhang, Zi-Min; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Quan-Tang; Liu, Ming; Jing, Yi; Li, Zhong-Ping; Wan, Ming; Wang, Bin; Yang, Chun-Ming; Xiao, Rong-Qing; Zhang, Ying-Fa; Li, Ji-An

    2012-03-01

    To accelerate intense, short pulsed heavy ion beams to the energies of interest for studies of high energy density physics and warm dense matter, the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), of which the axial acceleration gradient can achieve several MeV per meter with realistic helix parameters at very low cost, was developed in recent years. A simple prototype of PLIA for a proof-of-principle experiment called the Lanzhou Test PLIA was designed and constructed at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou, and the test result matches the calculated result well. The pattern of the axial electric field Ez and the velocity of the traveling wave were simulated by CST.

  5. Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility: research highlights and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2014-08-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has served as a user facility for accelerator science for over a quarter of a century. In fulfilling this mission, the ATF offers the unique combination of a high-brightness 80 MeV electron beam that is synchronized to a 1 TW picosecond CO2 laser. We unveil herein our plan to considerably expand the ATF's floor space with an upgrade of the electron beam's energy to 300 MeV and the CO2 laser's peak power to 100 TW. This upgrade will propel the ATF even further to the forefront of research on advanced accelerators and radiation sources, supporting the most innovative ideas in this field. We discuss emerging opportunities for scientific breakthroughs, including the following: plasma wakefield acceleration studies in research directions already active at the ATF; laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), where the longer laser wavelengths are expected to engender a proportional increase in the beam's charge while our linac will assure, for the first time, the opportunity to undertake detailed studies of seeding and staging of the LWFA; proton acceleration to the 100-200 MeV level, which is essential for medical applications; and others.

  6. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users' facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high gradient acceleration and state of the art free electron lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 to 100 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps Nd:YAG laser and a 100 mJ, 10 ps CO{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high brightness electron beams. The AFT's experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the High power laser will begin operation this year. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  7. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users' facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high-power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high-gradient acceleration and state-of-the-art Free-Electron Lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps ND:YAG laser and a 500 mJ, 10 to 100 ps C0{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various laser acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high-brightness electron beams. The ATF's experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the high-power laser will begin operation this year.

  8. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-09-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users` facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high-power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high-gradient acceleration and state-of-the-art Free-Electron Lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps ND:YAG laser and a 500 mJ, 10 to 100 ps C0{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various laser acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high-brightness electron beams. The ATF`s experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the high-power laser will begin operation this year.

  9. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing for Solar Reflectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.; Elmore, R.; Lee, J.; Kennedy, C.

    2011-09-01

    To meet the challenge to reduce the cost of electricity generated with concentrating solar power (CSP) new low-cost reflector materials are being developed including metalized polymer reflectors and must be tested and validated against appropriate failure mechanisms. We explore the application of testing methods and statistical inference techniques for quantifying estimates and improving lifetimes of concentrating solar power (CSP) reflectors associated with failure mechanisms initiated by exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) part of the solar spectrum. In general, a suite of durability and reliability tests are available for testing a variety of failure mechanisms where the results of a set are required to understand overall lifetime of a CSP reflector. We will focus on the use of the Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) as a testing device for assessing various degradation patterns attributable to accelerated UV exposure. Depending on number of samples, test conditions, degradation and failure patterns, test results may be used to derive insight into failure mechanisms, associated physical parameters, lifetimes and uncertainties. In the most complicated case warranting advanced planning and statistical inference, step-stress accelerated degradation (SSADT) methods may be applied.

  10. Tungsten Powder as an accelerator target & InBeam Testing

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 Tungsten Powder as an accelerator target & InBeam Testing Ottone Caretta, Peter Loveridge 2. Moving Solid Tungsten Bars + studies on dynamic stress and strain-rate effects published beam parameters 3. Tungsten Powder + Pneumatic conveyance of powder demonstrated - wear of parts

  11. Reliability estimation of aeronautic component by accelerated tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Charruau; F. Guerin; J. Hernández Dominguez; J. Berthon

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a reliability assessment of aeronautic electronic board using the accelerated test approach. The mission profile used is one defined in FIDES for electronic equipment in aircraft. The reliability function is defined taking into account the different phases of product life (Ground, Taxiing, Flying, Dormant). FIDES describes the environment (thermal and humidity, thermal cycling, mechanical, …) for each

  12. DE91 C15841 The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    .C. Fernow, J. Fischer, A.S. Fisher, J. Gallardo, Xie Jialin, H.G. Kirk, Z. Parsa, R.B. Palmer, T. Rao, J Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 K.T. McDonald D.P. Russell Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544 Z.Y. Jiang by D.P. Russell Abstract The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), presently under construction

  13. Influence of in situ concrete variability on accelerated carbonation test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph. Turcry; A. Younsi; F. Jacquemot; A. Aït-Mokhtar; P. Rougeau

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic approaches to design reinforced concrete structures require the knowledge of distribution laws governing the statistical variability of concrete properties used as models inputs. The present work focuses on the variability of carbonation resistance throughout the construction period and inside an existing structure. Accelerated carbonation tests were carried out in a laboratory on more than 120 samples taken from two

  14. Inverse gaussian accelerated test models based on cumulative damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Onar; W. J. Padgett

    2000-01-01

    The failure of a system under environmental stress often can be described by an accelerated test model which incorporates the environmental variable L. Here, the failure of such a system at environmental level L is modeled as the first passage of accumulated damage to a critical threshold value. Assuming a discrete additive damage model leads to a Birnbaum–Saunders-type distribution for

  15. On the life time of contrail cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.; Graf, K.

    2012-04-01

    Contrails represent reproducible prototypes of cirrus clouds which are easier to understand scientifically and offer better chances for experimental investigations than natural cirrus. In the past, investigation of contrails led to important general insight into the atmosphere system, such as the detection of ice supersaturation, homogeneous and heterogeneous ice particle formation, and subvisible cirrus. Even the Brewer-Dobson circulation was detected because contrails were observed to be short-lived at multitudes above the tropopause. Here we present results constraining the mean life time of contrail cirrus based on comparisons of results from a new contrail cirrus model, ECMWF forecast data and several years of Meteosat satellite observations for the North Atlantic and Europe. The mean life time of contrails is not yet well known. Persistent contrails form at aviation cruise altitudes mainly in the upper troposphere, when the temperature is below the Schmidt-Appleman (SAC) threshold temperature and when the ambient atmosphere is humid enough for long-lived contrails. The SAC threshold depends on aircraft and fuel properties, pressure and humidity. Contrails spread and persist in ice supersaturated air masses. Contrails are visible also for several minutes or even longer when the relative humidity is slightly below saturation, in particular at low temperatures. Contrails survive until the ambient air gets dried beyond ice saturation (e.g. by subsidence, mixing with dry air, radiative warming) or until the ice particles get large enough to sediment quickly and to fall down into drier air masses or, rarely, precipitate to ground. Contrails with large ice particles may end in fallstreaks (i.e. in a curtain of large and quickly falling ice particles). With time, contrails may loose their identity and become part of other thicker cirrus clouds. We model the formation and decay of contrails for a fleet of aircraft using a recently developed Lagrangian contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP (Schumann, U.: A contrail cirrus prediction model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 4, 3185-3293, doi:10.5194/gmdd-4-3185-2011, 2011). The formation of contrails and their transition into contrail cirrus is modeled for given aircraft types, aircraft tracks and given meteorology (taken from ECMWF). We found that the computed contrail cover is highly sensitive to the processes which limit the life time of contrail cirrus. The life-time of contrail clusters should be similar to the lifetime of ice supersaturated regions (ISSR) which has been estimated at mid-latitudes to vary from minutes to possibly a few days with median values of order hours. Here, we estimate the life-time of ISSR regions by computing the age of trajectories which start at aircraft waypoints satisfying the SAC in ice supersaturated air and last until the ambient humidity drops below ice saturation. This aircraft-related ISSR-life-time is not the life-time of ISSR per se, but the life-time of ice supersaturation relevant for contrails. For this purpose we use the Lagrangian trajectory model part of CoCiP for a passive tracer with ECMWF data. Most of such trajectories end after less than one hour. The age frequency distribution follows an exponential function. Based on such a fit the mean and median ages of ISSR regions are 14.6 and 10.1 h. The life time depends on many parameters; it is large in particular in the upper and mid polar and upper tropical troposphere. When we apply CoCiP for contrails including ice formation form ambient ice supersaturation but without any particle number loss process, we compute ages which exceed the ISSR ages. The larger life time result from the reservoir of ice water built up in the contrails while staying in the ISSR. This ice water reservoir is a maximum just when the ISSR regime ends. It takes considerable time to mix drier ambient air into the contrail and to sublimate this ice. Hence, the total contrail age without ice loss processes could reach about 1.5 times the age of ISSR masses. With some loss processes included in the model, the c

  16. The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility laser linac beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xijie (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA) California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics); Kirk, H.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-09-26

    We report here the low emittance beam transport line for laser acceleration experiments at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). In order to preserve the low emittance ({approximately} 10{sup -10} m-rad) 50 MeV electron beam, great care has to be paid to the higher-order effects. The low-emittance transport line consists of two parts; the first part performs and emittance selection, and the other part provides the possibility of energy selection and beam transport to the experimental area. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. An Accelerated Method for Testing Soldering Tendency of Core Pins

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; Ried, Paul [Ried, Engineering; Olson, Paul [Balzers, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    An accelerated method for testing die soldering has been developed. High intensity ultrasonic vibrations has been used to simulate the die casting conditions such as high pressure and high impingement speed of molten metal on the pin. Soldering tendency of steels and coated pins has been examined. The results indicate that in the low carbon steel/Al system, the onset of soldering is 60 times faster with ultrasonic vibration than that without ultrasonic vibration. In the H13/A380 system, the onset of soldering reaction is accelerated to 30-60 times. Coating significantly reduces the soldering tendency of the core pins.

  18. An Integration Testing Facility for the CERN Accelerator Controls System

    E-print Network

    Stapley, N; Bau, J C; Deghaye, S; Dehavay, C; Sliwinski, W; Sobczak, M

    2009-01-01

    A major effort has been invested in the design, development, and deployment of the LHC Control System. This large control system is made up of a set of core components and dependencies, which although tested individually, are often not able to be tested together on a system capable of representing the complete control system environment, including hardware. Furthermore this control system is being adapted and applied to CERN's whole accelerator complex, and in particular for the forthcoming renovation of the PS accelerators. To ensure quality is maintained as the system evolves, and toimprove defect prevention, the Controls Group launched a project to provide a dedicated facility for continuous, automated, integration testing of its core components to incorporate into its production process. We describe the project, initial lessons from its application, status, and future directions.

  19. Exploratory test of utility of magnetic insulation for electrostatic accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisham, L. R.; von Halle, A.; Carpe, A. F.; Rossi, Guy; Gilton, K. R.; McBride, E. D.; Gilson, E. P.; Stepanov, A.; Stevenson, T. N.

    2012-02-01

    A recent paper [L. R. Grisham, Phys. Plasmas 16, 043111 (2009)] proposed that a magnetic field which enveloped each of the electrodes in an electrostatic accelerator, along with their support structures, might suppress field emission of electrons and thus allows a higher electric field gradient to be applied between accelerator stages without the onset of vacuum electrical breakdown. Such a magnetic field configuration might be produced by flowing a substantial electric current through each accelerator grid and its support from high current low voltage supplies floated at each accelerator grid potential. This experimental note reports a preliminary exploratory test of whether this magnetic insulation approach might be of benefit at a modest magnetic field strength which could be suitable for practical accelerator applications. This experiment did not find evidence for an increase of the electrostatic potential gradient which could be sustained across a vacuum gap when the cathodic (electron-emitting) electrode was enveloped in a magnetic field of about 240 G. This note discusses a number of possible explanations for this observation as well as the inherent limitations of the experiment.

  20. Test particle acceleration in torsional spine magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, M.

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection is taking place commonly in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares which are rich sources of highly energetic particles. One of the proposed mechanisms for steady-state 3D magnetic reconnection is "torsional spine reconnection". By using the magnetic and electric fields for "torsional spine reconnection", we numerically investigate the features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona. We show that efficient acceleration of a relativistic proton is possible near the null point where it can gain up to 100 MeV of kinetic energy within a few milliseconds. However, varying the injection position results in different scenarios for proton acceleration. A proton is most efficiently accelerated when it is injected at the point where the magnetic field lines change their curvature in the fan plane. Moreover, a proton injected far away from the null point cannot be accelerated and, even in some cases, it is trapped in the magnetic field. In addition, adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory.

  1. Preloading To Accelerate Slow-Crack-Growth Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.; Choi, Sung R.; Pawlik, Ralph J.

    2004-01-01

    An accelerated-testing methodology has been developed for measuring the slow-crack-growth (SCG) behavior of brittle materials. Like the prior methodology, the accelerated-testing methodology involves dynamic fatigue ( constant stress-rate) testing, in which a load or a displacement is applied to a specimen at a constant rate. SCG parameters or life prediction parameters needed for designing components made of the same material as that of the specimen are calculated from the relationship between (1) the strength of the material as measured in the test and (2) the applied stress rate used in the test. Despite its simplicity and convenience, dynamic fatigue testing as practiced heretofore has one major drawback: it is extremely time-consuming, especially at low stress rates. The present accelerated methodology reduces the time needed to test a specimen at a given rate of applied load, stress, or displacement. Instead of starting the test from zero applied load or displacement as in the prior methodology, one preloads the specimen and increases the applied load at the specified rate (see Figure 1). One might expect the preload to alter the results of the test and indeed it does, but fortunately, it is possible to account for the effect of the preload in interpreting the results. The accounting is done by calculating the normalized strength (defined as the strength in the presence of preload the strength in the absence of preload) as a function of (1) the preloading factor (defined as the preload stress the strength in the absence of preload) and (2) a SCG parameter, denoted n, that is used in a power-law crack-speed formulation. Figure 2 presents numerical results from this theoretical calculation.

  2. Reproduction of natural corrosion by accelerated laboratory testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-05-01

    Various laboratory corrosion tests have been developed to study the behavior of glass waste forms under conditions similar to those expected in an engineered repository. The data generated by laboratory experiments are useful for understanding corrosion mechanisms and for developing chemical models to predict the long-term behavior of glass. However, it is challenging to demonstrate that these test methods produce results that can be directly related to projecting the behavior of glass waste forms over time periods of thousands of years. One method to build confidence in the applicability of the test methods is to study the natural processes that have been taking place over very long periods in environments similar to those of the repository. In this paper, we discuss whether accelerated testing methods alter the fundamental mechanisms of glass corrosion by comparing the alteration patterns that occur in naturally altered glasses with those that occur in accelerated laboratory environments. This comparison is done by (1) describing the alteration of glasses reacted in nature over long periods of time and in accelerated laboratory environments and (2) establishing the reaction kinetics of naturally altered glass and laboratory reacted glass waste forms.

  3. Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

  4. Standardization of methods of accelerated tests of stainless steels for resistance to pitting corrosion. electrochemical tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Freiman; R. Bartonichek; Flis Y; Garts I; B. Narovska; M. Prazhak

    1986-01-01

    Earlier (1) the problems and features of standardization of accelerated chemical and electrochemical tests of stainless steels for resistance to pitting corrosion (or pitting resistance) were presented and on the basis of collective experimental data a method of testing in a ferric chloride solution was proposed for standardization. A method of electrochemical tests is substantiated and recommended for standardization.

  5. Test of the law of gravitation at small accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H.; Lohrmann, E.; Schubert, S.; Bartel, W.; Glazov, A.; Löhr, B.; Niebuhr, C.; Wünsch, E.; Jönsson, L.; Kempf, G.

    2012-10-01

    Newton's Law of Gravitation has been tested at small values a of the acceleration, down to a ? 10-10 ms-2, the approximate value of MOND's constant a 0. Within experimental errors no deviations from Newton's Law were found. A comparison with six versions of the MOND interpolation function is given. Under the assumptions made in this paper one of the versions can be excluded.

  6. Accelerated Creep Testing of High Strength Aramid Webbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Stnfield, Clarence E.; Valverde, Omar

    2012-01-01

    A series of preliminary accelerated creep tests were performed on four variants of 12K and 24K lbf rated Vectran webbing to help develop an accelerated creep test methodology and analysis capability for high strength aramid webbings. The variants included pristine, aged, folded and stitched samples. This class of webbings is used in the restraint layer of habitable, inflatable space structures, for which the lifetime properties are currently not well characterized. The Stepped Isothermal Method was used to accelerate the creep life of the webbings and a novel stereo photogrammetry system was used to measure the full-field strains. A custom MATLAB code is described, and used to reduce the strain data to produce master creep curves for the test samples. Initial results show good correlation between replicates; however, it is clear that a larger number of samples are needed to build confidence in the consistency of the results. It is noted that local fiber breaks affect the creep response in a similar manner to increasing the load, thus raising the creep rate and reducing the time to creep failure. The stitched webbings produced the highest variance between replicates, due to the combination of higher local stresses and thread-on-fiber damage. Large variability in the strength of the webbings is also shown to have an impact on the range of predicted creep life.

  7. Testing in a combined vibration and acceleration environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard Alan; Romero, Edward F.

    2004-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has previously tested a capability to impose a 7.5 g-rms (30 g peak) radial vibration load up to 2 kHz on a 25 lb object with superimposed 50 g acceleration at its centrifuge facility. This was accomplished by attaching a 3,000 lb Unholtz-Dickie mechanical shaker at the end of the centrifuge arm to create a 'Vibrafuge'. However, the combination of non-radial vibration directions, and linear accelerations higher than 50g's are currently not possible because of the load capabilities of the shaker and the stresses on the internal shaker components due to the combined centrifuge acceleration. Therefore, a new technique using amplified piezo-electric actuators has been developed to surpass the limitations of the mechanical shaker system. They are lightweight, modular and would overcome several limitations presented by the current shaker. They are 'scalable', that is, adding more piezo-electric units in parallel or in series can support larger-weight test articles or displacement/frequency regimes. In addition, the units could be mounted on the centrifuge arm in various configurations to provide a variety of input directions. The design along with test results will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the new piezo-electric Vibrafuge.

  8. GTA (ground test accelerator) Phase 1: Baseline design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program has two objectives: to provide the necessary basis for a discriminator/weapon decision by 1992, and to develop the technology in stages that lead ultimately to a neutral particle beam weapon. The ground test accelerator (GTA) is the test bed that permits the advancement of the state-of-the-art under experimental conditions in an integrated automated system mode. An intermediate goal of the GTA program is to support the Integrated Space Experiments, while the ultimate goal is to support the 1992 decision. The GTA system and each of its major subsystems are described, and project schedules and resource requirements are provided. (LEW)

  9. Vibrational measurement for commissioning SRF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Leibfritz, J.; Martinez, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The commissioning of two cryomodule components is underway at Fermilab's Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Accelerator Test Facility. The research at this facility supports the next generation high intensity linear accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), a new high intensity injector (Project X) and other future machines. These components, Cryomodule No.1 (CM1) and Capture Cavity II (CC2), which contain 1.3 GHz cavities are connected in series in the beamline and through cryogenic plumbing. Studies regarding characterization of ground motion, technical and cultural noise continue. Mechanical transfer functions between the foundation and critical beamline components have been measured and overall system displacement characterized. Baseline motion measurements given initial operation of cryogenic, vacuum systems and other utilities are considered.

  10. Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO)

    2004-11-23

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  11. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy [Research Engineer] [Research Engineer; Motupally, Sathya [Research Engineer] [Research Engineer

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  12. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    ScienceCinema

    Andrei Seryi

    2010-01-08

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  13. Testing of a medical linear accelerator's computer-control system

    SciTech Connect

    Weinhous, M.S.; Purdy, J.A.; Granda, C.O. (Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (US))

    1990-01-01

    In August of 1987, the Radiation Oncology Center at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology became the first academic-medical-center user of Varian's computer-controlled therapy accelerator, a prototype version of the 2100C. Installation was accomplished by the retrofit of a computer system to our two-year-old Clinac 1800. Being well aware of the malfunctions that occurred in other computer-controlled accelerators, we took extraordinary measures to assure proper operation of the new, computerized, system. Our acceptance procedure included tests of (i) mechanical systems (isocentricity, digital readouts, etc.); (ii) radiation parameters (flatness, symmetry, output, etc.); (iii) manual safety systems (emergency off switches, etc.); (iv) the computer console systems (communications integrity, state integrity, etc.); and (v) the interlock systems (some 50 electrical, mechanical, and/or computer-controlled interlocks). As items (i), (ii), and (iii) do not differ significantly from the tests for a non-computer-controlled machine, they will not be discussed here. Rather, this report will concentrate on the methods that were devised to test the computer-control and interlock systems.

  14. Testing of a medical linear accelerator's computer-control system.

    PubMed

    Weinhous, M S; Purdy, J A; Granda, C O

    1990-01-01

    In August of 1987, the Radiation Oncology Center at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology became the first academic-medical-center user of Varian's computer-controlled therapy accelerator, a prototype version of the 2100C. Installation was accomplished by the retrofit of a computer system to our two-year-old Clinac 1800. Being well aware of the malfunctions that occurred in other computer-controlled accelerators, we took extraordinary measures to assure proper operation of the new, computerized, system. Our acceptance procedure included tests of (i) mechanical systems (isocentricity, digital readouts, etc.); (ii) radiation parameters (flatness, symmetry, output, etc.); (iii) manual safety systems (emergency off switches, etc.); (iv) the computer console systems (communications integrity, state integrity, etc.); and (v) the interlock systems (some 50 electrical, mechanical, and/or computer-controlled interlocks). As items (i), (ii), and (iii) do not differ significantly from the tests for a non-computer-controlled machine, they will not be discussed here. Rather, this report will concentrate on the methods that were devised to test the computer-control and interlock systems. PMID:2308551

  15. Testing of accelerator dipoles in pressurized superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, W.S.; Caspi, S.; Hassenzahl, W.; Lambertson, G.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.; Schafer, R.; Warren, R.

    1980-01-01

    Two superconducting accelerator dipole magnets, with different internal construction features, have been tested in pressurized superfluid helium (1.8K, 1.2 atmosphere) as well as in regular pool boiling helium (4.4K, 1.2 atmosphere) helium. The coils of one magnet were moderately pre-stressed, and 4.2K design performance was rapidly achieved in the superfluid. The other magnet had very low coil pre-stress, reduced helium ventilation, and displayed degraded performance, even in the superfluid helium.

  16. Results of accelerated thermal cycle tests of solar cells modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P.; Mueller, R.; Salama, M.; Yasui, R.

    1976-01-01

    Various candidate solar panel designs were evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally, with respect to their thermal cycling survival capability, and in particular with respect to an accelerated simulation of thermal cycles representative of Viking '75 mission requirements. The experimental results were obtained on 'mini-panels' thermally cycled in a newly installed automated test facility herein described. The resulting damage was analyzed physically and theoretically, and on the basis of these analyses the panel design was suitably modified to significantly improve its ability to withstand the thermal environment. These successful modifications demonstrate the value of the complementary theoretical-experimental approach adopted, and discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Testing for a super-acceleration phase of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Bridle, Sarah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92612 (United States); Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-15

    We propose a method to probe the phenomenological nature of dark energy which makes no assumptions about the evolution of its energy density. We exemplify this method with a test for a super-acceleration phase of the universe i.e., a phase when the dark energy density grows as the universe expands. We show how such a phase can be detected by combining SNIa (SNAP-like) and CMB (Planck) data without making any assumptions about the evolution of the dark energy equation of state, or about the value of the matter density parameter.

  18. Simulations and Vacuum Tests of a CLIC Accelerating Structure

    E-print Network

    Garion, C

    2011-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider, under study, is based on room temperature high gradient structures. The vacuum specificities of these cavities are low conductance, large surface areas and a non-baked system. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-7 Pa) in a system where the residual vacuum is driven by water outgassing. A finite element model based on an analogy thermal/vacuum has been built to estimate the vacuum profile in an accelerating structure. Vacuum tests are carried out in a dedicated set-up, the vacuum performances of different configurations are presented and compared with the predictions.

  19. Using Uncertainty Analysis to Guide the Development of Accelerated Stress Tests (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M.

    2014-03-01

    Extrapolation of accelerated testing to the long-term results expected in the field has uncertainty associated with the acceleration factors and the range of possible stresses in the field. When multiple stresses (such as temperature and humidity) can be used to increase the acceleration, the uncertainty may be reduced according to which stress factors are used to accelerate the degradation.

  20. Using Accelerated Testing To Predict Module Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term reliability is critical to the cost effectiveness and commercial success of photovoltaic (PV) products. Today most PV modules are warranted for 25 years, but there is no accepted test protocol to validate a 25-year lifetime. The qualification tests do an excellent job of identifying design, materials, and process flaws that are likely to lead to premature failure (infant mortality), but they are not designed to test for wear-out mechanisms that limit lifetime. This paper presents a method for evaluating the ability of a new PV module technology to survive long-term exposure to specific stresses. The authors propose the use of baseline technologies with proven long-term field performance as controls in the accelerated stress tests. The performance of new-technology modules can then be evaluated versus that of proven-technology modules. If the new-technology demonstrates equivalent or superior performance to the proven one, there is a high likelihood that they will survive versus the tested stress in the real world.

  1. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Project Accelerated Life Thermal Cycling Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) project was a joint U.S./Russian effort to build a photovoltaic (PV) solar array and deliver it to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA will be used to increase the electrical power on Mir and provide PV array performance data in support of Phase 1 of the International Space Station. The MCSA was brought to Mir by space shuttle Atlantis in November 1995. This report describes an accelerated thermal life cycle test which was performed on two samples of the MCSA. In eight months time, two MCSA solar array 'mini' panel test articles were simultaneously put through 24,000 thermal cycles. There was no significant degradation in the structural integrity of the test articles and no electrical degradation, not including one cell damaged early and removed from consideration. The nature of the performance degradation caused by this one cell is briefly discussed. As a result of this test, changes were made to improve some aspects of the solar cell coupon-to-support frame interface on the flight unit. It was concluded from the results that the integration of the U.S. solar cell modules with the Russian support structure would be able to withstand at least 24,000 thermal cycles (4 years on-orbit). This was considered a successful development test.

  2. Integration Test of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator System Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 4 kilowatt-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. NASA science mission performance analysis was completed using the latest high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) and Aerojet-Rocketdyne's state-of-the-art BPT-4000 Hall thruster performance curves. Mission analysis results indicated that the HiVHAc thruster out performs the BPT-4000 thruster for all but one of the missions studied. Tests of the HiVHAc system major components were performed. Performance evaluation of the HiVHAc thruster at NASA Glenn's vacuum facility 5 indicated that thruster performance was lower than performance levels attained during tests in vacuum facility 12 due to the lower background pressures attained during vacuum facility 5 tests when compared to vacuum facility 12. Voltage-Current characterization of the HiVHAc thruster in vacuum facility 5 showed that the HiVHAc thruster can operate stably for a wide range of anode flow rates for discharge voltages between 250 and 600 volts. A Colorado Power Electronics enhanced brassboard power processing unit was tested in vacuum for 1,500 hours and the unit demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96.3% at 3.9 kilowatts and 650 volts. Stand-alone open and closed loop tests of a VACCO TRL 6 xenon flow control module were also performed. An integrated test of the HiVHAc thruster, brassboard power processing unit, and xenon flow control module was performed and confirmed that integrated operation of the HiVHAc system major components. Future plans include continuing the maturation of the HiVHAc system major components and the performance of a single-string integration test.

  3. Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: Background tests and thermodynamic analysis

    E-print Network

    J. A. S. Lima; L. L. Graef; D. Pavón; S. Basilakos

    2014-06-20

    A new cosmic scenario with gravitationally induced particle creation is proposed. In this model the Universe evolves from an early to a late time de Sitter era, with the recent accelerating phase driven only by the negative creation pressure associated with the cold dark matter component. The model can be interpreted as an attempt to reduce the so-called cosmic sector (dark matter plus dark energy) and relate the two cosmic accelerating phases (early and late time de Sitter expansions). A detailed thermodynamic analysis including possible quantum corrections is also carried out. For a very wide range of the free parameters, it is found that the model presents the expected behavior of an ordinary macroscopic system in the sense that it approaches thermodynamic equilibrium in the long run (i.e., as it nears the second de Sitter phase). Moreover, an upper bound is found for the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the primordial de Sitter phase. Finally, when confronted with the recent observational data, the current `quasi'-de Sitter era, as predicted by the model, is seen to pass very comfortably the cosmic background tests.

  4. Results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program at Avery Island: Topical report RSI-0211

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stickney

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program conducted in the ONWI test facility in the Avery Island salt mine. The accelerated borehole closure tests were a part of a field testing program at Avery Island to provide data on the thermomechanical response of domal salt when subjected to conditions similar to those expected in a

  5. The use of accelerated radiation testing for avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Heather

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for military and national security applications has been increasing. One possible use of these vehicles is as remote sensing platforms, where the UAV carries several sensors to provide real-time information about biological, chemical or radiological agents that might have been released into the environment. One such UAV, the Global Hawk, has a payload space that can carry nearly one ton of sensing equipment, which makes these platforms significantly larger than many satellites. Given the size of the potential payload and the heightened radiation environment at high altitudes, these systems could be affected by the radiation-induced failure mechanisms from the naturally occurring terrestrial environment. In this paper, we will explore the use of accelerated radiation testing to prepare UAV payloads for deployment.

  6. A flexible and configurable system to test accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jerzy M. Nogiec et al.

    2001-07-20

    Fermilab's accelerator magnet R and D programs, including production of superconducting high gradient quadrupoles for the LHC insertion regions, require rigorous yet flexible magnetic measurement systems. Measurement systems must be capable of handling various types of hardware and extensible to all measurement technologies and analysis algorithms. A tailorable software system that satisfies these requirements is discussed. This single system, capable of distributed parallel signal processing, is built on top of a flexible component-based framework that allows for easy reconfiguration and run-time modification. Both core and domain-specific components can be assembled into various magnet test or analysis systems. The system configured to comprise a rotating coil harmonics measurement is presented. Technologies as Java, OODB, XML, JavaBeans, software bus and component-based architectures are used.

  7. Vibrational Stability of SRF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Recently developed, the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Accelerator Test Facilities at Fermilab support the International Linear Collider (ILC), High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS), a new high intensity injector (Project X) and other future machines. These facilities; Meson Detector Building (MDB) and New Muon Lab (NML) have very different foundations, structures, relative elevations with respect to grade level and surrounding soil composition. Also, there are differences in the operating equipment and their proximity to the primary machine. All the future machines have stringent operational stability requirements. The present study examines both near-field and ambient vibration in order to develop an understanding of the potential contribution of near-field sources (e.g. compressors, ultra-high and standard vacuum equipment, klystrons, modulators, utility fans and pumps) and distant noise sources to the overall system displacements. Facility vibration measurement results and methods of possible isolation from noise sources are presented and discussed.

  8. The test pulse line ion accelerator in Lanzhou

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen Xiao-Kang; Cao Shu-Chun; Zhang Zi-Min; Zhao Hong-Wei; Zhao Quan-Tang; Liu Ming; Jing Yi; Li Zhong-Ping; Wan Ming; Wang Bin; Yang Chun-Ming; Xiao Rong-Qing; Zhang Ying-Fa; Li Ji-An

    2012-01-01

    To accelerate intense, short pulsed heavy ion beams to the energies of interest for studies of high energy density physics and warm dense matter, the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), of which the axial acceleration gradient can achieve several MeV per meter with realistic helix parameters at very low cost, was developed in recent years. A simple prototype of PLIA

  9. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing (SSADT) for Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Suh, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) for photovoltaics (PV). Developed are a step-stress degradation test (SSADT) for PV reliability tests and a lifetime prediction model for PV products.

  10. Degradation mechanisms and accelerated testing in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Although there has been recent progress in improving durability, further improvements are needed to meet the commercialization targets. Past improvements have largely been made possible because of the fundamental understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms. By investigating component and cell degradation modes; defining the fundamental degradation mechanisms of components and component interactions new materials can be designed to improve durability. Various factors have been shown to affect the useful life of PEM fuel cells. Other issues arise from component optimization. Operational conditions (such as impurities in either the fuel and oxidant stream), cell environment, temperature (including subfreezing exposure), pressure, current, voltage, etc.; or transient versus continuous operation, including start-up and shutdown procedures, represent other factors that can affect cell performance and durability. The need for Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) can be quickly understood given the target lives for fuel cell systems: 5000 hours ({approx} 7 months) for automotive, and 40,000 hrs ({approx} 4.6 years) for stationary systems. Thus testing methods that enable more rapid screening of individual components to determine their durability characteristics, such as off-line environmental testing, are needed for evaluating new component durability in a reasonable turn-around time. This allows proposed improvements in a component to be evaluated rapidly and independently, subsequently allowing rapid advancement in PEM fuel cell durability. These tests are also crucial to developers in order to make sure that they do not sacrifice durability while making improvements in costs (e.g. lower platinum group metal [PGM] loading) and performance (e.g. thinner membrane or a GDL with better water management properties). To achieve a deeper understanding and improve PEM fuel cell durability LANL is conducting research to better define fuel cell component degradation mechanisms and correlate AST measurements to component in 'real-world' situations.

  11. Preliminary analysis of accelerated space flight ionizing radiation testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Stock, L. V.; Carter, D. J.; Chang, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary analysis shows that radiation dose equivalent to 30 years in the geosynchronous environment can be accumulated in a typical composite material exposed to space for 2 years or less onboard a spacecraft orbiting from perigee of 300 km out to the peak of the inner electron belt (approximately 2750 km). Future work to determine spacecraft orbits better tailored to materials accelerated testing is indicated. It is predicted that a range of 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 10th power rads would be accumulated in 3-6 mil thick epoxy/graphite exposed by a test spacecraft orbiting in the inner electron belt. This dose is equivalent to the accumulated dose that this material would be expected to have after 30 years in a geosynchronous orbit. It is anticipated that material specimens would be brought back to Earth after 2 years in the radiation environment so that space radiation effects on materials could be analyzed by laboratory methods.

  12. Results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program at Avery Island, Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stickney

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program conducted in the test facility in the Avery Island salt mine. The accelerated borehole closure tests provided data on the thermomechanical response of domal salt when subjected to conditions similar to those expected in a high-level nuclear waste repository. The objective is to aid numerical methods used to

  13. Improved single- and multi-contact life-time testing of dental restorative materials using key characteristics of the human masticatory system and a force/position-controlled robotic dental wear simulator.

    PubMed

    Raabe, D; Harrison, A; Ireland, A; Alemzadeh, K; Sandy, J; Dogramadzi, S; Melhuish, C; Burgess, S

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new in vitro wear simulator based on spatial parallel kinematics and a biologically inspired implicit force/position hybrid controller to replicate chewing movements and dental wear formations on dental components, such as crowns, bridges or a full set of teeth. The human mandible, guided by passive structures such as posterior teeth and the two temporomandibular joints, moves with up to 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) in Cartesian space. The currently available wear simulators lack the ability to perform these chewing movements. In many cases, their lack of sufficient DOF enables them only to replicate the sliding motion of a single occlusal contact point by neglecting rotational movements and the motion along one Cartesian axis. The motion and forces of more than one occlusal contact points cannot accurately be replicated by these instruments. Furthermore, the majority of wear simulators are unable to control simultaneously the main wear-affecting parameters, considering abrasive mechanical wear, which are the occlusal sliding motion and bite forces in the constraint contact phase of the human chewing cycle. It has been shown that such discrepancies between the true in vivo and the simulated in vitro condition influence the outcome and the quality of wear studies. This can be improved by implementing biological features of the human masticatory system such as tooth compliance realized through the passive action of the periodontal ligament and active bite force control realized though the central nervous system using feedback from periodontal preceptors. The simulator described in this paper can be used for single- and multi-occlusal contact testing due to its kinematics and ability to exactly replicate human translational and rotational mandibular movements with up to 6 DOF without neglecting movements along or around the three Cartesian axes. Recorded human mandibular motion and occlusal force data are the reference inputs of the simulator. Experimental studies of wear using this simulator demonstrate that integrating the biological feature of combined force/position hybrid control in dental material testing improves the linearity and reduces the variability of results. In addition, it has been shown that present biaxially operated dental wear simulators are likely to provide misleading results in comparative in vitro/in vivo one-contact studies due to neglecting the occlusal sliding motion in one plane which could introduce an error of up to 49% since occlusal sliding motion D and volumetric wear loss V(loss) are proportional. PMID:22155971

  14. Framework for a Comparative Accelerated Testing Standard for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Yamamichi, M.; Sample, T.; Miller, D.; Meakin, D.; Monokroussos, C.; TamizhMani, M.; Kempe, M.; Jordan, D.; Bosco, N.; Hacke, P.; Bermudez, V.; Kondo, M.

    2013-08-01

    As the photovoltaic industry has grown, the interest in comparative accelerated testing has also grown. Private test labs offer testing services that apply greater stress than the standard qualification tests as tools for differentiating products and for gaining increased confidence in long-term PV investments. While the value of a single international standard for comparative accelerated testing is widely acknowledged, the development of a consensus is difficult. This paper strives to identify a technical basis for a comparative standard.

  15. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and its daughters), {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 {times} 10{sup 8} ft{sup 2}or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling.

  16. LeRC rail accelerators - Test designs and diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.; Sturman, J. C.; Wang, S. Y.; Terdan, F. F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35053

  17. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  18. Development of a 20-MeV Dielectric-Loaded Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S.H.; Kinkead, A.K.; Gai, W.; Power, J.G.; Konecny, R.; Jing, C.G.; Tantawi, S.G.; Nantista, C.D.; Hu, Y.; Chen, H.; Tang, C.; Lin, Y.; Bruce, R.W.; Bruce, R.L.; Fliflet, A.W.; Lewis, D.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /LET Corp., Washington /Argonne /SLAC /Tsinghua U., Beijing

    2005-06-22

    This paper describes a joint project by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to develop a dielectric-loaded accelerator (DLA) test facility powered by a high-power 11.424-GHz magnicon amplifier. The magnicon can presently produce 25 MW of output power in a 250-ns pulse at 10 Hz, and efforts are in progress to increase this to 50 MW. The facility will include a 5 MeV electron inector being developed by the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. The DLA test structures are being developed by ANL, and some have undergone testing at NRL at gradients up to {approx} 8 MV/m. SLAC is developing a means to combine the two magnicon output arms, and to drive an injector and accelerator with separate control of the power ratio and relative phase. RWBruce Associates, Inc., working with NRl, is developing a means to join short ceramic sections into a continuous accelerator tube by ceramic brazing using an intense millimeter-wave beam. The installation and testing of the first dielectric-loaded test accelerator, including injector, DLA structure, and spectrometer, should take place within the next year. The facility will be used for testing DLA structures using a variety of materials and configurations, and also for testing other X-band accelerator concepts. The initial goal is to produce a compact 20 MeV dielectric-loaded test accelerator.

  19. Development of a 20 MeV Dielectric-Loaded Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Steven H.; Fliflet, Arne W. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kinkead, Allen K. [LET Corporation, Washington, DC 20007 (United States); Gai Wei; Power, John G.; Konecny, Richard; Jing Chunguang [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tantawi, Sami G.; Nantista, Christopher D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hu, Y.; Chen, H.; Tang, C.; Lin, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bruce, Ralph W.; Bruce, Robert L. [RWBruce Associates, Inc., Arnold, MD 21012 (United States); Lewis, David III [Material Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2004-12-07

    This paper describes a joint project by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with the StanFord Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to develop a dielectric-loaded accelerator (DLA) test facility powered by a high-power 11.424-GHz magnicon amplifier. The magnicon can presently produce 25 MW of output power in a 250-ns pulse at 10 Hz, and efforts are in progress to increase this to 50 MW. The facility will include a 5 MeV electron injector being developed by the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. The DLA test structures are being developed by ANL, and some have undergone testing at NRL at gradients up to {approx}8 MV/m. SLAC is developing a means to combine the two magnicon output arms, and to drive an injector and accelerator with separate control of the power ratio and relative phase. RWBruce Associates, Inc., working with NRL, is developing a means to join short ceramic sections into a continuous accelerator tube by ceramic brazing using an intense millimeter-wave beam. The installation and testing of the first dielectric-loaded test accelerator, including injector, DLA structure, and spectrometer, should take place within the next year. The facility will be used for testing DLA structures using a variety of materials and configurations, and also for testing other X-band accelerator concepts. The initial goal is to produce a compact 20 MeV dielectric-loaded test accelerator.

  20. Frequency acceleration of surface partial discharge tests on thin polymer films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Albertini; G. Coletti; C. Gemme; F. Guastavino

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation about the validity of applying frequency acceleration to recently devised testing procedures, aimed at evaluating the endurance to surface partial discharges of thin polymer films, is presented. The results of tests performed from 50 Hz up to 1000 Hz, on three different polymer films indicate, that no constant acceleration factor can be assumed, even for same material

  1. Testing of a loop heat pipe experimental apparatus under varied acceleration

    E-print Network

    Kurwitz, Richard Cable

    1997-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and fabricated to test a Loop Heat Pipe under varied acceleration. The experiment consisted of both flight and ground testing as well as comparisons to a model developed from models found in literature...

  2. Operational status of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Jialin, Xie; Kirk, H.G.; Malone, R.G.; Parsa, Z.; Palmer, R.B.; Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Sheehan, J.; Tsang, T.Y.F.; Ulc, S.; van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Zhang, R.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Bigio, I.; Kurnit, N.; Shimada, T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); McDonald, K.T.; Russel, D.P. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Jiang,

    1990-01-01

    Initial design parameters and early operational results of a 50 MeV high brightness electron linear accelerator are described. The system utilizes a radio frequency electron gun operating at a frequency of 2.856 GHz and a nominal output energy of 4.5 MeV followed by two, 2{pi}/3 mode, disc loaded, traveling wave accelerating sections. The gun cathode is photo excited with short (6 psec) laser pulses giving design peak currents of a few hundred amperes. The system will be utilized to carry out infra-red FEL studies and investigation of new high gradient accelerating structures.

  3. Experimental evaluation of the Battelle accelerated test design for the solar array at Mead, Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frickland, P. O.; Repar, J.

    1982-01-01

    A previously developed test design for accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules was experimentally evaluated. The studies included a review of relevant field experience, environmental chamber cycling of full size modules, and electrical and physical evaluation of the effects of accelerated aging during and after the tests. The test results indicated that thermally induced fatigue of the interconnects was the primary mode of module failure as measured by normalized power output. No chemical change in the silicone encapsulant was detectable after 360 test cycles.

  4. Hypersonic aerodynamics test facility using the external propulsion accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, J.; Lewis, M.; Gupta, A.; Sabean, J.

    1995-01-01

    The use of the External propulsion Accelerator (EPA) for launching models of hypersonic aerodynamic configurations into an instrumented ballistic range is discussed. The aerodynamic model is encased inside an axisymmetric projectile designed to be accelerated to high speed in the EPA. Accelerator lengths required to achieve hypersonic speeds are estimated to vary from 10 meters for Mach 7, 40 meters for Mach 10, 150 meters for Mach 15, and 700 meters for Mach 30, assuming a limit of 50,000 g's acceleration. For a model span of 10 cm to 25 cm, the launch tube diameters are 40 cm and 100 cm, respectively. Using this EPA launcher will enable exact simulation of hypersonic flight in ground facilities where both the gas composition and pressure can be controlled in the ballistic range.

  5. Testing Metglas for use in DARHT accelerator cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Rose; D. A. Dalmas; J. N. Downing; R. D. Temple

    2001-01-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility [DARHT] at Los Alamos will use two induction linacs to produce high-energy electron beams. The electron beams will be used to generate X-rays from bremsstrahlung targets. The X-rays will be used to produce radiographs. The first accelerator is operational now, producing a 60-nanosecond electron beam. The second accelerator is under construction. It will produce

  6. Testing pulse forming networks with DARHT accelerator cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Rose; D. A. Dalmas; J. N. Downing; R. D. Temple

    2001-01-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility [DARHT] at Los Alamos will use two induction linacs to produce high-energy electron beams. The electron beams will be used to generate X-rays from bremsstrahlung targets. The X-rays will be used to produce radiographs. The first accelerator is operational now, generating a 60-nanosecond electron beam. The second accelerator is under construction. It will generate

  7. Testing Metglas for use in DARHT accelerator cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Rose; D. A. Dalmas; J. N. Downing; R. D. Temple

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility [DARHT] at Los Alamos will use two induction linacs to produce high-energy electron beams. The electron beams will be used to generate X-rays from a bremsstrahlung target. Those X-rays will be used to generate radiographs. The first accelerator is operational now, operating with a 60-nanosecond electron beam. The second accelerator

  8. Testing pulse forming networks with DARHT accelerator cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Rose; D. A. Dalmas; J. N. Downing; R. D. Temple

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility [DARHT] at Los Alamos will use two induction linacs to produce high-energy electron beams. The electron beams will be used to generate X-rays from a bremsstrahlung target. Those X-rays will be used to generate radiographs. The first accelerator is operational now, operating with a 60-nanosecond electron beam. The second accelerator

  9. Design and Simulation of IOTA - a Novel Concept of Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V.V.; /Oak Ridge; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    The use of nonlinear lattices with large betatron tune spreads can increase instability and space charge thresholds due to improved Landau damping. Unfortunately, the majority of nonlinear accelerator lattices turn out to be nonintegrable, producing chaotic motion and a complex network of stable and unstable resonances. Recent advances in finding the integrable nonlinear accelerator lattices have led to a proposal to construct at Fermilab a test accelerator with strong nonlinear focusing which avoids resonances and chaotic particle motion. This presentation will outline the main challenges, theoretical design solutions and construction status of the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) underway at Fermilab.

  10. Results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program at Avery Island: Topical report RSI-0211

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    This report presents the results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program conducted in the ONWI test facility in the Avery Island salt mine. The accelerated borehole closure tests were a part of a field testing program at Avery Island to provide data on the thermomechanical response of domal salt when subjected to conditions similar to those expected in a high-level nuclear waste repository. The primary objective of the accelerated borehole closure test is to provide data that can be used for validation of the numerical methods used to predict the creep behavior of salt. Two series of accelerated borehole closure tests were performed. The first of these (Phase I) was conducted during 1980, and the second (Phase II) was conducted during 1981 and 1982. 5 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing - Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of metals to predict service life of metal-based structures in corrosive environments has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions similar to those of the corrosive environment. Their reliability to correlate to atmospheric exposure test results is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated corrosion testing has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long-term service life of a metal, despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard, and their use is crucial, a method that correlates timescales from accelerated testing to atmospheric exposure would be very valuable. This paper presents work that began with the characterization of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Beachside Corrosion Test Site. The chemical changes that occur on low carbon steel, during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions, were investigated using surface chemistry analytical methods. The corrosion rates and behaviors of panels subjected to long-term and accelerated corrosion conditions, involving neutral salt fog and alternating seawater spray, were compared to identify possible timescale correlations between accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The results, as well as preliminary findings on the correlation investigation, are presented.

  12. Results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program at Avery Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, R.G.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program conducted in the test facility in the Avery Island salt mine. The accelerated borehole closure tests provided data on the thermomechanical response of domal salt when subjected to conditions similar to those expected in a high-level nuclear waste repository. The objective is to aid numerical methods used to predict the creep behavior of salt. 5 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-06-02

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status.

  14. TENSILE AND CREEP BEHAVIOR OF GEOSYNTHETICS USING CONFINED-ACCELERATED TESTS

    E-print Network

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    the possibly significant effect of soil-geosynthetic interaction. A new creep testing machine was recently to tensile tests, creep tests are performed with in-isolation specimens. The lack of soil and accelerated creep tests were able to be performed, with any combination of temperature and soil confinement

  15. Testing of Composite Fan Vanes With Erosion-Resistant Coating Accelerated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Sutter, James K.; Otten, Kim D.; Samorezov, Sergey; Perusek, Gail P.

    2004-01-01

    The high-cycle fatigue of composite stator vanes provided an accelerated life-state prior to insertion in a test stand engine. The accelerated testing was performed in the Structural Dynamics Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center under the guidance of Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch personnel. Previous research on fixturing and test procedures developed at Glenn determined that engine vibratory conditions could be simulated for polymer matrix composite vanes by using the excitation of a combined slip table and electrodynamic shaker in Glenn's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. Bench-top testing gave researchers the confidence to test the coated vanes in a full-scale engine test.

  16. Development of a 20 MeV Dielectric-Loaded Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S.H.; Kinkead, A.K.; Gai, W.; Power, J.G.; Konecny, R.; Jing, C.; Long, J.; Tantawi, S.G.; Nantista, C.D.; Fliflet, A.W.; Lombardi, M.; Lewis, D.; /Naval Research; Bruce, R.W.; /Unlisted

    2007-04-13

    This paper presents a progress report on a joint project by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to develop a dielectric-loaded test accelerator in the magnicon facility at NRL. The accelerator will be powered by an experimental 11.424-GHz magnicon amplifier that presently produces 25 MW of output power in a {approx}250-ns pulse at up to 10 Hz. The accelerator will include a 5-MeV electron injector originally developed at the Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and can incorporate DLA structures up to 0.5 m in length. The DLA structures are being developed by ANL, and shorter test structures fabricated from a variety of dielectric materials have undergone testing at NRL at gradients up to {approx}8 MV/m. SLAC has developed components to distribute the power from the two magnicon output arms to the injector and to the DLA accelerating structure with separate control of the power ratio and relative phase. RWBruce Associates, Inc., working with NRL, has investigated means to join short ceramic sections into a continuous accelerator tube by a brazing process using an intense 83-GHz beam. The installation and testing of the first dielectric-loaded test accelerator, including injector, DLA test structure, and spectrometer, should take place within the next year.

  17. Meson Life Time in the Anisotropic Quark-Gluon Plasma

    E-print Network

    Mohammad Ali-Akbari; Davood Allahbakhshi

    2014-08-20

    In the hot (an)isotropic plasma the meson life time $\\tau$ is defined as a time scale after which the meson dissociates. According to the gauge/gravity duality, this time can be identified with the inverse of the imaginary part of the frequency of the quasinormal modes, $\\omega_I$, in the (an)isotropic black hole background. In the high temperature limit, we numerically show that at fixed temperature(entropy density) the life time of the mesons decreases(increases) as the anisotropy parameter raises. For general case, at fixed temperature we introduce a polynomial function for $\\omega_I$ and observe that the meson life time decreases. Moreover, we realize that $(s/T^3)^6$, where $s$ and $T$ are entropy density and temperature of the plasma respectively, can be expressed as a function of anisotropy parameter over temperature. Interestingly, this function is a Pad\\'{e} approximant.

  18. Meson life time in the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Allahbakhshi, Davood

    2014-06-01

    In the hot (an)isotropic plasma the meson life time ? is defined as a time scale after which the meson dissociates. According to the gauge/gravity duality, this time can be identified with the inverse of the imaginary part of the frequency of the quasinormal modes, ? I , in the (an)isotropic black hole background. In the high temperature limit, we numerically show that at fixed temperature(entropy density) the life time of the mesons decreases(increases) as the anisotropy parameter raises. For general case, at fixed temperature we introduce a polynomial function for ? I and observe that the meson life time decreases. Moreover, we realize that ( s/T 3)6, where s and T are entropy density and temperature of the plasma respectively, can be expressed as a function of anisotropy parameter over temperature. Interestingly, this function is a Padé approximant.

  19. Applications of the ram accelerator to hypervelocity aerothermodynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    A ram accelerator used as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerodynamics research is presented. It is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled down a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Ram accelerator operation has been demonstrated at 39 mm and 90 mm bores, supporting the proposition that this launcher concept can be scaled up to very large bore diameters of the order of 30-60 cm. It is concluded that high quality data obtained from the tube wall and projectile during the aceleration process itself are very useful for understanding aerothermodynamics of hypersonic flow in general, and for providing important CFD validation benchmarks.

  20. Operational status of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Chou, T.S.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Gallarado, J.; Kirk, H.G.; Palmer, R.B.; Pellegrini, C.; Sheehan, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Ulc, S.; Van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Biglio, I.; Kurnit, N.; McDonald, K.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Design and operation of a 50 MeV Electron Linear Accelerator utilizing a low emittance ({gamma} {var epsilon} = 5 to 10 mm-mrad) radio frequency gun operating at an output energy of 5 MeV and a charge of 1 nC is described. Design calculations and early radio frequency measurements and operational experience with the electron gun utilizing a dummy copper cathode in place of the proposed photocathode emitter are given. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of Accelerated Exposure Testing (AET) Conditions on Performance Degradation of Solar Cells and Encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S. H.; Pern, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes the results from several accelerated exposure tests (AET) studies. Causes responsible for the photothermal instability of the encapsulated Si solar cells appear to be multiple and complex.

  2. Analysis of Transmitted Optical Spectrum Enabling Accelerated Testing of CPV Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2009-07-01

    Reliability of CPV systems' materials is not well known; methods for accelerated UV testing have not been developed. UV and IR spectra transmitted through representative optical systems are evaluated.

  3. A study of erosion in die casting dies by a multiple pin accelerated erosion test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Shivpuri; M. Yu; K. Venkatesan; Y.-L Chu

    1995-01-01

    An accelerated erosion test was developed to evaluate the erosion resistance of die materials and coatings for die casting\\u000a application. An acceleration in wear was achieved by selecting pyramid-shaped core pins, hypereutectic aluminum silicon casting\\u000a alloy, high melt temperatures and high gate velocities. Multiple pin design was selected to enable multiple test sites for\\u000a comparative evaluation. Apilot run was conducted

  4. Cold test results of a side-coupled standing-wave electron-accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ki Baek; Li, Yonggui; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Byeong-No; Park, Hyung Dal; Cha, Sung-Su; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2013-07-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) cavity for the dual-energy S-band electron linear accelerator (LINAC) is designed for a cargo inspection system (CIS) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The cold test results of the electron accelerator structure, which has a side-coupled standing-wave interlaced-pulse dual-energy mode, are described. The design concept, basic structure, microwave-tuning method, and cold-test procedure are described as well. The measured dispersion curve, spectrum characteristics, ?-f relation of the power coupler, and axial field distribution of the accelerating gradient are provided.

  5. Calibration of rotational acceleration for the rotarod test of rodent motor coordination

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Martin; Cameron, Andy; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C.; Wahlsten, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The latency of mice and rats to fall from the accelerating rotarod can differ markedly between laboratories using the same brand of rod as well as between studies using different kinds of rods. These discrepancies can arise from different rod diameters, surface textures, test protocols, or laboratory environmental factors beyond the test itself, but it is also possible that the actual acceleration rates of the different rods do not correspond to the nominal rates set on the devices. This paper describes a simple method to measure acceleration rate of the rotarod and to set the rate to a desired value for any brand of rod. PMID:19041892

  6. Status and Plans for a Superconducting RF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Leibfritz, J.; Andrews, R.; Baffes, C.M.; Carlson, K.; Chase, B.; Church, M.D.; Harms, E.R.; Klebaner, A.L.; Kucera, M.; Martinez, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) is being constructed at Fermilab. The existing New Muon Lab (NML) building is being converted for this facility. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, multiple downstream beam lines for testing diagnostics and conducting various beam tests, and a high power beam dump. When completed, it is envisioned that this facility will initially be capable of generating a 750 MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. An expansion of this facility was recently completed that will provide the capability to upgrade the accelerator to a total beam energy of 1.5 GeV. Two new buildings were also constructed adjacent to the ASTA facility to house a new cryogenic plant and multiple superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule test stands. In addition to testing accelerator components, this facility will be used to test RF power systems, instrumentation, and control systems for future SRF accelerators such as the ILC and Project-X. This paper describes the current status and overall plans for this facility.

  7. Using Accelerated Tests to Predict Service Life in Highly-Variable Environments

    E-print Network

    accelerated test conditions e.g., = (UV temperature humidity)]. Inadequate control/monitoring of eld testing radiation, temperature, and humidity and cycling these experimental factors more rapidly than what is seen and Arizona (hot humid and hot dry environments, respectively). Such testing, however, is costly and takes too

  8. Accelerated Wear Tests on Common Floor-covering Materials.

    E-print Network

    Stewart, B. R.; Kunze, O. R.; Hobgood, Price.

    1958-01-01

    not be 1 ~un on a single 2 x 2-foot sample. , Covering materials- were installed on plywood ' rvith adhesives, as (recommended by the manu- facturers. A minimum of four spots on each sample were subjected to accelerated wear with nrhpectively...?, but they showed less wear than asphalt tiles. Unmaintained rubbey tiles, solid vinyls rr~~rl vinyl-asbestos tiles showed less wear than rnnh. tained samples of these materials. Linoleum awi cork were the only materials for which there ?roc I an indication...

  9. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 1; Start-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. They are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the first part of the experimental study, i.e. the effects of a centrifugal force on the LHP start-up. Tests were conducted by varying the heat load to the evaporator, sink temperature, magnitude and frequency of centrifugal force, and LHP orientation relative to the direction of the accelerating force. The accelerating force seems to have little effect on the loop start-up in terms of temperature overshoot and superheat at boiling incipience. Changes in these parameters seem to be stochastic with or without centrifugal accelerating forces. The LHP started successfully in all tests.

  10. Status and Plans for an SRF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-29

    A superconducting RF accelerator test facility is currently under construction at Fermilab. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, 40 MeV injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, and multiple downstream beam lines for testing diagnostics and performing beam experiments. With 3 cryomodules installed this facility will initially be capable of generating an 810 MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. The facility can accommodate up to 6 cryomodules for a total beam energy of 1.5 GeV. This facility will be used to test SRF cryomodules under high intensity beam conditions, RF power equipment, instrumentation, and LLRF and controls systems for future SRF accelerators such as the ILC and Project-X. This paper describes the current status and overall plans for this facility.

  11. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 2; Temperature Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Taril; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. LHP's are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating temperature. It has been known that in stationary tests the LHP operating temperature is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink temperature when the compensation temperature is not actively controlled. Results of this test program indicate that any change in the accelerating force will result in a chance in the LHP operating temperature through its influence on the fluid distribution in the evaporator, condenser and compensation chamber. However, the effect is not universal, rather it is a function of other test conditions. A steady, constant acceleration may result in an increase or decrease of the operating temperature, while a periodic spin will lead to a quasi-steady operating temperature over a sufficient time interval. In addition, an accelerating force may lead to temperature hysteresis and changes in the temperature oscillation. In spite of all these effects, the LHP continued to operate without any problems in all tests.

  12. Design and test of a superconducting magnet in a linear accelerator for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Quanling; Xu, Fengyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Xiangchen; Chen, Anbin; Wei, Xiaotao; Gao, Yao; Hou, Zhenhua; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Haoshu

    2014-11-01

    A batch superconducting solenoid magnet for the ADS proton linear accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested in a vertical dewar in Sept. 2013. A total of ten superconducting magnets will be installed into two separate cryomodules. Each cryomodule contains six superconducting spoke RF cavities for beam acceleration and five solenoid magnets for beam focusing. The multifunction superconducting magnet contains a solenoid for beam focusing and two correctors for orbit correction. The design current for the solenoid magnet is 182 A. A quench performance test shows that the operating current of the solenoid magnet can reach above 300 A after natural quenching on three occasions during current ramping (260 A, 268 A, 308 A). The integrated field strength and leakage field at the nearby superconducting spoke cavities all meet the design requirements. The vertical test checked the reliability of the test dewar and the quench detection system. This paper presents the physical and mechanical design of the batch magnets, the quench detection technique, field measurements, and a discussion of the residual field resulting from persistent current effects.

  13. Accelerated Fatigue Testing of Stent-Like Diamond Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipse, A.; Schlun, M.; Dreher, G.; Zum Gahr, J.; Rebelo, N.

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the fatigue behavior of stent-like diamond specimens with particular attention paid to the nature of the test specimen, the constitutive model for the finite element analyses and the displacement condition. A newly designed test rig did enhance the investigation and results with respect to the simulation of the expected in vivo displacement conditions. The excellent performance of the new test method presented within our study provides a good basis for future tests without risk of compromised results due to differing characteristics between test specimens and finished stents, inappropriate displacement conditions or constitutive material model and provides a high reliability and applicability of the results to actual stents.

  14. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  15. A Test of Newton's Law of Gravity in the Weak Acceleration Regime

    E-print Network

    Riccardo Scarpa; Gianni Marconi; Roberto Gilmozzi

    2002-08-02

    A pilot experiment suitable to test Newton's law of gravity down to the regime of acceleration typical of galaxies has been carried out in Omega Centauri. Stars in the extreme periphery of this globular cluster are used as test particles immersed in such weak gravitational field. The stellar velocity dispersion is found to remain constant at large radii, rather than decrease monotonically, starting at acceleration a=10e-7 cm/s2. This is comparable to the acceleration at which the effect of dark matter becomes relevant in galaxies. Explanations for this result within Newtonian dynamics exist (e.g. cluster evaporation, tidal effects, presence of dark matter) but require fine tuning of the relevant parameters in order to make the dispersion profile flat. An interesting alternative is that this result, together with a similar one for Palomar 13 and the anomalous behavior of spacecrafts outside the solar system, suggests a breakdown of Newton's law in the weak acceleration regime.

  16. Design and Factory Test of the E /E- Frascati Linear Accelerator for DAFNE

    SciTech Connect

    Anamkath, H.; Lyons, S.; Nett, D.; Treas, P.; Whitham, K.; Zante, T.; /Titan Beta, Dublin; Miller, R.; /Titan Beta, Dublin /SLAC; Boni, R.; Hsieh, H.; Sannibale, F.; Vescovi, M.; Vignola, G.; /Frascati

    2011-11-28

    The electron-positron accelerator for the DAFNE project has been built and is in test at Titan Beta in Dublin, CA. This S-Band RF linac system utilizes four 45 MW sledded klystrons and 16-3 m accelerating structures to achieve the required performance. It delivers a 4 ampere electron beam to the positron converter and accelerates the resulting positrons to 550 MeV. The converter design uses a 4.3T pulsed tapered flux compressor along with a pseudo-adiabatic tapered field to a 5 KG solenoid over the first two positron accelerating sections. Quadrupole focusing is used after 100 MeV. The system performance is given in Table 1. This paper briefly describes the design and development of the various subassemblies in this system and gives the initial factory test data.

  17. Globular Clusters as a Test for Gravity in the Weak Acceleration Regime

    E-print Network

    Riccardo Scarpa; Gianni Marconi; Roberto Gilmozzi

    2006-01-25

    Non-baryonic Dark Matter (DM) appears in galaxies and other cosmic structures when and only when the acceleration of gravity, as computed considering only baryons, goes below a well defined value a0=1.2e-8 cm/s/s. This might indicate a breakdown of Newton's law of gravity (or inertia) below a0, an acceleration smaller than the smallest probed in the solar system. It is therefore important to verify whether Newton's law of gravity holds in this regime of accelerations. In order to do this, one has to study the dynamics of objects that do not contain significant amounts of DM and therefore should follow Newton's prediction for whatever small accelerations. Globular clusters are believed, even by strong supporters of DM, to contain negligible amounts of DM and therefore are ideal for testing Newtonian dynamics in the low acceleration limit. Here, we discuss the status of an ongoing program aimed to do this test. Compared to other studies of globular clsuters, the novelty is that we trace the velocity dispersion profile of globular clusters far enough from the center to probe gravitational accelerations well below a0. In all three clusters studied so far the velocity dispersion is found to remain constant at large radii rather than follow the Keplerian falloff. On average, the flattening occurs at the radius where the cluster internal acceleration of gravity is 1.8+-0.4 x 10^{-8} cm/s/s, fully consistent with MOND predictions.

  18. Accelerated irradiation test of Gundremmingen reactor vessel trepan material

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Initial mechanical properties tests of beltline trepanned from the decommissioned KRB-A pressure vessel and archive material irradiated in the UBR test reactor revealed a major anomaly in relative radiation embrittlement sensitivity. Poor correspondence of material behavior in test vs. power reactor environments was observed for the weak test orientation (ASTL C-L) whereas correspondence was good for the strong orientation (ASTM C-L). To resolve the anomaly directly, Charpy-V specimens from a low (essentially-nil) fluence region of the vessel were irradiated together with archive material at 279{degrees}C in the UBR test reactor. Properties tests before UBR irradiation revealed a significant difference in 41-J transition temperature and upper shelf energy level between the materials. However, the materials exhibited essentially the same radiation embrittlement sensitivity (both orientations), proving that the anomaly is not due to a basic difference in material irradiation resistances. Possible causes of the original anomaly and the significance to NRC Regulatory Guide 1.99 are discussed.

  19. Using Globular Clusters to Test Gravity in the Weak Acceleration Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Marconi, Gianni; Gilmozzi, Roberto; Carraro, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    We report on the results from an ongoing programme aimed at testing Newton's law of gravity in the low acceleration regime using globular clusters. We find that all clusters studied so far behave like galaxies, that is, their velocity dispersion profiles flatten out at large radii where the acceleration of gravity goes below 10 8 cm s 2, instead of following the expected Keplerian fall-off. In galaxies this behaviour is ascribed to the existence of a dark matter halo. Globular clusters, however, are not supposed to contain dark matter, hence this result might indicate that our present understanding of gravity in the weak regime of accelerations is incomplete and possibly incorrect.

  20. Investigation of hypersonic ramjet propulsion cycles using a ram accelerator test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Chew, G.; De Turenne, J. A.; Dunmire, B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental research on hypersonic propulsion using a ram accelerator test facility is presented. The gasdynamics of the ram accelerator has been studied experimentally in a 38-mm bore facility over the Mach number range of 2.5 to 8.5, using methane- and ethylene-based propellant mixtures. Three different propulsive modes, centered on the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation speed of the combustible gas, have been experimentally observed. Projectiles have been accelerated smoothly from velocities below to above the C-J speed within a single propellant mixture.

  1. Electro-Optic Sampling at the TESLA Test Accelerator: Experimental Setup and First Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brunken; H. Genz; P. Gottlicher; C. Hessler; M. Huning; H. Loos; A. Richter; H. Schlarb; P. Schmuser; S. Simrock; D. Suetterlin; M. Tonutti; D. Turke; Physikalisches Insitut Iiia; Rwth Aachen

    Abstract A mode-locked titanium-sapphire laser with 15 fs pulse width is used to determine the temporal profile of the ultrashort electron bunches in the linear TESLA Test accelerator. The experimental setup is described and first results are presented on the synchronization of the Ti:Sa laser with the radio frequency of the superconducting accelerator and on the coincidence measurements between the

  2. Technological Issues and High Gradient Test Results on X-Band Molybdenum Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Spataro, B.; /LNF, Dafne Light; Alesini, D.; /LNF, Dafne Light; Chimenti, V.; /LNF, Dafne Light; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC; Haase, A.; /SLAC; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC; Higashi, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Marrelli, C.; /Rome U.; Mostacci, A.; /Rome U.; Parodi, R.; /INFN, Genoa; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Two 11.424 GHz single cell standing wave accelerating structures have been fabricated for high gradient RF breakdown studies. Both are brazed structures: one made from copper and the other from sintered molybdenum bulk. The tests results are presented and compared to those of similar devices constructed at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and KEK (Ko Enerugi Kasokuki Kenkyu Kiko). The technological issues to build both sections are discussed.

  3. Using Accelerated Tests to Predict Service Life in HighlyVariable Environments

    E-print Network

    Inadequate control/monitoring of laboratory accelerated test conditions [e.g., ¸ = (UV; temperature; humidity of experimental factors like UV radiation, temperature, and humidity and cycling these experimental factors more Florida and Arizona (hot humid and hot dry environments, respectively). Such testing, however, is costly

  4. Evanescent Process Mapping in accelerated testing, and the modelling error problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael LuValle

    2002-01-01

    The primary inference problem in accelerated testing is determining (and minimising) the risk associated with extrapolating the results of the test to operating conditions. In this paper the theoretical basis for a strategy attacking this problem by designing experiments to reduce residual risk posed by alternative models is described.

  5. Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Miller; Michael D. Kempe; Cheryl E. Kennedy; Sarah R. Kurtz

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on its scalability and expected low levelized cost of electricity. The reliability of encapsulation materials used in CPV systems, however, is not well established. For example, the present qualification test for CPV modules includes only real-time ultraviolet (UV) exposure, i.e., methods for accelerated UV testing have not yet been developed. To

  6. Accelerated Life Testing and Service Lifetime Prediction for PV Technologies in the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Czanderna; G. J. Jorgensen

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to (1) discuss the necessity for conducting accelerated life testing (ALT) in the early stages of developing new photovoltaic (PV) technologies, (2) elucidate the crucial importance for combining ALT with real-time testing (RTT) in terrestrial environments for promising PV technologies for the 21st century, and (3) outline the essential steps for making a service

  7. Accelerated creep testing for aramid fibres using the stepped isothermal method

    E-print Network

    Burgoyne, Chris

    -term creep behaviour of geogrids in soil reinforcement applications, for which there are now standards [4Accelerated creep testing for aramid fibres using the stepped isothermal method K. G. N. C. Alwis Ã? method (SIM), which has hitherto been applied to polyester fibres, can be applied to the creep testing

  8. A facility to test short superconducting accelerator magnets at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, M.J.; Hess, C.; Lewis, D.; Jaffery, T.; Kinney, W.; Ozelis, J.P.; Strait, J. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Butteris, J.; McInturff, A.D. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)); Coulter, K.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-10-01

    During the past four years the Superconducting Magnet R D facility at Fermilab (Lab 2) has successfully tested superconducting dipole, quadrupole, and correction coil magnets less than 2 meters in length for the SSC project and the Tevatron D0/B0 Low-[beta] Insertion. During this time several improvements have been made to the facility that have greatly enhanced its magnet testing capabilities. Among the upgrades have been a new rotating coil and data acquisition system for measuring magnetic fields, a controlled flow liquid helium transfer line using an electronically actuated cryo valve, and stand-alone systems for measuring AC loss and training low current Tevatron correction coil packages. A description of the Lab 2 facilities is presented.

  9. Concept, implementation and commissioning of the automation system for the accelerator module test facility AMTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böckmann, Torsten A.; Korth, Olaf; Clausen, Matthias; Schoeneburg, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The European XFEL project launched on June 5, 2007 will require about 103 accelerator modules as a main part of the XFEL linear accelerator. All superconducting components constituting the accelerator module like cavities and magnets have to be tested before the assembly. For the tests of the individual cavities and the complete modules an XFEL Accelerator Module Test Facility (AMTF) has been erected at DESY. The process control system EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used to control and operate the cryogenic plant and all its subcomponents. A complementary component of EPICS is the Open Source software suit CSS (Control System Studio). CSS is an integrated engineering, maintenance and operating tool for EPICS. CSS enables local and remote operating and monitoring of the complete system and thus represents the human machine interface. More than 250 PROFIBUS nodes work at the accelerator module test facility. DESY installed an extensive diagnostic and condition monitoring system. With these diagnostic tools it is possible to examine the correct installation and configuration of all PROFIBUS nodes in real time. The condition monitoring system based on FDT/DTM technology shows the state of the PROFIBUS devices at a glance. This information can be used for preventive maintenance which is mandatory for continuous operation of the AMTF facility. The poster will describe all steps form engineering to implementation and commissioning.

  10. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort (INEEL); J. Argueta; M. Wehrey (Southern California Edison); D. Karner; L. Tyree (Electric Transportation Applications)

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  11. Concept, implementation and commissioning of the automation system for the accelerator module test facility AMTF

    SciTech Connect

    Böckmann, Torsten A.; Korth, Olaf; Clausen, Matthias; Schoeneburg, Bernd [MKS, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    The European XFEL project launched on June 5, 2007 will require about 103 accelerator modules as a main part of the XFEL linear accelerator. All superconducting components constituting the accelerator module like cavities and magnets have to be tested before the assembly. For the tests of the individual cavities and the complete modules an XFEL Accelerator Module Test Facility (AMTF) has been erected at DESY. The process control system EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used to control and operate the cryogenic plant and all its subcomponents. A complementary component of EPICS is the Open Source software suit CSS (Control System Studio). CSS is an integrated engineering, maintenance and operating tool for EPICS. CSS enables local and remote operating and monitoring of the complete system and thus represents the human machine interface. More than 250 PROFIBUS nodes work at the accelerator module test facility. DESY installed an extensive diagnostic and condition monitoring system. With these diagnostic tools it is possible to examine the correct installation and configuration of all PROFIBUS nodes in real time. The condition monitoring system based on FDT/DTM technology shows the state of the PROFIBUS devices at a glance. This information can be used for preventive maintenance which is mandatory for continuous operation of the AMTF facility. The poster will describe all steps form engineering to implementation and commissioning.

  12. Development of a photovoltaic module qualification test based on combined-environment accelerated stress data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, S. E.; Royal, E.; Anderson, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a qualification test to screen photovoltaic modules for utilization on marine aids to navigation. The test is based on a combined-environment of hot and cold saltwater immersion and air pressurization. The test has demonstrated a very high acceleration factor and excellent correlation of electrical failures with modules in a concurrent real-time marine exposure.

  13. Globular Clusters as a Test for Gravity in the Weak Acceleration Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Marconi, Gianni; Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Non-baryonic Dark Matter (DM) appears in galaxies and other cosmic structures when and only when the acceleration of gravity, as computed considering only baryons, goes below a well defined value a0 = 1.2 × 10-8 cm s-2. This fact is extremely important and suggestive of the possibility of a breakdown of Newton's law of gravity (or inertia) below a0. It is therefore important to verify whether Newton's law of gravity holds in this regime of accelerations. In order to do this, one has to study the dynamics of objects that do not contain significant amounts of DM and therefore should follow Newton's prediction for whatever small accelerations. Globular clusters are believed, even by strong supporters of DM, to contain negligible amounts of DM and therefore are ideal for testing Newtonian dynamics in the low acceleration limit. Here, we discuss the status of an ongoing program aimed to do this test. Compared to other studies of globular clsuters, the novelty is that we trace the velocity dispersion profile of globular clusters far enough from the center to probe gravitational accelerations well below a0. In all three clusters studied so far the velocity dispersion is found to remain constant at large radii rather than follow the Keplerian falloff. On average, the flattening occurs at the radius where the cluster internal acceleration of gravity is 1.8 +/- 0.4 × 10-8 cm s-2, fully consistent with MOND predictions.

  14. Production and test results of SC 3.9-GHz accelerating cavity at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Khabiboulline, Timergali; Cooper, Charlie; Edwards, Helen; Foley, Mike; Gonin, Ivan; Mitchell, Donald; Olis, D.; Rowe, Allan; Salman, Tariq; Solyak, Nikolay; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve beam performances for TTF-FEL facility. In the frame of collaboration Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. In addition, a second cryomodule with one cavity will be fabricated for installation in the Fermilab photo-injector, which will be upgraded for the ILC accelerator test facility. In this paper we discuss the status of the cavity and coupler production and the first result of cavity tests. It is hoped that this project will be completed during the first half of 2007 and the cryomodule delivered to DESY in this time span.

  15. Vacuum system design considerations of the Los Alamos Accelerator Test Stand (ATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    The accelerator test stand (ATS), in operation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, includes a hydrogen ion source, low- and high-energy beam-transport sections, and a 425-MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. A 425-MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) and a powered ''buncher'' matching section have been constructed and will be installed on the ATS. The vacuum systems required for the various sections of the ATS are designed to provide: (1) high gas-load capability, as required in the ion source, and (2) high-vacuum capability in the high-power, radio-frequency accelerator sections (where fast vacuum-system response time is of importance) through the use of distributed, differential pumping as a principal vacuum-system feature. This paper describes properties of accelerator materials, vacuum-systems engineering and analysis, vacuum equipment used, and ATS vacuum-system performance.

  16. Do sediment type and test durations affect results of laboratory-based, accelerated testing studies of permeable pavement clogging?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter W B; White, Richard; Lucke, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the clogging processes of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) using accelerated testing methods. However, the results have been variable. This study investigated the effects that three different sediment types (natural and silica), and different simulated rainfall intensities, and testing durations had on the observed clogging processes (and measured surface infiltration rates) of laboratory-based, accelerated PICP testing studies. Results showed that accelerated simulated laboratory testing results are highly dependent on the type, and size of sediment used in the experiments. For example, when using real stormwater sediment up to 1.18mm in size, the results showed that neither testing duration, nor stormwater application rate had any significant effect on PICP clogging. However, the study clearly showed that shorter testing durations generally increased clogging and reduced the surface infiltration rates of the models when artificial silica sediment was used. Longer testing durations also generally increased clogging of the models when using fine sediment (<300?m). Results from this study will help researchers and designers better anticipate when and why PICPs are susceptible to clogging, reduce maintenance and extend the useful life of these increasingly common stormwater best management practices. PMID:25618819

  17. An accelerated exposure and testing apparatus for building joint sealants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. C.; Hunston, D. L.; Tan, K. T.; Hettenhouser, J.; Garver, J. D.

    2013-09-01

    The design, fabrication, and implementation of a computer-controlled exposure and testing apparatus for building joint sealants are described in this paper. This apparatus is unique in its ability to independently control and monitor temperature, relative humidity, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and mechanical deformation. Each of these environmental factors can be controlled precisely over a wide range of conditions during periods of a month or more. Moreover, as controlled mechanical deformations can be generated, in situ mechanical characterization tests can be performed without removing specimens from the chamber. Temperature and humidity were controlled during our experiments via a precision temperature regulator and proportional mixing of dry and moisture-saturated air; while highly uniform UV radiation was attained by attaching the chamber to an integrating sphere-based radiation source. A computer-controlled stepper motor and a transmission system were used to provide precise movement control. The reliability and effectiveness of the apparatus were demonstrated on a model sealant material. The results clearly show that this apparatus provides an excellent platform to study the long-term durability of building joint sealants.

  18. PREDICTING CHRONIC LETHALITY OF CHEMICALS TO FISHES FROM ACUTE TOXICITY TEST DATA: THEORY OF ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for modeling aquatic toxicity date based on the theory of accelerated life testing and a procedure for maximum likelihood fitting the proposed model is presented. he procedure is computerized as software, which can predict chronic lethality of chemicals using data from a...

  19. Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing Facility (PCAT) The Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing facility (PCAT) at Oak Ridge National

    E-print Network

    . Aerial view of PCAT including its power supply and instrumentation trailers, transmission line structures instrumentation of the test conductor's surface and core temperatures by means of thermocouples as well designed the PCAT structures and installed poles, hardware, conductor and accessories at the site

  20. Real-time and accelerated outdoor endurance testing of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Anagnostou, E.

    1977-01-01

    Real-time and accelerated outdoor endurance testing was performed on a variety of samples of interest to the National Photovoltaic Conversion Program. The real-time tests were performed at seven different sites and the accelerated tests were performed at one of those sites in the southwestern United States. The purpose of the tests were to help evaluate the lifetime of photovoltaic systems. Three types of samples were tested; transmission samples of possible cover materials, sub-modules constructed using these materials attached to solar cells, and solar cell modules produced by the manufacturers for the ERDA program. Results indicate that suitable cover materials are glass, FEP-A and PFA. Dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors in the selection of solar cell module covers and encapsulants.

  1. Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned and Accelerated Testing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    A number of mechanism (mechanical moving component) failures and anomalies have recently occurred on satellites. In addition, more demanding operating and life requirements have caused mechanism failures or anomalies to occur even before some satellites were launched (e.g., during the qualification testing of GOES-NEXT, CERES, and the Space Station Freedom Beta Joint Gimbal). For these reasons, it is imperative to determine which mechanisms worked in the past and which have failed so that the best selection of mechanically moving components can be made for future satellites. It is also important to know where the problem areas are so that timely decisions can be made on the initiation of research to develop future needed technology. To chronicle the life and performance characteristics of mechanisms operating in a space environment, a Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study was conducted. The work was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and by Mechanical Technologies Inc. (MTI) under contract NAS3-27086. The expectation of the study was to capture and retrieve information relating to the life and performance of mechanisms operating in the space environment to determine what components had operated successfully and what components had produced anomalies.

  2. Accelerated lifetime testing of fused silica for deep ultraviolet laser applications revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Christian; Bublitz, Simon

    2014-12-01

    We report on the continuation of a comparative study of different fused silica materials for ArF laser applications. After selecting potentially suited fused silica materials from their laser-induced absorption and compaction obtained by a short-time testing procedure, accelerated lifetime tests have been undertaken by sample irradiating at liquid nitrogen temperature and subsequent direct absorption measurements were made using the laser-induced deflection technique. The obtained degradation acceleration strongly differs between fused silica materials, showing high and low oxygen hole (OH) contents, respectively. As a result, a difference in the absorption degradation mechanism between high and low OH-containing fused silica is proposed. Consequently, two different scenarios for an acceleration of the absorption degradation are derived.

  3. Beam acceleration test in negative-ion based NBI system for JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Akino, N.; Araki, M.; Ebisawa, N.; Fujiwara, Y.; Hanada, M.; Honda, A.; Inoue, T.; Itoh, T.; Kawai, M.; Kazawa, M.; Koizumi, J.; Kuriyama, M.; Miyamoto, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Mogaki, K.; Nagase, A.; Ohara, Y.; Ohga, T.; Okumura, Y.; Oohara, H.; Ohshima, K.; Satoh, F.; Takahashi, S.; Takenouchi, T.; Usami, H.; Usui, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamazaki, T.

    1996-07-01

    Beam extraction and acceleration test in the Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injector for JT-60U has been started using one ion source that is designed to produce a 500 keV, 22 A D- ion beam. Deuterium negative ions are produced in a cesium-seeded semi-cylindrical plasma generator and accelerated by a multi-aperture three-stage electrostatic accelerator. In the preliminary experiment of beam acceleration, the D- ion beam of 13.5 A was successfully accelerated to 400 keV for a pulse duration of 0.12 s. The negative ion beam power was 5.4 MW. The operating gas pressure in the plasma generator was as low as 0.22 Pa. The highest energy beam of 460 keV, 2.4 A, 0.44 s was also obtained. The ratio of extracted electron current to extracted negative ion current is estimated Ie/ID-<1. It was confirmed that the electron leak from the extractor to the accelerator is suppressed efficiently by the effects of biassing, electron trapping gap and magnetic field.

  4. THE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT (TIM) 1 An Accelerated Stress Test Method for

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    discharges (ESD), Charging, Accelerated testing, Dielectric breakdown I. INTRODUCTION In the RF-MEMS switch are discussed and were correlated with results obtained using a commercial Human Body Model (HBM) tester as well MEMS switches is dielectric charging [11], [12]. Charge is deposited on the surface or trapped

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON GUN FOR THE ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY*

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    954 DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON GUN FOR THE ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY AT BROOKHAVEN, New York 11973 and K. McDonald Princeton [Jniversity Abstract An electron gun utilizing a radio). Here we report on the de;$n of the electron gun which will provide r.f. bunches of up to 10 electrons

  6. An Accelerated Test Method for Predicting the Useful Life of an LED Driver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Han; Nadarajah Narendran

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an accelerated life-test method for LED drivers that use electrolytic capacitors at the output stage. The type of failure considered here is parametric. Estimated failure rates of power components suggest the electrolytic capacitor used at the driver output stage is the weakest link. As an electrolytic capacitor degrades, its capacitance decreases and its equivalent series resistance increases,

  7. Experimental results of beam brightness experiments at the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA)

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.T.; Boyd, J.K.; Caporaso, G.J.; Orzechowski, T.J.

    1987-03-01

    Experimental data show improved brightness of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Advanced Test Accelerator both at the injector and at the high-energy output. The effects of matching onto a laser-produced ion channel have been demonstrated, and an improved matching technique is now being used.

  8. TERA high gradient test program of RF cavities for medical linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiovanni, A.; Amaldi, U.; Bonomi, R.; Garlasché, M.; Garonna, A.; Verdú-Andrés, S.; Wegner, R.

    2011-11-01

    The scientific community and the medical industries are putting a considerable effort into the design of compact, reliable and cheap accelerators for hadrontherapy. Up to now only circular accelerators are used to deliver beams with energies suitable for the treatment of deep seated tumors. The TERA Foundation has proposed and designed a hadrontherapy facility based on the cyclinac concept: a high gradient linear accelerator placed downstream of a cyclotron used as an injector. The overall length of the linac, and therefore its final cost, is almost inversely proportional to the average accelerating gradient achieved in the linac. TERA, in collaboration with the CLIC RF group, has started a high gradient test program. The main goal is to study the high gradient behavior of prototype cavities and to determine the appropriate linac operating frequency considering important issues such as machine reliability and availability of distributed power sources. A preliminary test of a 3 GHz cavity has been carried out at the beginning of 2010, giving encouraging results. Further investigations are planned before the end of 2011. A set of 5.7 GHz cavities is under production and will be tested in a near future. The construction and test of a multi-cell structure is also foreseen.

  9. Lifetime Prediction for Degradation of Solar Mirrors using Step-Stress Accelerated Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Kennedy, C.; Gray, M.; Jones, W.

    2011-09-01

    This research is to illustrate the use of statistical inference techniques in order to quantify the uncertainty surrounding reliability estimates in a step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) scenario. SSADT can be used when a researcher is faced with a resource-constrained environment, e.g., limits on chamber time or on the number of units to test. We apply the SSADT methodology to a degradation experiment involving concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors and compare the results to a more traditional multiple accelerated testing paradigm. Specifically, our work includes: (1) designing a durability testing plan for solar mirrors (3M's new improved silvered acrylic "Solar Reflector Film (SFM) 1100") through the ultra-accelerated weathering system (UAWS), (2) defining degradation paths of optical performance based on the SSADT model which is accelerated by high UV-radiant exposure, and (3) developing service lifetime prediction models for solar mirrors using advanced statistical inference. We use the method of least squares to estimate the model parameters and this serves as the basis for the statistical inference in SSADT. Several quantities of interest can be estimated from this procedure, e.g., mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) and warranty time. The methods allow for the estimation of quantities that may be of interest to the domain scientists.

  10. THE EFFECT OF ACCELERATED AGING TESTS ON THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICONE AND EVA ENCAPSULANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith R. McIntosh; James N. Cotsell; Jeff S. Cumpston; Ann W. Norris; Nick E. Powell; Barry M. Ketola

    The absorption coefficient of three silicones and EVA is measured before and after exposure to three accelerated aging tests: (i) ~2000 hours under Xe-arc lamp exposure at room temperature, (ii) 1200 hours at 85% relative humidity and 85 °C, and (iii) six months at the focal point of a 30× linear tracker. The first exposure satisfied the IEC's UV conditioning

  11. Accelerated tests on gamma compensated boron lined ionisation chamber for reactor safety and control applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Alex; R. Ayyappan; J. P. Singh; D. N. Prasad; D. Das; C. K. Pithawa; R. K. Patil

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated tests have been conducted on a gamma compensated boron lined ionization chamber developed for reactor safety and control applications. In this detector, 40.5% enriched 10B has been coated on the electrode using multiple dip coating technique. Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has been used as insulating spacer instead of alumina ceramic. These detectors have to withstand integrated neutron fluence of

  12. A load history generation approach for full-scale accelerated fatigue tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Xiong; R. A. Shenoi

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish a load history generation approach for full-scale accelerated fatigue tests. Primary focus is placed on the load cycle identification such as to minimize experimental time while having no significant effects on the new generated load history. The load cycles extracted from an original load history are identified into three kinds of cycles namely main, secondary

  13. Accelerated Life Testing Model for a Generalized Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -S distribution in order to estimate reliability at normal operating conditions. A. Birnbaum-Saunders Life ModelAccelerated Life Testing Model for a Generalized Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution Yao Cheng and E. A modeled by Birnbaum-Saunders (B-S) and Weibull distributions. Sometimes, materials with high cycle fatigue

  14. RELIABILITY TESTING OF Ni-MODIFIED SnCu AND SAC305 - ACCELERATED THERMAL CYCLING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joelle Arnold; Nathan Blattau; Craig Hillman; Keith Sweatman

    Interest in alternate lead free solder alloys has initiated a life prediction study of SN100C. This paper outlines the results of the thermal cycling portion of the testing and demonstrates that its robustness under accelerated life testing is somewhere between that of SnPb and SAC305 with its performance being dependent on the amount of strain to which it is subjected

  15. The first picosecond terawatt CO{sub 2} laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The first terawatt picosecond CO{sub 2} laser will be brought to operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility in 1998. System consists of a single-mode TEA oscillator, picosecond semiconductor optical switch, multi-atmosphere. The authors report on design, simulation, and performance tests of the 10 atm final amplifier that allows for direct multi-joule energy extraction in a picosecond laser pulse.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE RELIABILITY OF PRODUCTS UNDER ASSESSMENT OF THE RELIABILITY OF PRODUCTS UNDER ASSESSMENT OF THE RELIABILITY OF PRODUCTS UNDER ASSESSMENT OF THE RELIABILITY OF PRODUCTS UNDER DEVELOPMENT VIA ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING DEVELOPMENT VIA ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING DEVELOPMENT VIA ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING DEVELOPMENT VIA ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcio José; Chagas Moura; Ricardo José Ferreira; Enrique López Droguett; Carlos Magno; Couto Jacinto

    Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: This paper presents an application of a general Bayes inference model for accelerated life testing that has been applied to equipments under development and with intended use in the oil industry. Units of the considered equipment are submitted to the following testing scenarios: gradual progressive and regressive step-stress, fixed step-stress and profile step-stress assuming that the failure

  17. Ground Test of the Urine Processing Assembly for Accelerations and Transfer Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Almond, Deborah F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the ground test of the urine processing assembly for accelerations and transfer functions. Details are given on the test setup, test data, data analysis, analytical results, and microgravity assessment. The conclusions of the tests include the following: (1) the single input/multiple output method is useful if the data is acquired by tri-axial accelerometers and inputs can be considered uncorrelated; (2) tying coherence with the matrix yields higher confidence in results; (3) the WRS#2 rack ORUs need to be isolated; (4) and future work includes a plan for characterizing performance of isolation materials.

  18. Accelerated test techniques for micro-circuits: Evaluation of high temperature (473 k - 573 K) accelerated life test techniques as effective microcircuit screening methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The application of high temperature accelerated test techniques was shown to be an effective method of microcircuit defect screening. Comprehensive microcircuit evaluations and a series of high temperature (473 K to 573 K) life tests demonstrated that a freak or early failure population of surface contaminated devices could be completely screened in thirty two hours of test at an ambient temperature of 523 K. Equivalent screening at 398 K, as prescribed by current Military and NASA specifications, would have required in excess of 1,500 hours of test. All testing was accomplished with a Texas Instruments' 54L10, low power triple-3 input NAND gate manufactured with a titanium- tungsten (Ti-W), Gold (Au) metallization system. A number of design and/or manufacturing anomalies were also noted with the Ti-W, Au metallization system. Further study of the exact nature and cause(s) of these anomalies is recommended prior to the use of microcircuits with Ti-W, Au metallization in long life/high reliability applications. Photomicrographs of tested circuits are included.

  19. Bayesian Analysis of Step-Stress Accelerated Life Test with Exponential Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Pan, R.

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we propose a general Bayesian inference approach to the step-stress accelerated life test with type II censoring. We assume that the failure times at each stress level are exponentially distributed and the test units are tested in an increasing order of stress levels. We formulate the prior distribution of the parameters of life-stress function and integrate the engineering knowledge of product failure rate and acceleration factor into the prior. The posterior distribution and the point estimates for the parameters of interest are provided. Through the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, we demonstrate a nonconjugate prior case using an industrial example. It is shown that with the Bayesian approach, the statistical precision of parameter estimation is improved and, consequently, the required number of failures could be reduced.

  20. Using globular clusters to test gravity in the weak acceleration regime

    E-print Network

    Riccardo Scarpa; Gianni Marconi; Roberto Gilmozzi; Giovanni Carraro

    2007-07-17

    We report on the results from an ongoing program aimed at testing Newton's law of gravity in the low acceleration regime using globular clusters. It is shown that all clusters studied so far do behave like galaxies, that is, their velocity dispersion profile flattens out at large radii where the acceleration of gravity goes below 1e-8 cm/s/s, instead of following the expected Keplerian fall off. In galaxies this behavior is ascribed to the existence of a dark matter halo. Globular clusters, however, do not contain dark matter, hence this result might indicate that our present understanding of gravity in the weak regime of accelerations is incomplete and somehow incorrect.

  1. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC and its Radiological Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, X.S.; Leitner, M.Santana; Vollaire, J.

    2011-08-22

    Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) in SLAC will be used to study plasma wakefield acceleration. FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to design a maze wall to separate FACET project and LCLS project to allow persons working in FACET side during LCLS operation. Also FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to design the shielding for FACET dump to get optimum design for shielding both prompt and residual doses, as well as reducing environmental impact. FACET will be an experimental facility that provides short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons to excite plasma wakefields and study a variety of critical issues associated with plasma wakefield acceleration [1]. This paper describes the FACET beam parameters, the lay-out and its radiological issues.

  2. Technology evaluation of man-rated acceleration test equipment for vestibular research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.; Kenimer, R. L.; Butterfield, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The considerations for eliminating acceleration noise cues in horizontal, linear, cyclic-motion sleds intended for both ground and shuttle-flight applications are addressed. the principal concerns are the acceleration transients associated with change in direction-of-motion for the carriage. The study presents a design limit for acceleration cues or transients based upon published measurements for thresholds of human perception to linear cyclic motion. The sources and levels for motion transients are presented based upon measurements obtained from existing sled systems. The approaches to a noise-free system recommends the use of air bearings for the carriage support and moving-coil linear induction motors operating at low frequency as the drive system. Metal belts running on air bearing pulleys provide an alternate approach to the driving system. The appendix presents a discussion of alternate testing techniques intended to provide preliminary type data by means of pendulums, linear motion devices and commercial air bearing tables.

  3. Identifying the failure mechanism in accelerated life tests by two-parameter lognormal distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunsheng, Guo; Yanfeng, Zhang; Ning, Wan; Hui, Zhu; Shiwei, Feng

    2014-08-01

    The failure mechanism stimulated by accelerated stress in the degradation may be different from that under normal conditions, which would lead to invalid accelerated life tests. To solve the problem, we study the relation between the Arrhenius equation and the lognormal distribution in the degradation process. Two relationships of the lognormal distribution parameters must be satisfied in the conclusion of the unaltered failure mechanism, the first is that the logarithmic standard deviations must be equivalent at different temperature levels, and the second is that the ratio of the differences between logarithmic means must be equal to the ratio of the differences between reciprocals of temperature. The logarithm of distribution lines must simultaneously have the same slope and regular interval lines. We studied the degradation of thick-film resistors in MCM by accelerated stress at four temperature levels (390, 400, 410 and 420 K), and the result agreed well with our method.

  4. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors—the test-mass-to-test-mass interferometric link—behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as nongravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterized by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system's free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-frequency detectors. Working with acceleration also provides an effective way to subtract measured signals acting as systematics, including the actuation forces. Because of the strong similarity with the equations of motion, the optimal subtraction of systematic signals, known within some amplitude and time shift, with the focus on measuring the noise provides an effective way to solve the problem and marginalize over nuisance parameters. The F statistic, in widespread use throughout the gravitation waves community, is included in the method and suitably generalized to marginalize over linear parameters and noise at the same time. The method is applied to LPF simulator data and, thanks to its generality, can also be applied to the data reduction and analysis of future gravitational wave detectors.

  5. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    E-print Network

    Giuseppe Congedo

    2014-09-29

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors -- the test mass to test mass interferometric link -- behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as non-gravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterised by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-frequency detectors. Working with acceleration also provides an effective way to subtract measured signals acting as systematics, including the actuation forces. Because of the strong similarity with the equations of motion, the optimal subtraction of systematic signals, known within some amplitude and time shift, with the focus on measuring the noise provides an effective way to solve the problem and marginalise over nuisance parameters. The $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic, in widespread use throughout the gravitation waves community, is included in the method and suitably generalised to marginalise over linear parameters and noise at the same time. The method is applied to LPF simulator data and, thanks to its generality, can also be applied to the data reduction and analysis of future gravitational wave detectors.

  6. The Conversion of CESR to Operate as the Test Accelerator, CesrTA, Part 1: Overview

    E-print Network

    Billing, M G

    2015-01-01

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it ideal for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper outlines the motivation, design and conversion of CESR to a test accelerator, CesrTA, enhanced to study such subjects as low emittance tuning methods, electron cloud (EC) effects, intra-beam scattering, fast ion instabilities as well as general improvements to beam instrumentation. While the initial studies of CesrTA focussed on questions related to the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring design, CesrTA is a very flexible storage ring, capabl...

  7. Advanced X-Band Test Accelerator for High Brightness Electron and Gamma Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore; Anderson, Scott; /LLNL, Livermore; Barty, Christopher; /LLNL, Livermore; Chu, Tak Sum; /LLNL, Livermore; Ebbers, Chris; /LLNL, Livermore; Gibson, David; /LLNL, Livermore; Hartemann, Fred; /LLNL, Livermore; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Wang, Juwen; /SLAC

    2012-07-03

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  8. ADVANCED X-BAND TEST ACCELERATOR FOR HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON AND GAMMA RAY BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P; Chu, T S; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Adolphsen, C; Jongewaard, E N; Raubenheimer, T; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, J W

    2010-05-12

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  9. LLRF and timing system for the SCSS test accelerator at SPring-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Yuji; Ohshima, Takashi; Hosoda, Naoyasu; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Fukui, Toru; Kitamura, Masanobu; Shintake, Tsumoru

    2012-12-01

    The 250 MeV SCSS test accelerator as an extreme-ultra violet (EUV) laser source has been built at SPring-8. The accelerator comprises a 500 kV thermionic gun, a velocity bunching system using multi-sub-harmonic bunchers (SHB) in an injector and a magnetic bunch compressor using a chicane of 4 bending magnets, a 5712 MHz main accelerator to accelerate an electron beam up to 250 MeV, and undulators to radiate the EUV laser. These bunch compression processes make short bunched electrons with a 300 A peak current and a 300 fs pulse width. The pulse width and peak current of an electron beam, which strongly affect the pulse width and intensity of the laser light, are mainly decided by the pulse compression ratio of the velocity bunching and the magnetic bunch compressing processes. The compression ratio is also determined due to an energy chirp along the beam bunch generated by an off-crest rf field at the SHB and cavities before the chicane. To constantly keep the beam pulse-width conducted by rf and timing signals, which are temporally controlled within subpicoseconds of the designed value, the low-level rf and timing system of the test accelerator has been developed. The system comprises a very low-noise and temporally stable reference signal source, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) modulators and demodulators, as well as VME type 12 bits analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter modules to manipulate an rf phase and amplitude by IQ functions for the cavity. We achieved that the SSB noise of the 5712 MHz reference signal source was less than -120 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz offset from the reference frequency; the phase setting and detecting resolution of the IQ-modulators and demodulators were within +/-0.5° at 5712 MHz. A master trigger VME module and a trigger delay VME module were also developed to activate the components of the test accelerator. The time jitter of the delay module was less than 0.7 ps, sufficient for our present requirement. As a result, a beam energy variation of 0.06% was achieved and a time jitter of 46 fs between the acceleration rf signal and the beam was realized.

  10. Study on constant-step stress accelerated life tests in white organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J P; Liu, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Zhou, A X

    2014-11-01

    In order to obtain reliability information for a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED), two constant and one step stress tests were conducted with its working current increased. The Weibull function was applied to describe the OLED life distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and its iterative flow chart were used to calculate shape and scale parameters. Furthermore, the accelerated life equation was determined using the least squares method, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to assess if the white OLED life follows a Weibull distribution, and self-developed software was used to predict the average and the median lifetimes of the OLED. The numerical results indicate that white OLED life conforms to a Weibull distribution, and that the accelerated life equation completely satisfies the inverse power law. The estimated life of a white OLED may provide significant guidelines for its manufacturers and customers. PMID:24677412

  11. Beam test of a new radio frequency quadrupole linac for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yasuhiro; Morishita, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Saisyun; Hori, Toshihiko; Sawabe, Yuki; Chishiro, Etsuji; Fukuta, Shinpei; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Hirano, Koichiro; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Koizumi, Isao; Miura, Akihiko; Oguri, Hidetomo; Ohkoshi, Kiyonori; Sato, Fumiaki; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Ueno, Akira; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Takashi; Takagi, Akira; Fang, Zhigao; Fukui, Yuji; Futatsukawa, Kenta; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Maruta, Tomofumi; Miyao, Tomoaki; Nanmo, Kesao

    2014-12-01

    We performed a beam test of a new radio frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ III) for the beam current upgrade of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. First, the conditioning of RFQ III was conducted, and after 20 h of conditioning, RFQ III became very stable with a nominal peak power and duty factor of 400 kW and 1.5%, respectively. An off-line beam test was subsequently conducted before installation in the accelerator tunnel. The transmission, transverse emittance, and energy spread of the 50-mA negative hydrogen beam from RFQ III were measured and compared with simulation results. The experiment and simulation results showed good agreement; therefore, we conclude that the performance of RFQ III conforms to its design.

  12. Using globular clusters to test gravity in the weak acceleration regime: NGC 7099

    E-print Network

    Riccardo Scarpa; Gianni Marconi; Roberto Gilmozzi; Giovanni Carraro

    2006-11-15

    A test of Newton's law of gravity in the low acceleration regime using globular clusters is presented. New results for the core collapsed globular cluster NGC 7099 are given. The run of the gravitational potential as a function of distance is probed studying the velocity dispersion profile of the cluster, as derived from a set of 125 radial velocities with accuracy better than 1 km/s. The velocity dispersion profile is traced up to ~18 pc from the cluster center. The dispersion is found to be maximal at the center, then decrease until 10+-2 pc from the center, well inside the cluster tidal radius of 42 pc. After that the dispersion remains constant with average value 2.2+-0.3 km/s. Assuming for NGC 7099 a total V mag of M(V)=-7.43 mags and mass-to-light ratio M/L=1, the acceleration at 10 pc from the center is 1.1e-8 cm/s/s. Thus, the flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurs for a value of the internal acceleration of gravity fully consistent with a_0=1.2e-8 cm/s/s observed in galaxies. This new result for NGC 7099 brings to 4 the clusters with velocity dispersion profile probing acceleration below a_0. All four have been found to have a flat dispersion profile at large radii where the acceleration is below a_0, mimicking qualitatively and quantitatively elliptical galaxies. Whether this indicates a failure of Newtonian dynamics in the low acceleration limit or some more conventional dynamical effect (e.g., tidal heating) is still unclear. However, the similarities emerging between very different globular clusters, as well as between globular clusters and elliptical galaxies seem to favor the first of these two possibilities.

  13. Experimental tests of the modernized VASSILISSA separator (SHELS) with the use of accelerated 50Ti ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeremin, A. V.; Popeko, A. G.; Malyshev, O. N.; Gall, B.; Asfari, Z.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Hauschild, K.; Dorvaux, O.; Gikal, B. N.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Loginov, V. N.; Bondarchenko, A. E.; Chepigin, V. I.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Isaev, A. V.; Sokol, E. A.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Kuznetsova, A. A.; Popov, Yu. A.; Rezynkina, K.; Dechery, F.; Andel, B.; Hofmann, S.; Maurer, J.; Heinz, S.; Rubert, J.

    2015-01-01

    A high intensity ion beam of 50Ti ions was obtained using the ECR ion source on the U400 cyclotron. The experimental tests using accelerated 50Ti ions were performed with a modernized VASSILISSA separator (SHELS). Data has been obtained on the transmission coefficients of recoil nuclei synthesized in complete fusion reactions. Estimates from ion optical calculations performed in the design phase of the project of modernizing the separator are completely confirmed.

  14. Repeatable electrical measurement instrumentation for use in the accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. W.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the construction, calibration, and performance of a repeatable measurement system for use in conjunction with the accelerated stress testing of a-Si:H cells. A filtered diode array is utilized to approximate the spectral response of any type of solar cell in discrete portions of the spectrum. It is noted that in order to achieve the necessary degree of overall repeatability, it is necessary to pay particular attention to methods of contacting and positioning the cells.

  15. Closeout Report for the Refractory Metal Accelerated Heat Pipe Life Test Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J.; Reid, R.; Stewart, E.; Hickman, R.; Mireles, O.

    2013-01-01

    With the selection of a gas-cooled reactor, this heat pipe accelerated life test activity was closed out and its resources redirected. The scope of this project was to establish the long-term aging effects on Mo-44.5%Re sodium heat pipes when subjected to space reactor temperature and mass fluences. To date, investigators have demonstrated heat pipe life tests of alkali metal systems up to .50,000 hours. Unfortunately, resources have not been available to examine the effect of temperature, mass fluence, or impurity level on corrosion or to conduct post-test forensic examination of heat pipes. The key objective of this effort was to establish a cost/time effective method to systematically test alkali metal heat pipes with both practical and theoretical benefits. During execution of the project, a heat pipe design was established, a majority of the laboratory test equipment systems specified, and operating and test procedures developed. Procurements for the heat pipe units and all major test components were underway at the time the stop work order was issued. An extremely important outcome was the successful fabrication of an annular wick from Mo-5%Re screen (the single, most difficult component to manufacture) using a hot isostatic pressing technique. This Technical Publication (TP) includes specifics regarding the heat pipe calorimeter water-cooling system, vendor design for the radio frequency heating system, possible alternative calorimeter designs, and progress on the vanadium equilibration technique. The methods provided in this TP and preceding project documentation would serve as a good starting point to rapidly implement an accelerated life test. Relevant test data can become available within months, not years, and destructive examination of the first life test heat pipe might begin within 6 months of test initiation. Final conclusions could be drawn in less than a quarter of the mission duration for a long-lived, fission-powered, deep space probe.

  16. Comparison of test particle acceleration in torsional spine and fan reconnection regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, M.; Mehdizade, M.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a common phenomenon taking place in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares which are rich sources of highly energetic particles. Torsional spine and fan reconnections are important mechanisms proposed for steady-state three-dimensional null-point reconnection. By using the magnetic and electric fields for these regimes, we numerically investigate the features of test particle acceleration in both regimes with input parameters for the solar corona. By comparison, torsional spine reconnection is found to be more efficient than torsional fan reconnection in an acceleration of a proton to a high kinetic energy. A proton can gain as high as 100 MeV of relativistic kinetic energy within only a few milliseconds. Moreover, in torsional spine reconnection, an accelerated particle can escape either along the spine axis or on the fan plane depending on its injection position. However, in torsional fan reconnection, the particle is only allowed to accelerate along the spine axis. In addition, in both regimes, the particle's trajectory and final kinetic energy depend on the injection position but adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory.

  17. Comparison of test particle acceleration in torsional spine and fan reconnection regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseinpour, M., E-mail: hosseinpour@tabrizu.ac.ir; Mehdizade, M.; Mohammadi, M. A. [Plasma Physics Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Magnetic reconnection is a common phenomenon taking place in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares which are rich sources of highly energetic particles. Torsional spine and fan reconnections are important mechanisms proposed for steady-state three-dimensional null-point reconnection. By using the magnetic and electric fields for these regimes, we numerically investigate the features of test particle acceleration in both regimes with input parameters for the solar corona. By comparison, torsional spine reconnection is found to be more efficient than torsional fan reconnection in an acceleration of a proton to a high kinetic energy. A proton can gain as high as 100?MeV of relativistic kinetic energy within only a few milliseconds. Moreover, in torsional spine reconnection, an accelerated particle can escape either along the spine axis or on the fan plane depending on its injection position. However, in torsional fan reconnection, the particle is only allowed to accelerate along the spine axis. In addition, in both regimes, the particle's trajectory and final kinetic energy depend on the injection position but adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory.

  18. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  19. Uninterrupted and accelerated vibrational fatigue testing with simultaneous monitoring of the natural frequency and damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?esnik, Martin; Slavi?, Janko; Boltežar, Miha

    2012-11-01

    A mechanical system's modal parameters change when fatigue loading is applied to the system. In order to perform an accelerated vibration-based fatigue test these changes must be taken into account in order to maintain constant-stress loading. This paper presents an improved accelerated fatigue-testing methodology based on the dynamic response of the test specimen to the harmonic excitation in the near-resonant area with simultaneous monitoring of the modal parameters. The measurements of the phase angle and the stress amplitude in the fatigue zone are used for the real-time adjustment of the excitation signal according to the changes in the specimen's modal parameters. The presented methodology ensures a constant load level throughout the fatigue process until the final failure occurs. With the proposed testing methodology it is possible to obtain a S-N point of the Woehler curve relatively quickly and to simultaneously monitor the changes of the specimen's natural frequency and damping loss factor. The presented methodology with real-time control is verified on an aluminum Y-shaped specimen (106 load cycles are achieved in 21 min) and is applicable to a specimen with arbitrary geometry. Besides the faster completion of the fatigue test the methodology can be adopted for the validation of the vibrational fatigue analysis.

  20. Design of the fiber optic support system and fiber bundle accelerated life test for VIRUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Ian M.; Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard J.; Heisler, James T.; Mock, Jason R.; Mollison, Nicholas T.; Good, John M.; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Anderson, Seth C.; Bauer, Svend M.; Kelz, Andreas; Roth, Martin M.; Fahrenthold, Eric P.

    2010-07-01

    The quantity and length of optical fibers required for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope* Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX) create unique fiber handling challenges. For HETDEX‡, at least 33,600 fibers will transmit light from the focal surface of the telescope to an array of spectrographs making up the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). Up to 96 Integral Field Unit (IFU) bundles, each containing 448 fibers, hang suspended from the telescope's moving tracker located more than 15 meters above the VIRUS instruments. A specialized mechanical system is being developed to support fiber optic assemblies onboard the telescope. The discrete behavior of 448 fibers within a conduit is also of primary concern. A life cycle test must be conducted to study fiber behavior and measure Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD) as a function of time. This paper focuses on the technical requirements and design of the HETDEX fiber optic support system, the electro-mechanical test apparatus for accelerated life testing of optical fiber assemblies. Results generated from the test will be of great interest to designers of robotic fiber handling systems for major telescopes. There is concern that friction, localized contact, entanglement, and excessive tension will be present within each IFU conduit and contribute to FRD. The test apparatus design utilizes six linear actuators to replicate the movement of the telescope over 65,000 accelerated cycles, simulating five years of actual operation.

  1. Electron spin resonance spectral study of PVC and XLPE insulation materials and their life time analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, M. A.; Shwehdi, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) study is carried out to characterize thermal endurance of insulating materials used in power cable industry. The presented work provides ESR investigation and evaluation of widely used cable insulation materials, namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). The results confirm the fact that PVC is rapidly degrades than XLPE. The study also indicates that colorants and cable's manufacturing processes enhance the thermal resistance of the PVC. It also verifies the powerfulness and the importance of the ESR-testing of insulation materials compared to other tests assumed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 216-procedure, e.g. weight loss (WL), electric strength (ES) or tensile strength (TS). The estimated thermal endurance parameters by ESR-method show that the other standard methods overestimate these parameters and produce less accurate thermal life time curves of cable insulation materials.

  2. Development of a quantitative accelerated sulphate attack test for mine backfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnorhokian, Shahe

    Mining operations produce large amounts of tailings that are either disposed of in surface impoundments or used in the production of backfill to be placed underground. Their mineralogy is determined by the local geology, and it is not uncommon to come across tailings with a relatively high sulphide mineral content, including pyrite and pyrrhotite. Sulphides oxidize in the presence of oxygen and water to produce sulphate and acidity. In the concrete industry, sulphate is known to produce detrimental effects by reacting with the cement paste to produce the minerals ettringite and gypsum. Because mine backfill uses tailings and binders---including cement---it is therefore prone to sulphate attack where the required conditions are met. Currently, laboratory tests on mine backfill mostly measure mechanical properties such as strength parameters, and the study of the chemical aspects is restricted to the impact of tailings on the environment. The potential of sulphate attack in mine backfill has not been studied at length, and no tests are conducted on binders used in backfill for their resistance to attack. Current ASTM guidelines for sulphate attack tests have been deemed inadequate by several authors due to their measurement of only expansion as an indicator of attack. Furthermore, the tests take too long to perform or are restricted to cement mortars only, and not to mixed binders that include pozzolans. Based on these, an accelerated test for sulphate attack was developed in this work through modifying and compiling procedures that had been suggested by different authors. Small cubes of two different binders were fully immersed in daily-monitored sodium sulphate and sulphuric acid solutions for a total of 28 days, after 7 days of accelerated curing at 50°C. In addition, four binders were partially immersed in the same solutions for 8 days for an accelerated attack process. The two procedures were conducted in tandem with leach tests using a mixed solution of ethylene glycol and methanol solution, which enabled the quantification of ettringite and gypsum that had formed due to the attack. Combining the partial immersion technique with the dissolution of ettringite and gypsum in the organic solutions, a new quantitative accelerated test for sulphate attack was developed.

  3. Power Test of the Ladder IH-RFQ Accelerator at Peking University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuan-Rong; Chen, Wei; Nie, Yuan-Cun; Liu, Ge; Gao, Shu-Li; Zeng, Hong-Jin; Yan, Xue-Qing; Chen, Jia-Er

    2011-07-01

    A 104-MHz ladder interdigital-H radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (T-IH-RFQ) is developed for applying RFQs to heavy ion implantation and accelerator-based mass spectroscopy in recent years at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. It could accelerate ions with a mass-to-charge ratio of less than 14, from 2.9 keV/u to 35.7 keV/u within a length of 1.1 m. The T-IH-RFQ cavity operating at H21(0) mode was constructed successfully. Based on a well designed rf power feeding system, the cavity was cold measured and tested with high rf power. In the case of cold measurement, the rf properties were obtained using a vector network analyzer with the help of a perturbation capacitor. During a high power test, the inter-electrode voltage was derived from the energy spectrum of x-rays measured by a high purity Ge detector. The results show that the specific shunt impedance of the T-IH-RFQ cavity reaches 178 k?m, which could meet the requirements of beam dynamics design.

  4. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design. PMID:18356649

  5. Methodology to Improve Design of Accelerated Life Tests in Civil Engineering Projects

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods. PMID:25111800

  6. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods. PMID:25111800

  7. Accelerated life test of sputtering and anode deposit spalling in a small mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Tantalum and molybdenum sputtered from discharge chamber components during operation of a 5 centimeter diameter mercury ion thruster adhered much more strongly to coarsely grit blasted anode surfaces than to standard surfaces. Spalling of the sputtered coating did occur from a coarse screen anode surface but only in flakes less than a mesh unit long. The results were obtained in a 200 hour accelerated life test conducted at an elevated discharge potential of 64.6 volts. The test approximately reproduced the major sputter erosion and deposition effects that occur under normal operation but at approximately 75 times the normal rate. No discharge chamber component suffered sufficient erosion in the test to threaten its structural integrity or further serviceability. The test indicated that the use of tantalum-surfaced discharge chamber components in conjunction with a fine wire screen anode surface should cure the problems of sputter erosion and sputtered deposits spalling in long term operation of small mercury ion thrusters.

  8. Ponderomotive upward acceleration of ions due to the magnetic moment pumping: A test particle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A.; Lundin, R.; Petrunin, A.

    2003-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the relationship between the Alfven waves and auroral acceleration processes. We have performed the test particle simulation in the frame of simple 2D models providing the comparison between the exact equations of motion and the magnetic moment pumping equation (Lundin and Hultqvist, J.G.R., 1989), which describes the upward ponderomotive acceleration of ions by electric field oscillations on the auroral field lines. Particular attention has been given to the gain in energy of heavy ion like the ions of oxygen in the resonance region. Outside the resonance the concept of magnetic moment pumping is quite correct, and the corresponding equation describes the upward acceleration of ions with a good accuracy. Under the resonance conditions the equation of motion needs for some regularization to avoid the singular denominator in the expression for the ponderomotive force. The idea is that the finite transversal size of the Alfven wave field confines effectively the magnetic moment pumping. We suppose that the Alfven waves are self-localized in the deep plasma cavities, which are formed due to the nonresonance ponderomotive acceleration of light ions. If so, we have some interplay between the propagation of the Alfven waves, plasma cavities formation, and the upward acceleration of heavy ions. In the course of searching for the regularization procedures, the new ponderomotive force has been found which operates in such a way that it is inversely (directly) related to the collision frequency under the resonance (nonresonance) conditions. This work was supported by grant INTAS-01-0013.

  9. Testing the hypothesis of accelerated cerebral white matter aging in schizophrenia and major depression

    PubMed Central

    Kochunov, P.; Glahn, D.C.; Rowland, L.M.; Olvera, R.L.; Winkler, A; Yang, Y.H.; Sampath, H.; Carpenter, W.T.; Dugarrila, R.; Curran, J.; Blangero, J.; Hong, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Elevated rate of aging-related biological and functional decline, termed accelerated aging, is reported in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived fractional anisotropy (FA) as biomarkers of aging-related decline in white matter (WM) integrity to test the hypotheses of accelerated aging in SCZ and MDD. Methods The SCZ cohort was composed of 58/60 SCZ patients/controls (age=20–60years). MDD cohort was composed of 136/351 MDD patients/controls (age=20–79years). Main outcome measures were the diagnosis-by-age interaction on whole-brain-averaged WM FA values and FA values from twelve major WM tracts. Results Diagnosis-by-age interaction for the whole-brain average FA was significant for the SCZ (p=0.04) but not in MDD cohort (p=0.80). Diagnosis-by-age interaction was nominally significant (p<0.05) for five WM tracts for SCZ and for none of the tracts in the MDD cohort. Tract-specific heterochronicity of the onset of age-related decline in SCZ demonstrated strong negative correlations with the age-of- peak myelination and the rates of age-related decline obtained from normative sample (r=?0.61 and ?0.80, p<0.05, respectively). No such trends existed for MDD cohort. Conclusion Cerebral WM showed accelerated aging in SCZ but not in MDD, suggesting some difference in the pathophysiology underlying their WM aging changes. Tract-specific heterochronicity of WM development modulated presentation of accelerated aging in SCZ: white matter tracts that matured later in life appeared more sensitive to the pathophysiology of SCZ and demonstrated more susceptibility to disorder-related accelerated decline in FA values with age. This trend was not observed in MDD cohort. PMID:23200529

  10. NEUTRON MONITOR DATA ON THE 15 JUNE 1991 FLARE: NEUTRONS AS A TEST FOR PROTON ACCELERATION SCENARIO

    E-print Network

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    NEUTRON MONITOR DATA ON THE 15 JUNE 1991 FLARE: NEUTRONS AS A TEST FOR PROTON ACCELERATION SCENARIO.J.TANSKANEN University of Oulu, SF-90570, Oulu, Finland ABSTRACT. Response of A1ma-Ata neuuon monitor for solar neutrons of proton acceleration during the flare. The analysis of neutron monitor is an evidence in favour

  11. Preliminary results of accelerated exposure testing of solar cell system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic samples and solar cell sub modules were exposed to an accelerated outdoor environment in Arizona and an accelerated simulated environment in a cyclic ultraviolet exposure tester which included humidity exposure. These tests were for preliminary screening of materials suitable for use in the manufacture of solar cell modules which are to have a 20-year lifetime. The samples were exposed for various times up to six months, equivalent to a real time exposure of four years. Suitable materials were found to be FEP-A, FEP-C, PFA, acrylic, silicone compounds and adhesives and possibly parylene. The method of packaging the sub modules was also found to be important to their performance.

  12. A study of erosion in die casting dies by a multiple pin accelerated erosion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivpuri, R.; Yu, M.; Venkatesan, K.; Chu, Y.-L.

    1995-04-01

    An accelerated erosion test was developed to evaluate the erosion resistance of die materials and coatings for die casting application. An acceleration in wear was achieved by selecting pyramid-shaped core pins, hypereutectic aluminum silicon casting alloy, high melt temperatures and high gate velocities. Multiple pin design was selected to enable multiple test sites for comparative evaluation. Apilot run was conducted on a 300 ton commercial die casting machine at various sites (pins) to verify the thermal and flow similarities. Subsequently, campaigns were run on two different 300 ton commercial die casting machines to evaluate H13 die material and different coatings for erosive resistance. Coatings and surface treatments evaluated included surface micropeening, titanium nitride, boron carbide, vanadium carbide, and metallic coatings—tungsten, molybdenum, and platinum. Recent campaigns with different melt temperatures have indicated a possible link between soldering phenomena and erosive wear. This paper presents the details of the test set up and the results of the pilot and evaluation tests.

  13. Models of f(R) Cosmic Acceleration that Evade Solar-System Tests

    E-print Network

    Wayne Hu; Ignacy Sawicki

    2007-05-08

    We study a class of metric-variation f(R) models that accelerates the expansion without a cosmological constant and satisfies both cosmological and solar-system tests in the small-field limit of the parameter space. Solar-system tests alone place only weak bounds on these models, since the additional scalar degree of freedom is locked to the high-curvature general-relativistic prediction across more than 25 orders of magnitude in density, out through the solar corona. This agreement requires that the galactic halo be of sufficient extent to maintain the galaxy at high curvature in the presence of the low-curvature cosmological background. If the galactic halo and local environment in f(R) models do not have substantially deeper potentials than expected in LCDM, then cosmological field amplitudes |f_R| > 10^{-6} will cause the galactic interior to evolve to low curvature during the acceleration epoch. Viability of large-deviation models therefore rests on the structure and evolution of the galactic halo, requiring cosmological simulations of f(R) models, and not directly on solar-system tests. Even small deviations that conservatively satisfy both galactic and solar-system constraints can still be tested by future, percent-level measurements of the linear power spectrum, while they remain undetectable to cosmological-distance measures. Although we illustrate these effects in a specific class of models, the requirements on f(R) are phrased in a nearly model-independent manner.

  14. European Particle Accelerator Conference -Rome, Italy -June 7-12, 1988 DEVELOPMENT OFA HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON GUN FOR THE ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY AT

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON GUN FOR THE ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY* K. Batchelor, HDonald Princeton University At innBNL--41767 DE89 002179 Abstract An electron gun utilizing aradio frequency on the design of (he electron gun which will provide r.f. bunches of upto 101 electrons synchronized

  15. Long-term storage life of light source modules by temperature cycling accelerated life test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningning, Sun; Manqing, Tan; Ping, Li; Jian, Jiao; Xiaofeng, Guo; Wentao, Guo

    2014-05-01

    Light source modules are the most crucial and fragile devices that affect the life and reliability of the interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). While the light emitting chips were stable in most cases, the module packaging proved to be less satisfactory. In long-term storage or the working environment, the ambient temperature changes constantly and thus the packaging and coupling performance of light source modules are more likely to degrade slowly due to different materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion in the bonding interface. A constant temperature accelerated life test cannot evaluate the impact of temperature variation on the performance of a module package, so the temperature cycling accelerated life test was studied. The main failure mechanism affecting light source modules is package failure due to solder fatigue failure including a fiber coupling shift, loss of cooling efficiency and thermal resistor degradation, so the Norris-Landzberg model was used to model solder fatigue life and determine the activation energy related to solder fatigue failure mechanism. By analyzing the test data, activation energy was determined and then the mean life of light source modules in different storage environments with a continuously changing temperature was simulated, which has provided direct reference data for the storage life prediction of IFOG.

  16. Using globular clusters to test gravity in the weak acceleration regime: NGC 6171

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Marconi, Gianni; Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    As part of an ongoing program to test Newton’s law of gravity in the low acceleration regime using globular clusters, we present here new results obtained for NGC 6171. Combining VLT spectra for 107 stars with data from the literature, we were able to trace the velocity dispersion profile up to 16 pc from the cluster center, probing accelerations of gravity down to 3.5x10-9 cm s-2 . The velocity dispersion is found to remain constant at large radii (with an asymptotic values of 2.7 km s-1 ) rather than follow the Keplerian falloff. Similar results were previously found for the globular clusters ? Centauri and M15. We have now studied three clusters and all three have been found to have a flat dispersion profile beyond the radius where their internal acceleration of gravity is a0 1.2x10-8 cm s-2 . Whether this indicates a failure of Newtonian dynamics or some more conventional dynamical effect (e.g., tidal heating) is still unclear. However, the similarities emerging between globular clusters and elliptical galaxies seem to favor the first of the two possibilities.

  17. Using globular clusters to test gravity in the weak acceleration regime: NGC 6171

    E-print Network

    Riccardo Scarpa; Gianni Marconi; Roberto Gilmozzi

    2004-11-03

    As part of an ongoing program to test Newton's law of gravity in the low acceleration regime using globular clusters, we present here new results obtained for NGC 6171. Combining VLT spectra for 107 stars with data from the literature, we were able to trace the velocity dispersion profile up to 16 pc from the cluster center, probing accelerations of gravity down to 3.5e-9 cm/s/s. The velocity dispersion is found to remain constant at large radii rather than follow the Keplerian falloff. Similar results were previously found for the globular clusters $\\omega$ Centauri and M15. We have now studied three clusters and all three have been found to have a flat dispersion profile beyond the radius where their internal acceleration of gravity is ~ 1e-8 cm/s/s. Whether this indicates a failure of Newtonian dynamics or some more conventional dynamical effect (e.g., tidal heating) is still unclear. However, the similarities emerging between globular clusters and elliptical galaxies seem to favor the first of the two possibilities.

  18. Using globular clusters to test gravity in the weak acceleration regime: NGC 6171

    E-print Network

    Scarpa, R; Gilmozzi, R; Scarpa, Riccardo; Marconi, Gianni; Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program to test Newton's law of gravity in the low acceleration regime using globular clusters, we present here new results obtained for NGC 6171. Combining VLT spectra for 107 stars with data from the literature, we were able to trace the velocity dispersion profile up to 16 pc from the cluster center, probing accelerations of gravity down to 3.5e-9 cm/s/s. The velocity dispersion is found to remain constant at large radii rather than follow the Keplerian falloff. Similar results were previously found for the globular clusters $\\omega$ Centauri and M15. We have now studied three clusters and all three have been found to have a flat dispersion profile beyond the radius where their internal acceleration of gravity is ~ 1e-8 cm/s/s. Whether this indicates a failure of Newtonian dynamics or some more conventional dynamical effect (e.g., tidal heating) is still unclear. However, the similarities emerging between globular clusters and elliptical galaxies seem to favor the first of the two pos...

  19. Ferrographic analysis of wear debris generated in accelerated rolling element fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Parker, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Ferrographic analysis was used to determine the types and quantities of wear particles generated during accelerated rolling contact fatigue tests. The NASA five-ball rolling contact fatigue tester was used. Ball specimens were made of AMS 5749, a corrosion-resistant high-temperature bearing steel. The lubricant was a super-refined naphthenic mineral oil. Conditions included a maximum Hertz stress of 5.52 billion Pa and a shaft speed of 10,000 rpm. Four types of wear particles were observed: normal rubbing wear particles, fatigue spall particles, spheres, and friction polymer.

  20. ACCELERATED TESTING OF NEUTRON-ABSORBING ALLOYS FOR NUCLEAR CRITICALITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Mizia

    2011-10-01

    The US Department of Energy requires nuclear criticality control materials be used for storage of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel used in government programs and the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel at the proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Geological Repository located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Two different metallic alloys (Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd and borated stainless steel) have been chosen for this service. An accelerated corrosion test program to validate these materials for this application is described and a performance comparison is made.

  1. Ion sources for accelerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Spädtke; J. Bossler; H. Emig; K. D Leible; C. Mühle; H. Schulte; K. Tinschert

    1998-01-01

    A survey of different types of ion sources used for accelerator applications is given. Typical problems like the source life time, or the special need for technical solutions for specific elements will demonstrate the advantage of each type of ion source. In any case reliability is a main topic. Besides the plasma generation of the desired element, beam formation and

  2. Accelerated Testing of Epoxy-FRP Composites for Civil Infrastructure Applications: Property Changes and Mechanisms of Degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Stewart; Elliot P. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated testing of FRP systems is frequently performed due to the long service life of these materials used to repair damaged civil structures. This testing typically involves exposure to common environmental conditions seen in the field. However, the main limitation of these experiments is that the testing protocols typically do not consider a change in the failure mechanism as a

  3. Development of an Accelerated Test Design for Predicting the Service Life of the Solar Array at Mead, Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Noel, G. T.; Shilliday, T. S.; Wood, V. E.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated life test is described which was developed to predict the life of the 25 kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. A quantitative model for accelerating testing using multiple environmental stresses was used to develop the test design. The model accounts for the effects of thermal stress by a relation of the Arrhenius form. This relation was then corrected for the effects of nonthermal environmental stresses, such as relative humidity, atmospheric pollutants, and ultraviolet radiation. The correction factors for the nonthermal stresses included temperature-dependent exponents to account for the effects of interactions between thermal and nonthermal stresses on the rate of degradation of power output. The test conditions, measurements, and data analyses for the accelerated tests are presented. Constant-temperature, cyclic-temperature, and UV types of tests are specified, incorporating selected levels of relative humidity and chemical contamination and an imposed forward-bias current and static electric field.

  4. Development and beam test of a continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Mustapha, B.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Luo, Y.; Paskvan, D.; Perry, A.; Schrage, D.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Sommer, R.; Toter, W.; Zinkann, G.

    2012-11-01

    The front end of any modern ion accelerator includes a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). While many pulsed ion linacs successfully operate RFQs, several ion accelerators worldwide have significant difficulties operating continuous wave (CW) RFQs to design specifications. In this paper we describe the development and results of the beam commissioning of a CW RFQ designed and built for the National User Facility: Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). Several innovative ideas were implemented in this CW RFQ. By selecting a multisegment split-coaxial structure, we reached moderate transverse dimensions for a 60.625-MHz resonator and provided a highly stabilized electromagnetic field distribution. The accelerating section of the RFQ occupies approximately 50% of the total length and is based on a trapezoidal vane tip modulation that increased the resonator shunt impedance by 60% in this section as compared to conventional sinusoidal modulation. To form an axially symmetric beam exiting the RFQ, a very short output radial matcher with a length of 0.75?? was developed. The RFQ is designed as a 100% oxygen-free electronic (OFE) copper structure and fabricated with a two-step furnace brazing process. The radio frequency (rf) measurements show excellent rf properties for the resonator, with a measured intrinsic Q equal to 94% of the simulated value for OFE copper. An O5+ ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was used for the RFQ commissioning. In off-line beam testing, we found excellent coincidence of the measured beam parameters with the results of beam dynamics simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK, which was developed at Argonne. These results demonstrate the great success of the RFQ design and fabrication technology developed here, which can be applied to future CW RFQs.

  5. Testing the Acceleration Hypothesis: Fluency Outcomes Utilizing Still- versus Accelerated-Text in Sixth-Grade Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, David D.

    2011-01-01

    The acceleration hypothesis views reading rate simultaneously as both an independent and dependent variable that can be manipulated to encourage increases in reading indicators (Breznitz, 2006). Within this conceptualization, reading rate represents all the component sub-processes required for proficient reading and presents the opportunity for a…

  6. Design and Flight Tests of an Adaptive Control System Employing Normal-Acceleration Command

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeill, Water E.; McLean, John D.; Hegarty, Daniel M.; Heinle, Donovan R.

    1961-01-01

    An adaptive control system employing normal-acceleration command has been designed with the aid of an analog computer and has been flight tested. The design of the system was based on the concept of using a mathematical model in combination with a high gain and a limiter. The study was undertaken to investigate the application of a system of this type to the task of maintaining nearly constant dynamic longitudinal response of a piloted airplane over the flight envelope without relying on air data measurements for gain adjustment. The range of flight conditions investigated was between Mach numbers of 0.36 and 1.15 and altitudes of 10,000 and 40,000 feet. The final adaptive system configuration was derived from analog computer tests, in which the physical airplane control system and much of the control circuitry were included in the loop. The method employed to generate the feedback signals resulted in a model whose characteristics varied somewhat with changes in flight condition. Flight results showed that the system limited the variation in longitudinal natural frequency of the adaptive airplane to about half that of the basic airplane and that, for the subsonic cases, the damping ratio was maintained between 0.56 and 0.69. The system also automatically compensated for the transonic trim change. Objectionable features of the system were an exaggerated sensitivity of pitch attitude to gust disturbances, abnormally large pitch attitude response for a given pilot input at low speeds, and an initial delay in normal-acceleration response to pilot control at all flight conditions. The adaptive system chatter of +/-0.05 to +/-0.10 of elevon at about 9 cycles per second (resulting in a maximum airplane normal-acceleration response of from +/-0.025 g to +/- 0.035 g) was considered by the pilots to be mildly objectionable but tolerable.

  7. Accelerated gravity testing of aquitard core permeability and implications at formation and regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, W. A.; Crane, R.; Anderson, D. J.; Bouzalakos, S.; Whelan, M.; McGeeney, D.; Rahman, P. F.; Guinea, A.; Acworth, R. I.

    2015-03-01

    Evaluating the possibility of leakage through low permeability geological strata is critically important for sustainable water supplies, the extraction of fuels from strata such as coal beds, and the confinement of waste within the earth. The current work demonstrates that relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic conductivity (K) measurement of aquitard cores using accelerated gravity can inform and constrain larger scale assessments of hydraulic connectivity. Steady state fluid velocity through a low K porous sample is linearly related to accelerated gravity (g-level) in a centrifuge permeameter (CP) unless consolidation or geochemical reactions occur. The CP module was custom designed to fit a standard 2 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge (550 g maximum) with a capacity for sample dimensions of 30 to 100 mm diameter and 30 to 200 mm in length, and a maximum total stress of ~2 MPa at the base of the core. Formation fluids were used as influent to limit any shrink-swell phenomena which may alter the permeability. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) results from CP testing of cores from three sites within the same regional clayey silt formation varied (10-7 to 10-9 m s-1, n = 14). Results at one of these sites (1.1 × 10-10 to 3.5 × 10-9 m s-1, n = 5) that were obtained in < 24 h were similar to in situ Kv values (3 × 10-9 m s-1) from pore pressure responses over several weeks within a 30 m clayey sequence. Core scale and in situ Kv results were compared with vertical connectivity within a regional flow model, and considered in the context of heterogeneity and preferential flow paths at site and formation scale. More reliable assessments of leakage and solute transport though aquitards over multi-decadal timescales can be achieved by accelerated core testing together with advanced geostatistical and numerical methods.

  8. Life time calculations for LCF loading combined with tensional hold periods. Application to Zircaloy-4 and AISI 304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo?ek, M.; Armas, A.; Piel, D.

    1983-04-01

    The life time in high amplitude strain cycling with tensional hold periods is analysed presuming that creep failure damage is life determining. The life fraction rule (LFR) is used to calculate the life time consumpted during the dwell period in strain controlled tests as well as during tensional hold time stress cycles. It follows from the present investigation that stress relaxation occurring during the strain hold periods plays the dominant influence upon the relationship between life and dwell time. For strong stress relaxation (e.g. high temperature) less damage is accumulated as compared to suppressed relaxation (low temperature). The damage in stress relaxation is calculated by means of the LFR and the results are compared to experiments conducted on Zircaloy-4 and the austenitic stainless steel Type AISI 304. From the very good agreement between both it is concluded that under the loading conditions considered, creep failure damage is the main life determining damage contribution.

  9. Membrane degradation during combined chemical and mechanical accelerated stress testing of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C.; Ghassemzadeh, L.; Van Hove, F.; Lauritzen, M.; Kolodziej, J.; Wang, G. G.; Holdcroft, S.; Kjeang, E.

    2014-07-01

    A cyclic open circuit voltage (COCV) accelerated stress test (AST) is designed to screen the simultaneous effect of chemical and mechanical membrane degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The AST consists of a steady state OCV phase to accelerate chemical degradation and periodic wet/dry cycles to provide mechanical degradation. The membrane degradation process induced by COCV AST operation is analyzed using a standard MEA with PFSA ionomer membrane. The OCV shows an initially mild decay rate followed by a higher decay rate in the later stages of the experiment. Membrane failure, defined by a threshold convective hydrogen leak rate, is obtained after 160 h of operation. Uniform membrane thinning is observed with pinhole formation being the primary cause of failure. Mechanical tensile tests reveal that the membrane becomes stiffer and more brittle during AST operation, which contributes to mechanical failure upon cyclic humidity induced stress. Solid state 19F NMR spectroscopy and fluoride emission measurements demonstrate fluorine loss from both side chain and main chain upon membrane exposure to high temperature and low humidity OCV condition.

  10. Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Lee, Sungchil; Kim, Sehwan; Chou, Pai H.

    2011-04-01

    Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate and the pressure change propagates through the pipeline. From the measurement of pipe vibration the rupture can be detected. In this paper, the field test results and observations are provided for implementing next generation of SCADA system for pipeline rupture detection. Two field tests were performed on real buried plastic and metal pipelines for rupture detection. The rupture was simulated by introducing sudden water pressure drop caused by water blow-off and valve control. The measured acceleration data at the pipe surfaces were analyzed in both time and frequency domain. In time domain, the sudden narrow increase of acceleration amplitude was used as an indication of rupture event. For the frequency domain analysis, correlation function and the short time Fourier Transform technique were adopted to trace the dominant frequency shift. The success of rupture detection was found to be dependent on several factors. From the frequency analysis, the dominant frequency of metal water pipe was shifted by the water pressure drop, however, it was hard to identify from the plastic pipeline. Also the influence of existing facility such as airvac on pipe vibrations was observed. Finally, several critical lessons learned in the viewpoint of field measurement are discussed in this paper.

  11. Test Results of a Superconducting Quadrupole Model Designed for Linear Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Andreev, Nikolai; Chlachidze, Guram; DiMarco, Joseph; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael J.; Lopes, Mauricio L.; Orris, Darryl; Tartaglia, Michael; Tompkins, John C.; Velev, Gueorgui; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    The first model of a superconducting quadrupole for use in a Linear Accelerator was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The quadrupole has a 78 mm aperture, and a cold mass length of 680 mm. A superferric magnet configuration with iron poles and four racetrack coils was chosen based on magnet performance, cost, and reliability considerations. Each coil is wound using enamel insulated, 0.5 mm diameter, NbTi superconductor. The quadrupole package also includes racetrack type dipole steering coils. The results of the quadrupole design, manufacturing and test, are presented. Specific issues related to the quadrupole magnetic center stability, superconductor magnetization and mechanical stability are discussed. The magnet quench performance and results of magnetic measurements will also be briefly discussed.

  12. Scaled Accelerator Test for the DARHT-II Downstream Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Blackfield, D T; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; McCarrick, J F; Paul, A C; Watson, J A; Weir, J T

    2005-10-03

    The second axis of the Dual Axial radiography Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT-II) facility at LANL is currently in the commissioning phase[1]. The beam parameters for the DARHT-II machine will be nominally 18 MeV, 2 kA and 1.6 {micro}s. This makes the DARHT-II downstream system the first system ever designed to transport a high current, high energy and long pulse beam [2]. We will test these physics issues of the downstream transport system on a scaled DARHT-II accelerator with a 7.8-MeV and 660-A beam at LANL before commissioning the machine at its full energy and current. The scaling laws for various physics concerns and the beam parameters selection is discussed in this paper.

  13. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2006-01-01

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 W Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  14. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David L.; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2006-01-01

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  15. Accelerated in vitro durability testing of nonvascular Nitinol stents based on the electrical potential sensing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Tijing, Leonard D.; Pant, Hem Raj; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Amarjargal, Altangerel; Kim, Han Joo; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we report an evaluation of the performance of a new stent durability tester based on the electrical potential sensing method through accelerated in vitro testing of six different nonvascular Nitinol stents simulating physiological conditions. The stents were subjected to a pulsatile loading of 33 Hz for a total of 62,726,400 cycles, at constant temperature and pressure of 35±0.5 °C and 120±4 mmHg, respectively. The electrical potential of each stent was measured in real-time and monitored for any changes in readings. After conducting test-to-fracture tests, the stents were visually checked, and by scanning electron microscopy. A sudden electrical potential drop in the readings suggests a fracture has occurred, and the only two instances of fracture in our present results were correctly determined by our present device, with the fractures confirmed visually after the test. The excellent performance of our new method shows good potential for a highly reliable and applicable in vitro durability testing for different kinds and sizes of metallic stents.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE PCFBC-EXPOSED AND ACCELERATED LIFE-TESTED CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    1999-09-30

    Development of the hot gas filtration technology has been the focus of DOE/FETC and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation during the past twenty years. Systems development during this time has successfully lead to the generation and implementation of high temperature Siemens Westinghouse particulate filtration systems that are currently installed and are operational at Demonstration Plant sites, and which are ready for installation at commercial plant sites. Concurrently, materials development has advanced the use of commercially available oxide- and nonoxide-based monoliths, and has fostered the manufacture and use of second generation, oxide-based, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites and filament wound materials. This report summarizes the material characterization results for commercially available and second generation filter materials tested in Siemens Westinghouse's advanced, high temperature, particulate removal system at the Foster Wheeler, pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion, pilot-scale test facility in Karhula, Finland, and subsequent extended accelerated life testing of aged elements in Siemens Westinghouse pressurized fluidized-bed combustion simulator test facility in Pittsburgh, PA. The viability of operating candle filters successfully for over 1 year of service life has been shown in these efforts. Continued testing to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring three years of service operation on aged filter elements is recommended.

  17. Further Analysis of Accelerated Exposure Testing of Thin-Glass Mirror Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C. E.; Terwilliger, K.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) companies have deployed thin-glass mirrors produced by wet-silver processes on {approx}1-mmthick, relatively lightweight glass. These mirrors are bonded to metal substrates in commercial installations and have the confidence of the CSP industry. Initial hemispherical reflectance is {approx}93%-96%, and the cost is {approx}$16.1/m{sup 2}-$43.0/m{sup 2}. However, corrosion was observed in mirror elements of operational solar systems deployed outdoors for 2 years. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Advanced Materials Team has been investigating this problem. First, it was noted that this corrosion is very similar to the corrosion bands and spots observed on small (45 mm x 67 mm) thin-glass mirrors laminated to metal substrates with several different types of adhesives and subjected to accelerated exposure testing (AET) at NREL. The corrosion appears as dark splotches in the center of the mirror, with a corresponding 5%-20% loss in reflectivity. Secondly, two significant changes in mirror manufacture have occurred in the wet-chemistry process because of environmental concerns. The first is the method of forming a copper-free reflective mirror, and the second is the use of lead-free paints. However, the copper-free process requires stringent quality control and the lead-free paints were developed for interior applications. A test matrix of 84 combinations of sample constructions (mirror type/backprotective paint/adhesive/substrate) was devised for AET as a designed experiment to identify the most-promising mirrors, paints, and adhesives for use with concentrator designs. Two types of accelerated exposure were used: an Atlas Ci5000 WeatherOmeter (CI5000) and a BlueM damp-heat chamber. Based on an analysis of variance (ANOVA), the various factors and interactions were modeled. These samples now have more than 36 months of accelerated exposure, and most samples have completed their test cycle. We will discuss the results of the final exposure testing of these mirror samples. Glass mirrors with copper back-layers and heavily leaded paints have been considered robust for outdoor use. However, the basic mirror composition of the new mirrors is radically different from that of historically durable solar mirrors, and the outdoor durability must be determined.

  18. Fatigue-test acceleration with flight-by-flight loading and heating to simulate supersonic-transport operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imig, L. A.; Garrett, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    Possibilities for reducing fatigue-test time for supersonic-transport materials and structures were studied in tests with simulated flight-by-flight loading. In order to determine whether short-time tests were feasible, the results of accelerated tests (2 sec per flight) were compared with the results of real-time tests (96 min per flight). The effects of design mean stress, the stress range for ground-air-ground cycles, simulated thermal stress, the number of stress cycles in each flight, and salt corrosion were studied. The flight-by-flight stress sequences were applied to notched sheet specimens of Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V and Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloys. A linear cumulative-damage analysis accounted for large changes in stress range of the simulated flights but did not account for the differences between real-time and accelerated tests. The fatigue lives from accelerated tests were generally within a factor of two of the lives from real-time tests; thus, within the scope of the investigation, accelerated testing seems feasible.

  19. Long-Term Reliability of SiGe/Si HBTs From Accelerated Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2001-01-01

    Accelerated lifetime tests were performed on double-mesa structure Si(0.7)Ge(0.3)/Si npn heterojunction bipolar transistors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, in the temperature range of 175 C-275 C. The transistors (with 5x20 sq micron emitter area) have DC current gains approx. 40-50 and f(sub T) and f(sub max) of up to 22 GHz and 25 GHz, respectively. It is found that a gradual degradation in these devices is caused by the recombination enhanced impurity diffusion (REID) of boron atoms from the p-type base region and the associated formation of parasitic energy barriers to electron transport from the emitter to collector layers. This REED has been quantitatively modeled and explained, to the first order of approximation, and the agreement with the measured data is good. The mean time to failure (MTTF) of these devices at room temperature under 1.35 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm current density operation is estimated from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots of device lifetime versus reciprocal temperature. The results of the reliability tests offer valuable feedback for SiGe heterostructure design in order to improve the long-term reliability of the devices and circuits made with them. Hot electron induced degradation of the base-emitter junction was also observed during the accelerated lifetime testing. In order to improve the HBT reliability endangered by the hot electrons, deuterium sintered techniques have been proposed. The preliminary results from this study show that a deuterium-sintered HBT is, indeed, more resistant to hot-electron induced base-emitter junction degradation.

  20. Calculating Nozzle Side Loads using Acceleration Measurements of Test-Based Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joe

    2007-01-01

    As part of a NASA/MSFC research program to evaluate the effect of different nozzle contours on the well-known but poorly characterized "side load" phenomena, we attempt to back out the net force on a sub-scale nozzle during cold-flow testing using acceleration measurements. Because modeling the test facility dynamics is problematic, new techniques for creating a "pseudo-model" of the facility and nozzle directly from modal test results are applied. Extensive verification procedures were undertaken, resulting in a loading scale factor necessary for agreement between test and model based frequency response functions. Side loads are then obtained by applying a wide-band random load onto the system model, obtaining nozzle response PSD's, and iterating both the amplitude and frequency of the input until a good comparison of the response with the measured response PSD for a specific time point is obtained. The final calculated loading can be used to compare different nozzle profiles for assessment during rocket engine nozzle development and as a basis for accurate design of the nozzle and engine structure to withstand these loads. The techniques applied within this procedure have extensive applicability to timely and accurate characterization of all test fixtures used for modal test.A viewgraph presentation on a model-test based pseudo-model used to calculate side loads on rocket engine nozzles is included. The topics include: 1) Side Loads in Rocket Nozzles; 2) Present Side Loads Research at NASA/MSFC; 3) Structural Dynamic Model Generation; 4) Pseudo-Model Generation; 5) Implementation; 6) Calibration of Pseudo-Model Response; 7) Pseudo-Model Response Verification; 8) Inverse Force Determination; 9) Results; and 10) Recent Work.

  1. The Cornell-BNL FFAG-ERL Test Accelerator: White Paper

    E-print Network

    Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Hoffstaetter, Georg; Mayes, Christopher; Patterson, Ritchie; Sagan, David; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Berg, Scott; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brooks, Stephen; Brown, Kevin; Fischer, Wolfram; Hao, Yue; Meng, Wuzheng; Méot, François; Minty, Michiko; Peggs, Stephen; Ptitsin, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The Cornell-BNL FFAG-ERL Test Accelerator (C$\\beta$) will comprise the first ever Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based on a Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) lattice. In particular, we plan to use a Non Scaling FFAG (NS-FFAG) lattice that is very compact and thus space- and cost- effective, enabling multiple passes of the electron beam in a single recirculation beam line, using the superconducting RF (SRF) linac multiple times. The FFAG-ERL moves the cost optimized linac and recirculation lattice to a dramatically better optimum. The prime accelerator science motivation for C$\\beta$ is proving that the FFAG-ERL concept works. This is an important milestone for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) plans to build a major Nuclear Physics facility, eRHIC, based on producing 21 GeV electron beams to collide with the RHIC ion beams. A consequence of the C$\\beta$ work would be the availability of significantly better, cost-effective, compact CW high-brightness electron beams for a plethora of scientific inves...

  2. Degradation in silicon solar cells caused by the formation of Schottky barrier contacts during accelerated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, J.W.; Davis, C.W.; Misiakos, K.

    1984-05-01

    When p+/n silicon solar cells having a lightly doped substrate, i.e. no back surface field, were subjected to accelerated stress testing an irregularity occurred in the VI characteristic along with the resulting loss of power output. Evidence is presented which indicates that this is due to formation of a rectifying Schottky barrier between the back metal contact and the silicon, possibly as a result of the dissociation of water vapor molecules and the subsequent diffusion of hydrogen to the metal-silicon interface. When encapsulated cells were stressed, those having a steel substrate showed less degradation than unencapsulated cells while those with Tedlar or foil substrates showed more. This rather surprising result can also be explained in terms of the hydrogen diffusion phenomenon.

  3. Tensile strength at elevated temperature and its applicability as an accelerated testing methodology for unidirectional composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, Jun; Nakada, Masayuki; Miyano, Yasushi

    2012-02-01

    The applicability of a macroscopic time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) to unidirectional composite strength is discussed based on the microscopic Simultaneous Fiber-Failure (SFF) model that has been presented by Koyanagi et al. (J. Compos. Mater. 43:1901-1914, 2009a). The SFF model estimates composite strengths as functions of fiber, matrix, and interface strengths. This paper first investigates the applicability of SFF to the complicated temperature dependence of composite strengths, i.e., one composite exhibits significant temperature dependence and another does not, considering the temperature dependence of the components, which results in successful estimations for the two composite systems used in the present study. The long-term durability predicted by the SFF and that predicted by the TTSP are then compared. They typically correspond to each other in various cases; accelerated testing methodology (ATM) employing TTSP is thus proved to be valid from the micromechanical viewpoint, assuming the SFF applicability.

  4. On the Use of Accelerated Test Methods for Characterization of Advanced Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.

    2003-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing for material characterization of advanced polymer matrix composites is discussed. The experimental and analytical methods provided should be viewed as a set of tools useful in the screening of material systems for long-term engineering properties in aerospace applications. Consideration is given to long-term exposure in extreme environments that include elevated temperature, reduced temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. Analytical formulations useful for predictive models that are based on the principles of time-based superposition are presented. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for determining specific aging mechanisms.

  5. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.I.; /Kyungpook Natl. U.; Ainsworth, R.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Aryshev, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Boogert, S.T.; Boorman, G.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Frisch, J.; /SLAC; Heo, A.; /Kyungpook Natl. U.; Honda, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Hwang, W.H.; Huang, J.Y.; /Pohang Accelerator Lab.; Kim, E-S.; /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-04-02

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM) system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1 {mu}m for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  6. High power testing of the prototype accelerating cavity (352 MHz) for the advanced photon source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Primdahl, K.

    1992-07-01

    Measurement of the higher order of modes of a prototype single-cell 352 MHz cavity for the APS 7-Gev storage ring will be presented and discussed. A cavity made from solid copper was built according to dimensions derived from URMEL program runs. The longitudinal and transverse impedances of the first several higher order modes have been measured using various-shaped metal beads. High power ( > 60 kW) testing of the cavity will be described along with design and operation of dampers for those modes with coupled-bunch instability threshold currents under 300 milliamperes, the maximum circulating positron current. Low power level rf circuitry for timing and synchronization of the various APS accelerators and storage ring will be described.

  7. High power testing of the prototype accelerating cavity (352 MHz) for the advanced photon source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Primdahl, K.

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of the higher order of modes of a prototype single-cell 352 MHz cavity for the APS 7-Gev storage ring will be presented and discussed. A cavity made from solid copper was built according to dimensions derived from URMEL program runs. The longitudinal and transverse impedances of the first several higher order modes have been measured using various-shaped metal beads. High power ( > 60 kW) testing of the cavity will be described along with design and operation of dampers for those modes with coupled-bunch instability threshold currents under 300 milliamperes, the maximum circulating positron current. Low power level rf circuitry for timing and synchronization of the various APS accelerators and storage ring will be described.

  8. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the first volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of an introduction, summary/conclusion, site description and assessment, description of facility, and description of operation.

  9. Development of a new test of accelerated long-term forgetting in epilepsy 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Katie

    2010-11-24

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a novel form of memory impairment in which epilepsy patients demonstrate intact recall and recognition after standard delays, but they show an accelerated rate of forgetting in comparison to controls when...

  10. Evaluation of stone durability using a combination of ultrasound, mechanical and accelerated aging tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, E.; Cultrone, G.; Sebastián, E.; Alonso, F. J.

    2013-06-01

    The durability of a rock when exposed to decay agents is an important criterion when assessing its quality as a building material. Our study focuses on six varieties of natural stone (two limestones, one dolostone, one travertine and two sandstones) that are widely used in both new and historical buildings. In order to assess their quality, we measured and characterized their dynamic elastic properties using ultrasounds, we measured their compressive strength using the uniaxial compression test and we evaluated their durability by means of accelerated aging tests (freeze-thaw and salt crystallization). In order to get a full picture of the decay suffered by the different stones, we determined the composition and amount of the clay fraction of the six stones. We also observed small fragments subjected to the salt crystallization test under an environmental scanning electron microscope to study any textural change and measured the changes of colour on the surface with a spectrophotometer. Finally, we analysed the pore system of the stones before and after their deterioration using mercury injection porosimetry. We then compared the results for the different stones and found that dolostone obtained the best results, while the two limestones proved to be the least durable and had the lowest compressive strength.

  11. Simulation prediction and experiment setup of vacuum laser acceleration at Brookhaven National Lab-Accelerator Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, L.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Ho, Y. K.; Kong, Q.; Xu, J. J.; Pogorelsky, I.; Yakimenko, V.; Kusche, K.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the pre-experiment plan and prediction of the first stage of vacuum laser acceleration (VLA) collaborating by UCLA, Fudan University and ATF-BNL. This first stage experiment is a proof-of-principle to support our previously posted novel VLA theory. Simulations show that based on ATF's current experimental conditions the electron beam with initial energy of 15 MeV can get net energy gain from an intense CO2 laser beam. The difference in electron beam energy spread is observable by the ATF beam line diagnostics system. Further, this energy spread expansion effect increases along with an increase in laser intensity. The proposal has been approved by the ATF committee and the experiment will be our next project.

  12. Tests of GNSS receivers for dynamic, high sample rate response using controlled sources of displacement, velocity, and acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, J. O.; Evans, J. R.; Blume, F.; Johanson, I. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) are being employed to augment seismic instrumentation to record large, dynamic displacements and accelerations from large earthquakes. To date, however, there have been only a few tests that independently characterize the GNSS at frequencies and displacements that occur during large earthquakes (a number of error sources might influence such GPS result, including loss of lock or bias in signal tracking loops). Many of these tests consist of replaying the observed accelerations for select earthquakes recorded by seismic instruments through a shake-table on which a GNSS antenna is attached. Then the derived displacement from the accelerometer is compared with the displacement estimated from the GNSS system, or the GNSS derived acceleration is compared with the acceleration of the shake table. Neither comparison is optimal since derived quantities are used, and in particular, displacements derived from acceleration data have many sources of error at long periods. Another approach is to test the response of the GNSS receiver using a GNSS-simulator where synthetic GNSS signals are generated that mimic the signals that are actually received. Ebinuma and Kato (Earth Planet Space, 2012) describe a series of controlled tests using this approach with three different GNSS receivers. As a "real world" test, we performed similar experiments using a shake table, in open air with normal views of GNSS satellites, with controlled displacement inputs but, importantly, measured the displacement and acceleration of this table independently. We used a single-axis shake-table having up to 40 cm horizontal displacement and independently measured the position of the stage to better than 0.1 mm (from table servo loop optical reference; accelerations measured by accelerometers attached to moving part of stage). We tested five different GNSS receivers recording both GPS and GLONASS at 50 samples per second (sps), with the exception of the Trimble NetRS, which is widely used in the Plate Boundary Observatory, that recorded 10 sps GPS data only. To determine the system response, we tested each receiver using both a rounded Heaviside (step) function (40, 10, and 2 cm) and a variety of sinusoid signals from 0.2 to 20 Hz spanning a range in accelerations between 0.02 to 3.0 g. The results of these real-world tests will be compared with similar measurements by Ebinuma and Kato (2012), who used a GPS simulator.

  13. Distribution of failures for increasing strain accelerated fatigue tests for elastomers can be approximated by a Gaussian distribution.

    PubMed

    McMillin, C R

    1991-01-01

    A step increasing strain accelerated fatigue test has been developed and validated for the evaluation of candidate elastomeric materials for the artificial heart program. Whereas standard fatigue tests can be approximated by a log-normal or Weibull distribution, the increasing strain accelerated fatigue test has the general appearance of being normally distributed (i.e., a Gaussian distribution). The hypothesis that the data is indeed normally distributed was examined using a variety of statistical tests. The mean and median were equivalent in all data sets compared, as they would be for normally distributed data. There was very little positive or negative skew found in data collected under a wide variety of conditions. The data was found to have a slightly stronger than expected central tendency (positive kurtosis), but most of this disappeared when the data were normalized. Chi-squared analysis found normally distributed data in most subset of the data except for those with small numbers of test specimens per test. Normalized test data was not found to differ significantly from a Gaussian distribution by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. It therefore appears that increasing strain accelerated fatigue test data can be approximated by a normal distribution. This allows for easy data interpretation and aids in the extrapolation of incomplete data sets. PMID:1842511

  14. Accelerated Testing for Long-Term Durability of Various FRP Laminates for Marine Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyano, Yasushi; Nakada, Masayuki

    The prediction of long-term fatigue life of various FRP laminates combined with resins, fibers and fabrics for marine use under temperature and water environments were performed by our developed accelerated testing methodology based on the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The base material of five kinds of FRP laminates employed in this study was plain fabric CFRP laminates T300 carbon fibers/vinylester (T300/VE). The first selection of FRP laminate to T300/VE was the combinations of different fabrics, that is flat yarn plain fabric T700 carbon fibers/vinylester (T700/VE-F) and multi-axial knitted T700 carbon fibers/vinylester (T700/VE-K) for marine use and the second selection of FRP laminates to T300/VE was the combinations with different fibers and matrix resin, that is plain fabric T300 carbon fibers/epoxy (T300/EP) and plain fabric E-glass fibers/vinylester (E-glass/VE). These five kinds of FRP laminates were prepared under three water absorption conditions of Dry, Wet and Wet C Dry after molding. The three-point bending constant strain rate (CSR) tests for these FRP laminates at three conditions of water absorption were carried out at various temperatures and strain rates. Furthermore, the three-point bending fatigue tests for these specimens were carried out at various temperatures and frequencies. The flexural CSR and fatigue strengths of these five kinds of FRP laminates strongly depend on water absorption as well as time and temperature. The mater curves of fatigue strength as well as CSR strength for these FRP laminates at three water absorption conditions are constructed by using the test data based on TTSP. It is possible to predict the long term fatigue life for these FRP laminates under an arbitrary temperature and water absorption conditions by using the master curves.

  15. Accelerated exposure tests of encapsulated Si solar cells and encapsulation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [Engineering and Reliability Division, National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cell samples that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pottants were observed for glass/EVA/glass-encapsulated c-Si cell samples under solar simulator exposures at elevated temperatures. The polymer/polymer-configured laminates with Tedlar or Tefzel did not discolor because of photobleaching reactions, but yellowed with polyester or nylon top films. Delamination was observed for the polyester/EVE layers on a-Si minimodules and for a polyolefin-based thermoplastic pottant at high temperatures. For all tested c-Si cell samples, irregular changes in the current-voltage parameters were observed that could not be accounted for simply by the transmittance changes of the superstrate/pottant layers. Silicone-type adhesives used under UV-transmitting polymer top films were observed to cause greater cell current/efficiency loss than EVA or polyethylene pottants. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Accelerated Exposure Tests of Encapsulated Si Solar Cells and Encapsulation Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

    1998-10-08

    We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cell samples that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pottants were observed for glass/EVA/glass-encapsulated c-Si cell samples under solar simulator exposures at elevated temperatures. The polymer/polymer-configured laminates with Tedlar or Tefzel did not discolor because of photobleaching reactions, but yellowed with polyester or nylon top films. Delamination was observed for the polyester/EVA layers on a-Si minimodules and for a polyolefin-based thermoplastic pottant at high temperatures. For all tested c-Si cell samples, irregular changes in the current-voltage parameters were observed that could not be accounted for simply by the transmittance changes of the superstrate/pottant layers. Silicone-type adhesives used under UV-transmitting polymer top films were observed to cause greater cell current/efficiency loss than EVA or polyethylene pottants.

  17. Trajectory measurements and correlations in the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renier, Y.; Bambade, P.; Tauchi, T.; White, G. R.; Boogert, S.

    2013-06-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) commissioning group aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the beam delivery system of the next linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) as well as to define and to test the tuning methods. As the design vertical beam sizes of the linear colliders are about few nanometers, the stability of the trajectory as well as the control of the aberrations are very critical. ATF2 commissioning started in December 2008, and thanks to submicron resolution beam position monitors (BPMs), it has been possible to measure the beam position fluctuation along the final focus of ATF2 during the 2009 runs. The optics was not the nominal one yet, with a lower focusing to make the tuning easier. In this paper, a method to measure the noise of each BPM every pulse, in a model-independent way, will be presented. A method to reconstruct the trajectory’s fluctuations is developed which uses the previously determined BPM resolution. As this reconstruction provides a measurement of the beam energy fluctuations, it was also possible to measure the horizontal and vertical dispersion function at each BPMs parasitically. The spatial and angular dispersions can be fitted from these measurements with uncertainties comparable with usual measurements.

  18. Testing MOND over a wide acceleration range in x-ray ellipticals.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2012-09-28

    The gravitational fields of two isolated ellipticals, NGC 720 and NGC 1521, have been recently measured to very large galactic radii (~100 and ~200 kpc), assuming hydrostatic balance of the hot gas enshrouding them. They afford, for the first time to my knowledge, testing modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) in ellipticals with force and quality that, arguably, approach those of rotation-curve tests in disk galaxies. In the context of MOND, it is noteworthy that the measured accelerations span a wide range, from more than 10a(0) to about 0.1a(0), unprecedented in individual ellipticals. I find that MOND predicts correctly the measured dynamical mass runs (apart from a possible minor tension in the inner few kpc of NGC 720, which might be due to departure from hydrostatic equilibrium): The predicted mass discrepancy increases outward from none near the center, to ~10 at the outermost radii. The implications for the MOND-versus-dark-matter controversy go far beyond the simple fact of two more galaxies conforming to MOND. PMID:23030078

  19. Accelerated exposure tests of encapsulated Si solar cells and encapsulation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

    1999-03-01

    We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cell samples that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pottants were observed for glass/EVA/glass-encapsulated c-Si cell samples under solar simulator exposures at elevated temperatures. The polymer/polymer-configured laminates with Tedlar or Tefzel did not discolor because of photobleaching reactions, but yellowed with polyester or nylon top films. Delamination was observed for the polyester/EVE layers on a-Si minimodules and for a polyolefin-based thermoplastic pottant at high temperatures. For all tested c-Si cell samples, irregular changes in the current-voltage parameters were observed that could not be accounted for simply by the transmittance changes of the superstrate/pottant layers. Silicone-type adhesives used under UV-transmitting polymer top films were observed to cause greater cell current/efficiency loss than EVA or polyethylene pottants.

  20. Exploratory test of utility of magnetic insulation for electrostatic accelerators L. R. Grisham, A. von Halle, A. F. Carpe, Guy Rossi, K. R. Gilton et al.

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    Exploratory test of utility of magnetic insulation for electrostatic accelerators L. R. Grisham, A;Exploratory test of utility of magnetic insulation for electrostatic accelerators L. R. Grisham,a) A. von a preliminary exploratory test of whether this magnetic insulation approach might be of benefit at a modest

  1. Life-time and hierarchy of memory in the dissipative quantum model of brain

    E-print Network

    Alfinito, E; Alfinito, Eleonora; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    Some recent developments of the dissipative quantum model of brain arereported. In particular, the time-dependent frequency case is considered withits implications on the different life-times of the collective modes.

  2. Life-time and hierarchy of memory in the dissipative quantum model of brain

    E-print Network

    Eleonora Alfinito; Giuseppe Vitiello

    1999-12-30

    Some recent developments of the dissipative quantum model of brain are reported. In particular, the time-dependent frequency case is considered with its implications on the different life-times of the collective modes.

  3. Acceleration ground test program to verify GAS payload No. 559 structure/support avionics and experiment structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassanto, John M.; Cassanto, Valerie A.

    1988-01-01

    Acceleration ground tests were conducted on the Get Away Special (GAS) payload 559 to verify the structural integrity of the structure/support avionics and two of the planned three flight experiments. The ITA (Integrated Test Area) Standardized Experiment Module (ISEM) structure was modified to accommodate the experiments for payload 559. The ISEM avionics consisted of a heavy duty sliver zinc power supply, three orthogonal-mounted low range microgravity accelerometers, a tri-axis high range accelerometer, a solid state recorder/programmer sequencer, and pressure and temperature sensors. The tests were conducted using the Gravitational Plant Physiology Laboratory Centrifuge of the University City Science Center in Philadelphia, PA. The launch-powered flight steady state acceleration profile of the shuttle was simulated from lift-off through jettison of the External Tank (3.0 g's). Additional tests were conducted at twice the nominal powered flight acceleration levels (6 g's) and an over-test condition of four times the powered flight loads to 12.6 g's. The present test program has demonstrated the value of conducting ground tests to verify GAS payload experiment integrity and operation before flying on the shuttle.

  4. Accelerated thermal cycle test of acetamide, stearic acid and paraffin wax for solar thermal latent heat storage applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul Sharma; S. D Sharma; D Buddhi

    2002-01-01

    1500 accelerated thermal cycle tests have been conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of commercial grade acetamide, stearic acid and paraffin wax. It has been noticed that the stearic acid melts over a wide range of temperature, has shown two melting points and has large variations in latent heat of fusion. Paraffin wax

  5. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE OF THE ULTRA-THIN WHITETOPPING SUBJECTED TO SLOW MOVING LOADS IN AN ACCELERATED PAVEMENT TESTING FACILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudarshan Rajan; Jan Olek; Thomas L. Robertson; Tommy Nantung; W. Jason Weiss

    Ultra-Thin Whitetopping (UTW) is rapidly emerging as a technology that can be used for the rehabilitation of deteriorated pavements. To investigate the performance of UTW when they are placed over flexible pavements and subjected to a slow moving load, four whitetopping mixtures were placed over a milled asphalt surface in the Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) facility of the Indiana Department

  6. Tested by Fire - How two recent Wildfires affected Accelerator Operations at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Spickermann, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    In a little more than a decade two large wild fires threatened Los Alamos and impacted accelerator operations at LANL. In 2000 the Cerro Grande Fire destroyed hundreds of homes, as well as structures and equipment at the DARHT facility. The DARHT accelerators were safe in a fire-proof building. In 2011 the Las Conchas Fire burned about 630 square kilometers (250 square miles) and came dangerously close to Los Alamos/LANL. LANSCE accelerator operations Lessons Learned during Las Conchas fire: (1) Develop a plan to efficiently shut down the accelerator on short notice; (2) Establish clear lines of communication in emergency situations; and (3) Plan recovery and keep squirrels out.

  7. Corrosion Embrittlement of Duralumin II Accelerated Corrosion Tests and the Behavior of High-Strength Aluminum Alloys of Different Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawdon, Henry S

    1928-01-01

    The permanence, with respect to corrosion, of light aluminum alloy sheets of the duralumin type, that is, heat-treatable alloys containing Cu, Mg, Mn, and Si is discussed. Alloys of this type are subject to surface corrosion and corrosion of the interior by intercrystalline paths. Results are given of accelerated corrosion tests, tensile tests, the effect on corrosion of various alloying elements and heat treatments, electrical resistance measurements, and X-ray examinations.

  8. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Study 4, task 3: Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods of accelerated and abbreviated testing were developed and applied to solar cell encapsulants. These encapsulants must provide protection for as long as 20 years outdoors at different locations within the United States. Consequently, encapsulants were exposed for increasing periods of time to the inherent climatic variables of temperature, humidity, and solar flux. Property changes in the encapsulants were observed. The goal was to predict long term behavior of encapsulants based upon experimental data obtained over relatively short test periods.

  9. X-ray beam size measurements on the Advanced Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Struve, K.W.; Chambers, F.W.; Lauer, E.J.; Slaughter, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron beam size has been determined on the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) by intercepting the beam with a target and measuring the resulting x-ray intensity as a function of time as the target is moved through the beam. Several types of targets have been used. One is a tantalum rod which extends completely across the drift chamber. Another is a tungsten powder filled carbon crucible. Both of these probes are moved from shot to shot so that the x-ray signal intensity varies with probe position. A third is a larger tantalum disk which is inserted on beam axis to allow determining beam size on a one shot basis. The x-ray signals are detected with an MCP photomultiplier tube located at 90/sup 0/ to the beamline. It is sufficiently shielded to reject background x-rays and neutrons. The signals were digitized, recorded and later unfolded to produce plots of x-ray intensity versus probe position for several times during the pulse. The presumption that the x-ray intensity is proportional to beam current density is checked computationally. Details of the probe construction and PMT shielding, as well as sample measurements are given.

  10. Integration Testing of a Modular Discharge Supply for NASA's High Voltage Hall Accelerator Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Kamhawi, hani; Drummond, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing a high performance Hall thruster that can fulfill the needs of future Discovery-class missions. The result of this effort is the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster that can operate over a power range from 0.3 to 3.5 kW and a specific impulse from 1,000 to 2,800 sec, and process 300 kg of xenon propellant. Simultaneously, a 4.0 kW discharge power supply comprised of two parallel modules was developed. These power modules use an innovative three-phase resonant topology that can efficiently supply full power to the thruster at an output voltage range of 200 to 700 V at an input voltage range of 80 to 160 V. Efficiencies as high as 95.9 percent were measured during an integration test with the NASA103M.XL thruster. The accuracy of the master/slave current sharing circuit and various thruster ignition techniques were evaluated.

  11. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the second volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of failure modes and effects analysis; accident analysis; operational safety requirements; quality assurance program; ES&H management program; environmental, safety, and health systems critical to safety; summary of waste-management program; environmental monitoring program; facility expansion, decontamination, and decommissioning; summary of emergency response plan; summary plan for employee training; summary plan for operating procedures; glossary; and appendices A and B.

  12. Utilization of optical image data from the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA)

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F.W.; Kallman, J.S.; Slominski, M.E.; Chong, Y.P.; Donnelly, D.; Cornish, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive use is made of optical diagnostics to obtain information on the 50-MeV, 10-kA, 70-ns pulsed-electron beam produced by the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA). Light is generated by the beam striking a foil inserted in the beamline or through excitation of the gas when the beamline is filled with air. The emitted light is collected and digitized. Two-dimensional images are recorded by either a gated framing camera or a streak camera. Extraction of relevant beam parameters, such as current density, current, and beam size, requires an understanding of the physics of the light-generation mechanism and an ability to handle and properly exploit a large digital database of image data. We will present a brief overview of the present understanding of the light-generation mechanisms in foil and gas, with emphasis on experimental observations and trends. We will review our data management and analysis techniques and indicate successful approaches for extracting beam parameters.

  13. Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on its scalability and expected low levelized cost of electricity. The reliability of encapsulation materials used in CPV systems, however, is not well established. For example, the present qualification test for CPV modules includes only real-time ultraviolet (UV) exposure, i.e., methods for accelerated UV testing have not yet been developed. To better define the stress inherent to CPV systems, the UV and infrared spectra transmitted through representative optical systems were evaluated. Measurements of optical components are used to assess expected optical performance and quantify damaging optical exposure. Optical properties (transmittance, refractive index, reflectance, and absorptance) of candidate materials (including PMMA, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, and quartz refractors), components (including Ag- and Al-enabled reflectors), and encapsulants (including EVA, ionomer, PDMS, PPMS, polyolefin, and PVB) were identified. The activation spectrum was calculated for the representative optical systems using an assumed action spectrum to compare the expected damaging dose of UV radiation delivered to the cell encapsulation. The dose and flux analysis identifies the significance of IR relative to UV exposure for CPV systems. Because UV light is typically more highly attenuated, the UV dose within the encapsulation may not greatly exceed the unconcentrated global solar condition, but the thermal load scales nearly directly with the geometric concentration. Relative to a previous analysis for crystalline silicon cell technology, the analysis here is performed for III-V multijunction technology. Novel aspects here also include additional materials (such as TPU encapsulation) and additional components (transmission through silicone on glass lenses, antireflective coatings, and the front glass used with reflective systems, as well as reflection off of the cell).

  14. Observation and Characterization of Coherent Optical Radiation and Microbunching Instability in the SLAC Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Xiang, D.; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC is currently configured for a proof-of-principle echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) experiment using an 120 MeV beam. During commissioning, unexpected coherent optical undulator radiation (CUR) and coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) was observed when beam is accelerated off-crest and compressed after the chicanes. The CUR and COTR is likely due to a microbunching instability where the initial small ripples in cathode drive laser is compressed and amplified. In this paper we present the observation and characterization of the CUR, COTR and microbunching instability at NLCTA.

  15. The LeRC rail accelerators: Test designs and diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.; Sturman, J. C.; Wang, S. Y.; Terdan, F. F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed.

  16. Life-time prediction of a chloroprene rubber (CR) O-ring using intermittent compression stress relaxation (CSR) and time-temperature superposition (TTS) Principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Hyok Lee; Jong Woo Bae; Jung Su Kim; Tae Jun Hwang; Sung Doo Park; Sung Han Park; Tae Min Yeo; Wonho Kim; Nam-Ju Jo

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent compression stress relaxation (CSR) testing was used to examine the degradation of a large scale chloroprene\\u000a rubber (CR) O-ring, rather than a reduced scale copy, as well as predict its life-time. An intermittent CSR jig was designed\\u000a by considering the O-ring’s environment during use. The testing allowed the observation of the effects of friction, heat loss\\u000a and stress relaxation

  17. Evaluation of oxidative behavior of polyolefin geosynthetics utilizing accelerated aging tests based on temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengjia

    Polyolefin geosynthetics are susceptible to oxidation, which eventually leads to the reduction in their engineering properties. In the application of polyolefin geosynthetics, a major issue is an estimate of the materials durability (i.e. service lifetime) under various aging conditions. Antioxidant packages are added to the polyolefin products to extend the induction time, during which antioxidants are gradually depleted and polymer oxidation reactions are prevented. In this PhD study, an improved laboratory accelerating aging method under elevated and high pressure environments was applied to evaluate the combined effect of temperature and pressure on the depletion of the antioxidants and the oxidation of polymers. Four types of commercial polyolefn geosynthetic materials selected for aging tests included HDPE geogrid, polypropylene woven and nonwoven geotextiles. A total of 33 different temperature/pressure aging conditions were used, with the incubation duration up to 24 months. The applied oven temperature ranged from 35°C to 105°C and the partial oxygen pressure ranged from 0.005 MPa to 6.3 MPa. Using the Oxidative Induction Time (OIT) test, the antioxidant depletion, which is correlated to the decrease of the OIT value, was found to follow apparent first-order decay. The OIT data also showed that, the antioxidant depletion rate increased with temperature according to the Arrhenius equation, while under constant temperatures, the rate increased exponentially with the partial pressure of oxygen. A modified Arrhenius model was developed to fit the antioxidant depletion rate as a function of temperature and pressure and to predict the antioxidant lifetime under various field conditions. This study has developed new temperature/pressure incubation aging test method with lifetime prediction models. Using this new technique, the antioxidant lifetime prediction results are close to regular temperature aging data while the aging duration can be reduced considerably. Using the enhanced aging pressure and temperature with this aging method plus a new analytical methodology utilizing time-temperature-superposition and time-pressure-superposition techniques, the post-antioxidant lifetime (Stage C) of the materials can also be predicted and so a total lifetime for different polyolefin geosynthetics can be evaluated quantitatively.

  18. Status of the visible Free-Electron Laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fisher, A.S.; Friedman, A.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.; Kramer, S.; Lin, L.; Rogers, J.T.; Sheehan, J.F.; van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Yu, L.H.; Zhang, R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Bhowmik, A. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.)

    1991-01-01

    The 500 nm Free-Electron Laser (ATF) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. We present an overview of the ATF, a high-brightness, 50-MeV, electron accelerator and laser complex which is a users' facility for accelerator and beam physics. A number of laser acceleration and FEL experiments are under construction at the ATF. The visible FEL experiment is based on a novel superferric 8.8 mm period undulator. The electron beam parameters, the undulator, the optical resonator, optical and electron beam diagnostics are discussed. The operational status of the experiment is presented. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Testing the accelerating moment release (AMR) hypothesis in areas of high stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilhem, Aurélie; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Ali, Syed Tabrez

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective analyses have proposed that significant increases in moment release occurred prior to many large earthquakes of recent times. However, the finding of accelerating moment release (AMR) strongly depends on the choice of three parameters: (1) magnitude range, (2) area being considered surrounding the events and (3) the time period prior to the large earthquakes. Consequently, the AMR analysis has been criticized as being a posteriori data-fitting exercise with no new predictive power. As AMR has been hypothesized to relate to changes in the state of stress around the eventual epicentre, we compare here AMR results to models of stress accumulation in California. Instead of assuming a complete stress drop on all surrounding fault segments implied by a back-slip stress lobe method, we consider that stress evolves dynamically, punctuated by the occurrence of earthquakes, and governed by the elastic and viscous properties of the lithosphere. We study the seismicity of southern California and extract events for AMR calculations following the systematic approach employed in previous studies. We present several sensitivity tests of the method, as well as grid-search analyses over the region between 1955 and 2005 using fixed magnitude range, radius of the search area and period of time. The results are compared to the occurrence of large events and to maps of Coulomb stress changes. The Coulomb stress maps are compiled using the coseismic stress from all M > 7.0 earthquakes since 1812, their subsequent post-seismic relaxation, and the interseismic strain accumulation. We find no convincing correlation of seismicity rate changes in recent decades with areas of high stress that would support the AMR hypothesis. Furthermore, this indicates limited utility for practical earthquake hazard analysis in southern California, and possibly other regions.

  20. Corrosion Testing in Support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium Project is part of the United States Department of Energy strategy to meet the nation's tritium needs. The project involves the design of a proton beam accelerator, which will produce tritium through neutron\\/proton interaction with helium-3. Design, construction and operation of this one-of-a-kind facility will involve the utilization of a wide variety of materials exposed

  1. Study of cement-epoxy interfaces, accelerated testing, and surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Andrew

    Adhesion between concrete and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) repair materials is of great importance for increasing the longevity of damaged surfaces in civil infrastructure in the US. This adhesion is dominated by a relatively weak interfacial bond that is attacked by environmental agents including water and UV radiation. Therefore, a strong bond between the two materials is essential in making a successful, long lasting repair. In this study, the fundamental question of the epoxy-concrete interface is investigated in terms of how it exists, how it is attacked by the environment, and how it may be improved to resist the elements. In this study, interactions between epoxy analogs and cement paste were investigated to get a fundamental understanding of the elusive interfacial bond. Various FTIR and NMR techniques were utilized to demonstrate the nature of this interaction. Only one of the small molecules (Bisphenol A), suggested a small interaction, however, based on the results it appeared that hydrogen bonding did not take place. The second part of this work focused on accelerated aging two epoxy systems, including a model DGEBA-POPDA system, and a commercial system. Mechanical testing was performed along with IR spectroscopy and diffusion modeling to determine the change in properties and mechanisms of degradation. The absorption of water up to 90°C resulted in a decrease in modulus and stress, along with an increase in strain. IR data confirmed the absorption of water within the epoxy network. With UV exposure, oxidation was demonstrated by the appearance of carbonyl peaks in the FTIR spectra. UV and water exposure gave evidence of hydrolysis through a decrease in ether groups and an increase in hydroxyl groups. While samples exposed to UV showed less of a loss in modulus as compared to those only exposed to water at the same temperature, the peak stress of samples exposed to UV was lower than those exposed to water. However, the data from the mechanical testing of the UV exposed samples was not statistically significant. The final section of this work used silane coupling agents to modify cement pastes. AFM measurements were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the polishing technique and uniformity of the surface, which the literature indicated was necessary for comparison purposes. The contact angle was shown to increase for the PDMS based silane, decrease for the amino based silane, and not change for the epoxy based silane. XPS data confirmed successful covalent linkages between the cement paste and silane coupling agents as evidenced by an increase in bridging O1s and Si2p electron orbitals after curve fitting.

  2. Testing prototypes of high-temperature superconducting current leads of cryogenic stand for testing magnetic elements of the NICA accelerating complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, E. V.; Kadenko, I. N.; Bessheiko, O. A.; Belov, D. V.; Blinov, N. A.; Galimov, A. R.; Zorin, A. G.; Karpinsky, V. N.; Nikiforov, D. N.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Shevchenko, E. V.; Smirnov, S. A.; Khodzhibagiyan, G. G.; Liu, Cheng Lian

    2014-09-01

    In the Laboratory of High Energies at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, as part of the NICA-MPD [1] project, tests of two prototypes of HTSC current leads prepared at ASIPP institute (Hefei, China) have been performed [2, 3] to measure electric and heat parameters and to search for structural and physical drawbacks. Based on the experimental results, necessary changes are made in the structure of HTSC current leads of the testing stand for the magnetic element testing of the NICA accelerating complex and its basic setups: the Nuclotron, Booster, and Collider.

  3. Conductive cooling in white organic light emitting diode for enhanced efficiency and life time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Kumar, Arunandan; Giri, Lalat Indu; Tuli, Suneet; Srivastava, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate white organic light emitting diodes with enhanced efficiency (26.8 lm/W) and life time (˜11 000 h) by improved heat dissipation through encapsulation composed of a metal (Cu, Mo, and Al) and mica sheet joined using thermally conducting epoxy. Finite element simulation is used to find effectiveness of these encapsulations for heat transfer. Device temperature is reduced by about 50% with the encapsulation. This, consequently, has improved efficiency and life time by about 30% and 60%, respectively, with respect to glass encapsulation. Conductive cooling of device is suggested as the possible cause for this enhancement.

  4. Simulation of launch and re-entry acceleration profiles for testing of shuttle and unmanned microgravity research payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanto, J. M.; Ziserman, H. I.; Chapman, D. K.; Korszun, Z. R.; Todd, P.

    Microgravity experiments designed for execution in Get-Away Special canisters, Hitchhiker modules, and Reusable Re-entry Satellites will be subjected to launch and re-entry accelerations. Crew-dependent provisions for preventing acceleration damage to equipment or products will not be available for these payloads during flight; therefore, the effects of launch and re-entry accelerations on all aspects of such payloads must be evaluated prior to flight. A procedure was developed for conveniently simulating the launch and re-entry acceleration profiles of the Space Shuttle (3.3 and 1.7 × g maximum, respectively) and of two versions of NASA's proposed materials research Re-usable Re-entry Satellite (8 × g maximum in one case and 4 × g in the other). By using the 7 m centrifuge of the Gravitational Plant Physiology Laboratory in Philadelphia it was found possible to simulate the time dependence of these 5 different acceleration episodes for payload masses up to 59 kg. A commercial low-cost payload device, the “Materials Dispersion Apparatus” of Instrumentation Technology Associates was tested for (1) integrity of mechanical function, (2) retention of fluid in its compartments, and (3) integrity of products under simulated re-entry g-loads. In particular, the sharp rise from 1 g to maximum g-loading that occurs during re-entry in various unmanned vehicles was successfully simulated, conditions were established for reliable functioning of the MDA, and crystals of 5 proteins suspended in compartments filled with mother liquor were subjected to this acceleration load.

  5. Long-Term and Accelerated Life Testing of a Novel Single-Wafer Vacuum Encapsulation for MEMS Resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob N. Candler; Matthew A. Hopcroft; Bongsang Kim; Woo-Tae Park; Renata Melamud; Manu Agarwal; Gary Yama; Aaron Partridge; Markus Lutz; Thomas W. Kenny

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a single-wafer vacuum encapsulation for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), using a thick (20-mum) polysilicon encapsulation to package micromechanical resonators in a pressure 600 cycles of -50 to 80degC, and no measurable change in cavity pressure was seen. We have also performed accelerated leakage tests by driving hydrogen gas in and out of the encapsulation at elevated temperature. Two

  6. The effect of shortening stability on commercially produced army ration biscuits. I. Initial data and results of accelerated stability tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Horne; H. H. Stevens; J. B. Thompson

    1948-01-01

    Summary  An experiment involving the commercial production and packaging of two types of Army ration biscuits prepared from common\\u000a ingredients with nine lots of vegetable oil shortening of increasing stability values and two lots of lard as the only ingredient\\u000a variables has been described, and the initial analytical data presented.\\u000a \\u000a Evaluation of accelerated stability tests on both shortenings and biscuit shows

  7. Analysis of DC current accelerated life tests of GaN LEDs using a Weibull-based statistical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Levada; M. Meneghini; G. Meneghesso; E. Zanoni

    2005-01-01

    Gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diode (LED) accelerated life tests were carried out over devices adopting two different packaging schemes (i.e., with plastic transparent encapsulation or with pure metallic package). Data analyses were done using a Weibull-based statistical description with the aim of estimating the effect of high current on device performance. A consistent statistical model was found with the capability to estimate

  8. Study of the effect of temperature on Pt dissolution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells via accelerated stress tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanushkodi, S. R.; Kundu, S.; Fowler, M. W.; Pritzker, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at higher cell temperatures accelerates Pt dissolution in the catalyst layer. In this study, a Pt dissolution accelerated stress testing protocol involving the application of a potentiostatic square-wave with 3 s at 0.6 V followed by 3 s at 1.0 V was developed to test fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The use of this Pt dissolution protocol at three different temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C) was investigated for the same membrane electrode assembly composition. Impedance analysis of the membrane electrode assemblies showed an increase in polarization resistance during the course of the accelerated stress testing. Polarization analysis and electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) loss measurements revealed evidence of increased cathode catalyst layer (CCL) degradation due to Pt dissolution and deposition in the membrane as the cell temperature was raised. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images confirmed the formation of Pt bands in the membrane. A diagnostic expression was developed to estimate kinetic losses due to oxygen reduction using the effective platinum surface area (EPSA) estimated from cyclic voltammograms. The results indicated that performance degradation occurred mainly due to Pt loss.

  9. On the design and testing of solid armatures for rail accelerator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthaus, W.; de Zeeuw, W. A.; Kolkert, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Two different armature designs for rail accelerator applications have been studied during electromagnetic launch experiments: an aluminum multifinger monobloc and a copper fiber brush armature. The aluminum solid monobloc armatures launched with the 3-m rail accelerator of rather loose tolerance in borewidth do not provide the expected solid-solid electrical sliding contacts. Loss of rigidity, mainly due to thermal loading of the finger tips, results in vigorous arcing, evaporation of the armature, and aluminium deposit on the rails. The copper fiber brush armatures launched with the 1-m rail accelerator with tight tolerance in borewidth provide integer solid-solid, current carrying sliding contacts in the initial phase of the acceleration process, followed by a transition to a hybrid form where plasma layers and the solid armature body constitute the current conducting interfaces. At the transition region, armature resistance increases by two orders of magnitude. A major portion of the electrical energy commutated into the rail accelerator is dissipated by ohmic heating of the rails.

  10. A null test of the metric nature of the cosmic acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzi, A; Marinoni, C [Centre de Physique Theorique, UMR 6207 CNRS-Luminy and Universite de Provence, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France)] [Centre de Physique Theorique, UMR 6207 CNRS-Luminy and Universite de Provence, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Colafrancesco, S, E-mail: buzzi@cpt.univ-mrs.fr, E-mail: christian.marinoni@cpt.univ-mrs.fr, E-mail: cola@mporzio.inaf.it [ASI-ASDC, c/o ESRIN, Via G Galilei, I-00040 Frascati (Italy)] [ASI-ASDC, c/o ESRIN, Via G Galilei, I-00040 Frascati (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    We discuss the testable predictions of a phenomenological model in which the accelerated expansion of the universe is the result of the action of a non-gravitational force field, rather than the effect of a negative-pressure dark energy fluid or a modification of general relativity. We show, through the equivalence principle, that in such a scenario the cosmic acceleration felt by distant standard candles like SNIa (type Ia supernovae (SNe)) depends on the mass of the host system, being larger in isolated galaxies than in rich clusters. As a consequence, the scatter in the observed SNIa Hubble diagram has mostly a physical origin in this scenario: in fact, the SNIa distance modulus is increasing, at fixed redshift, for SNe that are hosted in isolated galaxies with respect to the case of SNe hosted in rich galaxy clusters. Due to its strong dependence on the astrophysical environments of standard candles, we conclude that alternative non-gravitational mechanisms for the observed accelerated expansion of the universe can be interestingly contrasted against the standard metric interpretation of the cosmological acceleration by means of an environmental analysis of the cosmic structures in which SNIa are found. The possible absence of such environmental effects would definitely exclude the possibility of non-gravitational mechanisms being responsible for the accelerated cosmological expansion and will therefore reinforce a metric interpretation.

  11. Effects of defects on dielectric breakdown phenomena and life time of polymeric insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Shin Cho; Jang-Ho Park; Mi-Ja Shim; Sang-Wook Kim

    1997-01-01

    Effects of defects on dielectric breakdown phenomena and life time of PE insulation were investigated. Volatile impurity was observed by FT-IR spectrum and oxidation reaction was faster on Cu than Al open pan. From the artificial impurities such as carbon fiber, nylon, Cu and Al particles, electrical tree started and dielectric breakdown was occurred finally. Space charge formed by the

  12. Atomic oxygen ground-based accelerated tests of spacecraft materials and structures for long-term LEO missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernik, Vladimir; Novikov, Lev; Smirnova, Tatyana; Shumov, Andrey

    Spacecraft materials are degradated during long-term low earth orbit (LEO) flight. The Internation Space Station (ISS) is planed to be prolonged the term of action up to 20-25 years. To specify so long life one requires a validation of spacecraft material behaviour conservation for the period. The LEO environment includes atomic oxygen (AO) destructive incident flow. The appropriate AO fluence is proposed to be as high as 10E22-10E23 atom O/sq cm. The simulative ground-based test is evident to be acceptable if its duration is not too long usually under several hundreds of hours. In that case the rate of the test acceleration exceeds 100-200. One way to accelerate test is to increase oxygen particles energy. We test materials under oxygen plasma beam, formed by a magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, with the oxygen particle energy of 20 -30 eV. In this way we determine an AO effective fluence by a kapton equivalent technique. The beam varies from LEO incident flow by energy, flux and rates of the oxygen dissociation / ionization/ excitation. To evaluate the test adequacy we measured and compared with LEO data erosion yields of a number of polymer materials, applied on spacecraft external surfaces. There were: polyimide (kapton), polyamide (nylon), polyethylene, polyvinyl fluoride (tedlar), polysteren, polymethyl methacrylate, epoxy, polyethylene terephthalate (mylar), graphite. Their relative erosion yields, measured and normalized by polyimide in this way, practically coincide with the data of flight experiments on the ISS. The results ground to use our plasma mode for accelerated tests of spacecraft material durability for long-term LEO flights. We tested quite a number of polymer-based materials and structures usable on ISS and another LEO spacecrafts. The effective AO fluencies ran up to 3,5 10E22 atom O/sq cm corresponding to the ISS flight duration about 20 years. We studied material behaviors like mass and thickness losses, erosion yield, surface morphology, stress-strain data. Some results we present in the report.

  13. Fracture Mechanics at Intermediate Rates of Loading : The Influence of the Acceleration on Compact Tension Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fond; H. H. Kausch; Charles Surdon

    1997-01-01

    Compact Tension specimens were loaded at I and 7 mls with two different accelerations imposed. Experimental photoelastic patterns recorded by a high speed camera were compared with those simulated by dynamic elastic Finite Elernent (FE) analysis. The positive results of this comparison validated the FE analysis. It is demonstrated that when the initial acceleralion of the specimen is low (using

  14. Data acquisition, control, and analysis for the Argonne Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.

    1989-01-01

    The AATF has been used to study wakefield acceleration and focusing in plasmas and rf structures. A PC-based system is described which incorporates the functions of beamline control and acquisition, storage, and preliminary analysis of video images from luminescent screen beam diagnostics. General features of the offline analysis of wakefield data are also discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Using globular clusters to test gravity in the weak acceleration regime

    E-print Network

    Riccardo Scarpa; Gianni Marconi; Roberto Gilmozzi

    2003-05-21

    We have carried out a study of the velocity dispersion of the stars in the outskirts of the globular cluster Omega Centauri, finding that the velocity dispersion remains constant at large radii rather than decrease monotonically. The dispersion starts to be constant for an acceleration of gravity of a = 2.1e-8 cm/s/s. A similar result is obtained reanalyzing existing data for the globular cluster M15 where the profile flattens out for a = 1.7e-8 cm/s/s. In both cases the acceleration is comparable to that at which the effect of dark matter becomes relevant in galaxies. Explanations for this result within Newtonian dynamics exist (e.g. cluster evaporation, tidal effects, presence of dark matter) but require ad hoc tuning of the relevant parameters in order to make in both clusters the dispersion profile flat starting exactly at the same acceleration. We suggest that this result, together with a similar one for Palomar 13 and the anomalous behavior of spacecrafts outside the solar system, may indicate a breakdown of Newton's law in the weak acceleration regime. Although not conclusive, these data prompt for the accurate determination of the internal dynamics of as many GCs as possible.

  16. Studies of a new accelerated evaluation method for coating corrosion resistance — thermal cycling testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon P Bierwagen; L He; J Li; L Ellingson; D. E Tallman

    2000-01-01

    A long time is often needed to differentiate the corrosion protection afforded by coatings systems, especially for high performance samples. Accelerating methods such as salt spray or Prohesion methods require as much as 2000h exposure to qualitatively differentiate high performance samples. General room temperature immersion electrochemical measurements {electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise methods (ENM)} may require up to

  17. Preliminary temperature accelerated life test (ALT) on lattice mismatched triple-junction concentrator solar cells-on-carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Vincenzo; Espinet, Pilar; Nuñez, Neftalí; Eltermann, Fabian; Contreras, Yedileth; Bautista, Jesús; Vázquez, Manuel; Bett, Andreas W.; Algora, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on concentrator lattice mismatched Ga0.37In0.63P/Ga0.83In0.17As/Ge triple-junction solar cells-on-carrier is being carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 125, 145 and 165°C and the nominal photo-current condition (500X) is emulated by injecting current in darkness. The final objective of these tests is to evaluate the reliability, warranty period, and failure mechanism of these solar cells in a moderate period of time. Up to now only the test at 165°C has finished. Therefore, we cannot provide complete reliability information, but we have carried out preliminary data and failure analysis with the current results.

  18. Development of an Accelerated Test Design for Predicting the Service Life of the Solar Array at Mead, Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Noel, G. T.; Shilliday, T. S.; Wood, V. E.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential long-term degradation modes for the two types of modules in the Mead array were determined and judgments were made as to those environmental stresses and combinations of stresses which accelerate the degradation of the power output. Hierarchical trees representing the severity of effects of stresses (test conditions) on eleven individual degradation modes were constructed and were pruned of tests judged to be nonessential. Composites of those trees were developed so that there is now one pruned tree covering eight degradation modes, another covering two degradation modes, and a third covering one degradation mode. These three composite trees form the basis for selection of test conditions in the final test plan which is now being prepared.

  19. Particle acceleration in regions of magnetic flux emergence: a statistical approach using test-particle- and MHD-simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahos, Loukas; Archontis, Vasilis; Isliker, Heinz

    We consider 3D nonlinear MHD simulations of an emerging flux tube, from the convection zone into the corona, focusing on the coronal part of the simulations. We first analyze the statistical nature and spatial structure of the electric field, calculating histograms and making use of iso-contour visualizations. Then test-particle simulations are performed for electrons, in order to study heating and acceleration phenomena, as well as to determine HXR emission. This study is done by comparatively exploring quiet, turbulent explosive, and mildly explosive phases of the MHD simulations. Also, the importance of collisional and relativistic effects is assessed, and the role of the integration time is investigated. Particular aim of this project is to verify the quasi- linear assumptions made in standard transport models, and to identify possible transport effects that cannot be captured with the latter. In order to determine the relation of our results to Fermi acceleration and Fokker-Planck modeling, we determine the standard transport coefficients. After all, we find that the electric field of the MHD simulations must be downscaled in order to prevent an un-physically high degree of acceleration, and the value chosen for the scale factor strongly affects the results. In different MHD time-instances we find heating to take place, and acceleration that depends on the level of MHD turbulence. Also, acceleration appears to be a transient phenomenon, there is a kind of saturation effect, and the parallel dynamics clearly dominate the energetics. The HXR spectra are not yet really compatible with observations, we have though to further explore the scaling of the electric field and the integration times used.

  20. Proton injector acceptance tests for a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA):characterisation of Advanced Injection System of Light Ions (AISLI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S. X.; Ren, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, T.; Zhao(??), J.; Zhang, A. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the acceleration capability of a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a proton injector has been developed at Peking University (PKU). It is composed of a compact permanent magnet 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (PKU PMECRIS) associated with a LEBT of two electrostatic Einzel lenses [1]. This injector is named as Advanced Injector System of Light Ions (AISLI). The acceptance tests have been performed with a 40 keV-55 mA hydrogen beam successfully passing through a ? 10 mm aperture diaphragm. This diaphragm is located 200 mm downstream the plasma emission hole at the location of the future DWA entrance flange. The beam rms emittance reached about 0.10 ? mm mrad in pulsed mode. This article describes the AISLI experimental setup, the measurement principle and the obtained beam characteristics.

  1. Direct measurement of the positive acceleration of the universe and testing inhomogeneous models under gravitational wave cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Kent [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606–8502 (Japan); Nishizawa, Atsushi; Yoo, Chul-Moon, E-mail: kent@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: anishi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yoo@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606–8502 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    One possibility for explaining the apparent accelerating expansion of the universe is that we live in the center of a spherically inhomogeneous universe. Although current observations cannot fully distinguish ?CDM and these inhomogeneous models, direct measurement of the acceleration of the universe can be a powerful tool in probing them. We have shown that, if ?CDM is the correct model, DECIGO/BBO would be able to detect the positive redshift drift (which is the time evolution of the source redshift z) in 3–5 year gravitational wave (GW) observations from neutron-star binaries, which enables us to rule out any Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void model with monotonically increasing density profile. We may even be able to rule out any LTB model unless we allow unrealistically steep density profile at z ? 0. This test can be performed with GW observations alone, without any reference to electromagnetic observations, and is more powerful than the redshift drift measurement using Lyman ? forest.

  2. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  3. Performance tests of the 600-kW, cw, 80-MHz, radio-frequency systems for the FMIT accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Nylander, R.F.; Fazio, M.V.; Bacci, F.F.; Rogers, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The high-power rf system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator consists of 14 sets of equipment, each of which can deliver up to 600 kW (cw) at 80 MHz into a load having a VSWR of 1.4 or less (any phase). The equipment was designed and constructed to FMIT specifications by Continental Electronics Manufacturing Co. (CEMC) of Dallas, Texas. Four sets have been shipped to Los Alamos for use with the accelerator (two with the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and two with the drift-tube linac (DTL)). The first set was fully tested at CEMC. Further tests conducted at Los Alamos, both into a resistive (electrolytic) load and into a resonant cavity (Q approx. 21,000), have confirmed that this system meets, and in most cases far exceeds, the specified performance limits. The first of the 13 production sets (No. 5) also was tested at CEMC before shipping any of the rf equipment to the Hanford Engineering and Development Laboratory at Richland, Washington. Because of the differences in behavior observed when No. 1 was operated at Los Alamos with a different tube installed in the final power amplifier (FPA) cavity, CEMC agreed to test No. 5 with two tubes having widely differing characteristics (notably primary screen emission). As expected, behavior differed markedly, and some design modification was necessary to meet all specifications with either tube. Results of final performance tests on No. 5 are summarized. Discussion of the most significant aspects of CEMC's tests and of those performed at Los Alamos follows a brief description of the equipment.

  4. Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2003-08-01

    This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

  5. A novel accelerated corrosion test for exhaust systems by means of power ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Doche; J. Y. Hihn; A. Mandroyan; C. Maurice; O. Hervieux; X. Roizard

    2006-01-01

    Cycling corrosion tests have been performed to simulate corrosion conditions in the cold end of an automotive exhaust system. A middle range 1.4512 (AISI 409) stainless steel is submitted to a conventional dip dry test (DDT) parallel to a similar test but including an additional external stress thanks to an ultrasonic transducer. This new ultrasonic test (so called UST) is

  6. Modernization and life time extension on steam power plants in Eastern Europe and Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupetz, M.; Jenikejew, E.; Hiss, F.

    2014-06-01

    The Eastern European electricity markets with focus on Russia and Ukraine are suffering severe aging of the existing LMZ, UTZ and Turboatom steam turbine fleets after more than 25 years of operation. Energy efficient modernizations along with life time extension beyond the designed life time of existing old power plants is an economical option to address the increasing power demand. Steam Turbine modernizations are using latest state of the art materials and technology-enhanced turbine components such as blades, sealing, guide blade carriers, inner casings and rotors as well as components for auxiliary systems e.g. lube and lifting oil thus providing increased efficiency and optimized maintainability. This paper outlines unique design features and pre-engineered modules of the Siemens steam turbine modernization applications for thermal power stations, emphasizing the solutions for Turboatom 300 MW and LMZ 200 MW turbine-generators. The paper concludes with references and operational experience.

  7. In-situ diagnostics and degradation mapping of a mixed-mode accelerated stress test for proton exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yeh-Hung; Fly, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing availability of more durable membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, there is a need for a more stressful test that combines chemical and mechanical stressors to enable accelerated screening of promising membrane candidates. Equally important is the need for in-situ diagnostic methods with sufficient spatial resolution that can provide insights into how membranes degrade to facilitate the development of durable fuel cell systems. In this article, we report an accelerated membrane stress test and a degradation diagnostic method that satisfy both needs. By applying high-amplitude cycles of electrical load to a fuel cell fed with low-RH reactant gases, a wide range of mechanical and chemical stressful conditions can be created within the cell which leads to rapid degradation of a mechanically robust Ion Power™ N111-IP membrane. Using an in-situ shorting/crossover diagnostic method on a segmented fuel cell fixture that provides 100 local current measurements, we are able to monitor the progression and map the degradation modes of shorting, thinning, and crossover leak over the entire membrane. Results from this test method have been validated by conventional metrics of fluoride release rates, physical crossover leak rates, pinhole mapping, and cross-sectional measurements.

  8. Performance of the Upgraded LHCf Calorimeter with Gd2SiO5 (GSO) Scintillators Tested by Accelerator Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yuya

    LHCf has reported energy spectra of forward photons and neutral pions at ?{s} = 900 GeV and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Because the next operation in 2015 is expected under much higher radiation dose, we are upgrading the detectors, especially their scintillators, to be radiation harder. We report the results from the beam tests performed at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in Japan for the basic properties of new sensors. We have confirmed that the new sensors meet our requirements at this stage.

  9. Measurements of spin life time of an antimony-bound electron in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T. M.; Bishop, N. C.; Tracy, L. A.; Blume-Kohout, R.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J. R.; Dominguez, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    We report our measurements of spin life time of an antimony-bound electron in silicon. The device is a double-top-gated silicon quantum dot with antimony atoms implanted near the quantum dot region. A donor charge transition is identified by observing a charge offset in the transport characteristics of the quantum dot. The tunnel rates on/off the donor are first characterized and a three-level pulse sequence is then used to measure the spin populations at different load-and-wait times in the presence of a fixed magnetic field. The spin life time is extracted from the exponential time dependence of the spin populations. A spin life time of 1.27 seconds is observed at B = 3.25 T. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. The design and testing of a dual fiber textile matrix for accelerating surface hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Thomas H; Vournakis, John N; Manning, James E; McCurdy, Shane L; Rich, Preston B; Nichols, Timothy C; Scull, Christopher M; McCord, Marian G; Decorta, Joseph A; Johnson, Peter C; Smith, Carr J

    2009-10-01

    The standard treatment for severe traumatic injury is frequently compression and application of gauze dressing to the site of hemorrhage. However, while able to rapidly absorb pools of shed blood, gauze fails to provide strong surface (topical) hemostasis. The result can be excess hemorrhage-related morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that cost-effective materials (based on widespread availability of bulk fibers for other commercial uses) could be designed based on fundamental hemostatic principles to partially emulate the wicking properties of gauze while concurrently stimulating superior hemostasis. A panel of readily available textile fibers was screened for the ability to activate platelets and the intrinsic coagulation cascade in vitro. Type E continuous filament glass and a specialty rayon fiber were identified from the material panel as accelerators of hemostatic reactions and were custom woven to produce a dual fiber textile bandage. The glass component strongly activated platelets while the specialty rayon agglutinated red blood cells. In comparison with gauze in vitro, the dual fiber textile significantly enhanced the rate of thrombin generation, clot generation as measured by thromboelastography, adhesive protein adsorption and cellular attachment and activation. These results indicate that hemostatic textiles can be designed that mimic gauze in form but surpass gauze in ability to accelerate hemostatic reactions. PMID:19489008

  11. The Design and Testing of a Dual Fiber Textile Matrix for Accelerating Surface Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas H.; Vournakis, John N.; Manning, James E.; McCurdy, Shane L.; Rich, Preston B.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Scull, Christopher M.; McCord, Marian G.; Decorta, Joseph A.; Johnson, Peter C.; Smith, Carr J.

    2011-01-01

    The standard treatment for severe traumatic injury is frequently compression and application of gauze dressing to the site of hemorrhage. However, while able to rapidly absorb pools of shed blood, gauze fails to provide strong surface (topical) hemostasis. The result can be excess hemorrhage-related morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that cost-effective materials (based on widespread availability of bulk fibers for other commercial uses) could be designed based on fundamental hemostatic principles to partially emulate the wicking properties of gauze while concurrently stimulating superior hemostasis. A panel of readily available textile fibers was screened for the ability to activate platelets and the intrinsic coagulation cascade in vitro. Type E continuous filament glass and a specialty rayon fiber were identified from the material panel as accelerators of hemostatic reactions and were custom woven to produce a dual fiber textile bandage. The glass component strongly activated platelets while the specialty rayon agglutinated red blood cells. In comparison with gauze in vitro, the dual fiber textile significantly enhanced the rate of thrombin generation, clot generation as measured by thromboelastography, adhesive protein adsorption and cellular attachment and activation. These results indicate that hemostatic textiles can be designed that mimic gauze in form but surpass gauze in ability to accelerate hemostatic reactions. PMID:19489008

  12. A MODIFIED PMMA CEMENT (SUB-CEMENT) FOR ACCELERATED FATIGUE TESTING OF CEMENTED IMPLANT CONSTRUCTS USING CADAVERIC BONE

    PubMed Central

    Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Pre-clinical screening of cemented implant systems could be improved by modeling the longer-term response of the implant/cement/bone construct to cyclic loading. We formulated bone cement with degraded fatigue fracture properties (Sub-cement) such that long-term fatigue could be simulated in short-term cadaver tests. Sub-cement was made by adding a chain-transfer agent to standard polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. This reduced the molecular weight of the inter-bead matrix without changing reaction-rate or handling characteristics. Static mechanical properties were approximately equivalent to normal cement. Over a physiologically reasonable range of stress intensity factor, fatigue crack propagation rates for sub-cement were higher by a factor of 25 ± 19. When tested in a simplified 2 1/2D physical model of a stem-cement-bone system, crack growth from the stem was accelerated by a factor of 100. Sub-cement accelerated both crack initiation and growth rate. Sub-cement is now being evaluated in full stem/cement/femur models. PMID:18774136

  13. Redshift-Drift as a Test for Discriminating Between Decelerating Inhomogeneous and Accelerating Universe Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Priti; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle Singh, Tejinder P.

    2015-01-01

    Exact inhomogeneous solutions of Einstein's equations have been used in the literature to build models reproducing the cosmological data without dark energy. However, owing to the degrees of freedom pertaining to these models, it is necessary to get rid of the degeneracy often exhibited by the problem of distinguishing between them and accelerating universe models. We give an overview of redshift drift in inhomogeneous cosmologies, and explain how it serves to this purpose. One class of models which fits the data is the Szekeres Swiss-cheese class where non-spherically symmetric voids exhibit a typical size of about 400 Mpc. We present our calculation of the redshift drift in this model, and compare it with the results obtained by other authors for alternate scenarios.

  14. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  15. Impact fuze testing at 3000 m/sec employing explosively accelerating plates

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Explosives Testing Division at Sandia has developed a method of simulating a re-entry vehicle impacting the ground. The purpose of the simulation is to evaluate different fusing concepts. The design and operation of this impact testing facility are described.

  16. Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Derringer, G. C.; Kistler, C. W.; Bigg, D. M.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for designing aging tests in which life prediction was paramount was developed. The methodology builds upon experience with regard to aging behavior in those material classes which are expected to be utilized as encapsulant elements, viz., glasses and polymers, and upon experience with the design of aging tests. The experiences were reviewed, and results are discussed in detail.

  17. Microwave power coupler for a superconducting multiple-cell cavity for accelerator application and its testing procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianjian; /IIT, Chicago

    2008-12-01

    Superconducting cavity resonators offer the advantage of high field intensity for a given input power, making them an attractive contender for particle accelerator applications. Power coupling into a superconducting cavity employed in a particle accelerator requires unique provisions to maintain high vacuum and cryogenic temperature on the cavity side, while operating with ambient conditions on the source side. Components introduced to fulfill mechanical requirements must show negligible obstruction of the propagation of the microwave with absence of critical locations that may give rise to electron multipaction, leading to a multiple section design, instead of an aperture, a probe, or a loop structure as found in conventional cavities. A coaxial power coupler for a superconducting multiple-cell cavity at 3.9 GHz has been developed. The cavity is intended to be employed as an accelerator to provide enhanced electron beam quality in a free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) user facility. The design of the coupler called for two windows to sustain high vacuum in the cavity and two bellows to accommodate mechanical dimensional changes resulting from cryogenics. Suppression of multipacting was accomplished by the choice of conductor dimensions and materials with low second yield coefficients. Prior to integration with the cavity, the coupler was tested for intrinsic properties in a back-to-back configuration and conditioned for high-power operation with increasing power input. Maximum incident power was measured to be 61 kW. When integrated with the superconducting cavity, a loaded quality factor of 9 x 10{sup 5} was measured by transient method. Coupler return loss and insertion loss were estimated to be around -21 dB and -0.2 dB, respectively.

  18. THE MECHANICAL AND SHIELDING DESIGN OF A PORTABLE SPECTROMETER AND BEAM DUMP ASSEMBLY AT BNLS ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    HU,J.P.; CASEY,W.R.; HARDER,D.A.; PJEROV,S.; RAKOWSKY,G.; SKARITKA,J.R.

    2002-09-05

    A portable assembly containing a vertical-bend dipole magnet has been designed and installed immediately down-beam of the Compton electron-laser interaction chamber on beamline 1 of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The water-cooled magnet designed with field strength of up to 0.7 Tesla will be used as a spectrometer in the Thompson scattering and vacuum acceleration experiments, where field-dependent electron scattering, beam focusing and energy spread will be analyzed. This magnet will deflect the ATF's 60 MeV electron-beam 90{sup o} downward, as a vertical beam dump for the Compton scattering experiment. The dipole magnet assembly is portable, and can be relocated to other beamlines at the ATF or other accelerator facilities to be used as a spectrometer or a beam dump. The mechanical and shielding calculations are presented in this paper. The structural rigidity and stability of the assembly were studied. A square lead shield surrounding the assembly's Faraday Cup was designed to attenuate the radiation emerging from the 1 inch-copper beam stop. All photons produced were assumed to be sufficiently energetic to generate photoneutrons. A safety evaluation of groundwater tritium contamination due to the thermal neutron capturing by the deuterium in water was performed, using updated Monte Carlo neutron-photon coupled transport code (MCNP). High-energy neutron spallation, which is a potential source to directly generate radioactive tritium and sodium-22 in soil, was conservatively assessed in verifying personal and environmental safety.

  19. Assembly and Test of SQ01b, a Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for the LHC Accelerator Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bartlett, S. E.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.H.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lamm, M.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sylvester, C.D.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Velev, G.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.

    2006-06-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented

  20. How soccer players head the ball: A test of optic acceleration cancellation theory with virtual reality

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Peter; Reed, Nick; Gilson, Stuart; Glennerster, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We measured the movements of soccer players heading a football in a fully immersive virtual reality environment. In mid-flight the ball’s trajectory was altered from its normal quasi-parabolic path to a linear one, producing a jump in the rate of change of the angle of elevation of gaze (?) from player to ball. One reation time later the players adjusted their speed so that the rate of change of ? increased when it had been reduced and reduced it when it had been increased. Since the result of the player’s movement was to regain a value of the rate of change close to that before the disturbance, the data suggest that the players have an expectation of, and memory for, the pattern that the rate of change of ? will follow during the flight. The results support the general claim that players intercepting balls use servo control strategies and are consistent with the particular claim of Optic Acceleration Cancellation theory that the servo strategy is to allow ? to increase at a steadily decreasing rate. PMID:18472123

  1. High power breakdown testing of a photonic band-gap accelerator structure with elliptical rods

    E-print Network

    Munroe, Brian James

    An improved single-cell photonic band-gap (PBG) structure with an inner row of elliptical rods (PBG-E) was tested with high power at a 60 Hz repetition rate at X-band (11.424 GHz), achieving a gradient of 128??MV/m at a ...

  2. RIS-R-1358(EN) Accelerated Fatigue Testing of LM 19.1

    E-print Network

    with thermal imaging equipment to determine how an increase in fatigue load affects the blade material 87-550-3099-8 ISBN 87-550-3100-5 (Internet) ISSN 0106-2840 Print: Pitney Bowes Management Services 3.5 Strain gauge locations 14 3.6 Blade mounting 16 3.7 Equipment mounting 17 3.8 Photo of the test

  3. The applicability of accelerated life testing for assessment of service life of solar thermal components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Carlsson; K. Möller; M. Köhl; M. Heck; S. Brunold; U. Frei; J.-C. Marechal; G. Jorgensen

    2004-01-01

    To achieve successful commercialisation of new advanced windows and solar façade components for buildings, the durability of these need to be demonstrated prior to installation by use of reliable and well-accepted test methods. In Task 27 Performance of Solar Facade Components of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme work has therefore been undertaken with the objective to develop a

  4. Predictive reliability models through validated correlation between power cycling and thermal cycling accelerated life tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Towashiraporn; G. Subbarayan; B. McIlvanie; B. C. Hunter; D. Love; B. Sullivan

    2002-01-01

    Aims to show that with careful modelling, the fatigue life of solder joints of identical geometry and microstructure can be predicted very accurately (through empirical correlations) under different environmental test or field use conditions. Here, on the TI 144 chip -scale package, the empirical correlation for fatigue life developed under thermal cycling conditions is used to predict the life under

  5. USCAR FUEL CELL TECH TEAM CELL COMPONENT ACCELERATED STRESS TEST PROTOCOLS

    E-print Network

    , especially for automotive propulsion, must operate over a wide range of operating and cyclic conditions point of water, humidity from ambient to saturated, and half-cell potentials from 0 to >1.5 volts propulsion applications. The goal of this testing is to gain a measure of component durability

  6. Architecture, implementation, and testing of a multiple-shell gas injection system for high current implosions on the Z accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Madden, Robert E.; Coleman, P. L.; Thompson, John R.; Bixler, Alex; Lamppa, D. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Strizic, T.; Johnson, D.; Johns, O.; Vigil, M. P.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Savage, M. E.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, M. C.

    2013-06-01

    Tests are ongoing to conduct ˜20 MA z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory using Ar, Kr, and D2 gas puffs as the imploding loads. The relatively high cost of operations on a machine of this scale imposes stringent requirements on the functionality, reliability, and safety of gas puff hardware. Here we describe the development of a prototype gas puff system including the multiple-shell nozzles, electromagnetic drivers for each nozzle's valve, a UV pre-ionizer, and an inductive isolator to isolate the ˜2.4 MV machine voltage pulse present at the gas load from the necessary electrical and fluid connections made to the puff system from outside the Z vacuum chamber. This paper shows how the assembly couples to the overall Z system and presents data taken to validate the functionality of the overall system.

  7. Architecture, implementation, and testing of a multiple-shell gas injection system for high current implosions on the Z accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Madden, Robert E. [Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation, San Leandro, California 94577 (United States); Coleman, P. L. [Evergreen Hill Sciences, Philomath, Oregon 97370 (United States); Thompson, John R. [812 Temple Street, San Diego, California 92106 (United States); Bixler, Alex [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lamppa, D. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Strizic, T.; Johnson, D.; Johns, O.; Vigil, M. P.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Savage, M. E.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, M. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Tests are ongoing to conduct {approx}20 MA z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory using Ar, Kr, and D{sub 2} gas puffs as the imploding loads. The relatively high cost of operations on a machine of this scale imposes stringent requirements on the functionality, reliability, and safety of gas puff hardware. Here we describe the development of a prototype gas puff system including the multiple-shell nozzles, electromagnetic drivers for each nozzle's valve, a UV pre-ionizer, and an inductive isolator to isolate the {approx}2.4 MV machine voltage pulse present at the gas load from the necessary electrical and fluid connections made to the puff system from outside the Z vacuum chamber. This paper shows how the assembly couples to the overall Z system and presents data taken to validate the functionality of the overall system.

  8. An integrated fingerprinting and kinetic approach to accelerated shelf-life testing of chemical changes in thermally treated carrot puree.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Magpusao, Johannes; Palmers, Stijn; Michiels, Chris; Hendrickx, Marc; Loey, Ann Van

    2015-07-15

    To have a better understanding of chemical reactions during shelf-life, an integrated analytical and engineering toolbox: "fingerprinting-kinetics" was used. As a case study, a thermally sterilised carrot puree was selected. Sterilised purees were stored at four storage temperatures as a function of time. Fingerprinting enabled selection of volatiles clearly changing during shelf-life. Only these volatiles were identified and studied further. Next, kinetic modelling was performed to investigate the suitability of these volatiles as quality indices (markers) for accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT). Fingerprinting enabled selection of terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, fatty acid derivatives, Strecker aldehydes and sulphur compounds as volatiles clearly changing during shelf-life. The amount of Strecker aldehydes increased during storage, whereas the rest of the volatiles decreased. Out of the volatiles, based on the applied kinetic modelling, myristicin, ?-terpinolene, ?-pinene, ?-terpineol and octanal were identified as potential markers for ASLT. PMID:25722143

  9. Characterization of electron clouds in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator using TE-wave transmission

    SciTech Connect

    De Santis, S.; Byrd, J. M.; Billing, M.; Palmer, M.; Sikora, J.; Carlson, B.

    2010-01-02

    A relatively new technique for measuring the electron cloud density in storage rings has been developed and successfully demonstrated [S. De Santis, J.M. Byrd, F. Caspers, A. Krasnykh, T. Kroyer, M.T.F. Pivi, and K.G. Sonnad, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 094801 (2008).]. We present the experimental results of a systematic application of this technique at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator. The technique is based on the phase modulation of the TE mode transmitted in a synchrotron beam pipe caused by the periodic variation of the density of electron plasma. Because of the relatively simple hardware requirements, this method has become increasingly popular and has been since successfully implemented in several machines. While the principles of this technique are straightforward, quantitative derivation of the electron cloud density from the measurement requires consideration of several effects, which we address in detail.

  10. Klystron Life Results in Particle Accelerator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, Heinz

    2002-08-01

    Based on reports contributed by various particle accelerator sites, among them DESY, CERN, and LANL, Weibull life time characteristics have been calculated for the klystrons used at these institutions. Supported by evaluations of the technologies and the operational conditions involved, the results, sometimes surprising and unexpected, present material that can be valuable for logistic considerations, the planning of future accelerators, and naturally for the design of future klystrons.

  11. Accelerated corrosion testing, evaluation and durability design of bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Pereira, Ruben Mario

    2003-06-01

    In the last few years, the effectiveness of cement grout in galvanized or polyethylene ducts, the most widely used corrosion protection system for multistrand bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons, has been under debate, due to significant tendon corrosion damage, several reported failures of individual tendons as well as a few collapses of non-typical structures. While experience in the USA has been generally good, some foreign experience has been less than satisfactory. This dissertation is part of a comprehensive research program started in 1993, which has the objectives to examine the use of post-tensioning in bridge substructures, identify durability concerns and existing technology, develop and carry out an experimental testing program, and conclude with durability design guidelines. Three experimental programs were developed: A long term macrocell corrosion test series, to investigate corrosion protection for internal tendons in precast segmental construction; a long term beam corrosion test series, to examine the effects of post-tensioning on corrosion protection as affected by crack width; and, a long term column corrosion test series, to examine corrosion protection in vertical elements. Preliminary design guidelines were developed previously in the overall study by the initial researchers, after an extensive literature review. This dissertation scope includes continuation of exposure testing of the macrocell, beam and column specimens, performing comprehensive autopsies of selected specimens and updating the durability design guidelines based on the exposure testing and autopsy results. After autopsies were performed, overall findings indicate negative durability effects due to the use of mixed reinforcement, small concrete covers, galvanized steel ducts, and industry standard or heat-shrink galvanized duct splices. The width of cracks was shown to have a direct negative effect on specimen performance. Grout voids were found to be detrimental to the durability of both galvanized ducts and strand. Relying on epoxy and galvanized bar coatings was also found inappropriate because of local attack. On the other hand, very positive effects were found with the use of high performance concrete, high post-tensioning levels, plastic ducts, and sound epoxy filling at the joints.

  12. Search for major genes with progeny test data to accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    NCSU

    2003-12-30

    This research project is to develop a novel approach that fully utilized the current breeding materials and genetic test information available from the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program to identify major genes that are segregating for growth and disease resistance in loblolly pine. If major genes can be identified in the existing breeding population, they can be utilized directly in the conventional loblolly pine breeding program. With the putative genotypes of parents identified, tree breeders can make effective decisions on management of breeding populations and operational deployment of genetically superior trees. Forest productivity will be significantly enhanced if genetically superior genotypes with major genes for economically important traits could be deployed in an operational plantation program. The overall objective of the project is to develop genetic model and analytical methods for major gene detection with progeny test data and accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine. Specifically, there are three main tasks: (1) Develop genetic models for major gene detection and implement statistical methods and develop computer software for screening progeny test data; (2) Confirm major gene segregation with molecular markers; and (3) Develop strategies for using major genes for tree breeding.

  13. Evaluation of the reliability of commercial concentrator triple-junction solar cells by means of accelerated life tests (ALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinet-González, Pilar; Algora, Carlos; Núñez, Neftalí; Orlando, Vincenzo; Vázquez, Manuel; Bautista, Jesús; Araki, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    A temperature accelerated life test on commercial concentrator lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells has been carried out. The solar cells have been tested at three different temperatures: 119, 126 and 164 °C and the nominal photo-current condition (820 X) has been emulated by injecting current in darkness. All the solar cells have presented catastrophic failures. The failure distributions at the three tested temperatures have been fitted to an Arrhenius-Weibull model. An Arrhenius activation energy of 1.58 eV was determined from the fit. The main reliability functions and parameters (reliability function, instantaneous failure rate, mean time to failure, warranty time) of these solar cells at the nominal working temperature (80 °C) have been obtained. The warranty time obtained for a failure population of 5 % has been 69 years. Thus, a long-term warranty could be offered for these particular solar cells working at 820 X, 8 hours per day at 80 °C.

  14. An RF Waveguide Distribution System for the ILC Test Accelerator at Fermilab's NML

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; Bowden, Gordon; Swent, Richard; McKee, Bobby; /SLAC

    2007-06-27

    An ILC R&D facility is being constructed in the NML building at Fermilab which, in addition to an injector and beam dump with spectrometer, will contain up to three cryomodules of ILC-type superconducting 9-cell cavities. This linac will be powered by a single klystron. As part of SLAC's contribution to this project, we will provide a distribution network in WR650 waveguide to the various cavity couplers. In addition to commercial waveguide components and circulators and loads, this system will include adjustable tap-offs, and customized hybrids. In one configuration, the circulators will be removed to test pair-wise cancellation of cavity reflections through hybrids. The system will be pressurized with nitrogen to 3 bar absolute to avoid the need for SF{sub 6}. The full distribution system for the first cryomodule will be delivered and installed later this year. We describe the design of the system and completed RF testing.

  15. Development of an Accelerated Test Method for the Determination of Susceptibility to Atmospheric Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical rationale is presented for use of a repetitive cyclic current reversal voltammetric technique for characterization of localized corrosion processes, including atmospheric corrosion. Applicability of this proposed experimental protocol is applied to characterization of susceptibility to crevice and pitting corrosion, atmospheric corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Criteria upon which relative susceptibility is based were determined and tested using two iron based alloys commonly in use at NASA-Kennedy; A36 (a low carbon steel) and 4130 (a low alloy steel). Practicality of the procedure was demonstrated by measuring changes in anodic polarization behavior during high frequency current reversal cycles of 25 cycles per second with 1 mA/sq cm current density amplitude in solutions containing Cl anions. The results demonstrated that, due to excessive polarization which affects conductivity of barrier corrosion product layers, A36 was less resistant to atmospheric corrosion than its 4130 counterpart; behavior which was also demonstrated during exposure tests.

  16. Scaled Accelerator Test For the DARHT-II Downstream Transport System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Jiuan Chen; D. T. Blackfield; G. J. Caporaso; G. Guethlein; J. F. McCarrick; A. C. Paul; J. A. Watson; J. T. Weir

    2005-01-01

    The second axis of the dual axial radiography hydrodynamic test (DARHT-II) facility at LANL is currently in the commissioning phase. The beam parameters for the DARHT-II machine will be nominally 17 MeV, 2 kA and 1.6 mus. This makes the DARHT-II downstream system the first system ever designed to transport a high current, high energy and long pulse beam [2].

  17. Accelerated aging tests of chromium containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon coatings for solar collectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gampp; P. Oelhafen; P. Gantenbein; S. Brunold; U. Frei

    1998-01-01

    Chromium containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films (a-C:H\\/Cr) have been prepared by simultaneous rf plasma activated chemical vapour deposition of methane and magnetron sputtering of a chromium target. During deposition the substrates were heated (up to 300°C) and DC biased (?200 and ?600V) in order to obtain films with high chemical stability. Constant temperature tests were performed at 250°C in air

  18. Neural Network Models of Simple Mechanical Systems Illustrating the Feasibility of Accelerated Life Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Jones, Steven P.; Jansen, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    A complete evaluation of the tribological characteristics of a given material/mechanical system is a time-consuming operation since the friction and wear process is extremely systems sensitive. As a result, experimental designs (i.e., Latin Square, Taguchi) have been implemented in an attempt to not only reduce the total number of experimental combinations needed to fully characterize a material/mechanical system, but also to acquire life data for a system without having to perform an actual life test. Unfortunately, these experimental designs still require a great deal of experimental testing and the output does not always produce meaningful information. In order to further reduce the amount of experimental testing required, this study employs a computer neural network model to investigate different material/mechanical systems. The work focuses on the modeling of the wear behavior, while showing the feasibility of using neural networks to predict life data. The model is capable of defining which input variables will influence the tribological behavior of the particular material/mechanical system being studied based on the specifications of the overall system.

  19. Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test and Polarization Curve Protocols for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-10-28

    This document contains test protocols to determine the performance and durability of fuel cell components such as electrocatalysts and supports, membranes, and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). These protocols were established with the intent to be used as a common industry standard when assessing durability of different polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) in fuel cells for automotive applications and to be compared against DOE and FreedomCar targets. The resulting data may also help to model the performance of the fuel cell under variable load conditions and the effects of ageing on performance.

  20. Accelerator-based tests of radiation shielding properties of materials used in human space infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Lobascio, C; Briccarello, M; Destefanis, R; Faraud, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Guarnieri, V; Manti, L; Pugliese, M; Rusek, A; Scampoli, P; Durante, M

    2008-03-01

    Shielding is the only practical countermeasure for the exposure to cosmic radiation during space travel. It is well known that light, hydrogenated materials, such as water and polyethylene, provide the best shielding against space radiation. Kevlar and Nextel are two materials of great interest for spacecraft shielding because of their known ability to protect human space infrastructures from meteoroids and debris. We measured the response to simulated heavy-ion cosmic radiation of these shielding materials and compared it to polyethylene, Lucite (PMMA), and aluminum. As proxy to galactic nuclei we used 1 GeV n iron or titanium ions. Both physics and biology tests were performed. The results show that Kevlar, which is rich in carbon atoms (about 50% in number), is an excellent space radiation shielding material. Physics tests show that its effectiveness is close (80-90%) to that of polyethylene, and biology data suggest that it can reduce the chromosomal damage more efficiently than PMMA. Nextel is less efficient as a radiation shield, and the expected reduction on dose is roughly half that provided by the same mass of polyethylene. Both Kevlar and Nextel are more effective than aluminum in the attenuation of heavy-ion dose. PMID:18301097

  1. The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator's RF Pulse Compression And Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, S.G.; Adelphson, C.; Holmes, S.; Lavine, Theodore L.; Loewen, R.J.; Nantista, C.; Pearson, C.; Pope, R.; Rifkin, J.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    The overmoded rf transmission and pulsed power compression system for SLAC's Next Linear Collider (NLC) program requires a high degree of transmission efficiency and mode purity to be economically feasible. To this end, a number of new, high power components and systems have been developed at X-band, which transmit rf power in the low loss, circular TE01 mode with negligible mode conversion. In addition, a highly efficient SLED-II* pulse compressor has been developed and successfully tested at high power. The system produced a 200 MW, 250 ns wide pulse with a near-perfect flat-top. In this paper we describe the design and test results of the high power pulse compression system using SLED-II. The NLC rf systems use low loss highly over-moded circular waveguides operating in the TE01 mode. The efficiency of the systems is sensitive to the mode purity of the mode excited inside these guides. We used the so called flower petal mode transducer [2] to excite the TE01 mode. This type of mode transducer is efficient, compact and capable of handling high levels of power. To make more efficient systems, we modified this device by adding several mode selective chokes to act as mode purifiers. To manipulate the rf signals we used these modified mode converters to convert back and forth between over-moded circular waveguides and single-moded WR90 rectangular waveguides. Then, we used the relatively simple rectangular waveguide components to do the actual manipulation of rf signals. For example, two mode transducers and a mitered rectangular waveguide bend comprise a 90 degree bend. Also, a magic tee and four mode transducers would comprise a four-port-hybrid, etc. We will discuss the efficiency of an rf transport system based on the above methodology. We also used this methodology in building the SLEDII pulse compression system. At SLAC we built 4 of these pulse systems. In this paper we describe the SLEDII system and compare the performance of these 4 systems at SLAC. We report the experimental procedures used to measure their performance as well as the results of high power tests.

  2. Time-resolved beam-profile measurements on the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA)

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Y.P.; Lauer, E.J.; Clark, J.C.; Slaughter, D.R.; Fessenden, T.J.

    1983-09-22

    Examples are given of time-resolved beam profiles measured on ETA using several techniques. One method uses a Faraday cup that is remotely movable in two-transverse dimensions (x, y). In another method a small diameter wire or pellet target is moved across the beam and the bremsstrahlung x-ray intensity is plotted. Data for these methods are recorded using a Tektronix 7912 digitizer at 16 equally spaced times during 50 ns. Three other methods use a time gated (4 ns) microchannel plate television camera to record a two-dimensional image of the beam intensity on a single pulse. The light sources used for imaging are: Cherenkov light from a Kapton foil, prompt visible light from a titanium foil and radiated light from gas molecules excited by the beam. We are also testing an x-ray pinhole camera using K/sub ..cap alpha../ x-rays from tungsten.

  3. SIMS microprofiles of Pb?5%Sn solder joints in electronic devices after accelerated life tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandurra, A.; Porto, A.; Puglisi, O.

    1995-05-01

    The failure mechanisms of Pb?5%Sn (wt%) solder alloy in electronic devices assembled in a plastic package have been investigated. For this purpose dice with Al/Ni/Au 4/1.0/0.05 ?m thick and Ti/Ni/Au 0.1/0.4/0.05 ?m thick back side metals were prepared. Retrospective SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) microprofiles obtained in fracture surfaces of the solder layer after thermal cycles, suggest two failure mechanisms. One is based on the formation of regions of the alloy where the Sn concentration is lower than the average. This depletion appears to be due to coupling between defect fluxes and material fluxes in the alloy during thermomechanical fatigue. An additional cause that results in degradation of the alloy is the oxidation of the solder layer. The oxygen source appears to be oxygen species present in the metal layers that diffuse into the alloy during the thermal cycling test.

  4. Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: comparison of their stability in an accelerated test.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Tattini, Virgilio; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Gutiérrez, José María; Borgognoni, Camila; Vega-Baudrit, José; Solera, Federico; Cerdas, Maykel; Segura, Alvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; León, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of pharmaceutical proteins. Sugars and polyols have been successfully used in the stabilization of proteins. However, their use in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented. In this work, whole IgG snake antivenom, purified from equine plasma, was formulated with different concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol. The glass transition temperatures of frozen formulations, determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), ranged between -13.5 °C and -41 °C. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers, the freeze-dried samples were subjected to an accelerated stability test at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. After six months of storage at 40 °C, all the formulations presented the same residual humidity, but significant differences were observed in turbidity, reconstitution time and electrophoretic pattern. Moreover, all formulations, except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol, exhibited the same potency for the neutralization of lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. The 5% (w:v) sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability among the samples tested, while mannitol and sorbitol formulations turned brown. These results suggest that sucrose is a better stabilizer than mannitol and sorbitol in the formulation of freeze-dried antivenoms under the studied conditions. PMID:25091348

  5. Study of the degradation mechanisms of carbon-supported platinum fuel cells catalyst via different accelerated stress test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanliang; Chen, Siguo; Wang, Yao; Ding, Wei; Wu, Rui; Li, Li; Qi, Xueqiang; Wei, Zidong

    2015-01-01

    A combination method based on three different accelerated stress test (AST) protocols along with the monitoring of electrochemical surface area (ECSA), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities, X-Ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) response is introduced to investigate the degradation mechanisms of carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) catalyst. By comparing the ECSA and ORR activity loss under different AST protocols, we revealed that the activity loss in AST can be divided into recoverable activity loss and unrecoverable activity loss. The recoverable activity loss is attributed to the reduction of Pt oxide or partially due to the removal of CO formed during carbon corrosion. The unrecoverable activity loss is ascribed to the Pt dissolution/re-deposition, agglomeration, detachment and carbon corrosion. XPS results show that the Pt dissolution/re-deposition in AST can be detected by using a more negative potential window. TEM images and analysis confirmed that the Pt growth mode in this study is mainly due to the Pt agglomeration rather than dissolution/re-deposition. EIS analysis reveals that the alternative decomposition/formation of oxygen containing groups over time is the main corrosion pathway of carbon support. These findings are very important for understanding Pt/C catalyst degradation and are also useful for developing fast test protocol for screening new durable catalyst materials.

  6. Relaxation of the accelerating-gas boundary layer to the test-gas boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analytic investigation of the relaxation of the accelerating-gas boundary layer to the test-gas boundary layer over a flat plate mounted in an expansion tube has been conducted. In this treatment, nitrogen has been considered as the test gas and helium as the accelerating gas. The problem is analyzed in two conically similar limits: (1) when the time lag between the arrival of the shock and the interface at the leading edge of the plate is very large, and (2) when this time lag is negligible. The transient laminar boundary-layer equations of a perfect binary-gas mixture are taken as the flow governing equations. These coupled equations have been solved numerically by Gauss-Seidel line-relaxation method. The results predict the transient behavior as well as the time required for an all-helium accelerating-gas boundary layer to relax to an all-nitrogen boundary layer.

  7. Loss of consciousness as criterion of +Gz tolerance at Institute of Aviation Medicine MMA during +Gz acceleration selective test.

    PubMed

    Rudnjanin, S; Arsic-Komljenovic, G; Pavlovic, M; Vujnovic, J

    2006-12-01

    +Gz induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) is one of the most serious threats to aircrews flying high performance fighter aircraft. From the early beginning of use of our Centrifuge, use in selection was primary task. As a functional "endpoints" we use criteria: loss of peripheral vision, extreme pulse rate (above 180 b.p.m.), arrhythmias and loss of consciousness. The key-method in selection the candidate who tolerates +Gz stress on the best way is selection by common selective centrifuge "Test of linear increasing of acceleration" (TOLIA). We used gradual onset rate (GOR--0.1 G/s) and maximum/peak value: +5.5 Gz, +6.0 Gz and 7.0 Gz. Applied peak value depends on the goal of the test. The lowest peak value is for candidates planned for Air Academy, higher peak value is for those pilots planned for training to supersonic combat aircrafts and the highest peak value is for pilots who are planned to fly High performance combat aircrafts. We examined 2192 candidates in the last 20 years. Eleven subjects experienced G-LOC episodes. All episodes of G-LOC had occurred occasionally and without warning symptoms (loss of peripheral vision, gray out, blackout). The percentage of subjects having G-LOC episodes was 0.50%. Nine subjects experienced G-LOC during primary selection (+5.5 Gz), one G-LOC were observed at secondary selection (+6.0 Gz) and one G-LOC was observed during tertiary selection (+7 Gz). G-LOC is the only "endpoint" in the centrifuge selection which disqualifies the candidate at once and forever for planned flying duties. The other "endpoints" (loss of peripheral vision, heart rate above 180 b.p.m., arrhythmias) allow one more testing, not less than seven days later. PMID:17191669

  8. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Converter Heater Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  9. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Convertor Heater Heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  10. An attempt to validate the ultra-accelerated microbar and the concrete performance test with the degree of AAR-induced damage observed in concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.leemann@empa.ch [Empa, Dübendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Merz, Christine [Holcim (Schweiz) AG, Würenlingen (Switzerland)] [Holcim (Schweiz) AG, Würenlingen (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    There is little knowledge about the relation between AAR-induced damage observed in structures and the expansion potential obtained with accelerated tests. In this study, aggregates used in structures damaged by AAR were tested with the microbar test (MBT/AFNOR XP 18-594) and the concrete performance test (CPT/AFNOR P18-454). After the tests, the samples were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the significance of the microbar test has to be examined very critically. The agreement of measured expansion, reacted rock types and the composition of the reaction products between the on-site concrete and the reproduced concrete subjected to the CPT clearly indicates that the reaction mechanisms in the structure and in the concrete performance test are comparable. As such, the concrete performance test seems to be an appropriate tool to test the potential reactivity of specific concrete mixtures.

  11. Experimental Testing of the Gigabit IPSec-Compliant Implementations of Rijndael and Triple DES Using SLAAC-1V FPGA Accelerator Board

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawel Chodowiec; Kris Gaj; Peter Bellows; Brian Schott

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of the first phase of a project aimed at implementing a full suite of IPSec cryptographic transformations in reconfigurable hardware. Full implementations of the new Advanced Encryption Standard, Rijndael, and the older American federal standard, Triple DES, were developed and experimentally tested using the SLAAC-1V FPGA accelerator board, based on Xilinx Virtex 1000

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, 1996, VOL. 45, NO. 3, pp. 491-498 1 A Bayes Approach to Step-Stress Accelerated Life Testing

    E-print Network

    van Dorp, Johan René

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, 1996, VOL. 45, NO. 3, pp. 491-498 1 A Bayes Approach to Step develops a Bayes model for step-stress accelerated life testing. The failure times at each stress level of the failure rates in both the prior and posterior estimates. Methods are developed for Bayes point estimates

  13. Kenneth J. Turner. Formally-Based Testing of Radiotherapy Accelerators. In Robert N. Procter and Mark Rouncefield, editors, Proc. Dependability in

    E-print Network

    Turner, Ken

    Kenneth J. Turner. Formally-Based Testing of Radiotherapy Accelerators. In Robert N. Procter and Mathematics, University of Stirling Stirling FK9 4LA, UK Email kjt@cs.stir.ac.uk 20th March 2001 Abstract/Medical Devices). The three-year project is being undertaken from October 2000 at the University of Stirling

  14. Dependency of C–S–H carbonation rate on CO 2 pressure to explain transition from accelerated tests to natural carbonation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hyvert; A. Sellier; F. Duprat; P. Rougeau; P. Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The use of normalized accelerated carbonation tests is currently limited to the classification of concretes in terms of carbonation resistance and the results are not easily transposable to forecasting concrete carbonation in natural conditions. Common models assume that the kinetics of the carbonation front ingress in concrete is a square root function of the CO2 pressure but observations in the

  15. Impact of the rippling of a 2D perpendicular shock front on ion acceleration mechanisms: PIC and test particles simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Lembege, B.; Lu, Q.

    2012-04-01

    Both hybrid/full particle simulations and recent experimental results have clearly evidenced that the front of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock can be rippled. Recent two-dimensional simulations have focussed on two different types of shock front rippling: (1) one characterized by a small spatial scale along the front is supported by lower hybrid wave activity, (2) the other characterized by a large spatial scale along the front is supported by the emission of large amplitude nonlinear whistler waves. These two rippled shock fronts are observed self-consistently respectively when the static magnetic field is perpendicular to (so called "B0-OUT" case) or within (so called "B0-IN" case) the simulation plane. "B0-OUT" and "B0-IN" cases are respectively characterized by a small and large rippling scale along the shock front. On the other hand, several studies have been made on the reflection and energization of incoming ions with a shock but most have been restricted to a one dimensional shock profile only (no rippling effects). Herein, two-dimensional test particle simulations based on strictly perpendicular shock profiles produced in two-dimensional PIC simulations are performed in order to investigate the impact of the shock front ripples on incident ion (H+) dynamics. The acceleration mechanisms and energy spectra of the test-ions (described by shell distributions with different initial kinetic energy) interacting with a rippled shock front are analyzed in detail. Both "B0-OUT" and "B0-IN" cases are considered separately; in each case, y-averaged (front rippling excluded) and non-averaged (front rippling included) profiles will be analyzed. Present results show that: (1) the incident ions suffer both shock drift acceleration (SDA) and shock surfing acceleration (SSA) mechanisms. Moreover, a striking feature is that SSA ions not only are identified at the ramp but also within the foot which confirms previous 1-D simulation results; (2) the percentage of SSA ions increases with initial kinetic energy, a feature which persists well with a rippled shock front; (3) furthermore, the ripples increase the leak of cross shock potential of the shock front (more directly transmitted- or DT- ions are produced); it strongly affects the relative percentage of the different identified classes of ions (SSA, SDA and DT ions), their average kinetic energy and their relative contribution to the resulting downstream energy spectra; (4) one key impact of the ripples is a strong diffusion of ions (in particular through the frontiers of their injection angle domains and in phase space) which leads to a mixing of the different ion classes. This diffusion increases with the size of the spatial scale of the front rippling; (5) through this diffusion, an ion belonging to a given category (SSA, SDA, or DT) in y-averaged case changes class in non-averaged case without one-to-one correspondence.

  16. Radiolytic decomposition and corrosion of a heavy-water blanket for accelerator driven transmutation Modeling and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, I. A.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Makarov, V. M.; Volk, V. I.; Vakhrushin, A. Yu; Kazaritsky, V. D.

    The concept of a chemical-engineering complex and its operation stability is described for a radioactive-waste separation and transmutation plant. In the framework of the plant, this chemical complex runs in a closed cycle with a nuclear transmutation reactor driven by a 1 GeV-100 mA class accelerator. Heavy water provides circulation of materials to be transmuted in the reactor blanket and transports the irradiated suspension to and from the chemical-engineering complex for reprocessing and further disposal of transmutation products. Modeling and experimental tests of radiolytic decomposition and corrosion were made in order to evaluate the operation stability of the desired separation and transmutation cycle. Preliminary calculations were made for some methods to suppress gas evolution from water (deuterium) solutions with thorium and transuranium nuclides or from suspensions of their oxides at a pressure of 10 MPa, a temperature of 285°C and radiation doses up to 5×10 7 Gy. The results were checked experimentally. Also the change in size of the suspended particles during irradiation was measured. Additionally, corrosion rates of zirconium alloy tubes were estimated from experiments under the same conditions.

  17. Application of a relational data base for documenting the Ground Test Accelerator cable routing and wiring interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.B.; Rogers, W.L.; Brown, V.W.; Ekeroth, G.A.; McGill, T.O.

    1990-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has many different types of equipment and interconnections to support the operation. Various functions are performed by these equipments such as signal generation, instrument control, and diagnostics. All of the thousands of signals must be routed from the protected tunnel area into the operational control area of the building. Tabulating the routing of these cables, interconnections, terminations, and even the installation status, results in an enormous amount of data collection and maintenance. A relational data base program called Wireflex was written to allow real-time storage, instant recall, and reporting of this information. The operational environment is the VAX network with password security to protect the integrity of the stored data. The format of the program data bases, with the relatioships and interchange of information, will be described. Examples of input forms will show the type of information being stored and the indexing for searching specific entries. Reports will also be included displaying the flexibility of types as well as the ability to recover specific entries or ranges of information.

  18. Induction of apoptosis by accelerated heavy-ion beams in cultured fetal rat testes and its modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Shang, Yi; Fujita, Kazuko; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Moreno, Stephanie G.; Coffigny, Herve; Hayata, Isamu; Murakami, Masahiro; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    The increasing human activities in space missions make the study on effects from high-LET ionizing radiation an important issue to be addressed. We reported previously that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male breeding activity in rats. To explore the mechanisms involved in radiation-induced gonocyte apoptosis in fetal gonads, which played a critical role in the fate of postnatal testis development, accelerated heavy-ion irradiations and organotypic culture of Wistar fetal rat testes were applied to investigations focused on cellular and molecular events after irradiations with or without chemical addition. Results showed that, in addition to the clustered distribution, both the time course and the percentage of apoptosis in gonocytes on gestation day 15 equivalent in vitro appeared similar to that in utero after exposure to either carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/µm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/µm. Irradiations induced increased p53 expression in a dose dependent manner and decreased expressions of p21 and Bcl- 2 by Western Blot examination. Administration of pan-caspase inhibitor prior to irradiations effectively inhibited apoptosis occurrence and reduced the extent of clustered apoptosis, while such effects were not observed with the presence of p53 inhibitor, gap junction inhibitor, or nitric oxide specific scavenger. These findings indicated that irradiations of cultured fetal rat testes manifested pathologically similar apoptosis induction in gonocytes to that in utero. P53 expression was possibly responsible for the response to radiation damage rather than induction of apoptosis. The syncytial organization of gonocytes played a key role in formation of the clustered apoptosis, an event that both gap junction inhibitor and nitric oxide specific scavenger were incapable of preventing.

  19. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Steven H. [Naval Research Laboratory

    2013-10-13

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a successful experiment was carried out that demonstrated suppression of multipactor in the uniform-field region of a TW DLA structure. However, in accordance with theory, the multipactor was enhanced in regions of the structure with lower values of axial magnetic field. Under Task 2, there were two two-month experimental runs at NRL that were used to characterize the performance of high power two-channel dual-mode active microwave pulse compressor configurations that used electron-beam triggered switch cavities. The pulse compressors were designed and fabricated by Omega-P, Inc. and the Russian Institute of Applied Physics and tested in the Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. These pulse compressors made use of an electron beam discharge from a cylindrical knife-edged Mo cathode coated with a CVD diamond film that was driven by a ?100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The electron beam was used to change the resonant frequency of the switch cavities in order to create the output microwave pulse. The compressor channels included a TE01 input and output section and a TE02 energy storage cavity, followed by a switch assembly that controlled the coupling between the TE01 and TE02 modes. In the initial state, the switch cavity was in resonance, the reflection from the cavity was out of phase, and the mode conversion was only ~2-3%, allowing the energy storage cavity to fill. When the electron beam was discharged into the switch cavity, the cavity was shifted out of resonance, causing the phase of the reflection to change by ~?. As a result of the change in the reflection phase, the mode coupling in the conical taper was greatly increased, and could approach ~100%, permitting the energy storage cavity to empty in one cavity round trip time of the TE02 mode to produce a high power output pulse. The second experiment runs demonstrated a 190 MW, ~20 ns compressed pulse at 25.7 gain and ~50% efficiency, using a 7.4 MW, 1 ?s drive pulse from the magnicon. The success of this experiment suggests a path to future high gain active versions of the SLED 2 pulse compressor at SLAC.

  20. Life Time Estimation under Probabilistic Fatigue of Cracked Plates for Multiple Limits States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL-Tawil, Khaled; Kadry, Seifedine; AbouJaoude, Abdo

    2009-09-01

    The fatigue failure is most critical factor in lifetime estimation of industrial elements. The failure of a device in fatigue is due to a crack growth becoming instable and leading to strength decreasing. Based on Paris equation and S-N curves of WhÖler, the probabilistic fatigue crack growth is studied where each parameter can be considered as random variable. A reliability analysis was developed here for plates under fatigue crack; the failure event taken can be expressed by many performance functions called limits states depending on possible failure modes. We study 3 limit states, the first is the reaching of a critical value of crack width acr, the second is the reaching of the capacity value of tenacity of materials KIC, the third is the reaching of a critical number of cycles of applied stresses Ncr. Between theses 3 modes, we choose the most critical one toward the reliability value. A model of crack growth with respect to time is chosen to evaluate the time-reliability variation and hence to estimate the life time corresponding to a desired level of reliability.

  1. The life-time of galactic bars: central mass concentrations and gravity torques

    E-print Network

    F. Bournaud; F. Combes; B. Semelin

    2005-09-06

    Bars in gas-rich spiral galaxies are short-lived. They drive gas inflows through their gravity torques, and at the same time self-regulate their strength. Their robustness has been subject of debate, since it was thought that only the resulting central mass concentrations (CMCs) were weakening bars, and only relatively rare massive CMCs were able to completely destroy them. Through numerical simulations including gas dynamics, we find that with the gas parameters of normal spiral galaxies, the CMC is not sufficient to fully dissolve the bar. But another overlooked mechanism, the transfer of angular momentum from the infalling gas to the stellar bar, can also strongly weaken the bar. In addition, we show that gravity torques are correctly reproduced in simulations, and conclude that bars are transient features, with life-time of 1-2 Gyr in typical Sb-Sc galaxies, because of the combined effects of CMCs and gravity torques, while most existing works had focussed on the CMC effects alone.

  2. Vacuum Performance and Beam Life Time in the PEP-II Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, Uli

    2002-08-21

    The vacuum systems of the storage rings of the PEP-II B-Factory have had by now over two years of production running at high beam current and seen synchrotron radiation from almost 4 kAh High Energy Ring (HER) and 10 kAh Low Energy Ring (LER) of integrated beam current. The systems have performed well, reaching the design pressures and being able to cope with beam currents of almost 1 A HER and in excess of 2 A LER. The photo-desorption coefficient {eta} was found in the HER to have reached values as low as 10{sup -7}. The shielded bellows have performed very well, with only one pair of bellows assemblies damaged due to higher-order mode generation from a known, nearby source. Issues encountered during normal operation have been a significant amount of dust trapping in the HER and the effect of a cloud of photo-electrons around the positron beam affecting the LER beam size. A couple of chambers in the HER failed; these failures arose from a combination of design and fabrications issues. The beam life time in the LER has been lower than expected based on the vacuum pressure and has been determined to be Touschek limited.

  3. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  4. Use of the TACL (Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic) system at CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) for control of the Cryogenic Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, E.; Keesee, M.; Bork, R.; Grubb, C.; Lahti, G.; Sage, J.

    1989-01-01

    A logic-based control software system, called Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic (TACL), is under development at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA. The first version of the software was placed in service in November, 1987 for control of cryogenics during the first superconducting RF cavity tests at CEBAF. In August, 1988 the control system was installed at the Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) at CEBAF. CTF generated liquid helium in September, 1988 and is now in full operation for the current round of cavity tests. TACL is providing a powerful and flexible controls environment for the operation of CTF. 3 refs.

  5. Dynamic mechanical and molecular weight measurements on polymer bonded explosives from thermally accelerated aging tests. I. Fluoropolymer binders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Caley, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and molecular weight distribution of two polymer bonded explosives, LX-10-1 and PBX-9502, maintained at 23, 60, and 74/sup 0/C for 3 years were studied. LX-10-1 is 94.5% 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane explosive bonded together with 5.5% Viton A fluoropolymer. PBX-9502 is 95% triaminotrinitrobenzene explosive bonded with 5% Kel-F-800 fluoropolymer. There are two mechanical relaxations in the LX-10-1 in the military temperature range. The relaxation at -10/sup 0/C is associated with the glass transition temperature of the Viton A binder. A second weak relaxation occurs at about 30/sup 0/C in all LX-10-1 samples tested. This relaxation is probably associated with small amounts of crystallinity in the binder although this has not been demonstrated. There is a slight increase in modulus of the LX-10-1 with accelerated aging temperature. Changes in the dynamic mechanical properties of PBX-9502 are ascribed to crystallization of the chlorotrifluoroethylene component of the Kel-F-800 binder. The molecular weight of the Viton A binder decreased slight with increasing aging temperature. Using the kinetics of random scission the activation energy for polymer degradation in the presence of the explosive was 1.19 kcal/mole. The Arrhenius preexponential term and activation energy predict an expected use-life in excess of 60 years for LX-10-1. The Kel-F-800 in PBX-9502 is also extremely stable.

  6. A Novel Angular Acceleration Sensor Based on the Electromagnetic Induction Principle and Investigation of Its Calibration Tests

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    An angular acceleration sensor can be used for the dynamic analysis of human and joint motions. In this paper, an angular acceleration sensor with novel structure based on the principle of electromagnetic induction is designed. The method involves the construction of a constant magnetic field by the excitation windings of sensor, and the cup-shaped rotor that cut the magnetic field. The output windings of the sensor generate an electromotive force, which is directly proportional to the angular acceleration through the electromagnetic coupling when the rotor has rotational angular acceleration. The mechanical structure and the magnetic working circuit of the sensor are described. The output properties and the mathematical model including the transfer function and state-space model of the sensor are established. The asymptotical stability of the sensor when it is working is verified by the Lyapunov Theorem. An angular acceleration calibration device based on the torsional pendulum principle is designed. The method involves the coaxial connection of the angular acceleration sensor, torsion pendulum and a high-precision angle sensor, and then an initial external force is applied to the torsion pendulum to produce a periodic damping angle oscillation. The angular acceleration sensor and the angle sensor will generate two corresponding electrical signals. The sensitivity coefficient of the angular acceleration sensor can be obtained after processing these two-channel signals. The experiment results show that the sensitivity coefficient of the sensor is about 17.29 mv/Krad·s2. Finally, the errors existing in the practical applications of the sensor are discussed and the corresponding improvement measures are proposed to provide effective technical support for the practical promotion of the novel sensor. PMID:23941911

  7. Beam life time studies and design optimization of the Ultra-low energy Storage Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, C. P.; Papash, A. I.; Harasimowicz, J.; Karamyshev, O.; Karamysheva, G. A.; Newton, D.; Panniello, M.; Putignano, M.; Siggel-King, M. R. F.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Ultra-low energy electrostatic Storage Ring (USR) at the future Facility for Low-energy Antiproton and Ion Research (FLAIR) will provide cooled beams of antiprotons in the energy range between 300 keV down to 20 keV. Based on the original design concept developed in 2005, the USR has been completely redesigned over the past few years by the QUASAR Group. The ring structure is now based on a 'split achromat' lattice. This ensures compact ring dimensions of 10 m × 10 m, whilst allowing both, in-ring experiments with gas jet targets and studies with extracted beams. In the USR, a wide range of beam parameters shall be provided, ranging from very short pulses in the nanosecond regime to a coasting beam. In addition, a combined fast and slow extraction scheme will be featured that allows for providing external experiments with cooled beams of different time structure. Detailed investigations into the dynamics of low energy beams, including studies into the long term beam dynamics and ion kinetics, beam life time, equilibrium momentum spread and equilibrium lateral spread during collisions with an internal target were carried out. This required the development of new simulation tools to further the understanding of beam storage with electrostatic fields. In addition, studies into beam diagnostics methods for the monitoring of ultra-low energy ions at beam intensities less than 10 6 were carried out. This includes instrumentation for the early commissioning of the machine, as well as for later operation with antiprotons. In this paper, on overview of the technical design of the USR is given with emphasis on two of the most important operating modes, long term beam dynamics and the design of the beam diagnostics system.

  8. Life-time history of suicide attempts and coronary artery disease in a community-dwelling elderly population

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Life-time history of suicide attempts and coronary artery disease in a community- dwelling elderly; Univ Montpellier 1, Montpellier, F-34000 France 2 Department of Psychological Medicine and Psychiatry-00069435,version1-28Oct2008 Author manuscript, published in "Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;21:108-112" DOI

  9. New methods for optical distance indicator and gantry angle quality control tests in medical linear accelerators: image processing by using a 3D phantom

    PubMed Central

    Shandiz, Mahdi Heravian; Anvari, Kazem; Khalilzadeh, Mohammadmahdi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In order to keep the acceptable level of the radiation oncology linear accelerators, it is necessary to apply a reliable quality assurance (QA) program. Materials and Methods The QA protocols, published by authoritative organizations, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), determine the quality control (QC) tests which should be performed on the medical linear accelerators and the threshold levels for each test. The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy and precision of the selected QC tests in order to increase the quality of treatment and also increase the speed of the tests to convince the crowded centers to start a reliable QA program. A new method has been developed for two of the QC tests; optical distance indicator (ODI) QC test as a daily test and gantry angle QC test as a monthly test. This method uses an image processing approach utilizing the snapshots taken by the CCD camera to measure the source to surface distance (SSD) and gantry angle. Results The new method of ODI QC test has an accuracy of 99.95% with a standard deviation of 0.061 cm and the new method for gantry angle QC has a precision of 0.43°. The automated proposed method which is used for both ODI and gantry angle QC tests, contains highly accurate and precise results which are objective and the human-caused errors have no effect on the results. Conclusion The results show that they are in the acceptable range for both of the QC tests, according to AAPM task group 142. PMID:25874177

  10. The effect of magnetic topology on particle acceleration in a three-dimensional reconnecting current sheet: a test-particle approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    Electron and proton acceleration by a drifted super-Dreicer electric field is investigated in a strongly compressed non-neutral reconnecting current sheet (NRCS). The guiding field is assumed to be constant within a reconnecting current sheet (RCS) and parallel to the direction of the drifted electric field. The other two magnetic field components, transverse and tangential, are considered to vary exponentially and linearly with distances from the X-nullpoint. The proton and electron energy spectra are calculated numerically in a model RCS with different magnetic field topologies by solving an equation of motion in the test-particle approach with some test with a particle-in-cell (PIC) approach. Three kinds electric field generated inside a RCS are considered: a drifted electric field caused by the plasma inflows formed during a magnetic reconnection process; a polarization electric field induced by the accelerated protons and electrons; and a turbulent electric field induced by instabilities generated by accelerated particles. Electron and proton densities, and energy spectra inside a RCS and at ejection are found to be strongly affected by the magnetic field topology: for stronger magnetic fields the spectra are softer having a small higher-energy cutoff while for weaker magnetic fields the spectra are harder with much larger upper cutoff energies. Depending on the magnetic component ratios and drifted electric field magnitude, particles are found to be ejected either as quasi-thermal flows with very high temperatures or as focused power-law beams. A polarization field is found to reduce the acceleration time inside a RCS and to increase the energy gained by particles at acceleration by a pure drifted electric field by a few orders of magnitude. The turbulent electric field induced by the two beam instabilities of the same kind of particles leads to a significant increase in the number of particles with higher energies resulting in a flattening of their energy spectra.

  11. Stability of CIGS Solar Cells and Component Materials Evaluated by a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15oC and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40oC/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85oC/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 ?m to 0.50 ?m on the cells. No clear 'stepwise' feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH ? 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and 'capacitor quality' factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells? p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH ? 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS cell pieces was observed that was not seen on BZO/glass, and a CdS/CIGS sample displayed a small darkening and then flaking feature. Additionally, standard AlNi grid contact was less stable than thin Ni grid contact at T/RH ? 70/70. The edge sealant and moisture-blocking films were effective to block moisture ingress, as evidenced by the good stability of most CIGS solar cells and device components at T/RH = 85/70 for 704 h, and by preservation of the initial blue color on the RH indicator strips. The SSADT experiment is ongoing to be completed at T/RH = 85/85.

  12. Stability of CIGS solar cells and component materials evaluated by a step-stress accelerated degradation test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15°C and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40°C/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85°C/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 ?m to 0.50 ?m on the cells. No clear "stepwise" feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH >= 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and "capacitor quality" factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells' p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH >= 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS cell pieces was observed that was not seen on BZO/glass, and a CdS/CIGS sample displayed a small darkening and then flaking feature. Additionally, standard AlNi grid contact was less stable than thin Ni grid contact at T/RH >= 70/70. The edge sealant and moisture-blocking films were effective to block moisture ingress, as evidenced by the good stability of most CIGS solar cells and device components at T/RH = 85/70 for 704 h, and by preservation of the initial blue color on the RH indicator strips. The SSADT experiment is ongoing to be completed at T/RH = 85/85.

  13. Electron acceleration with improved Stochastic Differential Equation method: Cutoff shape of electron distribution in test-particle limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Ryo; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Tsuchihashi, Yuka; Nakajima, Ryosuke; Ohira, Yutaka; Yanagita, Shohei

    2015-03-01

    We develop a method of stochastic differential equation to simulate electron acceleration at astrophysical shocks. Our method is based on Ito's stochastic differential equations coupled with a particle splitting, employing a skew Brownian motion where an asymmetric shock crossing probability is considered. Using this code, we perform simulations of electron acceleration at stationary plane parallel shock with various parameter sets, and studied how the cutoff shape, which is characterized by cutoff shape parameter a, changes with the momentum dependence of the diffusion coefficient ?. In the age-limited cases, we reproduce previous results of other authors, a ? 2 ?. In the cooling-limited cases, the analytical expectation a ? ? + 1 is roughly reproduced although we recognize deviations to some extent. In the case of escape-limited acceleration, numerical result fits analytical stationary solution well, but deviates from the previous asymptotic analytical formula a ? ?.

  14. Electron acceleration with improved Stochastic Differential Equation method: cutoff shape of electron distribution in test-particle limit

    E-print Network

    Yamazaki, Ryo; Tsuchihashi, Yuka; Nakajima, Ryosuke; Ohira, Yutaka; Yanagita, Shohei

    2015-01-01

    We develop a method of stochastic differential equation to simulate electron acceleration at astrophysical shocks. Our method is based on It\\^{o}'s stochastic differential equations coupled with a particle splitting, employing a skew Brownian motion where an asymmetric shock crossing probability is considered. Using this code, we perform simulations of electron acceleration at stationary plane parallel shock with various parameter sets, and studied how the cutoff shape, which is characterized by cutoff shape parameter $a$, changes with the momentum dependence of the diffusion coefficient $\\beta$. In the age-limited cases, we reproduce previous results of other authors, $a\\approx2\\beta$. In the cooling-limited cases, the analytical expectation $a\\approx\\beta+1$ is roughly reproduced although we recognize deviations to some extent. In the case of escape-limited acceleration, numerical result fits analytical stationary solution well, but deviates from the previous asymptotic analytical formula $a\\approx\\beta$.

  15. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal plasma (ECT) Suite: Upcoming Opportunties for Testing Radiation Belt Acceleration Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will launch in late summer 2012 and begin its exploration of acceleration and dynamics of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere. In this presentation, we discuss opportunities afforded by the RBSP Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal plasma (ECT) instrument suite to advance our understanding of acceleration processes in the radiation belts. The RBSP-ECT instrument suite comprehensively measures the electron and major ion populations of the inner magnetosphere, from the lowest thermal plasmas of the plasmasphere, to the hot plasma of the ring current, to the relativistic populations of the radiation belts. Collectively, the ECT measurements will reveal the complex cross-energy coupling of these colocated particle populations, which along with concurrent RBSP wave measurements, will permit various wave-particle acceleration mechanisms to be tested. We review the measurement capabilities of the RBSP-ECT instrument suite, and demonstrate several examples of how these measurements will be used to explore candidate acceleration mechanisms and dynamics of radiation belt particles.

  16. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  17. Extended interface layer concept for higher stability and improvement of life time in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Farman; Sharma, Abhishek; Tiwari, Jai Prakash; Chand, Suresh

    2015-02-01

    Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells has reached above ˜10%. These BHJ cells have potential for flexible thin films at low processing temperatures using roll to roll printing on flexible substrates. Further, the basic materials properties can be tailored through organic synthetic routes. However, the issues related to its durability should be addressed before its commercialization. Hence, a conventional solar cell of the poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) :(6, 6)-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) blend on ITO substrates was fabricated, and investigated, which shows improved life time by using a combinational Ca/Al cathode, wherein the deposition of calcium layer is extended beyond the aluminum layer. The extended deposition of calcium layer beyond aluminum prevents the edge degradation by its oxidation and hence protecting the active pixel area of the device, resulting in the improvement of life time of device from ˜80 hours to ˜ 400 hrs.

  18. 38 CFR 21.7142 - Accelerated payments, payment of tuition assistance top-up, and licensing or certification test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...payment of tuition assistance top-up, and licensing or certification test reimbursement...payment of tuition assistance top-up, and licensing or certification test reimbursement...Amount of reimbursement for taking a licensing or certification test. The...

  19. Acceleration of irradiation hardening of low-copper reactor pressure vessel steel observed by means of SANS and tensile testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bergner; A. Ulbricht; H.-W. Viehrig

    2009-01-01

    Neutron irradiation of low-copper reactor pressure vessel steels containing manganese and nickel gives rise to microstructural changes and a deterioration of mechanical properties. This deterioration apparently progresses slower than in steels containing more than ?0.1 wt% Cu. An acceleration of this process after the accumulation of a threshold fluence caused by the so-called late blooming phases is a matter of

  20. Correlations of Capacitance-Voltage Hysteresis with Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cell Performance During Accelerated Lifetime Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present the correlation of CdTe solar cell performance with capacitance-voltage hysteresis, defined presently as the difference in capacitance measured at zero-volt bias when collecting such data with different pre-measurement bias conditions. These correlations were obtained on CdTe cells stressed under conditions of 1-sun illumination, open-circuit bias, and an acceleration temperature of approximately 100 degrees C.

  1. TESLA superconducting accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekutowicz, J.

    2007-08-01

    Superconducting standing wave structures have been used for charged particle acceleration for almost 40 years. A brief introduction to this application with examples, test procedures and recently achieved results are discussed in this paper.

  2. New accelerated test for studying the susceptibility of stainless steels to chloride stress corrosion cracking under salt crust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Cansever; A. F. Çakir; M. Ürgen

    1996-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) occurring under the salt crust which develops on the surfaces of hot AISI 304 stainless steels (SS) in neutral NaCl solutions with low chloride ions (1500 ppm) was investigated using a new test technique which incorporated the advantages of slow strain rate test (SSRT) technique applied under Wick test conditions. Type AISI 304 stainless steel specimens

  3. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods, study 4 of task 3 (encapsulation) of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    Inherent weatherability is controlled by the three weather factors common to all exposure sites: insolation, temperature, and humidity. Emphasis was focused on the transparent encapsulant portion of miniature solar cell arrays by eliminating weathering effects on the substrate and circuitry (which are also parts of the encapsulant system). The most extensive data were for yellowing, which were measured conveniently and precisely. Considerable data also were obtained on tensile strength. Changes in these two properties after outdoor exposure were predicted very well from accelerated exposure data.

  4. Android Acceleration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students prepare for the associated activity in which they investigate acceleration by collecting acceleration vs. time data using the accelerometer of a sliding Android device. Based on the experimental set-up for the activity, students form hypotheses about the acceleration of the device. Students will investigate how the force on the device changes according to Newton's Second Law. Different types of acceleration, including average, instantaneous and constant acceleration, are introduced. Acceleration and force is described mathematically and in terms of processes and applications.

  5. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil?+?100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil?+?100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil?+?3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil?+?3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg. PMID:24876658

  6. Thermal reliability analysis of a BLDC motor in a high-speed axial fan by the accelerated-life test and numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Jin-Huek; Lee, Tae-Gu; Moon, Sun-Ae; Lee, Sang-Jae; Yoo, Hoseon; Moon, Seung-Jae; Lee, Jae-Heon

    2008-09-01

    The thermal reliability of a closed-type BLDC motor for a high-speed fan is analyzed by an accelerated-life testing and numerical methods in this paper. Since a module and a motor part are integrated in a closed case, heat generated from a rotor in a motor and electronic components in the PCB module cannot be effectively removed to the outside. Therefore, the module will easily fail due to high temperature. The experiment for measuring the temperature and the surface heat flux of the electronic components is carried out to predict their surface temperature distributions and main heat sources. The accelerated-life test is accomplished to formulate the life equation depending on the environmental temperature. Moreover, the temperature of the PCB module is different from the environmental temperature since the heat generated from the motor cannot be effectively dissipated owing to the motor’s structure. Therefore a numerical method is used to predict the temperature of the PCB module, which is one of the life equation parameter, according to the environment. By numerically obtaining the maxima of the thermal stress and strain of the electronic components according to the operation environments with the temperature results, the fatigue cycle can be estimated.

  7. Accelerated life test of the USDOE OC-OTEC experimental system refurbished with magnetic bearings for the 3rd stage vacuum compressor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, L.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the accelerated life test (time-to-failure) performed, at the request of DOE, to evaluate the viability of the magnetic bearing system installed in the stage 3 vacuum pump. To this effect the plant was successfully operated for over 500 hours during the period September-November 1996. The first part of this report discusses system performance by deriving subsystem and system performance parameters from a typical record. This is followed by the discussion of the life tests. The instrumentation used to estimate the performance parameters given here is depicted. The third stage pump was operated for 535 hours without incident. It is concluded that magnetic bearings are the preferable choice for the OC-OTEC centrifugal vacuum pumps.

  8. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  9. 78 FR 60998 - Strategies To Accelerate the Testing and Adoption of Pay for Success (PFS) Financing Models

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...innovative financing model that offers new...decisions to enable sustainable investment. Lenders...catalyze testing of PFS models where there is a...potential for the development of public- private...testing of the PFS model? 9. Please address...consideration in development of the Fund....

  10. Electrostatic accelerators

    E-print Network

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft? Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  11. Shortening of life-time of the pair [P680+Pheo-] contributes to general inhibitory effect of dinoseb on electron transfer in PS-II.

    PubMed

    Vyacheslav, K; Suleyman, A; Serguei, Z

    2000-12-01

    It is shown that dinoseb, added to subchloroplast photosystem-II (PS-II) preparations from pea at a concentration higher than 5 microM, along with blocking the electron transfer on the acceptor side of PS-II, induces the following effects revealing its capability to have redox interaction with the components of PS-II reaction center (RC)-pheophytin (Pheo) and chlorophyll P680: (1) acceleration of the dark relaxation of absorbance (delta A) and chlorophyll fluorescence (delta F) changes related to photoreduction of Pheo as a result of the photoreaction [P680Pheo] [symbol: see text] [P680Pheo-] that leads to elimination of the delta A and delta F at a concentration of the inhibitor higher than 50 microM; (2) lowering of the maximum level of fluorescence (F) due to a decrease of delta F under the condition when the electron acceptor, QA, is reduced; (3) loss of the described effects of dinoseb and appearance of its capability to donate electron to RC of PS-II in the presence of dithionite which reduces dinoseb in the dark; (4) inhibition of delta A related to photooxidation of P680; (5) activation of delta A related to photooxidation P700 in photosystem-I (PS-I) preparations (a similar effect is observed upon the addition of 0.2 mM methylviologen). It is suggested that redox interaction with the pair [P680+Pheo-] leading to the shortening of its life-time contributes to the general effect of inhibition of electron transfer in PS-II by dinoseb. PMID:11355638

  12. Standard test method for accelerated leach test for diffusive releases from solidified waste and a computer program to model diffusive, fractional leaching from cylindrical waste forms

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test. 1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1). 1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose. 1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can...

  13. Bayes Analysis and Reliability Implications of Stress-Rupture Testing a Kevlar/Epoxy COPV Using Temperature and Pressure Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phoenix, S. Leigh; Kezirian, Michael T.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) that have survived a long service time under pressure generally must be recertified before service is extended. Flight certification is dependent on the reliability analysis to quantify the risk of stress rupture failure in existing flight vessels. Full certification of this reliability model would require a statistically significant number of lifetime tests to be performed and is impractical given the cost and limited flight hardware for certification testing purposes. One approach to confirm the reliability model is to perform a stress rupture test on a flight COPV. Currently, testing of such a Kevlar49 (Dupont)/epoxy COPV is nearing completion. The present paper focuses on a Bayesian statistical approach to analyze the possible failure time results of this test and to assess the implications in choosing between possible model parameter values that in the past have had significant uncertainty. The key uncertain parameters in this case are the actual fiber stress ratio at operating pressure, and the Weibull shape parameter for lifetime; the former has been uncertain due to ambiguities in interpreting the original and a duplicate burst test. The latter has been uncertain due to major differences between COPVs in the database and the actual COPVs in service. Any information obtained that clarifies and eliminates uncertainty in these parameters will have a major effect on the predicted reliability of the service COPVs going forward. The key result is that the longer the vessel survives, the more likely the more optimistic stress ratio model is correct. At the time of writing, the resulting effect on predicted future reliability is dramatic, increasing it by about one "nine," that is, reducing the predicted probability of failure by an order of magnitude. However, testing one vessel does not change the uncertainty on the Weibull shape parameter for lifetime since testing several vessels would be necessary.

  14. High frequency circular translation pin-on-disk method for accelerated wear testing of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Saikko, Vesa

    2015-01-21

    The temporal change of the direction of sliding relative to the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component of prosthetic joints is known to be of crucial importance with respect to wear. One complete revolution of the resultant friction vector is commonly called a wear cycle. It was hypothesized that in order to accelerate the wear test, the cycle frequency may be substantially increased if the circumference of the slide track is reduced in proportion, and still the wear mechanisms remain realistic and no overheating takes place. This requires an additional slow motion mechanism with which the lubrication of the contact is maintained and wear particles are conveyed away from the contact. A three-station, dual motion high frequency circular translation pin-on-disk (HF-CTPOD) device with a relative cycle frequency of 25.3 Hz and an average sliding velocity of 27.4 mm/s was designed. The pins circularly translated at high frequency (1.0 mm per cycle, 24.8 Hz, clockwise), and the disks at low frequency (31.4mm per cycle, 0.5 Hz, counter-clockwise). In a 22 million cycle (10 day) test, the wear rate of conventional gamma-sterilized UHMWPE pins against polished CoCr disks in diluted serum was 1.8 mg per 24 h, which was six times higher than that in the established 1 Hz CTPOD device. The wear mechanisms were similar. Burnishing of the pin was the predominant feature. No overheating took place. With the dual motion HF-CTPOD method, the wear testing of UHMWPE as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty can be substantially accelerated without concerns of the validity of the wear simulation. PMID:25498368

  15. Target life time of laser ion source for low charge state ion production

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) produces ions by irradiating pulsed high power laser shots onto the solid state target. For the low charge state ion production, laser spot diameter on the target can be over several millimeters using a high power laser such as Nd:YAG laser. In this case, a damage to the target surface is small while there is a visible crater in case of the best focused laser shot for high charge state ion production (laser spot diameter can be several tens of micrometers). So the need of target displacement after each laser shot to use fresh surface to stabilize plasma is not required for low charge state ion production. We tested target lifetime using Nd:YAG laser with 5 Hz repetition rate. Also target temperature and vacuum condition were recorded during experiment. The feasibility of a long time operation was verified.

  16. Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium-ion batteries based on extended accelerated aging test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Gerschler, Jochen B.; Vogel, Jan; Käbitz, Stefan; Hust, Friedrich; Dechent, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-10-01

    Battery lifetime prognosis is a key requirement for successful market introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles. This work aims at the development of a lifetime prediction approach based on an aging model for lithium-ion batteries. A multivariable analysis of a detailed series of accelerated lifetime experiments representing typical operating conditions in hybrid electric vehicle is presented. The impact of temperature and state of charge on impedance rise and capacity loss is quantified. The investigations are based on a high-power NMC/graphite lithium-ion battery with good cycle lifetime. The resulting mathematical functions are physically motivated by the occurring aging effects and are used for the parameterization of a semi-empirical aging model. An impedance-based electric-thermal model is coupled to the aging model to simulate the dynamic interaction between aging of the battery and the thermal as well as electric behavior. Based on these models different drive cycles and management strategies can be analyzed with regard to their impact on lifetime. It is an important tool for vehicle designers and for the implementation of business models. A key contribution of the paper is the parameterization of the aging model by experimental data, while aging simulation in the literature usually lacks a robust empirical foundation.

  17. Subscale interactive testing of fusion reactor first-wall/blanket components

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, D.S.; Puigh, R.J.

    1985-07-01

    In order to test the reliability and compatibility of first-wall/blanket components for a fusion engineering test reactor, it is important to determine the interactive effects between properties of different materials which are in contact or close proximity. This paper describes an approach to the selection and design of subscale interactive testing for fusion nuclear components, and gives two examples of interactive tests which can be performed in current fission- and accelerator-based neutron sources. The goal of these interactive tests is to analyze the behavior of nuclear components (such as the first wall and blanket) in a fusion engineering test reactor in order to verify predictions of their life-times and failure modes.

  18. PV module degradation caused by thermomechanical stress: real impacts of outdoor weathering versus accelerated testing in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, W.; Bogdanski, N.; Reil, F.; Köhl, M.; Weiss, K.-A.; Assmus, M.; Heck, M.

    2010-08-01

    Temperature cycling tests are part of the IEC 61215 qualification testing of crystalline silicon (c-Si) PV modules for evaluating PV module degradation caused by the impact of thermo-mechanically induced stresses. The defined temperature gradient and the cycle time by far exceed the actual impact of natural weathering, however. As a contribution to comparisons between laboratory testing and natural weathering our work provides data from standard temperature cycling tests as defined in IEC 61215 and extended from 200 (standard) to 800 cycles. The results of these tests for seven commercial c-Si PV modules from various manufacturers are compared with results from identical module types exposed outdoors in different climates for a period of 3 years. Degradation effects are evaluated with respect to changes in output power, changes in insulation properties and with respect to interruptions in the electrical interconnection circuits such as cell interconnects. Temperature gradients obtained at the different exposure locations are used to model the thermo-mechanical stress arising from the mismatches of the thermal expansion coefficients of the employed materials.

  19. Bayes Analysis and Reliability Implications of Stress-Rupture Testing a Kevlar/Epoxy COPV using Temperature and Pressure Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phoenix, S. Leigh; Kezirian, Michael T.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPVs) that have survived a long service time under pressure generally must be recertified before service is extended. Sometimes lifetime testing is performed on an actual COPV in service in an effort to validate the reliability model that is the basis for certifying the continued flight worthiness of its sisters. Currently, testing of such a Kevlar49(registered TradeMark)/epoxy COPV is nearing completion. The present paper focuses on a Bayesian statistical approach to analyze the possible failure time results of this test and to assess the implications in choosing between possible model parameter values that in the past have had significant uncertainty. The key uncertain parameters in this case are the actual fiber stress ratio at operating pressure, and the Weibull shape parameter for lifetime; the former has been uncertain due to ambiguities in interpreting the original and a duplicate burst test. The latter has been uncertain due to major differences between COPVs in the data base and the actual COPVs in service. Any information obtained that clarifies and eliminates uncertainty in these parameters will have a major effect on the predicted reliability of the service COPVs going forward. The key result is that the longer the vessel survives, the more likely the more optimistic stress ratio is correct. At the time of writing, the resulting effect on predicted future reliability is dramatic, increasing it by about one nine , that is, reducing the probability of failure by an order of magnitude. However, testing one vessel does not change the uncertainty on the Weibull shape parameter for lifetime since testing several would be necessary.

  20. Analytical and experimental investigation of the feasibility of accelerated lifetime testing of materials exposed to an atomic oxygen beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albridge, Royal; Barnes, Alan; Tolk, Norman

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of atomic particles with surfaces is of both scientific and technological interest. Past work emphasizes the measurement of high-energy sputtering yields. Very little work utilized low-energy beams for which chemical and electronic effects can be important. Even less work has been carried out using well-defined low-energy projectiles. The use of low-energy, reactive projectiles permits one to investigate surface processes that have not been well characterized. As the energy of the projectile decreases, the collisional cascades and spikes, that are common for high-energy projectiles, become less important, and chemical and electronic effects can play a significant role. Aspects of particle-surface interactions are of concern in several areas of technology. For example, the erosion, desorption, and glow of surfaces of spacecraft in orbit are important in the arena of space technology. The materials studied under this contract are of possible use on the exterior portions of the power generation system of Space Station Freedom. Under the original designs, Space Station Freedom's power generation system would generate potential differences on the surface as high as 200 volts. Ions in the plasma that often surround orbiting vehicles would be accelerated by these potentials leading to bombardment and erosion of the exposed surfaces. The major constituent of the atmosphere, approximately 90 percent, in the low earth orbit region is atomic oxygen. Since atomic oxygen is extremely reactive with most materials, chemical effects can arise in addition to the physical sputtering caused by the acceleration of the oxygen ions. Furthermore, the incident oxygen ions can remain embedded in the exposed surfaces, altering the chemical composition of the surfaces. Since the effective binding energy of a chemically altered surface can be quite different from that of the pure substrate, the sputtering yield of a chemically altered surface is usually different also. The low-energy O+ sputtering yield measurements, reported here, will help quantify the erosion rates for materials exposed to the low-earth orbit environment. These measurements are of technological importance in another respect. In most surface analysis techniques, a surface is bombarded with ions, electrons or photons. Information concerning the structure of the surface and near-surface bulk, abundance of impurities and defects, as well as other surface properties are obtained either from the desorbed species or from the scattered projectiles. Because of their low penetration depth, low-energy ions provide an advantage over other techniques because they provide information that is more indicative of conditions on the surface rather than integrated effects arising from deeper in the bulk. A better understanding of the microscopic processes involved in these interactions is not only of basic scientific interest, but will also aid the scientific community by increasing the accuracy and usefulness of these surface analysis techniques.

  1. Compact Accelerated Life Testing with Expanded Measurement Suite John Raguse, Russell Geisthardt, Jennifer Drayton, James R. Sites

    E-print Network

    Sites, James R.

    were made at CSU via their standard closed-space sublimation process [1] with a TEC 12D/120 nm CdS/2 µm under standard test conditions. Electroluminescence (EL) images were collected periodically to help map current (LBIC) maps were measured on select devices with a wavelength of 638 nm and 830 nm with a spot

  2. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?: A Novel Theory and First Population-Based Test of Black-White Differences in Telomere Length.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Hicken, Margaret T; Pearson, Jay A; Seashols, Sarah J; Brown, Kelly L; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-03-10

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49-55, black women are 7.5 years biologically "older" than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  3. The Conversion and operation of the Cornell electron storage ring as a test accelerator (cesrta) for damping rings research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.A.; Alexander, J.; Byrd, J.; Celata, C.M.; Corlett, J.; De Santis, S.; Furman, M.; Jackson, A.; Kraft, R.; Munson, D.; Penn, G.; Plate, D.; Rawlins, A.; Venturini, M.; Zisman, M.; Billing, M.; Calvey, J.; Chapman, S.; Codner, G.; Conolly, C.; Crittenden, J.; Dobbins, J.; Dugan, G.; Fontes, E.; Forster, M.; Gallagher, R.; Gray, S.; Greenwald, S.; Hartill, D.; Hopkins, W.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Livezey, J.; Lyndaker, A.; Medjidzade, V.; Meller, R.; Peck, S.; Peterson, D.; Rendina, M.; Revesz, P.; Rice, D.; Rider, N.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Savino, J.; Seeley, R.; Sexton, J.; Shanks, J.; Sikora, J.; Smolenski, K.; Strohman, C.; Temnykh, A.; tigner, M.; Whitney, W.; Williams, H.; Vishniakou, S.; Wilkens, T.; Harkay, K.; Holtzapple, R.; Smith, E.; Jones, J.; Wolski, A.; He, Y.; Ross, M.; Tan, C.Y.; Zwaska, R.; Flanagan, J.; Jain, P.; Kanazawa, K.; Ohmi, K.; Sakai, H.; Shibata, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Kharakh, D.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.

    2009-05-01

    In March of 2008, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) concluded twenty eight years of colliding beam operations for the CLEO high energy physics experiment. We have reconfigured CESR as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R&D. The primary goals of the CesrTA program are to achieve a beam emittance approaching that of the ILC Damping Rings with a positron beam, to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with both low emittance positron and electron beams, to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, and to develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies (in particular a fast x-ray beam size monitor capable of single pass measurements of individual bunches). We report on progress with the CESR conversion activities, the status and schedule for the experimental program, and the first experimental results that have been obtained.

  4. Development of bellows and gate valves with a comb-type rf shield for high-current accelerators: Four-year beam test at KEK B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Suetsugu, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Shibata, Kyo; Shirai, Mitsuru; Bondar, Aleksander E.; Kuzminykh, Victor S.; Gorbovsky, Aleksander I.; Sonderegger, Kurt; Morii, Minoru; Kawada, Kakuyu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); VAT Vakuumventile AG, Haag CH-9469 (Switzerland); VAT SKK Vacuum Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-0023 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Since a comb-type rf shield was proposed in 2003 as a rf shield for future high-intensity accelerators, various types of bellow chambers and gate valves with this rf shield have been installed in the KEK B-Factory rings in series and tested with beams. Through beam tests to check the performance, a structural simplification has been tried in parallel. The temperatures of the bellow corrugations decreased by a factor of 3-6 compared to those with a conventional finger-type rf shield in most cases. The temperatures of the body of the gate valves also decreased by a factor of 2-5. These results demonstrated the availability of the comb-type rf shield. Although a discharge was observed in one simplified model, the latest model has shown no problem up to a stored beam current of 1.8 A (1.3 mA/bunch, 6 mm bunch length). Experiences with the comb-type rf shield in these four-year beam tests are reviewed here.

  5. Residue, temporal trend and half-life time of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface soils from Bacninh, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toan, Vu Duc; Thao, Vu Duc; Walder, Jürg; Ha, Cao The

    2009-04-01

    Selected organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, alpha,beta,gamma,delta-HCH) were analyzed in the surface soils of Bacninh, Viet Nam. Forty representative soil samples were collected from Bacninh town and three surrounding districts. SigmaDDT concentrations ranged from <0.02 to 160.86 ng g(-1) dry weight, whereas SigmaHCH concentrations ranged from <0.05 to 9.54 ng g(-1) dry weight. The half-life times of SigmaDDT and SigmaHCH are 6.7 and 4.9 years, respectively. The decreasing trends of SigmaDDT and SigmaHCH levels during the period from 1992 to 2006 are observed. There is no recent input of DDT and HCH in the study area. PMID:19165408

  6. Present Status And First Results of the Final Focus Beam Line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bambade, P.; /Orsay /KEK, Tsukuba; Alabau Pons, M.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Amann, J.; /SLAC; Angal-Kalinin, D.; /Daresbury; Apsimon, R.; /Oxford U., JAI; Araki, S.; Aryshev, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bai, S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Bellomo, P.; /SLAC; Bett, D.; /Oxford U., JAI; Blair, G.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Bolzon, B.; /Savoie U.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Burrows, P.N.; Christian, G.; Coe, P.; Constance, B.; /Oxford U., JAI; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; /CERN; Deacon, L.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Elsen, E.; /DESY /Valencia U., IFIC /KEK, Tsukuba /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Savoie U. /Fermilab /Ecole Polytechnique /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyungpook Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Savoie U. /Daresbury /Tokyo U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /University Coll. London /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Tohoku U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Tokyo U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Brookhaven /SLAC /Oxford U., JAI /SLAC /Orsay /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Orsay /Fermilab /Tohoku U. /Manchester U. /CERN /SLAC /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Hiroshima U. /KEK, Tsukuba /CERN /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Ecole Polytechnique /SLAC /Oxford U., JAI /Fermilab /SLAC /Liverpool U. /SLAC /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /CERN

    2011-11-11

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  7. Accelerating Ground-Test Cycle Time: The Six-Minute Model Change and Other Visions for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.

    1998-01-01

    The advantage of managing organizations to minimize product development cycle time has been well established. This paper provides an overview of the wind tunnel testing cycle time reduction activities at Langley Research Center (LaRC) and gives the status of several improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and cost reductions that have resulted from these activities. Processes have been examined and optimized. Metric data from monitoring processes provides guidance for investments in advanced technologies. The most promising technologies under implementation today include the use of formally designed experiments, a diverse array of quick disconnect technology and the judicious use of advanced electronic and information technologies.

  8. Accelerator Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, R. A.

    1984-07-01

    Highlights of major projects in the Accelerator Technology Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory are presented. The first section deals with the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility's 2-MeV accelerator on which tests began in May, as scheduled. Then, activities are reported on beam dynamics, inertial fusion, structure development, the racetrack microtron, the CERN high-energy physics experiment NA-12, and LAMPF II. The Proton Storage Ring is discussed next, with emphasis on the computer control system, diagnostics interfacing, and theoretical support. Other sections summarize progress on a portable radiographic linac, developments on the klystron code, and on permanent magnets. Activities of the Theory and Simulation Group are outlined next, followed by discussion of the oscillator experiment and the energy-recovery experiment in the free electron laser project. The last section reports on the accelerator test stand.

  9. FLASH—from accelerator test facility to the first single-pass soft x-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jochen R.

    2010-10-01

    The development from a test facility for the TESLA project of a linear collider with an integrated x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to the world's first soft x-ray FEL user facility is described. In the wavelength range from 6.5 to 60 nm, FLASH (Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg) provides short pulses (~25 fs) containing ~1012 photons in laterally coherent beams with brilliance of about nine orders of magnitude higher than achieved at the best synchrotron radiation storage ring facilities today. FLASH has opened up a new area in photon science where matter in non-equilibrium states is studied with atomic resolution in space and time.

  10. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: simulations for tamped targets and for disk experiments in accelerator test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-06-24

    Within the last few years, there have also appeared in the Heavy-Ion Fusion literature several studies of targets which have outer tampers. One-dimensional simulations indicate higher target gains with a judicious amount of tamping. But for these targets, a full investigation has not been carried through in regards to conservative criteria for fluid instabilities as well as reasonable imperfections in target fabrication and illumination symmetry which all affect target ignition and burn. Comparisons of these results with the gain survey of Part I would have to be performed with care. These calculations suggest that experiments relating to high temperature disk heating, as well as beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current design proposals for accelerator test-facilities. Since the test-facilities have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics.

  11. Use of thermogravimetric analysis to develop accelerated test methods to investigate long-term environmental effects on fiber-reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Prian, L.; Pollard, R.; Shan, R.; Mastropietro, C.W.; Barkatt, A. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gentry, T.R. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Bank, L.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The development of accelerated test methods to characterize long-term environmental effects on fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) requires the use of physicochemical methods, as well as macromechanical measurements, in order to investigate the degradation processes and predict their course over long periods of time. Thermochemical and mechanical measurements were performed on a large number of FRPs exposed to neutral, basic, and acidic media between 23 and 80 C over periods of 7 to 224 days. The resin matrices used in the present study included vinylester, polyester, and epoxy, and the fiber materials were silicate glass, aramid, and carbon. TGA was used to study the effects of aqueous media on FRPs. In particular, the relative weight loss upon heating the previously exposed material from 150 to 300 C was found to be indicative of the extent of matrix depolymerization. Indications were obtained for correlation between this weight loss and the extent of degradation of various measures of mechanical strength. The measured weight change of the tested materials during exposure was found to reflect the extent of water absorption and could be related to the extent of the weight loss between 150 and 300 C. In basic environments, weight loss, rather than gain, took place as a result of fiber dissolution.

  12. Accelerating the development of formal thinking in middle and high school students III: Testing the permanency of effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayer, Michael; Adey, Philip S.

    Two years after the end of a two-year intervention program intended to promote formal operational thinking, the achievement of students initially 12 years of age was tested by their results in British National examinations, taken at age 16. The intervention methodology was set within the context of science learning, so the difference between experimental and control classes was examined first in terms of their science results. The boys achieved an average of 40% more grades of C or above than the controls. This grade is the minimum criterion for higher education in Britain. The achievement was not found equally in all students: About 40% of the boys and 25% of the girls showed effect sizes of two standard deviations in relation to comparable controls, whereas the others did not differ from the controls. Both boys and girls showed significantly higher achievement in English than comparable controls, with an effect size about half that for science. The boys - but not the girls - also showed higher achievement in mathematics. It is argued that this evidence supports the interpretation that the students' increased science achievement was caused by increased general intellectual capacity, and not just by improved domain-specific skills.

  13. Accelerated relative sea-level rise and rapid coastal erosion: Testing a causal relationship for the Louisiana barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Hansen, M.E.; Jaffe, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The role of relative sea-level rise as a cause for the rapid erosion of Louisiana's barrier island coast is investigated through a numerical implementation of a modified Bruun rule that accounts for the low percentage of sand-sized sediment in the eroding Louisiana shoreface. Shore-normal profiles from 150 km of coastline west of the Mississippi delta are derived from bathymetric surveys conducted during the 1880s. 1930s and 1980s. An RMS difference criterion is employed to test whether an equilibrium profile form is maintained between survey years. Only about half the studied profiles meet the equilibrium Criterion this represents a significant limitation on the potential applicability of the Bruun rule. The profiles meeting the equilibrium criterion, along with measured rates of relative sea-level rise, are used to hindcast shoreline retreat rates at 37 locations within the study area. Modeled and observed shoreline retreat rates show no significant correlation. Thus in terms of the Bruun approach relative sea-level rise has no power for hindcasting (and presumably forecasting) rates of coastal erosion for the Louisiana barrier islands.

  14. Influence of Bond Coat Roughness on Life Time of APS Thermal Barrier Coating Systems under Thermo-Mechanical Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Aleksanoglu, Herman; Mao, Tongsheng; Scholz, Alfred; Berger, Christina

    The influence of the bond coat roughness on the life time of air plasma-sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) was investigated under thermo-mechanical (TMF) load. The TBC system was applied on hollow cylindrical specimens made of the single crystal super alloy CMSX-4 in the orientation <001> with a MCrAlY-bond coat. Two different values of the bond coat roughness were investigated. In order to study the influence of the thicknesses of the thermally grown oxide layer (TGO), the specimens were isothermally oxidized at 1000 °C for a long term prior to the TMF experiments. The thermo-mechanical experiments show a higher number of cycles-to-failure for TBCs corresponding to an increase of the bond coat roughness. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that a certain TGO thickness is needed to produce a total delamination of the top coat in the TMF experiments. This minimum thickness varies with the surface roughness of the bond coat and the TMF cycle's phase shift and strain range. Crack initiation and crack propagation were investigated by microscopical analyses, for example, SEM and EDX. Therefore most of the experiments were completed before a total delamination of the top coat occurred. On the basis of these investigations, crack initiation and crack propagation under thermo-mechanical load were described systematically.

  15. Podcast: Acceleration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-06

    The Podcast: Acceleration is a segment of the Force and Motion Short Course. The podcast is 2 minutes 13 seconds in duration. Presented by science experts and NSTA staff, the NSTA Online Short Courses are professional development opportunities de

  16. 40 CFR 1065.630 - Local acceleration of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Local acceleration of gravity. 1065.630 Section 1065.630 Protection...Requirements § 1065.630 Local acceleration of gravity. (a) The acceleration of Earth's gravity, a g , varies depending on the test...

  17. High gradient experiments on NLCTA accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.; Eichner, J.P.; Fant, K.H. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This paper presents new results of high-gradient studies performed on a 1.8 m traveling-wave accelerator section with detuned high-order deflecting modes. This structure was designed initially for studies of detuned structures and will be installed in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA). The paper describes the test set-up in the Accelerator Structure Test Area (ASTA) including electron gun, prebuncher, pre-accelerator, spectrometer, Faraday cups, 200 MW SLED-II power compression system, Magic-T type phase shifters and attenuators. Rf processing, detailed dark current analysis, radiation problems, and beam acceleration measurements are discussed.

  18. TEACH ENGLISH IN SOUTH KOREA Are you ready for the adventure of a life time? Imagine paying off your student loans!!

    E-print Network

    TEACH ENGLISH IN SOUTH KOREA Are you ready for the adventure of a life time? Imagine paying off schools in Korea. We have positions available all over Korea! Most graduates are saving over $1000 a month, Australia, New Zealand, England, Ireland, South Africa) * No experience is required!!! Salary/Benefits * 2

  19. Accelerator structure work for NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.L.F.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Hoag, H.A.; Holtkamp, N.; Lavine, T.; Loew, G.A.; Nelson, E.M.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Thompson, K.A.; Vlieks, A.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Gluckstern, R. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States)); Ko, K.; Kroll, N. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Ce

    1992-07-01

    The NLC design achieves high luminosity with multiple bunches in each RF pulse. Acceleration of a train of bunches without emittance growth requires control of long range dipole wakefields. SLAC is pursuing a structure design which suppresses the effect of wakefields by varying the physical dimensions of successive cells of the disk-loaded traveling wave structure in a manner which spreads the frequencies of the higher mode while retaining the synchronism between the electrons and the accelerating mode. The wakefields of structures incorporating higher mode detuning have been measured at the Accelerator Test Facility at Argonne. Mechanical design and brazing techniques which avoid getting brazing alloy into the interior of the accelerator are being studied. A test facility for high-power testing of these structures is complete and high power testing has begun.

  20. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods for predicting life of solar cell encapsulants to Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology for the encapsulation task of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    An important principle is that encapsulants should be tested in a total array system allowing realistic interaction of components. Therefore, micromodule test specimens were fabricated with a variety of encapsulants, substrates, and types of circuitry. One common failure mode was corrosion of circuitry and solar cell metallization due to moisture penetration. Another was darkening and/or opacification of encapsulant. A test program plan was proposed. It includes multicondition accelerated exposure. Another method was hyperaccelerated photochemical exposure using a solar concentrator. It simulates 20 year of sunlight exposure in a short period of one to two weeks. The study was beneficial in identifying some cost effective encapsulants and array designs.

  1. Chaos in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    1999-05-11

    Chaos is a general phenomenon in nonlinear dynamical systems. Accelerators--storage rings in particular--in which particles are stored for 10{sup 10} revolutions constitute a particularly intricate nonlinear dynamical system. (In comparison, the earth has revolved around the sun for only 10{sup 9} turns.) Storage rings therefore provide an ideal testing ground for chaos physics. In fact, it is the chaos phenomenon that imposes one of the key design criteria for these accelerators. One might arguably say that the demise of the Superconducting Super Collider project originated from a misjudgement in its chaos analysis at one point along its design path, leading to its first substantial cost escalation. This talk gives an elementary introduction to the study of chaos in accelerators.

  2. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  3. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  4. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  5. Experimental test and life estimation of the OLED at normal working stress based on the luminance degradation model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J P; Wang, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Qiu, Y J; Shen, M-H H

    2014-07-14

    In order to accurately acquire the life time information for the organic light emitting diode (OLED), an experiment based on the normal stress life test was carried out to gain the data for the luminance degradation tests. The luminance degradation model of OLED was established based on the Weibull function and the least square method. Combined with luminance degradation data, Weibull parameters were estimated, the qualitative and the quantitative relationship between the initial luminance and the OLED life was obtained, and the life estimation of the product was achieved. Numerical results show that the test scheme is feasible, the luminance degradation model proves to be reliable for the OLED life estimation, and the fitting accuracy is very high by comparison with the test data fluctuation. Moreover, the real life time of the OLED is measured, which can verify the validity of the assumptions used in accelerated life test methods and provide manufacturers and customers with significant guidelines. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044460

  6. Solar system constraints on Rindler acceleration

    E-print Network

    Sante Carloni; Daniel Grumiller; Florian Preis

    2011-05-09

    We discuss the classical tests of general relativity in the presence of Rindler acceleration. Among these tests the perihelion shifts give the tightest constraints and indicate that the Pioneer anomaly cannot be caused by a universal solar system Rindler acceleration. We address potential caveats for massive test-objects. Our tightest bound on Rindler acceleration that comes with no caveats is derived from radar echo delay and yields |a|<3nm/s^2.

  7. Accelerated life testing of solar energy materials: Case study of some selective solar absorber coating materials for DHW systems. A report of task 10 solar materials research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Bo; Koehl, Michael; Frei, Ulrich; Moeller, Kenneth

    1994-02-01

    Accelerated life testing offers the possibility to forecast material service life prior to installation. For the development of new components and systems it, thus, opens a possibility for systematic life cost analysis and material selection. The present report documents the results of a joint study aimed at establishing the use and limitations of methods for accelerated life testing applicable to materials used in solar heating and cooling applications. The study was conducted as part of the work in Task 10 'Solar Materials Research and Development' of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program. The work was organized as a case study in which four commercially-available selective absorber materials were selected for study. These materials are used in single-glazed flat plate solar collectors for domestic hot water production.

  8. Reliability modeling and testing of optical fiber Bragg sensors for strain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sennhauser, Urs J.; Broennimann, Rolf; Nellen, Philipp M.

    1996-10-01

    Surveillance of facilities and critical structures by monitoring mechanical strength and integrity is necessary for safety in use. Fiber-optic sensors still have poor industrial acceptance due to their lack of demonstrated reliability and long-term stability. Reliability testing for objects with expected life times of 10 to 100 years has to rely on accelerated aging procedures. We report on a series of aging tests of optical fibers and Bragg gratings at elevated temperature, humidity and mechanical stress performed in regard to field applications. Tensile and climate tests were performed with optical fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) and surface attached to carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). For surface attached fiber sensors relative humidity was found to be a critical parameter with strong influence on life time. A cable-stayed bridge (Storchenbrucke in Winterthur, CH, still under construction) where for the first time two steel cables are replaced by CFRP cables was equipped with optical-fiber Bragg gratings and standard resistance strain sensors.

  9. Rail accelerator research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Cybyk, B. Z.

    1982-01-01

    A rail accelerator was chosen for study as an electromagnetic space propulsion device because of its simplicity and existing technology base. The results of a mission feasibility study using a large rail accelerator for direct launch of ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space, and the results of initial tests with a small, laboratory rail accelerator are presented. The laboratory rail accelerator has a bore of 3 by 3 mm and has accelerated 60 mg projectiles to velocities of 300 to 1000 m/s. Rail materials of Cu, W, and Mo were tested for efficiency and erosion rate.

  10. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schriber, S.O.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Heighway, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; Defense Free-Electron Lasers; AXY Programs; A Next Generation High-Power Neutron-Scattering Facility; JAERI OMEGA Project and Intense Neutron Sources for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Supercollider; The High-Power Microwave (HPM) Program; Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Power Systems Highlights; Industrial Partnering; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Theory and Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  11. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  12. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  13. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  14. An inverse free-electron-laser accelerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Fisher; J. C. Gallardo; A. van Steenbergen; S. Ulc; M. Woodle; J. Sandweiss; Jyan-Min Fang

    1993-01-01

    Recent work at BNL on electron acceleration using the Inverse Free-Electron Laser (IFEL) has considered a low-energy, high-gradient, multi-stage linear accelerator. Experiments are planned at BNL's Accelerator Test Facility using its 50-MeV linac and 100-GW CO2 laser. We have built and tested a fast-excitation wiggler magnet with constant field, tapered period, and overall length of 47 cm. Vanadium-Permendur ferromagnetic laminations

  15. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schriber, S.O.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Heighway, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: A Next-Generation Spallation-Neutron Source; Accelerator Performance Demonstration Facility; APEX Free-Electron Laser Project; The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) Program; Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Linac Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operation.

  16. Impact accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  17. Ring accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package.

  18. 3D numerical test objects for the evaluation of a software used for an automatic analysis of a linear accelerator mechanical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torfeh, Tarraf; Beaumont, Stéphane; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Benhdech, Yassine

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical stability of a medical LINear ACcelerator (LINAC), particularly the quality of the gantry, collimator and table rotations and the accuracy of the isocenter position, are crucial for the radiation therapy process, especially in stereotactic radio surgery and in Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) where this mechanical stability is perturbed due to the additional weight the kV x-ray tube and detector. In this paper, we present a new method to evaluate a software which is used to perform an automatic measurement of the "size" (flex map) and the location of the kV and the MV isocenters of the linear accelerator. The method consists of developing a complete numerical 3D simulation of a LINAC and physical phantoms in order to produce Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) images including calibrated distortions of the mechanical movement of the gantry and isocenter misalignments.

  19. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard J. [MIT] [MIT; Shapiro, Michael A. [MIT] [MIT

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  20. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  1. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  2. for sequence accelerators

    E-print Network

    Zakharov, Vladimir

    Wynn's -algorithm for sequence accelerators using high precision arithmetic Rachel Baumann University of Arizona Wynn's -algorithm for sequence accelerators using high precision arithmetic Rachel Baumann University of Arizona April 17, 2012 #12;Wynn's -algorithm for sequence accelerators using high

  3. Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    that there is a wealth of important chemistry occurring only at higher energies (of the order of the strength of chemicalMeetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested

  4. Accelerated Wafer-Level Integrated Circuit Reliability Testing for Electromigration in Metal Interconnects with Enhanced Thermal Modeling, Structure Design, Control of Stress, and Experimental Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Ching Shih

    1994-01-01

    Wafer-level electromigration tests have been developed recently to fulfill the need for rapid testing in integrated circuit production facilities. We have developed an improved thermal model-TEARS (Thermal Energy Accounts for the Resistance of the System) that supports these tests. Our model is enhanced by treatments for determination of the thermal conductivity of metal, K_{m}, heat sinking effects of the voltage

  5. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  6. Simulating ion beam extraction from a single aperture triode acceleration column: A comparison of the beam transport codes IGUN and PBGUNS with test stand data

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Wills, J. S. C.; Diamond, W. T. [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River, Ontario K0 J 1J0 (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Ion beam extraction from two different ion sources with single aperture triode extraction columns was simulated with the particle beam transport codes PBGUNS and IGUN. For each ion source, the simulation results are compared to experimental data generated on well-equipped test stands. Both codes reproduced the qualitative behavior of the extracted ion beams to incremental and scaled changes to the extraction electrode geometry observed on the test stands. Numerical values of optimum beam currents and beam emittance generated by the simulations also agree well with test stand data.

  7. Accelerated Reader. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Accelerated Reader" is a computer-based reading management system designed to complement an existing classroom literacy program for grades pre-K-12. It is designed to increase the amount of time students spend reading independently. Students choose reading-level appropriate books or short stories for which Accelerated Reader tests are available…

  8. Determinants of multiple measures of acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-08-01

    Statistical analyses of the acceleration capability of gasoline vehicles have focused on zero to 97 km/h acceleration rates and have concluded that peak power per kilogram is an appropriate single surrogate for acceleration capability. In this paper, statistical methods are used with data for 107 vehicles tested and reported by Consumers Union for 1986--1988 model years to estimate the determinants of contemporary gasoline vehicle acceleration capability under various conditions, adding new variables to the statistical tests reported by others. Like previous studies, this analysis determined that power and weight provide the most information about acceleration capability. Using a model formulation unlike other studies, this study found that engine displacement also provides statistically significant improvements in explanation of 0-48, 0-97, and 48-97 km/h acceleration times. The coefficients of the equations imply that the use of smaller displacement engines, holding peak power constant, diminishes start-up and 0-97 km/h acceleration capability. A separate equation is estimated to illustrate the effects of advanced engine technologies on displacement, controlling for power. This equation is used in conjunction with the acceleration equations to illustrate a method of estimating performance-equivalent engine substitutions when engine technologies change. Transmission type was important for start-up acceleration, with automatic-transmission-equipped vehicles being significantly slower than stick-shift-equipped vehicles. Fuel injection was found to significantly improve start-up acceleration. Variables proxying aerodynamic-drag effects tended to be significant determinants of acceleration in the higher-speed equations, but not for start-up acceleration. Estimated aerodynamic drag effects indicated that drag slows down 0-97, 48-97, and 72-105 km/h acceleration of pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles more than passenger cars and vans.

  9. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  10. Acceleration without Horizons

    E-print Network

    Doria, Alaric

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  11. Acceleration without Horizons

    E-print Network

    Alaric Doria; Gerardo Munoz

    2015-02-18

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  12. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-06-14

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  13. Induction linear accelerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Birx

    1992-01-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very

  14. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  15. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (?=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

  16. Life-time expression of the proteins peroxiredoxin, beta-synuclein, PARK7/DJ-1, and stathmin in the primary visual and primary somatosensory cortices in rats

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Michael R. R.; Melkonyan, Harutyun; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Four distinct proteins are regulated in the aging neuroretina and may be regulated in the cerebral cortex, too: peroxiredoxin, beta-synuclein, PARK[Parkinson disease(autosomal recessive, early onset)]7/DJ-1, and Stathmin. Thus, we performed a comparative analysis of these proteins in the the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and primary visual cortex (V1) in rats, in order to detect putative common development-, maturation- and age-related changes. The expressions of peroxiredoxin, beta-synuclein, PARK[Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset)]7/DJ-1, and Stathmin were compared in the newborn, juvenile, adult, and aged S1 and V1. Western blot (WB), quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were employed to determine whether the changes identified by proteomics were verifiable at the cellular and molecular levels. All of the proteins were detected in both of the investigated cortical areas. Changes in the expressions of the four proteins were found throughout the life-time of the rats. Peroxiredoxin expression remained unchanged over life-time. Beta-Synuclein expression was massively increased up to the adult stage of life in both the S1 and V1. PARK[Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset)]7/DJ-1 exhibited a massive up-regulation in both the S1 and V1 at all ages. Stathmin expression was massively down regulated after the neonatal period in both the S1 and V1. The detected protein alterations were analogous to their retinal profiles. This study is the first to provide evidence that peroxiredoxin, beta-synuclein, PARK[Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset)]7/DJ-1, and Stathmin are associated with postnatal maturation and aging in both the S1 and V1 of rats. These changes may indicate their involvement in key functional pathways and may account for the onset or progression of age-related pathologies. PMID:25788877

  17. Accelerated Thermal Cycling and Failure Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the accelerated thermal cycling test methods that are currently used by industry to characterize the interconnect reliability of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ball grid array (BGA) and chip scale package (CSP) assemblies.

  18. Acceleration of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures by inoculation of Vitek 2 cards with briefly incubated solid medium cultures.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schüle, Isabel; Grünastel, Barbara; Wüllenweber, Jörg; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    2014-11-01

    Briefly incubated agar cultures from positive blood cultures were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by Vitek 2. The cultivation time until inoculation was 3.8 h for Gram-positive cocci and 2.4 h for Gram-negative rods. The error rates were low, providing early and reliable AST without additional time or cost expenditure. PMID:25165084

  19. Rail accelerator technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rail accelerators offer a viable means of launching ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space. The results of two mission studies which indicate that an Earth-to-Space Rail Launcher (ESRL) system is not only technically feasible but also economically beneficial, particularly when large amounts of bulk cago are to be delivered to space are given. An in-house experimental program at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) was conducted in parallel with the mission studies with the objective of examining technical feasibility issues. A 1 m long - 12.5 by 12.5 mm bore rail accelerator as designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to visually observe the plasma armature acceleration. The general character of plasma/projectile dynamics is described for a typical test firing.

  20. Accelerated development and flight evaluation of active controls concepts for subsonic transport aircraft. Volume 1: Load alleviation/extended span development and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Active wing load alleviation to extend the wing span by 5.8 percent, giving a 3 percent reduction in cruise drag is covered. The active wing load alleviation used symmetric motions of the outboard ailerons for maneuver load control (MLC) and elastic mode suppression (EMS), and stabilizer motions for gust load alleviation (GLA). Slow maneuvers verified the MLC, and open and closed-loop flight frequency response tests verified the aircraft dynamic response to symmetric aileron and stabilizer drives as well as the active system performance. Flight tests in turbulence verified the effectiveness of the active controls in reducing gust-induced wing loads. It is concluded that active wing load alleviation/extended span is proven in the L-1011 and is ready for application to airline service; it is a very practical way to obtain the increased efficiency of a higher aspect ratio wing with minimum structural impact.

  1. TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-05-30

    Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at {approx}30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio ({approx}12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  2. Acceleration versus heart rate for estimating energy expenditure and speed during locomotion in animals: Tests with an easy model species, Homo sapiens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis G. Halsey; Emily L. C. Shepard; Carl J. Hulston; Michelle C. Venables; Craig R. White; Asker E. Jeukendrup; Rory P. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    An important element in the measurement of energy budgets of free-living animals is the estimation of energy costs during locomotion. Using humans as a particularly tractable model species, we conducted treadmill experiments to test the validity of tri-axial accelerometry loggers, designed for use with animals in the field, to estimate rate of oxygen consumption (V?O2: an indirect measure of metabolic

  3. Assignment 6 BS3b Statistical Lifetime-Models Oxford HT 2012 XIII A.6 Model testing, proportional-hazards, accelerated life

    E-print Network

    Winkel, Matthias

    Assignment 6 ­ BS3b Statistical Lifetime-Models ­ Oxford HT 2012 XIII A.6 Model testing variables, clinic (0 or 1), previous stay in prison (no=0, yes=1) and the prescribed amount). Variable Coeff St Err p-value clinic -1.009 0.215 0.000 prison 0.327 0.167 0.051 dose -0.035 0.006 0

  4. Assignment 6 BS3b Statistical Lifetime-Models Oxford HT 2013 XIII A.6 Model testing, proportional-hazards, accelerated life

    E-print Network

    Winkel, Matthias

    Assignment 6 ­ BS3b Statistical Lifetime-Models ­ Oxford HT 2013 XIII A.6 Model testing variables, clinic (0 or 1), previous stay in prison (no=0, yes=1) and the prescribed amount). Variable Coeff St Err p-value clinic -1.009 0.215 0.000 prison 0.327 0.167 0.051 dose -0.035 0.006 0

  5. Accelerated glass reaction under PCT conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Bradley, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Static leach tests similar to PCT (Product Consistency Test) were performed for up to 2 years to assess long-term reaction behavior of high-level nuclear waste glasses similar to those at Defense Waste Processing Facility. These tests show the reaction rate to decrease with the reaction time from an initially high rate to a low rate, but then to accelerate to a higher rate after reaction times of about 1 year, depending on glass surface area/leachant volume ratio used. Solution concentrations of soluble glass components increase as the reaction is accelerated, while release of other glass components into solution is controlled by secondary phases. Net result is that transformation of glass to stable phases is accelerated while the solution becomes enriched in soluble components not effectively contained in secondary phases. Rate becomes linear in time after the acceleration and may be similar to the initial forward rate. A current model of glass reaction predicts that the glass reaction will be accelerated upon the formation of secondary phases which lower the silicic acid solution concentration. These tests show total Si concentration to increase upon reaction acceleration, however, which may be due to the slightly higher pH attained with the acceleration. The sudden change in the reaction rate is likely due to secondary phase formation. 17 refs, 2 tabs, 3 figs.

  6. Accelerated glass reaction under PCT conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Bradley, C.R.

    1992-12-31

    Static leach tests similar to PCT (Product Consistency Test) were performed for up to 2 years to assess long-term reaction behavior of high-level nuclear waste glasses similar to those at Defense Waste Processing Facility. These tests show the reaction rate to decrease with the reaction time from an initially high rate to a low rate, but then to accelerate to a higher rate after reaction times of about 1 year, depending on glass surface area/leachant volume ratio used. Solution concentrations of soluble glass components increase as the reaction is accelerated, while release of other glass components into solution is controlled by secondary phases. Net result is that transformation of glass to stable phases is accelerated while the solution becomes enriched in soluble components not effectively contained in secondary phases. Rate becomes linear in time after the acceleration and may be similar to the initial forward rate. A current model of glass reaction predicts that the glass reaction will be accelerated upon the formation of secondary phases which lower the silicic acid solution concentration. These tests show total Si concentration to increase upon reaction acceleration, however, which may be due to the slightly higher pH attained with the acceleration. The sudden change in the reaction rate is likely due to secondary phase formation. 17 refs, 2 tabs, 3 figs.

  7. Gradient limitations in room temperature and superconducting acceleration structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Solyak

    2008-01-01

    Accelerating gradient is a key parameter of the accelerating structure in large linac facilities, like future Linear Collider. In room temperature accelerating structures the gradient is limited mostly by breakdown phenomena, caused by high surface electric fields or pulse surface heating. High power processing is a necessary procedure to clean surface and improve the gradient. In the best tested X-band

  8. Gradient Limitations in Room Temperature and Superconducting Acceleration Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Solyak

    2009-01-01

    Accelerating gradient is a key parameter of the accelerating structure in large linac facilities, like future Linear Collider. In room temperature accelerating structures the gradient is limited mostly by breakdown phenomena, caused by high surface electric fields or pulse surface heating. High power processing is a necessary procedure to clean surface and improve the gradient. In the best tested X-band

  9. PHYSICS DESIGN OF THE DARHT 2ND AXIS ACCELERATOR CELL*

    E-print Network

    T. L. Houck; Y-j Chen; C. Shang; L. L. Reginato; S. S. Yu

    accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility is being designed to accelerate a 4-kA, 2- m s pulse of electrons to 20 MeV. After acceleration, the 2- m s pulse will be chopped into a train of four 50-ns pulses with variable temporal spacing by rapidly

  10. The SSC linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, L.W.

    1993-05-01

    The SSC linear accelerator will generate a 25 mA, 600 MeV, H-beam with transverse normalized rms emittance less than 0.3 {pi} mm{center_dot}mrad in 9.6 ps pulses at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Linac will ultimately have to operate with an availability for Collider filling in excess of 98%. In addition, the Linac will provide beams to service the Test Beams facility and may be delivering beam to a Proton Radiotherapy Facility. This paper presents an overview of the status of design, procurement, fabrication, civil construction, foreign contributions and commissioning plans, and directs the reader to additional details available in other presentations to this Conference.

  11. The Two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.; Hopkins, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    The Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) consists of a long high-gradient accelerator structure (HGS) adjacent to an equal-length Free Electron Laser (FEL). In the FEL, a beam propagates through a long series of undulators. At regular intervals, waveguides couple microwave power out of the FEL into the HGS. To replenish energy given up by the FEL beam to the microwave field, induction accelerator units are placed periodically along the length of the FEL. In this manner it is expected to achieve gradients of more than 250 MV/m and thus have a serious option for a 1 TeV x 1 TeV linear collider. The state of present theoretical understanding of the TBA is presented with particular emphasis upon operation of the ''steady-state'' FEL, phase and amplitude control of the rf wave, and suppression of sideband instabilities. Experimental work has focused upon the development of a suitable HGS and the testing of this structure using the Electron Laser Facility (ELF). Description is given of a first test at ELF with a seven-cell 2..pi../3 mode structure which without preconditioning and with a not-very-good vacuum nevertheless at 35 GHz yielded an average accelerating gradient of 180 MV/m.

  12. Voltage limitations of electrostatic accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, H.R. (A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University P.O. Box 208124, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States))

    1999-04-01

    The history of electrostatic accelerators has been punctuated by a series of projects in which innovative designs have failed to meet the expectations of their designers. From the early, air-insulated Van de Graaffs at Round Hill to certain of the large pressurized heavy ion accelerators of the 1970s and 1980s, increases in size or changes in design and materials have not always led to the maximum voltages expected or extrapolated. Since these failures have continued beyond childhood into a mature technology, it is reasonable to assume that the causes of voltage limitation are varied and complex. They have remained poorly understood for a number of reasons: resources for an extended program of research into breakdown and failure of electrostatic generators have always been meager, especially for large machines devoted to nuclear research; the inaccessibility of pressurized generators makes instrumentation difficult and testing slow; the calculation of transient and dynamic effects is laborious and the results difficult to verify; voltage test experiments on operating accelerators are inhibited by the significant risk of damage due to energy release on breakdown: and the total voltages (though not the local fields) achieved in many electrostatic accelerators exceed those produced in any other man-made environment. In this review, the behavior of several generators of different designs is examined in order to assess the importance of the various design features and operating conditions that control the maximum voltage achievable in a working machine. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Voltage limitations of electrostatic accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyder, H. R. McK.

    1999-04-01

    The history of electrostatic accelerators has been punctuated by a series of projects in which innovative designs have failed to meet the expectations of their designers. From the early, air-insulated Van de Graaffs at Round Hill to certain of the large pressurized heavy ion accelerators of the 1970s and 1980s, increases in size or changes in design and materials have not always led to the maximum voltages expected or extrapolated. Since these failures have continued beyond childhood into a mature technology, it is reasonable to assume that the causes of voltage limitation are varied and complex. They have remained poorly understood for a number of reasons: resources for an extended program of research into breakdown and failure of electrostatic generators have always been meager, especially for large machines devoted to nuclear research; the inaccessibility of pressurized generators makes instrumentation difficult and testing slow; the calculation of transient and dynamic effects is laborious and the results difficult to verify; voltage test experiments on operating accelerators are inhibited by the significant risk of damage due to energy release on breakdown: and the total voltages (though not the local fields) achieved in many electrostatic accelerators exceed those produced in any other man-made environment. In this review, the behavior of several generators of different designs is examined in order to assess the importance of the various design features and operating conditions that control the maximum voltage achievable in a working machine.

  14. Voltage limitations of electrostatic accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, H. R. McK. [A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University P.O. Box 208124, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States)

    1999-04-26

    The history of electrostatic accelerators has been punctuated by a series of projects in which innovative designs have failed to meet the expectations of their designers. From the early, air-insulated Van de Graaffs at Round Hill to certain of the large pressurized heavy ion accelerators of the 1970s and 1980s, increases in size or changes in design and materials have not always led to the maximum voltages expected or extrapolated. Since these failures have continued beyond childhood into a mature technology, it is reasonable to assume that the causes of voltage limitation are varied and complex. They have remained poorly understood for a number of reasons: resources for an extended program of research into breakdown and failure of electrostatic generators have always been meager, especially for large machines devoted to nuclear research; the inaccessibility of pressurized generators makes instrumentation difficult and testing slow; the calculation of transient and dynamic effects is laborious and the results difficult to verify; voltage test experiments on operating accelerators are inhibited by the significant risk of damage due to energy release on breakdown: and the total voltages (though not the local fields) achieved in many electrostatic accelerators exceed those produced in any other man-made environment. In this review, the behavior of several generators of different designs is examined in order to assess the importance of the various design features and operating conditions that control the maximum voltage achievable in a working machine.

  15. Acceleration of colliding shells around a black hole: Validity of the test particle approximation in the Banados-Silk-West process

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Masashi; Nakao, Ken-ichi [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Tagoshi, Hideyuki [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Recently, Banados, Silk and West (BSW) showed that the total energy of two colliding test particles has no upper limit in their center of mass frame in the neighborhood of an extreme Kerr black hole, even if these particles were at rest at infinity in the infinite past. We call this mechanism the BSW mechanism or BSW process. The large energy of such particles would generate strong gravity, although this has not been taken into account in the BSW analysis. A similar mechanism is seen in the collision of two spherical test shells in the neighborhood of an extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. In this paper, in order to draw some implications concerning the effects of gravity generated by colliding particles in the BSW process, we study a collision of two spherical dust shells, since their gravity can be exactly treated. We show that the energy of two colliding shells in the center of mass frame observable from infinity has an upper limit due to their own gravity. Our result suggests that an upper limit also exists for the total energy of colliding particles in the center of mass frame in the observable domain in the BSW process due the gravity of the particles.

  16. Acceleration of colliding shells around a black hole: Validity of the test particle approximation in the Banados-Silk-West process

    E-print Network

    Masashi Kimura; Ken-ichi Nakao; Hideyuki Tagoshi

    2011-02-05

    Recently, Banados, Silk and West (BSW) showed that the total energy of two colliding test particles has no upper limit in their center of mass frame in the neighborhood of an extreme Kerr black hole, even if these particles were at rest at infinity in the infinite past. We call this mechanism the BSW mechanism or BSW process. The large energy of such particles would generate strong gravity, although this has not been taken into account in the BSW analysis. A similar mechanism is seen in the collision of two spherical test shells in the neighborhood of an extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole. In this paper, in order to draw some implications concerning the effects of gravity generated by colliding particles in the BSW process, we study a collision of two spherical dust shells, since their gravity can be exactly treated. We show that the energy of two colliding shells in the center of mass frame observable from infinity has an upper limit due to their own gravity. Our result suggests that an upper limit also exists for the total energy of colliding particles in the center of mass frame in the observable domain in the BSW process due the gravity of the particles.

  17. Acceleration of Gravity 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Horton

    2009-05-30

    This lab is a Level 2 inquiry activity that should be taught after students understand acceleration but before they learn the equations for calculating the acceleration of a body dropped from a certain height. After this activity, students should understa

  18. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the ... pg=stereotactic) . top of page How does the equipment work? View larger with caption The linear accelerator ...

  19. The Use of a Vehicle Acceleration Exposure Limit Model and a Finite Element Crash Test Dummy Model to Evaluate the Risk of Injuries During Orion Crew Module Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala; Brinkley, James W.; Shemwell, David M.

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  20. Transresonant Electron Acceleration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Parker; Enrico Fermi

    1961-01-01

    ttelliwell and Bell have suggested synchronous acceleration of electrons by electromagnetic waves in the whistler range in the geomagnetic field. The acceleration of trapped electrons by electromagnetic waves is here generalized to include nonsynchronous or transresonant acceleration. It is shown that whistlers will scatter the electron velocity, by an amount inversely proportional to the square root of the time rate