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1

Deriving exposure limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically many different agencies and standards organizations have proposed laser occupational exposure limits (EL1s) or maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels. Although some safety standards have been limited in scope to manufacturer system safety performance standards or to codes of practice most have included occupational EL''s. Initially in the 1960''s attention was drawn to setting EL''s however as greater experience accumulated in the use of lasers and some accident experience had been gained safety procedures were developed. It became clear by 1971 after the first decade of laser use that detailed hazard evaluation of each laser environment was too complex for most users and a scheme of hazard classification evolved. Today most countries follow a scheme of four major hazard classifications as defined in Document WS 825 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The classifications and the associated accessible emission limits (AEL''s) were based upon the EL''s. The EL and AEL values today are in surprisingly good agreement worldwide. There exists a greater range of safety requirements for the user for each class of laser. The current MPE''s (i. e. EL''s) and their basis are highlighted in this presentation. 2. 0

Sliney, David H.

1990-07-01

2

Limits on laser wakefield accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longitudinal and radial wakefields produced by a single laser pulse in a plasma are calculated. The limits on the laser wakefield acceleration because of diffraction, optical guiding, and energy loss due to radiation are examined. In particular for a bi-Gaussian laser beam, the energy gain about 4.6 GeV/cm s is estimated. A general constraint on the plasma density is presented. All the limits are compared and a localized density channel of width 4.6×10-5 cm is proposed.

Yedierler, B.; Bilikmen, S.

1999-04-01

3

Voltage limitations of electrostatic accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The history of electrostatic accelerators has been punctuated by a series of projects in which innovative designs have failed to meet the expectations of their designers. From the early, air-insulated Van de Graaffs at Round Hill to certain of the large pressurized heavy ion accelerators of the 1970s and 1980s, increases in size or changes in design and materials have not always led to the maximum voltages expected or extrapolated. Since these failures have continued beyond childhood into a mature technology, it is reasonable to assume that the causes of voltage limitation are varied and complex. They have remained poorly understood for a number of reasons: resources for an extended program of research into breakdown and failure of electrostatic generators have always been meager, especially for large machines devoted to nuclear research; the inaccessibility of pressurized generators makes instrumentation difficult and testing slow; the calculation of transient and dynamic effects is laborious and the results difficult to verify; voltage test experiments on operating accelerators are inhibited by the significant risk of damage due to energy release on breakdown: and the total voltages (though not the local fields) achieved in many electrostatic accelerators exceed those produced in any other man-made environment. In this review, the behavior of several generators of different designs is examined in order to assess the importance of the various design features and operating conditions that control the maximum voltage achievable in a working machine. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

Hyder, H.R. (A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University P.O. Box 208124, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States))

1999-04-01

4

Voltage limitations of electrostatic accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The history of electrostatic accelerators has been punctuated by a series of projects in which innovative designs have failed to meet the expectations of their designers. From the early, air-insulated Van de Graaffs at Round Hill to certain of the large pressurized heavy ion accelerators of the 1970s and 1980s, increases in size or changes in design and materials have not always led to the maximum voltages expected or extrapolated. Since these failures have continued beyond childhood into a mature technology, it is reasonable to assume that the causes of voltage limitation are varied and complex. They have remained poorly understood for a number of reasons: resources for an extended program of research into breakdown and failure of electrostatic generators have always been meager, especially for large machines devoted to nuclear research; the inaccessibility of pressurized generators makes instrumentation difficult and testing slow; the calculation of transient and dynamic effects is laborious and the results difficult to verify; voltage test experiments on operating accelerators are inhibited by the significant risk of damage due to energy release on breakdown: and the total voltages (though not the local fields) achieved in many electrostatic accelerators exceed those produced in any other man-made environment. In this review, the behavior of several generators of different designs is examined in order to assess the importance of the various design features and operating conditions that control the maximum voltage achievable in a working machine.

Hyder, H. R. McK. [A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University P.O. Box 208124, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States)

1999-04-26

5

Critical effects and exposure limits.  

PubMed

The use of critical effects in the determination of occupational exposure limits (OELs) in Sweden is subjected to a statistical study. Many of the present OELs are high in relation to known no-effect levels and effect levels, and the degree of protection has a surprisingly weak correlation with the seriousness of the adverse effect. Several proposals for improved procedures are put forward. One of these is to supplement the concept of critical effects with that of dominant effects. A dominant effect of a substance is a health effect that is at some concentration the most serious health effect. PMID:9202490

Hansson, S O

1997-04-01

6

Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-15

7

Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing  

DOEpatents

Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Bingham, Carl (Lakewood, CO); Goggin, Rita (Englewood, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Netter, Judy C. (Westminster, CO)

2000-06-13

8

Beam-intensity limitations in linear accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Recent demand for high-intensity beams of various particles has renewed interest in the investigation of beam current and beam quality limits in linear RF and induction accelerators and beam-transport channels. Previous theoretical work is reviewed, and new work on beam matching and stability is outlined. There is a real need for extending the theory to handle the time evolution of beam emittance; some present work toward this goal is described. The role of physical constraints in channel intensity limitation is emphasized. Work on optimizing channel performance, particularly at low particle velocities, has resulted in major technological advances. The opportunities for combining such channels into arrays are discussed. 50 references.

Jameson, R.A.

1981-01-01

9

Space-charge limits in linear accelerators  

SciTech Connect

This report presents equations that allow an approximate evaluation of the limiting beam current for a large class of radio-frequency linear accelerators, which use quadrupole strong focusing. Included are the Alvarez, the Wideroe, and the radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The limiting-current formulas are presented for both the longitudinal and the transverse degrees of freedom by assuming that the average space-charge force in the beam bunch arises from a uniformly distributed charge within an azimuthally symmetric three-dimensional ellipsoid. The Mathieu equation is obtained as an approximate, but general, form for the transverse equation of motion. The smooth-approximation method is used to obtain a solution and an expression for the transverse current limit. The form of the current-limit formulas for different linac constraints is discussed.

Wangler, T.P.

1980-12-01

10

LIMITS OF Nb3Sn ACCELERATOR MAGNETS  

SciTech Connect

Pushing accelerator magnets beyond 10 T holds a promise of future upgrades to machines like the Tevatron at Fermilab and the LHC at CERN. Exceeding the current density limits of NbTi superconductor, Nb{sub 3}Sn is at present the only practical superconductor capable of generating fields beyond 10 T. Several Nb{sub 3}Sn pilot magnets, with fields as high as 16 T, have been built and tested, paving the way for future attempts at fields approaching 20 T. High current density conductor is required to generate high fields with reduced conductor volume. However this significantly increases the Lorentz force and stress. Future designs of coils and structures will require managing stresses of several 100's of MPa and forces of 10's of MN/m. The combined engineering requirements on size and cost of accelerator magnets will involve magnet technology that diverges from the one currently used with NbTi conductor. In this paper we shall address how far the engineering of high field magnets can be pushed, and what are the issues and limitations before such magnets can be used in particle accelerators.

Caspi, Shlomo; Ferracin, Paolo

2005-05-01

11

10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Permissible exposure limit. 850.22 Section 850.22...Requirements § 850.22 Permissible exposure limit. The responsible employer...beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in 29 CFR...

2010-01-01

12

10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Permissible exposure limit. 850.22 Section 850.22...Requirements § 850.22 Permissible exposure limit. The responsible employer...beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in 29 CFR...

2009-01-01

13

Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure.

Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

2010-01-01

14

Pitch then power: limitations to acceleration in quadrupeds  

PubMed Central

Rapid acceleration and deceleration are vital for survival in many predator and prey animals and are important attributes of animal and human athletes. Adaptations for acceleration and deceleration are therefore likely to experience strong selective pressures—both natural and artificial. Here, we explore the mechanical and physiological constraints to acceleration. We examined two elite athletes bred and trained for acceleration performance (polo ponies and racing greyhounds), when performing maximal acceleration (and deceleration for ponies) in a competitive setting. We show that maximum acceleration and deceleration ability may be accounted for by two simple limits, one mechanical and one physiological. At low speed, acceleration and deceleration may be limited by the geometric constraints of avoiding net nose-up or tail-up pitching, respectively. At higher speeds, muscle power appears to limit acceleration.

Williams, Sarah B.; Tan, Huiling; Usherwood, James R.; Wilson, Alan M.

2009-01-01

15

Exposure limits of women in hot environment.  

PubMed

The tolerance of six women to work in hot environments was examined under four environmental conditions from 38 to 44 degrees C dry bulb temperature and 50 to 80 per cent relative humidity, i.e., 32 to 36.5 degrees C effective temperature [ET (normal scale)] in a climatic chamber. The subjects performed bicycle ergometric work at an intensity of 50 W and the exposure duration was determined by the cardiorespiratory, body temperature and sweating responses. At the limit of tolerance, the body core temperature (Tcr) reached over 38.5 degrees C and the heart rates attained a peak level (i.e., about 172 beats/min). The total oxygen demand decreased significantly with higher environmental load, particularly beyond 33.5 degrees C ET (N). While the tolerance time decrement was evident with the higher heat stress, on an average, an increase or decrease of every liter of total oxygen demand was equivalent to a 0.8 min change in the tolerance time. As such, the women volunteers were not susceptible to heat; only in extreme hot situations beyond 33.5 degrees C ET (N), they had unacceptable levels of physiological and psychophysical reactions. Based on the distribution of tolerance time of the women in different exposure conditions, the safe exposure times were estimated, which varied from 43 min [32.0 degrees C ET (N)] to 16 min [36.5 degrees C ET (N)]. PMID:10645102

Nag, A; Kothari, D; Desai, H

1999-10-01

16

Sparking limit of the accelerating gap of the heavy ion accelerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of investigation is to determine the maximum permissible value of the electric field strength in the accelerating structure, of a heavy ion linear accelerator. Sparking limit for metal electrodes made of different materials at about 6 MHz frequenc...

A. V. Bobylev A. B. Zarubin D. D. Iosseliani

1988-01-01

17

73 FR 11283 - Asbestos Exposure Limit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...following initial exposure. Studies...adverse health effects in workers...relatively brief exposures to asbestos...duration of exposure. Other variables...characteristics or the effectiveness of a person's...cumulative exposures, and susceptible...OSHA Hazard Communication Standard...potential for exposure. B. Sampling...asbestos......

2008-02-29

18

70 FR 43950 - Asbestos Exposure Limit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...raise their awareness about the...asbestos exposure. The PIB...significant health effects, how miners...miners' exposures, to prevent...hazards. Exposures in occupational...affected (target organ) is...adverse health effects may extend...following chronic exposure to asbestos...Workplace exposures to...

2005-07-29

19

Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of metal-based structures has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites to determine corrosion resistance in marine environments. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions of the corrosive environment. Their success for correlation to atmospheric exposure is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated laboratory testing, which often focuses on the electrochemical reactions that occur during corrosion conditions, has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long term service life of a metal despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard and their use is imperative, a method that correlates timescales from atmospheric exposure to accelerated testing would be very valuable. This work uses surface chemistry to interpret the chemical changes occurring on low carbon steel during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions with the objective of finding a correlation between its accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The current results of correlating data from marine atmospheric exposure conditions at the Kennedy Space Center beachside corrosion test site, alternating seawater spray, and immersion in typical electrochemical laboratory conditions, will be presented. Key words: atmospheric exposure, accelerated corrosion testing, alternating seawater spray, marine, correlation, seawater, carbon steel, long-term corrosion performance prediction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerone C.; Kolody, Mark R.

2011-01-01

20

Efficiency limits of diffusive shock acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted today that diffusive acceleration in shocks results to the cosmic ray spectrum formation. This is particularly true for non-relativistic shocks as there is a detailed theory covering a large range of their properties On the other hand, the properties of relativistic and highly relativistic shock waves, associated with supersonic plasma flows, are still under investigation and debate. Here we perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations in order to further study the properties and find possible correlations between the crucial parameters in such types of shocks.

Meli, A.; Mastichiadis, A.

21

Limitations to EMF exposure worldwide and the situation in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the national and international organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential EMF exposure. ICNIRP also developed the exposure limits for EMF. The international EMF project of WHO has completed a standards database limiting exposure to EMF. From this database it can be easily seen that the public safety level E field ranges between 3 V\\/m

Nesrin SEYHAN

2003-01-01

22

Nonlinear dynamics of autonomous vehicles with limits on acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of autonomous vehicle platoons with limits on acceleration and deceleration is determined. If the leading-vehicle acceleration remains within the limits, all vehicles in the platoon remain within the limits when the relative-velocity feedback coefficient is equal to the headway time constant [k=1/h]. Furthermore, if the sensitivity ?>1/h, no collisions occur. String stability for small perturbations is assumed and the initial condition is taken as the equilibrium state. Other values of k and ? that give stability with no collisions are found from simulations. For vehicles with non-negligible mechanical response, simulations indicate that the acceleration-feedback-control gain might have to be dynamically adjusted to obtain optimal performance as the response time changes with engine speed. Stability is demonstrated for some perturbations that cause initial acceleration or deceleration greater than the limits, yet do not cause collisions.

Davis, L. C.

2014-07-01

23

Some limitations of aggregate exposure metrics.  

PubMed

Aggregate exposure metrics based on sums or weighted averages of component exposures are widely used in risk assessments of complex mixtures, such as asbestos-associated dusts and fibers. Allowed exposure levels based on total particle or fiber counts and estimated ambient concentrations of such mixtures may be used to make costly risk-management decisions intended to protect human health and to remediate hazardous environments. We show that, in general, aggregate exposure information alone may be inherently unable to guide rational risk-management decisions when the components of the mixture differ significantly in potency and when the percentage compositions of the mixture exposures differ significantly across locations. Under these conditions, which are not uncommon in practice, aggregate exposure metrics may be "worse than useless," in that risk-management decisions based on them are less effective than decisions that ignore the aggregate exposure information and select risk-management actions at random. The potential practical significance of these results is illustrated by a case study of 27 exposure scenarios in El Dorado Hills, California, where applying an aggregate unit risk factor (from EPA's IRIS database) to aggregate exposure metrics produces average risk estimates about 25 times greater - and of uncertain predictive validity - compared to risk estimates based on specific components of the mixture that have been hypothesized to pose risks of human lung cancer and mesothelioma. PMID:17511710

Cox, Louis Anthony; Popken, Douglas A

2007-04-01

24

Allowable Exposure Limits for Carbon Dioxide during Extravehicular Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic ...

A. J. Seter

1993-01-01

25

Human exposure limits to hypergolic fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past four decades, many studies have been conducted on the toxicities of the rocket propellants hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MH). Numerous technical challenges have made it difficult to unambiguously interpret the results of these studies, and there is considerable divergence between results obtained by different investigators on the inhalation concentrations (MAC's) for each toxic effect inducible by exposure to hypergolic fuels in spacecraft atmospheres, NASA undertook a critical review of published and unpublished investigations on the toxicities of these compounds. The current state of the art practices for similar studies. While many questions remain unanswered, MAC's were determined using the best available data for a variety of toxic endpoints for potential continuous exposure durations ranging from 1 hour to 180 days. Spacecraft MAC's (SMAC's) were set for each compound based on the most sensitive toxic endpoint at each exposure duration.

Garcia, H. D.; James, J. T.; Limero, T. F.

1992-01-01

26

Changes in Electroencephalogram Spectra during Repeated Exposure to +Gz Acceleration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight human subjects experienced a series of +Gz acceleration profiles reaching peak values of +41/2 Gz and +6 Gz. Each subject experienced six 45-second +Gz exposures within 15 minutes. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were made throughout this period and sub...

J. Berkhout R. D. O'Donnell S. Leverett

1973-01-01

27

Corporate occupational exposure limits: the current state of affairs  

SciTech Connect

It has been claimed that the implementation of occupational exposure limits has been instrumental for the near elimination of serious occupational disease in the Western world. Although exposure limits or guides for most large volume chemicals have been established, the majority of the 10,000 chemicals which are routinely used in industry do not have them. As a result, many firms have chosen to establish internal limits to protect their employees as well as the persons who purchase those chemicals. This paper reviews the most important issues discussed in a 2-day symposium on corporate exposure limits which was sponsored by the AIHA Workplace Environment Exposure Limits Committee (WEEL). Thirteen representatives of industry and professional organizations presented papers which addressed various aspects of the process for setting internal exposure limits. The various policies and methodologies used by large American companies which have set limits for many years and their benefits were discussed. The history and function of Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MACs), Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and Workplace Environment Exposure Limits (WEELs) also were reviewed. Some of the legal aspects of setting corporate limits and their role in the Product Safety arena were discussed.

Paustenback, D.; Langner, R.

1986-12-01

28

Gradient Limitations in Room Temperature and Superconducting Acceleration Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerating gradient is a key parameter of the accelerating structure in large linac facilities, like future Linear Collider. In room temperature accelerating structures the gradient is limited mostly by breakdown phenomena, caused by high surface electric fields or pulse surface heating. High power processing is a necessary procedure to clean surface and improve the gradient. In the best tested X-band structures the achieved gradient is exceed 100 MV/m in of ~200 ns pulses for breakdown rate of ~10-7. Gradient limit depends on number of factors and no one theory which can explain all sets of experimental results and predict gradient in new accelerating structure. In paper we briefly overview the recent experimental results of breakdown studies, progress in understanding of gradient limitations and scaling laws. Although superconducting rf technology has been adopted throughout the world for ILC, it has frequently been difficult to reach the predicted performance in these structures due to a number of factors: multipactoring, field emission, Q-slope, thermal breakdown. In paper we are discussing all these phenomena and the ways to increase accelerating gradient in SC cavity, which are a part of worldwide R & D program.

Solyak, N. A.

2009-01-01

29

Gradient limitations in room temperature and superconducting acceleration structures  

SciTech Connect

Accelerating gradient is a key parameter of the accelerating structure in large linac facilities, like future Linear Collider. In room temperature accelerating structures the gradient is limited mostly by breakdown phenomena, caused by high surface electric fields or pulse surface heating. High power processing is a necessary procedure to clean surface and improve the gradient. In the best tested X-band structures the achieved gradient is exceed 100 MV/m in of {approx}200 ns pulses for breakdown rate of {approx} 10{sup -7}. Gradient limit depends on number of factors and no one theory which can explain all sets of experimental results and predict gradient in new accelerating structure. In paper we briefly overview the recent experimental results of breakdown studies, progress in understanding of gradient limitations and scaling laws. Although superconducting rf technology has been adopted throughout the world for ILC, it has frequently been difficult to reach the predicted performance in these structures due to a number of factors: multipactoring, field emission, Q-slope, thermal breakdown. In paper we are discussing all these phenomena and the ways to increase accelerating gradient in SC cavity, which are a part of worldwide R&D program.

Solyak, N.A.; /Fermilab

2008-10-01

30

Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities  

DOEpatents

A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO)

2004-11-23

31

Performance Limiting Effects in X-Band Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Acceleration gradient is a critical parameter for the design of future TeV-scale linear colliders. The major obstacle to higher gradient in room-temperature accelerators is rf breakdown, which is still a very mysterious phenomenon that depends on the geometry and material of the accelerator as well as the input power and operating frequency. Pulsed heating has been associated with breakdown for many years however there have been no experiments that clearly separate field and heating effects on the breakdown rate. Recently, such experiments have been performed at SLAC with both standing-wave and travelling-wave structures. These experiments have demonstrated that pulsed heating is limiting the gradient. Also, a dual-moded cavity has been designed to better distinguish the electric field, magnetic field and pulsed heating effects on breakdown.

Wang Faya; Adolphsen, Chris; Nantista, Christopher [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States)

2010-11-04

32

OSHA's permissible exposure limits: Regulatory compliance versus health risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace exposures to airborne chemicals are regulated in the U.S. by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) via the promulgation of permissible exposure limits (PELs). These limits, usually defined as eight-hour time-weighted average values, are enforced as concentrations never to be exceeded. In the case of chronic or delayed toxicants, the PEL is determined from epidemiological evidence and\\/or quantitative

Robert C. Spear; Steve Selvin

1989-01-01

33

The accelerating Universe and a limiting curvature proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the hypothesis of a limiting minimal curvature in gravity as a way to construct a class of theories exhibiting late-time cosmic acceleration. Guided by the minimal curvature conjecture we are naturally led to a set of scalar tensor theories in which the scalar is non-minimally coupled both to gravity and to the matter Lagrangian. The model is compared to the Lambda cold dark matter concordance model and to observational data using the 'gold' SNeIa sample of Riess et al ((Supernova Search Team Collaboration), 2004 Astrophys. J. 607 665 [astro-ph/0402512]). An excellent fit to the data is achieved. We present a toy model designed to demonstrate that such a new, possibly fundamental, principle may be responsible for the recent period of cosmological acceleration. Observational constraints remain to be imposed on these models.

Easson, Damien A.

2007-02-01

34

Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy might actually be achieved at resolutions lower than the maximum available in current exposure cat models and as yet undefined. Further, dominance of a few models, associated consensus results, and preeminence of exposure concepts can lead to the subjective interpretation of inaccuracies in exposure distribution/attribution that can result in biased model results. More extreme solutions have resulted in input exposure data being calibrated with model results in order to achieve pre-determined and self-fulfilling outcomes. These outcomes could be avoided by allowing realistic uncertainty ranges rather than restricting interpretation of risk results to misleading "consensus nutshell" numbers. The paper concludes by considering new concepts in the use of exposure models and describes potential scenarios for the future use of input data in cat models.

Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

2010-05-01

35

67 FR 894 - Airborne Exposure Limits for Chemical Warfare Agents GA (Tabun), GB (Sarin), and VX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Deriving Exposure Limit Criteria...biological effects in humans at low-level exposures where such...deriving exposure criteria...Long-term health effects associated...subclinical exposures to GB and...occupational exposure to...

2002-01-08

36

Linking accelerated laboratory and outdoor exposure results for PV polymeric materials: a mechanistic study of EVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking accelerated laboratory test to field performance for predicting the service life of polymeric materials are being investigated at NIST using the reliability-based methodology. Based on this methodology, a successful linkage between the laboratory and field exposure data for a model polymeric material has been made. Recently, this methodology, for the first time, was introduced to the lifetime assessment of PV polymeric materials. In this paper, a mechanistic study of the degradation of three unstabilized model ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) systems---uncured EVA, cured EVA and laminated EVA---was carried out under accelerated laboratory exposure and outdoor exposure. The NIST SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) was used for the accelerated laboratory tests, and the outdoor exposure was conducted in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Simultaneous multiple stresses, including temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation, were applied individually or in combination during SPHERE exposure. The effects of the environmental factors on the main degradation mechanisms of different EVA systems were investigated. The results showed that the UV radiation was the most important factor for the degradation of EVA and a synergistic effect occurred between UV radiation and relative humidity. A slower degradation rate was observed for the laminated system as a result of limited diffusion of O2 and H2O into EVA. It was also found that the substantial chemical changes of the uncured EVA system did not yield yellowing, which was dramatically different from the peroxide cured EVA system. Additionally, the chemical degradation modes of the three EVA systems exposed outdoors appeared to be similar to those exposed to the SPHERE. The implication of this work to the current test standards was discussed.

Gu, Xiaohong; Pang, Yongyan; Lin, Chiao-Chi; Liu, Kaipeng; Nguyen, Tinh; Chin, Jaonnie W.

2013-09-01

37

Limited Surface Exposure of Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Surface Lipoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used novel immunofluorescence strategies to demonstrate that outer surface proteins (Osps) A, B, and C of Borrelia burgdorferi have limited surface exposure, a finding that contradicts the prevailing viewpoint that these antigens are exclusively surface exposed. Light labeling was observed when antibodies to OspA or OspB were added to motile organisms, whereas intense fluorescence was observed when the same

David L. Cox; Darrin R. Akins; Ken W. Bourell; Pekka Lahdenne; Michael V. Norgard; Justin D. Radolf

1996-01-01

38

Surfatron laser-plasma accelerator: prospects and limitations  

SciTech Connect

The surfatron laser-plasma accelerator is an extension of the plasma beat wave accelerator scheme. It utilizes very intense electric fields, 10/sup 9/ to 10/sup 10/ V/cm, associated with focussed laser beams to accelerate particles. (GHT)

Joshi, C.

1983-01-01

39

Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

Seter, Andrew J.

1993-01-01

40

The Occupational Exposure Limit for Fluid Aerosol Generated in Metalworking Operations: Limitations and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge related to the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for fluid aerosols including either mineral or chemical oil that are generated in metalworking operations, and to discuss whether their OEL can be appropriately used to prevent several health risks that may vary among metalworking fluid (MWF) types. The OEL (time-weighted average; 5 mg/m3, short-term exposure limit ; 15 mg/m3) has been applied to MWF aerosols without consideration of different fluid aerosol-size fractions. The OEL, is also based on the assumption that there are no significant differences in risk among fluid types, which may be contentious. Particularly, the health risks from exposure to water-soluble fluids may not have been sufficiently considered. Although adoption of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommended exposure limit for MWF aerosol (0.5 mg/m3) would be an effective step towards minimizing and evaluating the upper respiratory irritation that may be caused by neat or diluted MWF, this would fail to address the hazards (e.g., asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by microbial contaminants generated only by the use of water-soluble fluids. The absence of an OEL for the water-soluble fluids used in approximately 80-90 % of all applicants may result in limitations of the protection from health risks caused by exposure to those fluids.

2012-01-01

41

Is prokaryotic complexity limited by accelerated growth in regulatory overhead?  

PubMed Central

Background Increased biological complexity is generally associated with the addition of new genetic information, which must be integrated into the existing regulatory network that operates within the cell. General arguments on network control, as well as several recent genomic observations, indicate that regulatory gene number grows disproportionally fast with increasing genome size. Results We present two models for the growth of regulatory networks. Both predict that the number of transcriptional regulators will scale quadratically with total gene number. This appears to be in good quantitative agreement with genomic data from 89 fully sequenced prokaryotes. Moreover, the empirical curve predicts that any new non-regulatory gene will be accompanied by more than one additional regulator beyond a genome size of about 20,000 genes, within a factor of two of the observed ceiling. Conclusions Our analysis places transcriptional regulatory networks in the class of accelerating networks. We suggest that prokaryotic complexity may have been limited throughout evolution by regulatory overhead, and conversely that complex eukaryotes must have bypassed this constraint by novel strategies.

2004-01-01

42

78 FR 33654 - Reassessment of Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Limits and Policies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Limits and Policies AGENCY...for human exposure to RF electromagnetic fields. The Commission's further...Commission's exposure limits for RF electromagnetic fields. The Commission...

2013-06-04

43

Performance Degradation of Encapsulated Monocrystalline-Si Solar Cells upon Accelerated Weathering Exposures: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented at 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Performed accelerated exposures to study performance reliability\\/materials degradation of encapsulated c-Si cells using weathering protocols in 2 weatherometers. We have performed accelerated exposures to study performance reliability and materials degradation of a total of forty-one 3-cm x 3-cm monocrystalline-Si (c-Si) solar cells that were variously encapsulated using accelerated weathering protocols in two weatherometers

S. H. Glick; F. J. Pern; G. L. Watson; D. Tomek; J. Raaff

2001-01-01

44

Recommendations on limits for exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) published its last complete set of basic recommendations specifying limits for ionizing radiation in 1971, in previous NCRP Report, Basic Radiation Protection Criteria (NCRP, 1971a). Although this Report is not intended to be a complete revision of NCRP Report No. 39, in that the background material in that report has not been revised, the recommendations contained herein replace all of the recommendations given in the 1971 Report. In a previous NCRP Report, some estimates of risk were presented, but these were not explicitly utilized in the derivation of recommended dose equivalent limits. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), in its Publication 26, presented risk estimates to demonstrate the acceptability of its basic dose equivalent limits (ICRP, 1977a); however, the ICRP did not derive their dose equivalent limits from those risk estimates. Subsequent updating of portions of ICRP Publication 26 have not brought about any closer coupling between their risk estimates and their dose equivalent limits. The Council believes that additional review and evaluation are required prior to the introduction of a radiation protection system in which the limitation of exposure is based solely on risk.

Not Available

1987-01-01

45

Recommendations on limits for exposure to ionizing radiation. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the existing standards or the status of regulations for 19 major topic areas related to exposure to ionizing radiation. Most entries are brief but thorough; some reference recent data. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) published its last complete set of basic recommendations specifying limits for ionizing radiation in 1971. Although this report is not intended to be a complete revision, the recommendations contained herein replace all of the recommendations given in the 1971 Report. In addition, this report contains other basic recommendations. The NCRP believes that a logical direction in the evolution of the basis of radiation protection standards from the present system based on dose equivalent used by the NCRP and the ICRP is toward the development of an approach based specifically on risk. The Council believes that additional review and evaluation are required prior to the introduction of a radiation protection system in which the limitation of exposures is based solely on risk. For the present the Council adopts the effective dose equivalent system used by the ICRP, but has modified and updated this approach in several respects, as discussed in this report.

Not Available

1987-06-01

46

Industry's perception and use of occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

Market research was carried out to determine industry's perception of occupational exposure limits (OELs) and the extent to which they influence the selection of measures to control exposure. Telephone interviews were carried out with 1000 randomly selected users of chemicals, 400 from establishments with some use of chemicals and 600 from establishments with chemicals in daily use. 150 interviews were also carried out with Trade Union Health and Safety Representatives. The interviews covered basic information on chemicals used, sources of information, risk reduction measures used and understanding of COSHH and OELs. Most respondents came from firms with 10 employees or less (75%, all user group; 57%, heavy user group), closely reflecting the profile of British industry. In contrast, most (77%) Trade Union Health and Safety Representatives came from firms with at least 100 employees. Respondents in the all user group were drawn from across the whole range of industrial activity, whereas the heavy users were concentrated in manufacturing. The results showed that in making decisions on what control measures to use most users rely heavily on information from suppliers and personal experience and rather less on information from sources such as Trade Associations and HSE. Most respondents reported that steps were taken to protect employees. The use of personal protective equipment featured highly, followed by process controls. Little consideration was given to the possibility of substitution. Awareness of COSHH was limited with 65% of the all user group and 53% of the heavy user group being unaware of any legal requirements for establishments which manufacture or work with chemicals. Awareness of OELs was similarly limited with 19% of the all user group and 32% of the heavy user group having any real understanding. The results from Trade Union Representatives showed that overall they are somewhat better informed than chemical users in the small firms surveyed. PMID:9738433

Topping, M D; Williams, C R; Devine, J M

1998-08-01

47

Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits  

PubMed Central

Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 ?g/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 ?g NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or greater is required to protect against isocyanate exposures during spray painting. Consequently, half-face air-purifying respirators, which are most commonly used and have an assigned protection factor of 10, do not afford adequate respiratory protection.

Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

2014-01-01

48

Awareness and understanding of occupational exposure limits in Sweden.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a risk management tool, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs), partly depends on the responsible parties' awareness and understanding of it. The aim of this study was to measure the awareness and understanding of OELs at Swedish workplaces and to collect opinions on their use and function. Through a web-based questionnaire targeting workers that are exposed to air pollutants or chemicals, and persons working with occupational health and safety or in management at workplaces where workers are exposed to air pollutants or chemicals 1017 responses were collected. The results show that awareness and understanding of Swedish OELs is low among workers, as well as managers and occupational health and safety employees. Statistically significant, but small, differences were found depending on the size of the company and the position in the company. Based on the results, it is recommended that authorities and the social partners target this lack of awareness and understanding regarding OELs. Also, other tools to ascertain a safe working environment with regards to chemicals exposure might be useful for Swedish workplaces. PMID:23376473

Schenk, Linda

2013-04-01

49

FETAL DEXAMETHASONE EXPOSURE ACCELERATES DEVELOPMENT OF RENAL FUNCTION: RELATIONSHIP TO DOSE, CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND GROWTH INHIBITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fetal exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids slows cellular development and impairs organ performance, in association with growth retardation. evertheless, low doses of glucocorticoids may enhance cell differentiation and accelerate specific functions. he current study examine...

50

Human exposure to airborne aniline and formation of methemoglobin: a contribution to occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

Aniline is an important starting material in the manufacture of polyurethane-based plastic materials. Aniline-derived methemoglobinemia (Met-Hb) is well described in exposed workers although information on the dose-response association is limited. We used an experimental design to study the association between aniline in air with the formation of Met-Hb in blood and the elimination of aniline in urine. A 6-h exposure of 2 ppm aniline in 19 non-smoking volunteers resulted in a time-dependent increase in Met-Hb in blood and aniline in urine. The maximum Met-Hb level in blood (mean 1.21 ± 0.29 %, range 0.80-2.07 %) and aniline excretion in urine (mean 168.0 ± 51.8 µg/L, range 79.5-418.3 µg/L) were observed at the end of exposure, with both parameters rapidly decreasing after the end of exposure. After 24 h, the mean level of Met-Hb (0.65 ± 0.18 %) returned to the basal level observed prior to the exposure (0.72 ± 0.19 %); whereas, slightly elevated levels of aniline were still present in urine (means 17.0 ± 17.1 vs. 5.7 ± 3.8 µg/L). No differences between males and females as well as between slow and fast acetylators were found. The results obtained after 6-h exposure were also comparable to those observed in four non-smoking volunteers after 8-h exposure. Maximum levels of Met-Hb and aniline in urine were 1.57 % and 305.6 µg/L, respectively. Overall, our results contribute to the risk assessment of aniline and as a result, the protection of workers from aniline-derived adverse health effects at the workplace. PMID:24899222

Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Broding, Horst Christoph; Bünger, Jürgen; Jettkant, Birger; Koslitz, Stephan; Lehnert, Martin; Marek, Eike Maximilian; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Monsé, Christian; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

2014-07-01

51

Quantify landslide exposure in areas with limited hazard information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Daunia region, located in the North-western part of Apulia (Southern Italy), landslides are the main source of damage to properties in the urban centers of the area, involving especially transportation system and the foundation stability of buildings. In the last 50 years, the growing demand for physical development of these unstable minor hillside and mountain centers has produced a very rapid expansion of built-up areas, often with poor planning of urban and territorial infrastructures, and invasion of the agricultural soil. Because of the expansion of the built-up towards not safe areas, human activities such as deforestation or excavation of slopes for road cuts and building sites, etc., have become important triggers for landslide occurrence. In the study area, the probability of occurrence of landslides is very difficult to predict, as well as the expected magnitude of events, due to the limited data availability on past landslide activity. Because the main limitations concern the availability of temporal data on landslides and triggering events (frequency), run-out distance and landslide magnitude, it was not possible to produce a reliable landslide hazard map and, consequently, a risk map. Given these limitations in data availability and details, a qualitative exposure map has been produced and combined with a landslide susceptibility map, both generated using a spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) procedure in a GIS system, for obtaining the qualitative landslide risk map. The qualitative analysis has been provided the spatial distribution of the exposure level in the study area; this information could be used in a preliminary stage of regional planning. In order to have a better definition of the risk level in the Daunia territory, the quantification of the economic losses at municipal level was carried out. For transforming these information on economic consequences into landslide risk quantification, it was necessary to assume the temporal probability of landslides, on the basis of the expert knowledge on the landslide phenomena. For each of twenty-five municipalities included in the study area, the expected losses (or consequences), in monetary terms, due to different hazard scenarios have been evaluated. After calculating the economic losses, the total risk at municipal level was evaluated, by generating the risk curves and calculating the area under the curves. The analysis of the risk curves related to the 25 municipalities has showed that the total risk values, expressed in monetary terms, is higher for the bigger municipal areas located in the southern part of the study area where the elevation is lower, as are more numerous the elements at risk distributed on the municipal territory. Finally, this quantitative risk assessment procedure, which calculates the exposure in monetary terms of elements at risk, allows to establish the changes in risk in future with urban development and monetary inflation.

Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.; Van Westen, C. J.

2012-04-01

52

Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing - Part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of metals to predict service life of metal-based structures in corrosive environments has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions similar to those of the corrosive environment. Their reliability to correlate to atmospheric exposure test results is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated corrosion testing has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long-term service life of a metal, despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard, and their use is crucial, a method that correlates timescales from accelerated testing to atmospheric exposure would be very valuable. This paper presents work that began with the characterization of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Beachside Corrosion Test Site. The chemical changes that occur on low carbon steel, during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions, were investigated using surface chemistry analytical methods. The corrosion rates and behaviors of panels subjected to long-term and accelerated corrosion conditions, involving neutral salt fog and alternating seawater spray, were compared to identify possible timescale correlations between accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The results, as well as preliminary findings on the correlation investigation, are presented.

Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

2012-01-01

53

Adjusting exposure limits for long and short exposure periods using a physiological pharmacokinetic model  

SciTech Connect

This paper advocates use of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model for determining adjustment factors for unusual exposure schedules. The PB-PK model requires data on the blood:air and tissue:blood partition coefficients, the rate of metabolism of the chemical, organ volumes, organ blood flows and ventilation rates in humans. Laboratory data on two industrially important chemicals - styrene and methylene chloride - were used to illustrate the PB-PK approach. At inhaled concentrations near their respective 8-hr Threshold Limit Value - Time-weighted averages both of these chemicals are primarily eliminated from the body by metabolism. For these two chemicals, the appropriate risk indexing parameters are integrated tissue dose or total amount of parent chemical metabolized. These examples also illustrate how the model can be used to calculate risk based on various other measures of delivered dose. For the majority of volatile chemicals, the parameter most closely associated with risk is the integrated tissue dose. This analysis suggests that when pharmacokinetic data are not available, a simple inverse formula may be sufficient for adjustment in most instances and application of complex kinetic models unnecessary. At present, this PB-PK approach is recommended only for exposure periods of 4 to 16 hr/day, because the mechanisms of toxicity for some chemicals may vary for very short- or very long-term exposures. For these altered schedules, more biological information on recovery in rest periods and changing mechanisms of toxicity are necessary before any adjustment is attempted.

Andersen, M.E.; MacNaughton, M.G.; Clewell, H.J. III; Paustenbach, D.J.

1987-04-01

54

Accelerated Exposure Tests of Encapsulated Si Solar Cells and Encapsulation Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cell samples that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pottants were observed for glass\\/EVA\\/glass-encapsulated c-Si cell samples under solar simulator exposures at elevated temperatures. The polymer\\/polymer-configured laminates with Tedlar or Tefzel did

F. J. Pern; S. H. Glick

1998-01-01

55

Accelerated exposure tests of encapsulated Si solar cells and encapsulation materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cell samples that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pottants were observed for glass\\/EVA\\/glass-encapsulated c-Si cell samples under solar simulator exposures at elevated temperatures. The polymer\\/polymer-configured laminates with Tedlar or Tefzel did

F. J. Pern; S. H. Glick

1999-01-01

56

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in âBiological Effects and Exposure Criteria...Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,â NCRP Report No. 86, Sections 17.4.1...17.4.2 and 17.4.3. Copyright NCRP, 1986, Bethesda, Maryland...

2009-10-01

57

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in âBiological Effects and Exposure Criteria...Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,â NCRP Report No. 86, Sections 17.4.1...17.4.2 and 17.4.3. Copyright NCRP, 1986, Bethesda, Maryland...

2010-10-01

58

An accelerated exposure and testing apparatus for building joint sealants.  

PubMed

The design, fabrication, and implementation of a computer-controlled exposure and testing apparatus for building joint sealants are described in this paper. This apparatus is unique in its ability to independently control and monitor temperature, relative humidity, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and mechanical deformation. Each of these environmental factors can be controlled precisely over a wide range of conditions during periods of a month or more. Moreover, as controlled mechanical deformations can be generated, in situ mechanical characterization tests can be performed without removing specimens from the chamber. Temperature and humidity were controlled during our experiments via a precision temperature regulator and proportional mixing of dry and moisture-saturated air; while highly uniform UV radiation was attained by attaching the chamber to an integrating sphere-based radiation source. A computer-controlled stepper motor and a transmission system were used to provide precise movement control. The reliability and effectiveness of the apparatus were demonstrated on a model sealant material. The results clearly show that this apparatus provides an excellent platform to study the long-term durability of building joint sealants. PMID:24089872

White, C C; Hunston, D L; Tan, K T; Hettenhouser, J; Garver, J D

2013-09-01

59

An accelerated exposure and testing apparatus for building joint sealants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, fabrication, and implementation of a computer-controlled exposure and testing apparatus for building joint sealants are described in this paper. This apparatus is unique in its ability to independently control and monitor temperature, relative humidity, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and mechanical deformation. Each of these environmental factors can be controlled precisely over a wide range of conditions during periods of a month or more. Moreover, as controlled mechanical deformations can be generated, in situ mechanical characterization tests can be performed without removing specimens from the chamber. Temperature and humidity were controlled during our experiments via a precision temperature regulator and proportional mixing of dry and moisture-saturated air; while highly uniform UV radiation was attained by attaching the chamber to an integrating sphere-based radiation source. A computer-controlled stepper motor and a transmission system were used to provide precise movement control. The reliability and effectiveness of the apparatus were demonstrated on a model sealant material. The results clearly show that this apparatus provides an excellent platform to study the long-term durability of building joint sealants.

White, C. C.; Hunston, D. L.; Tan, K. T.; Hettenhouser, J.; Garver, J. D.

2013-09-01

60

Recommendations Concerning an Interim Annual Individual Exposure Limit for Respirable Quartz.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents AECB staff recommendations on the desirability of an annual individual occupational exposure limit for respirable quartz and on the magnitude of this limit, for uranium miners. Justifications are presented for the magnitude of this sug...

H. Stocker F. J. Horvath W. Napier

1983-01-01

61

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2009-07-01

62

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2010-07-01

63

Analysis of biological effects and limits of exposure to weak magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse biological outcomes due to thermal effects of exposure to high power magnetic fields are well understood and are the basis for standards for limiting human exposure to such fields. Over the past few decades a controversy has arisen over possible adverse biological effects due to exposure to weak, low frequency magnetic fields. This paper involves a critical analysis of

D. A. Chathurika; M. F. Peter; N. H. Malka

2010-01-01

64

Preliminary results of accelerated exposure testing of solar cell system components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plastic samples and solar cell sub modules were exposed to an accelerated outdoor environment in Arizona and an accelerated simulated environment in a cyclic ultraviolet exposure tester which included humidity exposure. These tests were for preliminary screening of materials suitable for use in the manufacture of solar cell modules which are to have a 20-year lifetime. The samples were exposed for various times up to six months, equivalent to a real time exposure of four years. Suitable materials were found to be FEP-A, FEP-C, PFA, acrylic, silicone compounds and adhesives and possibly parylene. The method of packaging the sub modules was also found to be important to their performance.

Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

1977-01-01

65

Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to VGDF and pesticides is associated with longitudinal decline in lung function. We used 12,772 observations from 2,527 participants in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study, a general-population-based cohort study that followed subjects for 25 years, from 1965 to the last survey in 1989/1990. Job-specific exposure was estimated with the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Associations between exposures and annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 as a percentage of inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1%VC) were assessed with linear mixed-effect models including sex, age, and level of lung function at the first measurement and pack-years of smoking at the last measurement. We tested for interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and assessed associations separately for never smokers and ever smokers. Exposure to VGDF was not associated with accelerated lung function decline after adjustment for co-exposure to pesticides. Exposure to pesticides, both in the last-held job and as a cumulative measure, was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and FEV1%VC, especially among ever smokers, where we found an excess change in FEV1 of -6.9 mL/year (95% confidence interval: -10.2, -3.7) associated with high pesticide exposure. PMID:24780843

de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

2014-06-01

66

Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude  

DOEpatents

A beam current limiter for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity.

Bogaty, John M. (Lombard, IL); Clifft, Benny E. (Park Forest, IL); Bollinger, Lowell M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1995-01-01

67

Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude  

DOEpatents

A beam current limiter is disclosed for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity. 6 figs.

Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Bollinger, L.M.

1995-08-08

68

Accelerating the Early Numeracy Development of Kindergartners with Limited Working Memory Skills through Remedial Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Young children with limited working memory skills are a special interest group among all children that score below average on early numeracy tests. This study examines the effect of accelerating the early numeracy development of these children through remedial education, by comparing them with children with typically working memory…

Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

2013-01-01

69

Photothermal stability of encapsulated Si solar cells and encapsulation materials upon accelerated exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various samples of crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cells that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Transmittance, fluorescence, color indices, impedance spectroscopy, laser optical beam induced current (OBIC), and light and dark current–voltage (I–V) measurements were used to characterize the samples. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene

F. J. Pern; S. H. Glick

2000-01-01

70

Performance Degradation of Encapsulated Monocrystalline-Si Solar Cells upon Accelerated Weathering Exposures: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Presented at 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Performed accelerated exposures to study performance reliability/materials degradation of encapsulated c-Si cells using weathering protocols in 2 weatherometers. We have performed accelerated exposures to study performance reliability and materials degradation of a total of forty-one 3-cm x 3-cm monocrystalline-Si (c-Si) solar cells that were variously encapsulated using accelerated weathering protocols in two weatherometers (WOMs), with and without front specimen water sprays. Laminated cells (EVA/c-Si/EVA, ethylene vinyl acetate) with one of five superstrate/substrate variations and other features including with and without: (i) load resistance, (ii) Al foil light masks, and (iii) epoxy edge-sealing were studied. Three additional samples, omitting EVA, were exposed under a full-spectrum solar simulator, or heated in an oven, for comparison. After exposures, cell performance decreased irregularly, but to a relatively greater extent for samples exposed in WOM where light, heat, and humidity cycles were present (solar simulator or oven lacked such cycles). EVA laminates in the samples masked with aluminum (Al) foils were observed to retain moisture in WOM with water spray. Moisture effects caused substantial efficiency losses probably related in part to increasing series resistance.

Glick, S. H.; Pern, F. J.; Watson, G. L.; Tomek, D.; Raaff, J.

2001-10-01

71

Review of the Evidence in Support of a Short Term Exposure Limit for Occupational Exposure to Ethylene Oxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Issues raised by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) regarding the appropriateness of a short term exposure limit (STEL) for ethylene-oxide (75218) (EtO) were reviewed. Specific concerns addressed by the OMB were that OSHA had not quantified the red...

L. F. Mazzuckelli R. A. Lemen

1989-01-01

72

Accelerator mass spectrometry in the biomedical sciences: applications in low-exposure biomedical and environmental dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry as a sensitive detector for tracking the disposition of radioisotopically labeled molecules in the biomedical sciences. These applications have shown the effectiveness of AMS as a tool to quantify biologically important molecules at extremely low levels. For example, AMS is being used to determine the amount of carcinogen covalently bound to animal DNA (DNA adduct) at levels relevent to human exposure. Detection sensitivities are 1 carcinogen molecule bound in 1011 to 1012 DNA bases, depending on the specific activity of the radiolabeled carcinogen. Studies have been undertaken in our laboratory utilizing heterocyclic amine food-borne carcinogens and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent environmental carcinogen, to study the metabolism of carcinogens at low doses. In addition, AMS is being used to detect the presence of rare proteins (mutant forms of protamine) in human sperm. Approximately l per 106 sperm analyzed contain the rare form of the protamine. Protamine isolated from this small number of cells is being analyzed by AMS, following 14C labeling. Thus, AMS can be used to verify the identity of an extremely small amount of biological material. Furthermore, an additional improvement of 2 orders of magnitude in the sensitivity of biomédical tracer studies is suggested by preliminary work with bacterial hosts depleted in radiocarbon. Other problems in the life sciences where detection sensitivity or sample sizes are limitations should also benefit from AMS. Studies are underway to measure the molecular targeting of cancer chemotherapeutics in human tissue and to pursue applications for receptor biology. We are also applying other candidate isotopes, such as 3H (double labeling with 14C) and 41Ca (bone absorption) to problems in biology. The detection of 36Cl and 26Al have applications for determination of human neutron exposure and understanding neurological toxicity, respectively. The results described here with 14C-labeled molecules coupled with new isotope applications clearly show AMS technology to be an important new tool for the biomedical sciences community.

Felton, J. S.; Turteltaub, K. W.; Vogel, J. S.; Balhorn, R.; Gledhill, B. L.; Southon, J. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Nelson, D. E.; Proctor, I. D.; Davis, J. C.

1990-12-01

73

Space charge tune shift, fast resonance traversal, and current limits in circular accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Space charge tune shifts, fast resonance traversals, and current limits are important design issues for low energy, high power circular accelerators. Areas of interest are accumulator rings and fast cycling synchrotrons, and typical applications are for pulsed spallation neutron sources, heavy ion fusion storage ring drivers, and booster injectors for high energy proton and ion facilities. Aspects of the three topics are discussed in the paper. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Rees, G.H. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

1996-06-01

74

Threshold limits for biological indication of prolonged radiation exposure using mFISH.  

PubMed

Chromosome aberration (translocation) yield was investigated by mFISH in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Mayak Production Association (PA) workers with prolonged occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A dose threshold for cytogenetic indication of a prolonged occupational radiation exposure was estimated for Mayak PA workers using functions of dose distributions. Two limits were estimated for the indication of IR exposure to workers with a prolonged external gamma-ray exposure: These are a background translocation yield of N? = 0.812 ± 0.149% and a dose threshold of indication D? estimated to be approximately 1 Gy. PMID:24776899

Osovets, Sergey V; Sotnik, Natalia V; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry; Dörr, Harald; Azizova, Tamara V

2014-06-01

75

Long-term bisphenol A exposure accelerates insulitis development in diabetes-prone NOD mice.  

PubMed

Exposure to the endocrine disruptor (ED) bisphenol A (BPA) used in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins appears ubiquitous since BPA can be found in over 90% of analyzed urine samples from all age groups. There is a parallel occurrence of increased prevalence in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and an increased exposure to EDs the last decades. T1DM is caused by insulin deficiency due to autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and has been suggested to be induced by various environmental factors acting together with a genetic predisposition. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of BPA (0, 1 and 100 mg/l BPA in the drinking water) on T1DM development in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, spontaneously developing T1DM. Histological evaluation of pancreas from 12-weeks-old female mice revealed significantly increased insulitis in mice exposed to 1 mg/l BPA, while the insulitis was less severe at the higher BPA exposure. Serum glucose levels in the 1 mg/ml BPA group tended to be hyperglycaemic, also indicating an accelerated onset of T1DM. The high BPA exposure seemed to counteract the diabetes development in females and also in male NOD mice for both BPA concentrations. Prior to insulitis, both BPA concentrations resulted in increased apoptosis and reduced numbers of tissue resident macrophages in pancreatic islets. In conclusion, long-term BPA exposure at a dose three times higher than the tolerable daily intake of 50 µg/kg, appeared to accelerate spontaneous insulitis and diabetes development in NOD mice. PMID:23496298

Bodin, Johanna; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Samuelsen, Mari; Becher, Rune; Løvik, Martinus; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

2013-06-01

76

Transmaternal bisphenol A exposure accelerates diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus type 1 is an autoimmune disease with a genetic predisposition that is triggered by environmental factors during early life. Epidemiological studies show that bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, has been detected in about 90% of all analyzed human urine samples. In this study, BPA was found to increase the severity of insulitis and the incidence of diabetes in female non obese diabetic (NOD) mice offspring after transmaternal exposure through the dams' drinking water (0, 0.1, 1, and 10mg/l). Both the severity of insulitis in the pancreatic islets at 11 weeks of age and the diabetes prevalence at 20 weeks were significantly increased for female offspring in the highest exposure group compared to the control group. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells, a reduction in tissue resident macrophages and an increase in regulatory T cells were observed in islets prior to insulitis development in transmaternally exposed offspring. The detectable apoptotic cells were identified as mostly glucagon producing alpha-cells but also tissue resident macrophages and beta-cells. In the local (pancreatic) lymph node neither regulatory T cell nor NKT cell populations were affected by maternal BPA exposure. Maternal BPA exposure may have induced systemic immune changes in offspring, as evidenced by alterations in LPS- and ConA-induced cytokine secretion in splenocytes. In conclusion, transmaternal BPA exposure, in utero and through lactation, accelerated the spontaneous diabetes development in NOD mice. This acceleration appeared to be related to early life modulatory effects on the immune system, resulting in adverse effects later in life. PMID:24189131

Bodin, Johanna; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Kuper, Frieke; Løvik, Martinus; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

2014-02-01

77

Quantification of volatile organic compounds in smoke from prescribed burning and comparison with occupational exposure limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed burning represents a serious threat to personnel fighting fires due to smoke inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure by foresters to smoke from prescribed burning, focusing on exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The methodology for smoke sampling was first evaluated. Potentially dangerous compounds were identified among the VOCs emitted by smoke fires at four prescribed burning plots located around Corsica. The measured mass concentrations for several toxic VOCs were generally higher than those measured in previous studies due to the experimental framework (short sampling distance between the foresters and the flame, low combustion, wet vegetation). In particular, benzene, phenol and furfural exceeded the legal short-term exposure limits published in Europe and/or the United States. Other VOCs such as toluene, ethybenzene or styrene remained below the exposure limits. In conclusion, clear and necessary recommendations were made for protection of personnel involved in fighting fires.

Romagnoli, E.; Barboni, T.; Santoni, P.-A.; Chiaramonti, N.

2014-05-01

78

Workshop report: strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are important tools for managing worker exposures to chemicals; however, hazard data for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are insufficient for deriving OELs by traditional methods. Technical challenges and questions about how best to measure worker exposures to ENMs also pose barriers to implementing OELs. New varieties of ENMs are being developed and introduced into commerce at a rapid pace, further compounding the issue of OEL development for ENMs. A Workshop on Strategies for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Engineered Nanomaterials, held in September 2012, provided an opportunity for occupational health experts from various stakeholder groups to discuss possible alternative approaches for setting OELs for ENMs and issues related to their implementation. This report summarizes the workshop proceedings and findings, identifies areas for additional research, and suggests potential avenues for further progress on this important topic. PMID:24462629

Gordon, Steven C; Butala, John H; Carter, Janet M; Elder, Alison; Gordon, Terry; Gray, George; Sayre, Philip G; Schulte, Paul A; Tsai, Candace S; West, Jay

2014-04-01

79

Development of a limited-sampling model for prediction of doxorubicin exposure in dogs.  

PubMed

Understanding the relationship between drug dose and exposure (pharmacokinetics, PK) and the relationship between exposure and effect (pharmacodynamics) is an important component of pharmacology when attempting to predict clinical effects of anticancer drugs. PK studies can provide a better understanding of these relationships; however, they often involve intensive sampling over an extended period of time, resulting in increased cost and decreased compliance. Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most widely used antineoplastic agents in veterinary cancer therapy, is characterized by large interpatient variability in overall drug exposure and the development and degree of myelosuppression following equivalent dosages. We have developed and validated a limited-sampling strategy for DOX, in which three blood samples are obtained over 1 h post-treatment, that accurately predicts patient exposure. This strategy could allow for refining of dosing variables and utilization of therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure optimized dosing. PMID:22747489

Wittenburg, L A; Thamm, D H; Gustafson, D L

2014-06-01

80

Accelerators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the purpose of particle accelerators? On this web page, part of a particle physics tutorial, students read that accelerators solve two problems. The accelerators provide an increase in momentum to produce particles of small wavelength, and the fast-moving particles can create new particles when smashed together. A photograph of the inside of a particle accelerator is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Group, Lawrence B.

2002-01-01

81

Urinary chromium as a biological marker of environmental exposure: what are the limitations?  

PubMed

Public concern has mounted recently about environmental exposures to chromium in soil, tap water, and ambient air. In response, agencies charged with protecting public health have attempted to study exposure by monitoring urinary chromium levels among potentially exposed populations. While urinary biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers has been successfully used to assess high-level inhalation exposures in the workplace, evaluating low-level environmental exposures has been problematic. Due to these problems, before an extensive biological monitoring study is conducted of those exposed to low levels of environmental chromium, several issues must be resolved. First, exposures to chromium must occur at the same time as sampling, because the biological half-life of chromium in urine is very short (less than 2 days). Second, reduced bioavailability and bioaccessibility via the oral and dermal routes of exposure limit the capacity of urinary monitoring to measure environmental exposures (e.g., systemic dose is too small to be measured). Third, the dose of chromium must be sufficient such that it may be reliably measured above background levels in urine (range of 0.2 to 2 microg/liter) and above the analytical limit of detection (0.2 microg/liter). Fourth, the inter- and intrapersonal variability in background levels of urinary chromium is known to be significant and influenced by food and beverage intake, smoking, and exercise. Thus, the role of each factor must be carefully understood. Finally, it is imperative to have developed a complete understanding of the clinical significance of elevated urinary chromium levels before a study is performed, because higher than background levels, in and of themselves, are not indicative of a significant health concern. The route of exposure, valence of chromium to which people were exposed, exposure time, and duration must all be understood before the biological data can be implemented. We have conducted a total of nine human exposure studies over the past 3 years in an attempt to understand the kinetics of chromium and the impact on urinary, red blood cell (RBC), and plasma biomonitoring programs. The results of these studies are described here and our recommendations are offered for how to design and implement a urinary chromium biomonitoring study. In our view, given some evidence that the dose of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is sufficient to be measurable above background concentrations of total chromium [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)], duplicated measurements of chromium in plasma and RBCs are, in most cases, a more definitive gauge of environmental exposure than urinary biomonitoring. PMID:9380834

Paustenbach, D J; Panko, J M; Fredrick, M M; Finley, B L; Proctor, D M

1997-08-01

82

Ultrasonication: An Efficient Agitation for Accelerating the Supersaturation-Limited Amyloid Fibrillation of Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amyloid fibrils are self-assemblies of proteins with an ordered cross-? architecture. Because they are associated with serious disorders, understanding their structure and mechanism of fibrillation is important. Irradiation with ultrasonication leads to fragmentation of amyloid fibrils, useful for seeding experiments. Recently, ultrasonication has been found to trigger the spontaneous formation of fibrils in solutions of monomeric amyloidogenic proteins. The results indicate that amyloid fibrillation is similar to the crystallization of solutes from a supersaturated solution. The accelerating effects of ultrasonication on amyloid fibrillation suggest that cavitation microbubbles play a key role in effectively converting the metastable state of supersaturation to the labile state, leading to spontaneous fibrillation. Moreover, ultrasonic irradiation would be promising for a high-throughput screening assay of amyloid fibrillation, advancing the study of supersaturation-limited amyloidogenesis.

Yoshimura, Yuichi; So, Masatomo; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji

2013-07-01

83

Accelerated exposure tests of encapsulated Si solar cells and encapsulation materials  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cell samples that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pottants were observed for glass/EVA/glass-encapsulated c-Si cell samples under solar simulator exposures at elevated temperatures. The polymer/polymer-configured laminates with Tedlar or Tefzel did not discolor because of photobleaching reactions, but yellowed with polyester or nylon top films. Delamination was observed for the polyester/EVE layers on a-Si minimodules and for a polyolefin-based thermoplastic pottant at high temperatures. For all tested c-Si cell samples, irregular changes in the current-voltage parameters were observed that could not be accounted for simply by the transmittance changes of the superstrate/pottant layers. Silicone-type adhesives used under UV-transmitting polymer top films were observed to cause greater cell current/efficiency loss than EVA or polyethylene pottants. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [Engineering and Reliability Division, National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

1999-03-01

84

Accelerated exposure tests of encapsulated Si solar cells and encapsulation materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cell samples that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pottants were observed for glass/EVA/glass-encapsulated c-Si cell samples under solar simulator exposures at elevated temperatures. The polymer/polymer-configured laminates with Tedlar or Tefzel did not discolor because of photobleaching reactions, but yellowed with polyester or nylon top films. Delamination was observed for the polyester/EVE layers on a-Si minimodules and for a polyolefin-based thermoplastic pottant at high temperatures. For all tested c-Si cell samples, irregular changes in the current-voltage parameters were observed that could not be accounted for simply by the transmittance changes of the superstrate/pottant layers. Silicone-type adhesives used under UV-transmitting polymer top films were observed to cause greater cell current/efficiency loss than EVA or polyethylene pottants.

Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

1999-03-01

85

Subclinical Carbon Monoxide Limits Apoptosis in the Developing Brain After Isoflurane Exposure  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics cause widespread apoptosis in the developing brain. Carbon monoxide (CO) has antiapoptotic properties, and exhaled endogenous CO is commonly rebreathed during low-flow anesthesia in infants and children, resulting in subclinical CO exposure. Thus, we aimed to determine whether CO could limit isoflurane-induced apoptosis in the developing brain. METHODS Seven-day-old male CD-1 mouse pups underwent 1-hour exposure to 0 (air), 5, or 100 ppm CO in air with or without isoflurane (2%). We assessed carboxyhemoglobin levels, cytochrome c peroxidase activity, and cytochrome c release from forebrain mitochondria after exposure and quantified the number of activated caspase-3 positive cells and TUNEL positive nuclei in neocortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus/thalamus. RESULTS Carboxyhemoglobin levels approximated those expected in humans after a similar time-weighted CO exposure. Isoflurane significantly increased cytochrome c peroxidase activity, cytochrome c release, the number of activated caspase-3 cells, and TUNEL positive nuclei in the forebrain of air-exposed mice. CO, however, abrogated isoflurane-induced cytochrome c peroxidase activation and cytochrome c release from forebrain mitochondria and decreased the number of activated caspase-3 positive cells and TUNEL positive nuclei after simultaneous exposure with isoflurane. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, the data indicate that CO can limit apoptosis after isoflurane exposure via inhibition of cytochrome c peroxidase depending on concentration. Although it is unknown whether CO directly inhibited isoflurane-induced apoptosis, it is possible that low-flow anesthesia designed to target rebreathing of specific concentrations of CO may be a desired strategy to develop in the future in an effort to prevent anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in infants and children.

Cheng, Ying; Levy, Richard J.

2014-01-01

86

Limitations of waterborne exposure of fish early life stages to BDE-47.  

PubMed

2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is acknowledged as the most abundant congener of all polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Despite its limited residence in the water column, most ecotoxicological research using fish early life stages (ELS) has focused on its waterborne bioavailability. These studies have been supported either by chemical analysis in solutions or in tissues after ? 168 h exposures to relatively high waterborne concentrations with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent carrier (? 0.5%). Using noninvasive physiological and anatomical features in medaka ELS, we investigated the viability of waterborne BDE-47 exposures (100-10,000 ?g/L; 1% DMSO) and evaluated the developmental effects in relation to the actual BDE-47 present in water. Embryos were exposed for 10 days under semi-static (24-h renewal) conditions and waterborne BDE-47 concentrations (i.e., dissolved) were quantitated daily and their accumulation in eleutheroembryonic tissues was analyzed 4 days after exposures finished. BDE-47 in solution rapidly decreased after each renewal by >50% in 24h. This was confirmed by discernible precipitation occurring at ? 5,000 ?g/L on the bottom of the container and attached to the chorionic filaments of eggshell. The fast dissipation from water may explain why, besides the subtle, yet significant effects on post-hatching growth (short length at ?5000?g/L), no other significant deleterious developmental effects were observed despite the fact that BDE-47 accumulated in tissues in response to BDE-47 treatment. Waterborne BDE-47 exposure was unachievable under traditional semi-static exposure conditions, but was achievable in repeated pulse exposures lasting a few hours whenever the medium was renewed. Hence, this research encourages the use of alternate - more realistic - exposure routes (e.g., particulate matter or sediments) when evaluating early developmental toxicity of BDE-47 or any other PBDE sharing similar properties. PMID:24508762

González-Doncel, Miguel; Torija, Carlos Fernández; Beltrán, Eulalia María; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; Sastre, Salvador; Carbonell, Gregoria

2014-03-01

87

The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?  

SciTech Connect

At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

Brisson, Michael

2013-06-03

88

Exposure limits for ultra-short wave radiation in work environments.  

PubMed

Exposure limit values for ultra-short wave radiation of humans were derived on the basis of epidemiological survey and experimental exposure of rabbits. Eighteen male rabbits were divided into 4 groups randomly. Three groups were irradiated with ultra-short waves (100 MHz) at 35, 1.5-3.5, and 0.07 mW/cm2 power density in an E-polarized TEM Cell at 24 +/- 4 degrees C ambient temperature. The last group in a sham chamber served as controls. Irradiation was performed 3 hours per day, 5 days per week for 24 weeks. Thermal effects occurred in the group irradiated at 35 mW/cm2. The thermal threshold limit value was set at 1.5 mW/cm2. An epidemiological survey was carried out on 136 factory workers and TV operators exposed over one year to ultra-short wave radiation at 0.2 mW/cm2. They were compared with 108 controls. The only complaint of the exposed group was neurosis. The exposure limit value (ELV) to short wave radiation was set at 0.2 mW/cm2 by using a 15- and 20-fold safety factor. PMID:7724881

Zhao, Z; Zhang, S; Wang, S; Yao, Z; Zho, H; Tao, S; Tao, L

1994-01-01

89

Benzene Exposure Near the U.S. Permissible Limit Is Associated with Sperm Aneuploidy  

PubMed Central

Background Benzene is a common industrial chemical known to induce leukemia and other blood disorders, as well as aneuploidy, in both human blood cells and sperm at exposures > 10 ppm. Recent reports have identified health effects at exposure levels < 1 ppm, the permissible exposure limit (PEL; 8 hr) set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Objective We investigated whether occupational exposures to benzene near 1 ppm induce aneuploidy in sperm. Methods We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization to measure the incidence of sperm with numerical abnormalities of chromosomes X, Y, and 21 among 33 benzene-exposed men and 33 unexposed men from Chinese factories. Individual exposures were assessed using personal air monitoring and urinary concentrations of benzene and trans,trans-muconic acid (E,E-MA). Air benzene concentrations were not detectable in unexposed men; in exposed men, concentrations ranged from below the detection limit to 24 ppm (median, 2.9 ppm), with 27% of exposed men (n = 9) having concentrations of ? 1 ppm. Exposed men were categorized into low and high groups based on urinary E,E-MA (median concentrations of 1.9 and 14.4 mg/L, respectively; median air benzene of 1 and 7.7 ppm, respectively), and aneuploidy frequencies were compared with those of unexposed men. Results Sperm aneuploidy increased across low- and high-exposed groups for disomy X [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–3.4; and IRR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5–4.9, respectively], and for overall hyperhaploidy for the three chromosomes investigated (IRR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0–2.4; and IRR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5–3.6, respectively). We also found elevated disomy X and hyperhaploidy in the nine men exposed to ? 1 ppm benzene compared with unexposed men (IRR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–3.0; and IRR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.9, respectively). Conclusions Benzene appeared to increase the frequencies of aneuploid sperm for chromosomes associated with chromosomal abnormality syndromes in human offspring, even in men whose air benzene exposure was at or below the U.S. permissible exposure limit.

Xing, Caihong; Marchetti, Francesco; Li, Guilan; Weldon, Rosana H.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Young, Suzanne; Schmid, Thomas E.; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Eskenazi, Brenda

2010-01-01

90

Study of Anticipated Impact on DOE Programs from Proposed Reductions to the External Occupational Radiation Exposure Limit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the impact of reducing the occupational radiation exposure limit from 5 rem/yr to 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 rem/yr, respectively produced the following conclusions: reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in tot...

1981-01-01

91

Approach to setting occupational exposure limits for sensory irritants in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

This article describes how scientists in the Netherlands set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for sensory irritants. When they tackle this issue, a number of key questions need to be answered. For example, did the studies indeed measure sensory irritation and not cytotoxicity? When the irritant is an odorant, can interference of olfactory stimulation be excluded? In the case of subjective measurements, can psychological irritation be excluded? When adaptation is an issue, did the studies indeed measure adaptation and not habituation? When OELs are established in the Netherlands, each of these issues is carefully addressed before a value is suggested. When setting an OEL in the Netherlands, human data carry more weight than animal data of comparable quality. As in the United States, documentation for the recommended OEL is written and a discussion of all available relevant and reliable data culminating in the selection of the key study for deriving the health-based recommended occupational exposure limit is provided. Special effort is dedicated to reconciling differences between the animal and human data. If the toxicological database is considered to be inadequate, the committee acknowledges this limitation and will not recommend a limit value due to insufficient data. PMID:11767940

Feron, V J; Art, J H; Mojet, J

2001-01-01

92

Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.  

PubMed

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4?, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period. PMID:24746838

Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

2014-06-01

93

Tungsten damage and melt losses under plasma accelerator exposure with ITER ELM relevant conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental simulations of ITER edge-localized mode have been performed with a Kh-50 quasi-stationary plasma accelerator. Heat loads exceeded the tungsten melting threshold. Droplet splashing and the solid dust ejection were observed. Droplets were emitted during the plasma exposure and dust generation dominated after the end of a plasma pulse, at the time of the material cooling. A decrease in the droplet velocity at an increase in the surface heat load was observed. It could be attributed to growing sizes of the droplets at higher energy loads. After one hundred pulses were performed at loads below the tungsten melting and above the cracking threshold, some porosity appeared. Such defects achieved dimensions of several tens of ?m. A heat load amounting to half the cracking threshold (0.3 MJ m?2) could lead to the appearance of fatigue cracks after 100 plasma pulses. In this case the appearance of cracks could be caused by the accumulation and redistribution of linear defects (dislocations) in the affected tungsten layer.

Makhlaj, V. A.; Garkusha, I. E.; Aksenov, N. N.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Linke, J.; Malykhin, S. V.; Pugachov, A. T.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Wirtz, M.

2014-04-01

94

A review of health effects of carbon disulfide in viscose industry and a proposal for an occupational exposure limit.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) for carbon disulfide vary between 1 and 10 ppm worldwide. They are generally based on health effects observed in viscose industry. Publications after the mid-1970s are reviewed to determine whether there is a scientific justification for an OEL below 10 ppm. The exposure situation in viscose industry is governed by long exposure durations, high exposures in past decades, high peak exposures, former analytical procedures underestimating exposure, and shift work. Three approaches were used to define an OEL based on workplace data: (1) Division of a cumulative exposure index by lifetime exposure duration. This approach ignores the possible existence of a threshold and fails to differentiate between brief high and sustained low exposures. (2) Defining the NOEL/LOEL by mean exposure levels. With a wide range of exposures, effects observed at the mean are driven by high exposures underestimating the true NOEL. (3) Assessment of effects observed at workplaces complying with a predefined exposure limit. Without adverse effects at such a limit this should be the starting point to define the OEL. The most important health effects for carbon disulfide are coronary heart disease, coronary risk factors, retinal angiopathy, color discrimination, effects on peripheral nerves, psychophysiological effects, morphological and other central nervous system (CNS) effects, and fertility and hormonal effects. The data generally support an OEL of 10 ppm. Some uncertainties exist for effects on electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, retinal microaneurysms (in Japanese workers), peripheral nerve conduction velocities, some psychophysiological parameters, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; hyperintensive spots), and hearing function. Further investigations on workers under defined long-term exposure conditions might help to come to a final conclusion. Finally, the reproductive capacity of female workers may not be adequately protected at exposures around 10 ppm. PMID:19852562

Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Göen, Thomas; Mäurer, Mathias; Sulsky, Sandra I

2009-10-01

95

Proposal for the assessment to quantitative dermal exposure limits in occupational environments: Part 2. Feasibility study for application in an exposure scenario for MDA by two different dermal exposure sampling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two different techniques for assessing dermal exposure to 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA) in a field study. The results were used to test the applicability of a recently proposed quantitative dermal occupational exposure limit (DOEL) for MDA in a workplace scenario. METHODS: For two consecutive weeks six workers were monitored for exposure to MDA in a factory that made

D. H. Brouwer; L. Hoogendoorn; P. M. Bos; P. J. Boogaard; J. J. van Hemmen

1998-01-01

96

Exposure limits for nanoparticles: report of an international workshop on nano reference values.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the international workshop on nano reference values (NRVs), which was organized by the Dutch trade unions and employers' organizations and hosted by the Social Economic Council in The Hague in September 2011. It reflects the discussions of 80 international participants representing small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), large companies, trade unions, governmental authorities, research institutions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from many European countries, USA, India, and Brazil. Issues that were discussed concerned the usefulness and acceptability of precaution-based NRVs as a substitute for health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). Topics concerned the metrics for measuring NPs, the combined exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and process-generated NPs, the use of the precautionary principle, the lack of information about the presence of nanomaterials, and the appropriateness of soft regulation for exposure control. The workshop concluded that the NRV, as an 8-h time-weighted average, is a comprehensible and useful instrument for risk management of professional use of MNMs with a dispersible character. The question remains whether NRVs, as advised for risk management by the Dutch employers' organization and trade unions, should be under soft regulation or that a more binding regulation is preferable. PMID:22752096

van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Veelen, Wim; Streekstra, Willem-Henk; Schulte, Paul; Reijnders, Lucas

2012-07-01

97

Pulmonary evaluation of permissible exposure limit of syntroleum S-8 synthetic jet fuel in mice.  

PubMed

No current studies have systematically examined pulmonary health effects associated with Syntroleum S-8 synthetic jet fuel (S-8). In order to gain an understanding about the threshold concentration in which lung injury is observed, C57BL/6 male mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 for 1 h/day for 7 days at average concentrations of 0 (control), 93, 352, and 616 mg/m(3). Evaluation of pulmonary function, airway epithelial barrier integrity, and pathohistology was performed 24 h after the final exposures. Significant decreases were detected in expiratory lung resistance and total lung compliance of the 352 mg/m(3) group, for which no clear concentration-dependent alterations could be determined. No significant changes in respiratory permeability were exhibited, indicating that there was no loss of epithelial barrier integrity following S-8 exposure. However, morphological examination and morphometric analysis of distal lung tissue, by using transmission electron microscopy, revealed cellular damage in alveolar type II epithelial cells, with significant increases in volume density of lamellar bodies/vacuoles at 352 and 616 S-8 mg/m(3). Moreover, terminal bronchiolar Clara injury, as evidenced by apical membrane blebs, was observed at relatively low concentrations, suggesting if this synthetic jet fuel is utilized, the current permissible exposure limit of 350 mg/m(3) for hydrocarbon fuels should cautiously be applied. PMID:19357071

Wong, Simon S; Thomas, Alana; Barbaris, Brian; Lantz, R Clark; Witten, Mark L

2009-06-01

98

Short-term heat stress exposure limits based on wet bulb globe temperature adjusted for clothing and metabolic rate.  

PubMed

Most heat stress exposure assessments based on wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) consider the environmental conditions, metabolic demands, and clothing requirements, and the exposure limit is for extended work periods (e.g., a typical workday). The U.S. Navy physiological heat exposure limit (PHEL) curves and rational models of heat stress also consider time as a job risk factor so that there is a limiting time for exposures above a conventional WBGT exposure limit. The PHEL charts have not been examined for different clothing and the rational models require personal computers. The current study examined the role of clothing in short-term (time limited) exposures and proposed a relationship between a Safe Exposure Time and WBGT adjusted for clothing and metabolic rate. Twelve participants worked at a metabolic rate of 380 W in three clothing ensembles [clothing adjustment factors]: (1) work clothes (0 degrees C-WBGT), (2) NexGen microporous coveralls (2.5 degrees C-WBGT), and (2) vapor-barrier coveralls (6.5 degrees C-WBGT) at five levels of heat stress (approximately at the clothing adjusted TLV plus 7.0, 8.0, 9.5, 11.5 and 15.0 degrees C-WBGT). The combinations of metabolic rate, clothing, and environment were selected in anticipation that the participants would reach a physiological limit in less than 120 min. WBGT-based clothing adjustment factors were used to account for different clothing ensembles, and no differences were found for ensemble, which meant that the clothing adjustment factor can be used in WBGT-based time limited exposures. An equation was proposed to recommend a Safe Exposure Time for exposures under 120 min. The recommended times were longer than the PHEL times or times from a rational model of heat stress. PMID:19626531

Bernard, Thomas E; Ashley, Candi D

2009-10-01

99

Abrasion and fatigue resistance of PDMS containing multiblock polyurethanes after accelerated water exposure at elevated temperature.  

PubMed

Segmented polyurethane multiblock polymers containing polydimethylsiloxane and polyether soft segments form tough and easily processed thermoplastic elastomers (PDMS-urethanes). Two commercially available examples, PurSil 35 (denoted as P35) and Elast-Eon E2A (denoted as E2A), were evaluated for abrasion and fatigue resistance after immersion in 85 °C buffered water for up to 80 weeks. We previously reported that water exposure in these experiments resulted in a molar mass reduction, where the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction is supported by a straight forward Arrhenius analysis over a range of accelerated temperatures (37-85 °C). We also showed that the ultimate tensile properties of P35 and E2A were significantly compromised when the molar mass was reduced. Here, we show that the reduction in molar mass also correlated with a reduction in both the abrasion and fatigue resistance. The instantaneous wear rate of both P35 and E2A, when exposed to the reciprocating motion of an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) jacketed cable, increased with the inverse of the number averaged molar mass (1/Mn). Both materials showed a change in the wear surface when the number-averaged molar mass was reduced to ? 16 kg/mole, where a smooth wear surface transitioned to a 'spalling-like' pattern, leaving the wear surface with ? 0.3 mm cracks that propagated beyond the contact surface. The fatigue crack growth rate for P35 and E2A also increased in proportion to 1/Mn, after the molar mass was reduced below a critical value of ?30 kg/mole. Interestingly, this critical molar mass coincided with that at which the single cycle stress-strain response changed from strain hardening to strain softening. The changes in both abrasion and fatigue resistance, key predictors for long term reliability of cardiac leads, after exposure of this class of PDMS-urethanes to water suggests that these materials are susceptible to mechanical compromise in vivo. PMID:23871543

Chaffin, Kimberly A; Wilson, Charles L; Himes, Adam K; Dawson, James W; Haddad, Tarek D; Buckalew, Adam J; Miller, Jennifer P; Untereker, Darrel F; Simha, Narendra K

2013-11-01

100

Effective erosion coefficient and plasma velocity limitation in the channel of an electromagnetic rail accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of an effective erosion coefficient, which takes into account the capture and entrainment in motion (by accelerated plasma) of only part of the erosion mass lost by rail accelerator electrodes, is introduced to describe the plasma acceleration dynamics in the channel of an electromagnetic rail accelerator. This parameter is determined from a comparison of the experimental and calculated plasma velocities at the stage of velocity saturation. The plasma velocity is calculated using a model that takes into account the pressure force of a shock-compressed gas and the deceleration force that appears during the capture of the erosion mass by a plasma piston. The ratio of the captured mass to the mass lost by the electrodes is found to depend on the current; for copper, this ratio is 1/4-2/3. The effective erosion coefficient is 0.6-0.7 mg/C at a current of ˜40 kA.

Reznikov, B. I.; Bobashev, S. V.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Rozov, S. I.

2014-04-01

101

Statistical methodology to evaluate food exposure to a contaminant and influence of sanitary limits: application to Ochratoxin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some statistical methodologies to evaluate the food exposure to a contaminant and quantify the outcome of a new maximum limit on a food item. Our application deals with Ochratoxin A (OTA). We focus on the quantitative evaluation of the distribution of exposure based on both consumption data and contamination data. One specific aspect of contamination data is

J. Tressou; J. Ch. Leblanc; M. Feinberg; P. Bertail

2004-01-01

102

Acceleration \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a digital compensation by imposing real-time compensation voltage to Vin Pin of VCOXCO while device vibrating. The embedded digital compensating circuit includes a MEMS three-axes acceleration sensor, a FPGA and a D\\/A converter. G-sensitivity vector can be computed based on the MEMS sensor. A proportion digital compensation model is built to generate voltage which can compensate frequency

QingXiao Shan; Yang Jun; JianYun Chen; Tang Qian; LongZhe Ji

2011-01-01

103

Cryoablation of anteroseptal accessory pathways in children with limited fluoroscopy exposure.  

PubMed

Due to its safety profile, cryoablation is used increasingly in pediatric patients, especially for septal arrhythmia substrates. Recent advances in electroanatomical-mapping technologies have resulted in a decrease or complete elimination of fluoroscopy exposure during catheter ablation procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of cryoablation of anteroseptal accessory pathways (APs) using electroanatomical-mapping system guidance with limited fluoroscopy exposure. A total of 24 patients underwent cryoablation of anteroseptal APs between July 2010 and April 2012. Cryomapping was performed with a 6 mm-tip catheter at -30 °C before the lesions were delivered. An 8 mm-tip catheter was used in one patient. The EnSite system (St. Jude Medical, St Paul, MN) was used in all procedures. The mean age was 11.9 ± 4.3 years. Acute success rate was 95.8 % (23 of 24). The mean procedure and cryoablation durations were 168 ± 58 min and 1,463 ± 525 s, respectively. Limited fluoroscopy was used only in 7 patients, and the mean fluoroscopy time was 1.7 ± 1.8 min (range 0.1-4 min) in these patients. Recurrence was noted in 2 patients (8.7 %) who underwent a second successful cryoablation procedure. The patient who underwent a failed attempt during the first procedure was successfully treated with a repeat procedure. The resultant long-term success rate was 100 % at a mean follow-up period of 14.2 ± 7.7 months. There were no complications except for transient atrioventricular block in one patient. Cryoablation of anteroseptal APs can be performed effectively and safely in children using a limited fluoroscopic approach with the help of electroanatomical-mapping systems. PMID:23052673

Ergul, Yakup; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Kiplapinar, Neslihan; Akdeniz, Celal; Saygi, Murat; Tuzcu, Volkan

2013-04-01

104

Relative Humidity in Limited Streamer Tubes for Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's BaBar Detector  

SciTech Connect

The BABAR Detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center studies the decay of B mesons created in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The outermost layer of the detector, used to detect muons and neutral hadrons created during this process, is being upgraded from Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) to Limited Streamer Tubes (LSTs). The standard-size LST tube consists of eight cells, where a silver-plated wire runs down the center of each. A large potential difference is placed between the wires and ground. Gas flows through a series of modules connected with tubing, typically four. LSTs must be carefully tested before installation, as it will be extremely difficult to repair any damage once installed in the detector. In the testing process, the count rate in most modules showed was stable and consistent with cosmic ray rate over an approximately 500 V operating range between 5400 to 5900 V. The count in some modules, however, was shown to unexpectedly spike near the operation point. In general, the modules through which the gas first flows did not show this problem, but those further along the gas chain were much more likely to do so. The suggestion was that this spike was due to higher humidity in the modules furthest from the fresh, dry inflowing gas, and that the water molecules in more humid modules were adversely affecting the modules' performance. This project studied the effect of humidity in the modules, using a small capacitive humidity sensor (Honeywell). The sensor provided a humidity-dependent output voltage, as well as a temperature measurement from a thermistor. A full-size hygrometer (Panametrics) was used for testing and calibrating the Honeywell sensors. First the relative humidity of the air was measured. For the full calibration, a special gas-mixing setup was used, where relative humidity of the LST gas mixture could be varied from almost dry to almost fully saturated. With the sensor calibrated, a set of sensors was used to measure humidity vs. time in the LSTs. The sensors were placed in two sets of LST modules, one gas line flowing through each set. These modules were tested for count rate v. voltage while simultaneously measuring relative humidity in each module. One set produced expected readings, while the other showed the spike in count rate. The relative humidity in the two sets of modules looked very similar, but it rose significantly for modules further along the gas chain.

Lang, M.I.; /MIT; Convery, M.; /SLAC; Menges, W.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

2005-12-15

105

Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases.

Nielsen, Gunnar D.

2012-01-01

106

Experiences from occupational exposure limits set on aerosols containing allergenic proteins.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

Nielsen, Gunnar D; Larsen, Søren T; Hansen, Jitka S; Poulsen, Lars K

2012-10-01

107

Raising gradient limitations in 2.1 GHz superconducting photonic band gap accelerator cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from recent 2.1 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) photonic band gap (PBG) resonator experiments at Los Alamos. Two 2.1 GHz PBG cells with elliptical rods were fabricated and tested at high power in a liquid helium bath at the temperatures of 4 K and below 2 K. The described SRF PBG cells were designed with a particular emphasis on changing the shape of the PBG rods to reduce peak surface magnetic fields and at the same time to preserve its effectiveness at damping higher-order-modes. The superconducting PBG cavities have great potential for damping long-range wakefields in SRF accelerator structures without affecting the fundamental accelerating mode. The cells performed in accordance with simulation's predictions and the maximum achieved accelerating gradient was 18.3 MV/m. This represents a 30% increase over gradients previously demonstrated in superconducting PBG cavities with round rods.

Simakov, Evgenya I.; Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Brian Haynes, W.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.; Suvorova, Natalya A.; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Boulware, Chase H.; Grimm, Terry L.

2014-06-01

108

Linear pharmacokinetic models for evaluating unusual work schedules, exposure limits and body burdens of pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The adverse effects of workplace exposures to pollutants relate more accurately to the concentrations of pollutants in the body than in the environment. In many cases pharmacokinetic models may represent the external to internal concentration relationships with useful accuracy. Simplified equations are presented for stepwise calculations on a series of time-averaged, external concentrations to give a corresponding series of internal concentrations. Accurate results were obtained for averaging times not exceeding one-fourth of the biological half-life of the pollutant. A convenient measure of internal concentration is the external concentration that would be at in vivo equilibrium with it (termed biologically effective concentration). Three measures of damage burden are proposed, each appropriate for different toxic mechanisms. The calculations readily may be carried out on a programmable calculator or microcomputer. Illustrative examples show how unusual work schedules may be compared with an 8 hr/day, 5 days/week schedule and how appropriate short- and long-term exposure limits may be determined. Other examples, illustrated for lead, relate absorbed mass rates to body concentrations and body burdens in a two-compartment kinetic model. These calculations should provide a more accurate evaluation of fluctuating concentrations, which can be handled easily.

Saltzman, B.E.

1988-05-01

109

Airborne asbestos concentration from brake changing does not exceed permissible exposure limit.  

PubMed

The use in the past, and to a lesser extent today, of chrysotile asbestos in automobile brake systems causes health concerns among professional mechanics. Therefore, we conducted four separate tests in order to evaluate an auto mechanic's exposure to airborne asbestos fibers while performing routine brake maintenance. Four nearly identical automobiles from 1960s having four wheel drum brakes were used. Each automobile was fitted with new replacement asbestos-containing brake shoes and then driven over a predetermined public road course for about 2253 km. Then, each car was separately brought into a repair facility; the brakes removed and replaced with new asbestos-containing shoes. The test conditions, methods, and tools were as commonly used during the 1960s. The mechanic was experienced in brake maintenance, having worked in the automobile repair profession beginning in the 1960s. Effects of three independent variables, e.g., filing, sanding, and arc grinding of the replacement brake shoe elements, were tested. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of fibers, asbestos fibers, total dust, and respirable dust. The results indicated a presence in the air of only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of other types of asbestos. Airborne chrysotile fiber exposures for each test remained below currently applicable limit of 0.1 fiber/ml (eight-hour time-weighted average). PMID:12878055

Blake, Charles L; Van Orden, Drew R; Banasik, Marek; Harbison, Raymond D

2003-08-01

110

LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART II: EFFECTS OF MISSING DATA AND IMPRECISION  

EPA Science Inventory

Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how missing data and measurement-error imprecision affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Missing data resulted mainly from individuals' refusing to participate in c...

111

Proposal for single and mixture biological exposure limits for sevoflurane and nitrous oxide at low occupational exposure levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Assessment of individual exposures to sevoflurane plus nitrous oxide (N2O) by biological monitoring of unmodified analytes in post-shift urine of exposed personnel. Methods. Anaesthetics in urine and breathing area were monitored in 124 subjects in 11 operating theatres. Passive samplers were collected after 2.5-7 h of exposure, at the same time as post-shift urinary samples, to evaluate the individual

Antonio Accorsi; Simona Valenti; Anna Barbieri; Giovanni Battista Raffi; Francesco Saverio Violante

2003-01-01

112

Vitamin d intake determines vitamin d status of postmenopausal women, particularly those with limited sun exposure.  

PubMed

Few detailed data are available on the wide range of determinants of vitamin D status among postmenopausal women, and it is also unclear whether there may be undiscovered determinants. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. Data from a subset of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were analyzed (50-79 y; n = 3345). Information on diet, lifestyle behaviors, secondhand smoke, use of dietary supplements and medication, chronic diseases, and anthropometry was collected at baseline (1993-1998) and on sun exposure at year 4 follow-up. Linear regression was performed to estimate regression coefficients (?). Significant determinants were total vitamin D intake (food plus supplements per 100 IU/d, ? = 2.08), years of supplemental vitamin D use (? = 0.15), total fat intake (grams per day, ? = -0.03), smoking status (? = -2.64, current vs. never), regional solar irradiance (? = 6.26, 475-500 vs. 300-325 Langleys), daylight time spent outdoors in summer (? = 5.15, >2 h vs. <30 min/d), recreational physical activity (metabolic equivalent task per hour per week, ? = 0.13), waist circumference (centimeters, ? = -0.26), and race/ethnicity (? = -11.94, black vs. white). Total vitamin D intake (partial R(2) = 0.09) explained the most variance in serum 25(OH)D concentrations (total R(2) = 0.29). The association between total vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations was stronger among participants who spent less rather than more daylight time outdoors in summer (P-interaction = 0.026). History and medications for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes and secondhand smoke exposure were not associated with serum 25(OH)D. In conclusion, dietary factors and sun exposure remain important determinants of vitamin D status in postmenopausal women. Vitamin D intake should be emphasized for those with limited sun exposure. PMID:24598886

Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Millen, Amy E; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Beresford, Shirley A A; Lacroix, Andrea Z; Zheng, Yingye; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Neuhouser, Marian L

2014-05-01

113

Setting an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde: factors of concern.  

PubMed

The paper aims to evaluate the indoor air limit of 1 microg/m(3) (0.8 ppb) formaldehyde as advised by the European Commission [the INDEX project; Kotzias, D., Koistinen, K., Kephalopoulos, S., Schlitt, C., Carrer, P., Maroni, M., Jantunen, M., Cochet, C., Kirchner, S., Lindvall, T., McLaughlin, J., Mølhave, L., de Oliveira Fernandes, E., Seifert, B., 2005. Critical appraisal of the setting and implementation of indoor exposure limits in the EU. European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Ispra, Italy, pp. 1-50]. The limit has been based on a nose and throat irritation threshold of 0.1mg/m(3) (0.08 ppm; LOAEL), a NOAEL of 0.03 mg/m(3) (0.025 ppm) and an assessment factor of 30, including a factor of 3 for the higher sensitivity of children. Nose and throat irritation, at concentrations below which hyperplasia/metaplasia occurs, are most likely the manifestation of trigeminal nerve stimulation (sensory irritation). The threshold for sensory irritation in human volunteers is 1 ppm, much higher than the 0.1mg/m(3) indicated above. Eye irritation is the most sensitive effect reported in human volunteers but has been mentioned only occasionally in the studies used by the European Commission. Moreover, sensory irritation is a local reaction that requires a low assessment factor, if any. It is difficult to judge the sensitivity for sensory irritation in children because of the potential confounding factors in the evaluated studies. It is concluded that an indoor air level of 0.1 ppm (0.12 mg/m(3)) formaldehyde, as indicated by Appel et al. (2006) [Appel, K.E., Bernauer, U., Herbst, U., Madle, S., Schulte, A., Richter-Reichhelm, H.B., Gundert-Remy, U. 2006. Kann für Formaldehyd eine "sichere" Konzentration abgeleitet werden?--Analyse der Daten zur krebserzeugenden Wirkung (Can a "safe" concentration be established for formaldehyde?--Analysis of carcinogenicity data)? Umweltmed. Forsch. Prax. 11, 347-361], can be considered a safe and appropriate level. PMID:18786592

Arts, Josje H E; Muijser, Hans; Kuper, C Frieke; Woutersen, Ruud A

2008-11-01

114

Investigations of the use of bioavailability data to adjust occupational exposure limits for active pharmaceutical ingredients.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) for active pharmaceutical ingredients have traditionally been established using no-observed-adverse-effect levels derived from clinical studies employing po and iv routes of administration and by applying default uncertainty factors or chemical-specific adjustment factors. However, exposure by the inhalation or dermal route is more relevant in terms of occupational safety. In this investigation, to explore new methods for route-to-route extrapolation, the bioavailability of MK-0679, a leukotriene D(4) receptor antagonist, was compared following iv, po, intranasal (in), or intratracheal (it) administration. The relative bioavailability of MK-0679 was iv congruent with it > po congruent with in. Bioavailability correction factors (BCFs) of 2.0 and 0.6 were derived from these data to adjust a hypothetical OEL of 0.1 mg/m(3) for MK-0679 with particle sizes of 10 and 50 mum, respectively. These BCFs were used to adjust the OEL established using po clinical data, to reflect the differences in bioavailability following deposition in different regions of the respiratory tract. To further investigate how bioavailability data could be used in setting OELs, a preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed to describe the time course of plasma concentrations using the data from the route comparison study. An inhalation study was then performed to test the validity of using either empirical data or modeling approaches to derive BCFs when setting OELs. These investigations demonstrated how the use of route-specific PK data could reduce some of the uncertainties associated with route-to-route extrapolation and allow for improved precision and quantitative adjustments when establishing OELs. Further investigations are needed to better understand the factors responsible for differences in systemic uptake following deposition in different regions of the respiratory tract and how these can be generalized across different classes of soluble compounds. PMID:19692668

Naumann, Bruce D; Weideman, Patricia A; Sarangapani, Ramesh; Hu, Shu-Cheih; Dixit, Rakesh; Sargent, Edward V

2009-11-01

115

Chronic lead exposure accelerates decay of long-term potentiation in rat dentate gyrus in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a model of synaptic plasticity believed to encompass the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that support memory function. Chronic developmental lead (Pb) exposure is known to be associated with cognitive dysfunction in children and animals. Disruption of the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been reported in the hippocampus following chronic exposure to environmentally relevant levels of Pb

M. E Gilbert; C. M Mack

1998-01-01

116

Lack of blood formate accumulation in humans following exposure to methanol vapor at the current permissible exposure limit of 200 ppm  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of formate, the putative toxic metabolite of methanol, in the blood and the relationship between pulmonary intake and blood methanol concentration were investigated in six human volunteers following a 6-hr exposure to 200 ppm methanol (the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration 8-hr time-weighted average permissible exposure limit). At the end of a 6-hr exposure to 200 ppm methanol at rest, the blood methanol concentration was increased from a mean of 1.8 micrograms/mL to 7.0 micrograms/mL. Under light exercise, the total amount of methanol inhaled during the 6-hr exposure period was 1.8 times that inhaled at rest. However, no statistically significant increase in blood methanol concentration was observed under exercise: the concentrations averaged 8.1 micrograms/mL. Formate did not accumulate in the blood above its background level following the 6-hr exposures to 200 ppm methanol whether subjects were exposed at rest or during exercise. Unlike the data collected from epidemiologic studies, the authors' results were obtained under well-controlled methanol exposure conditions and by using appropriate dietary restrictions. The data show that (1) the biological load of methanol would be the same regardless of whether workers are engaged in light physical activity when they are exposed to methanol vapors below 200 ppm and (2) the formate that is associated with acute methanol toxicities in humans does not accumulate in blood when methanol exposure concentrations are below 200 ppm.

Lee, E.W.; Terzo, T.S.; D'Arcy, J.B.; Gross, K.B.; Schreck, R.M. (Biomedical Science Department, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI (United States))

1992-02-01

117

Quantification of the volatile organic compounds in the smoke from prescribed burning and comparison with the occupational exposure limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed burning represents a serious threat to the personnel fighting fires because of smoke inhalation. This study aims to increase the knowledge about foresters exposure to the prescribed burning smoke by focusing on exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We initially assessed the methodology for smoke sampling. Then, we identified potentially dangerous molecules among the VOCs identified at 4 prescribed burning sites located around Corsica. The values measured were very high, exceeding the exposure limits, particularly for benzene, phenol, and furfural, whose concentrations were above short-term exposure limit (STEL) values. In conclusion, obvious but necessary recommendations were made for the protection of the personnel involved in fighting fires on a professional basis.

Barboni, T.; Santoni, P.-A.

2013-11-01

118

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19

119

Bioreactivity of the crystalline silica polymorphs, quartz and cristobalite, and implications for occupational exposure limits (OELs).  

PubMed

Silica or silicon dioxides (SiO?) are naturally occurring substances that comprise the vast majority of the earth's crust. Because of their prevalence and commercial applications, they have been widely studied for their potential to induce pulmonary fibrosis and other disorders. Historically, the focus in the workplace has been on the development of inflammation and fibrotic lung disease, the basis for promulgating workplace standards to protect workers. Crystalline silica (CS) polymorphs, predominantly quartz and cristobalite, are used in industry but are different in their mineralogy, chemistry, surface features, size dimensions and association with other elements naturally and during industrial applications. Epidemiologic, clinical and experimental studies in the literature historically have predominantly focused on quartz polymorphs. Thus, in this review, we summarize past scientific evaluations and recent peer-reviewed literature with an emphasis on cristobalite, in an attempt to determine whether quartz and cristobalite polymorphs differ in their health effects, toxicity and other properties that may dictate the need for various standards of protection in the workplace. In addition to current epidemiological and clinical reports, we review in vivo studies in rodents as well as cell culture studies that shed light on mechanisms intrinsic to the toxicity, altered cell responses and protective or defense mechanisms in response to these minerals. The medical and scientific literature indicates that the mechanisms of injury and potential causation of inflammation and fibrotic lung disease are similar for quartz and cristobalite. Our analysis of these data suggests similar occupational exposure limits (OELs) for these minerals in the workplace. PMID:23863112

Mossman, Brooke T; Glenn, Robert E

2013-09-01

120

The Treponema denticola Major Sheath Protein Is Predominantly Periplasmic and Has Only Limited Surface Exposure  

PubMed Central

The recent discovery that the Treponema pallidum genome encodes 12 orthologs of the Treponema denticola major sheath protein (Msp) prompted us to reexamine the cellular location and topology of the T. denticola polypeptide. Experiments initially were conducted to ascertain whether Msp forms an array on or within the T. denticola outer membrane. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) of negatively stained and ultrathin-sectioned organisms failed to identify a typical surface layer, whereas freeze-fracture EM revealed that the T. denticola outer membrane contains heterogeneous transmembrane proteins but no array. In contrast, a lattice-like structure was observed in vesicles released from mildly sonicated treponemes; combined EM and biochemical analyses demonstrated that this structure was the peptidoglycan sacculus. Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) subsequently was performed to localize Msp in T. denticola. Examination of negatively stained whole mounts identified substantial amounts of Msp in sonicated organisms. IEM of ultrathin-sectioned, intact treponemes also demonstrated that the preponderance of antigen was unassociated with the outer membrane. Lastly, immunofluorescence analysis of treponemes embedded in agarose gel microdroplets revealed that only minor portions of Msp are surface exposed. Taken as a whole, our findings challenge the widely held belief that Msp forms an array within the T. denticola outer membrane and demonstrate, instead, that it is predominantly periplasmic with only limited surface exposure. These findings also have implications for our evolving understanding of the contribution(s) of Msp/Tpr orthologs to treponemal physiology and disease pathogenesis.

Caimano, Melissa J.; Bourell, Kenneth W.; Bannister, Teresa D.; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.

1999-01-01

121

UVB exposure does not accelerate rates of litter decomposition in a semi-arid riparian ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground litter decomposition is controlled mainly by substrate quality and climate factors across terrestrial ecosystems, but photodegradation from exposure to high-intensity ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation may also be important in arid and semi-arid environments. We investigated the interactive effects of UVB exposure and litter quality on decomposition in a Tamarix-invaded riparian ecosystem during the establishment of an insect biological control agent

Shauna M. Uselman; Keirith A. Snyder; Robert R. Blank; Timothy J. Jones

2011-01-01

122

UVB Exposure Does Not Accelerate Rates of Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Riparian Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground litter decomposition is controlled mainly by substrate quality and climate factors across terrestrial ecosystems, but photodegradation from exposure to high-intensity ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation may also be important in arid and semi-arid environments. We investigated the interactive effects of UVB exposure and litter quality on decomposition in a Tamarix-invaded riparian ecosystem during the establishment of an insect biological control agent

S. M. Uselman; K. A. Snyder; R. R. Blank; T. J. Jones

2010-01-01

123

Defining Occupational and Consumer Exposure Limits for Nanomaterials - First Experiences from REACH Registrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By 1 December 2010 substances manufactured or imported in the EU >= 1000 t (as well as certain other substances) had to be registered under the REACH Regulation 1907/2006. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) in close cooperation with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) carried out an analysis and assessment of what type of information on nanomaterials was provided in the received registrations. The aim of the assessment was to develop options for an adaptation of the REACH regulation to ensure proper information generation and reporting and an appropriate risk/safety assessment of nanomaterials (Nano Support project). It should be noted that this analysis and assessment was not a compliance check of the dossiers. From 26000 submitted registration dossiers covering 4700 substances finally 25 dossiers (19 substances) were identified to cover nanomaterials or nanoforms of a substance. It is possible that other dossiers are considered to cover nanomaterials or nanoforms by the registrants, however such dossiers could not be identified to address nanoforms given the information contained in those dossiers. The identified 25 dossiers were subject to a detailed analysis and assessment of information provided for all endpoints including substance identity, physico-chemical properties, human health, environmental fate & behaviour, ecotoxicity, PBT6 assessment, Classification and Labelling as well as the attached Chemical Safety Report documenting the Chemical Risk/Safety Assessment. In order to evaluate how the safety of workers and consumers was ensured, it was appropriate to check how the "Derived No (Minimum) Effect Levels" (DN(M)ELs) were established for substances, covering nanomaterials or nanoforms. DNELs were established mainly for long term inhalation exposure of workers. Half of the assessed dossiers included an oral long term DNEL for the general population. DNELs were usually not specific for nanosized forms and, in the few cases where they were calculated for nanosized materials, they were not derived from hazard data for the nanoform. Different methods for deriving the DNELs were applied and few dossiers derived DNELs by applying the default assessment factors in the REACH guidance. Several DNELs were based on available Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) for inhalable and respirable dust or the nuisance dust levels, which have not been established for nanosized materials. In general lower (i.e. less strict) assessment factors were applied with different types of justification. All DNELs were expressed in the mass metrics. It is important to note that submission, identification and selection of the dossiers addressed in this study was done before the adoption of the EC recommendation (2011/696/EU) on a definition of nanomaterial and before the publication of the revised ECHA guidance documents that include recommendations for nanomaterials.

Aschberger, K.; Klöslova, Z.; Falck, G.; Christensen, F. M.

2013-04-01

124

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1986-01-01

125

Reach performance while wearing the Space Shuttle launch and entry suit during exposure to launch accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmen aboard the Space Shuttle are subjected to accelerations during ascent (the powered flight phase of launch) which range up to +3 G(sub x). Despite having 33 missions and nine years experience, not to mention all the time spent in development prior to the first flight, no truly quantitative reach study wearing actual crew equipment, using actual Shuttle seats and restraints has ever been done. What little information exists on reach performance while under acceleration has been derived primarily from subjective comments gathered retrospectively from Shuttle flight crews during their post mission debrief. This lack of reach performance data has resulted in uncertainty regarding emergency procedures that can realistically be performed during and actual Shuttle ascent versus what is practiced in the ground-fixed and motion-based Shuttle Simulators. With the introduction on STS-26 of the current Shuttle escape system, the question of reach performance under launch accelerations was once again raised. The escape system's requirement that each crewman wear a Launch/Entry Suit (LES), parachute harness, and parachute were all anticipated to contribute to a further degradation of reach performance during Shuttle ascent accelerations. In order to answer the reach performance question in a quantitative way, a photogrammetric method was chosen so that the actual reach values and associated envelopes could be captured. This would allow quantitative assessment of potential task performance impact and identify areas where changes to our Shuttle ascent emergency procedures might be required. Also, such a set of reach values would be valid for any similar acceleration profile using the same crew equipment. Potential Space Station applications of this data include predicting reach performance during Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) operations.

Bagian, James P.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schafer, Lauren E.; Probe, John D.; Krutz, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

126

Historical limitations of determinant based exposure groupings in the rubber manufacturing industry  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study the validity of using a cross-sectional industry-wide exposure survey to develop exposure groupings for epidemiological purposes that extend beyond the time period in which the exposure data were collected. Methods: Exposure determinants were used to group workers into high, medium, and low exposure groups. The contrast of this grouping and other commonly used grouping schemes based on plant and department within this exposure survey and a previously conducted survey within the same industry (and factories) were estimated and compared. Results: Grouping of inhalable and dermal exposure based on exposure determinants resulted in the highest, but still modest, contrast (? ? 0.3). Classifying subjects based on a combination of plant and department resulted in a slightly lower contrast (? ? 0.2). If the determinant based grouping derived from the 1997 exposure survey was used to classify workers in the 1988 survey the average contrast decreased significantly for both exposures (? ? 0.1). On the contrary, the exposure classification based on plant and department increased in contrast (from ? ? 0.2 to ? ? 0.3) and retained its relative ranking overtime. Conclusions: Although determinant based groupings seem to result in more efficient groupings within a cross-sectional survey, they have to be used with caution as they might result in significant less contrast beyond the studied population or time period. It is concluded that a classification based on plant and department might be more desirable for retrospective studies in the rubber manufacturing industry, as they seem to have more historical relevance and are most likely more accurately recorded historically than information on exposure determinants in a particular industry.

Vermeulen, R; Kromhout, H

2005-01-01

127

Testing the coherence between occupational exposure limits for inhalation and their biological limit values with a generalized PBPK-model: The case of 2-propanol and acetone.  

PubMed

The coherence between occupational exposure limits (OELs) and their corresponding biological limit values (BLVs) was evaluated for 2-propanol and acetone. A generic human PBPK model was used to predict internal concentrations after inhalation exposure at the level of the OEL. The fraction of workers with predicted internal concentrations lower than the BLV, i.e. the 'false negatives', was taken as a measure for incoherence. The impact of variability and uncertainty in input parameters was separated by means of nested Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the exposure scenario considered, the median fraction of the population for which the limit values were incoherent ranged from 2% to 45%. Parameter importance analysis showed that body weight was the main factor contributing to interindividual variability in blood and urine concentrations and that the metabolic parameters Vmax and Km were the most important sources of uncertainty. This study demonstrates that the OELs and BLVs for 2-propanol and acetone are not fully coherent, i.e. enforcement of BLVs may result in OELs being violated. In order to assess the acceptability of this "incoherence", a maximum population fraction at risk of exceeding the OEL should be specified as well as a minimum level of certainty in predicting this fraction. PMID:24852492

Huizer, Daan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van Rooij, Joost G M; Ragas, Ad M J

2014-08-01

128

Infant Television and Video Exposure Associated With Limited Parent-Child Verbal Interactions in Low Socioeconomic Status Households  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess verbal interactions related to television and other electronic media exposure among mothers and 6 month-old-infants. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 154 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Setting Urban public hospital. Participants Low socioeconomic status mothers of 6-month-old infants. Main Exposure Media exposure and content. Main Outcome Measures Mother-infant verbal interaction associated with media exposure and maternal coviewing. Results Of 154 low socioeconomic status mothers, 149 (96.8%) reported daily media exposure in their infants, with median exposure of 120 (interquartile range, 60-210) minutes in a 24-hour period. Among 426 program exposures, mother-infant interactions were reported during 101 (23.7%). Interactions were reported most frequently with educational young child–oriented media (42.8% of programs), compared with 21.3% of noneducational young child–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.98) and 14.7% of school-age/teenage/adult–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Among coviewed programs with educational content, mothers reported interactions during 62.7% of exposures. Coviewing was not reported more frequently for educational young child–oriented programs. Conclusions We found limited verbal interactions during television exposure in infancy, with interactions reported for less than one-quarter of exposures. Although interactions were most commonly reported among programs with educational content that had been coviewed, programs with educational content were not more likely to be coviewed than were other programs. Our findings do not support development of infant-directed educational programming in the absence of strategies to increase coviewing and interactions.

Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Huberman, Harris S.; Alvir, Jose; Dreyer, Benard P.

2011-01-01

129

Fokusirovka ionnogo puchka s konechnym ehmittansom uskoryayushchej trubkoj ehlektrostaticheskogo uskoritelya. (Focusing of ion beam with limit emittance by accelerator tube of electrostatic accelerator).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Focusing of nonrelativistic ion beam with finite emittance by accelerator tube is considered. Analytical relation between positions of the entrance and exit crossovers as a function of the beam emittance and the accelerator tube parameters was obtained. T...

S. V. Bazhal V. A. Romanov

1994-01-01

130

HIGH INSPJRED AIR TEMPERATURES SUPPLIED BY BREATHING APPARATUS DURING FIREFIGHTING MAY LIMIT HEAT EXPOSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

carried out by the Royal Navy (RN), subjects reported that the air supplied by the BA during 10 minutes exposure to 160°C became uncomfortably hoe, suggesting that they may be at risk ofthermal injuries to their lungs during exposure to higher temperatures. Normally, RN firefighters are protected from high temperatures by a sea water system which produces a near vertical

James R. House

131

Body composition changes in monkeys during long-term exposure to high acceleration fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adult male pig-tailed monkeys, weighing 10-14 kg, were subjected to continuous centrifuging stress for 7 months in acceleration fields up to 2.5 g. In vivo analytical techniques were used to evaluate parameters of body composition, body-fluid distribution, and hematology. Statistically significant losses in total body mass, lean body mass, total body water, extracellular water content and interstitial water content proportional to the level of high g were demonstrated.

Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Smith, A. H.

1977-01-01

132

The effect of time of exposure to elevated temperatures on the flammability limits of some common gaseous fuels in air  

SciTech Connect

The flammability limits of methane, ethylene, propane, and hydrogen were experimentally determined at elevated initial mixture temperatures up to 350 C at atmospheric pressure for upward flame propagation in a steel test tube apparatus. The existence of preignition reactions at these levels of temperatures that may influence the value of the flammability limits was also investigated. The fuel-air mixtures were exposed to elevated temperatures over different periods of time before spark ignition (up to 2 h). It was shown that the flammability limits for methane widened approximately linearly with an increase in the initial mixture temperature over the entire range of temperatures tested and were not affected by the length of the exposure time to these temperatures before spark ignition. However, different behavior was observed for the flammability limits of the other tested fuels--ethylene, propane, and hydrogen. At higher temperatures the flammability limits narrowed and were very significantly affected by the exposure time. The longer was the exposure time of fuel-air mixtures to the elevated temperatures, the narrower were their flammability limits.

Wierzba, I.; Ale, B.B. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1999-01-01

133

Secondary Electron Emission in the Limit of Low Energy and its Effect on High Energy Physics Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors of the Letter [1] reported that the secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient approaches unity in the limit of zero primary electron energy. This occurs due to nearly 100% electron reflection from the surface, for electron energy less than an electron volt. If correct, this finding could have profound implications on electron cloud formation in high-energy accelerators and sheath structure in plasmas, because electrons approaching the wall with energy below an electron volt are reflected from the walls and thus are effectively confined by the walls. In this paper, we summarize comprehensive studies rendering this claim inaccurate; that is most electrons are lost on walls. These studies include theoretical analysis of SEE properties in the limit of low electron energy, analysis of measuring device errors, and experimental observation of the operation of probes collecting electron current. [4pt] [1] R. Cimino, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 014801 (2004).

Andronov, A. N.; Smirnov, A. S.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Startsev, E. A.; Raitses, Y.; Davidson, R. C.; Demidov, V.

2011-11-01

134

Cumulative exposure to dust causes accelerated decline in lung function in tunnel workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo examine whether underground construction workers exposed to tunnelling pollutants over a follow up period of 8 years have an increased risk of decline in lung function and respiratory symptoms compared with reference subjects working outside the tunnel atmosphere, and relate the findings to job groups and cumulative exposure to dust and gases.METHODS96 Tunnel workers and a reference group of

B Ulvestad; B Bakke; W Eduard; J Kongerud; M B Lund

2001-01-01

135

NIOSH Comments to DOL on the Mine Safety and Health Administration Proposed Rule on Permissible Exposure Limit for Diesel Particulate, July 10, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testimony discussed the views of NIOSH concerning the establishment of a permissible exposure limit for diesel particulate to control exposure to diesel exhaust in the mining industry. As requested by the Mine Safety and Health Association, NIOSH was ...

R. W. Niemeier

1992-01-01

136

Accelerated habit formation following amphetamine exposure is reversed by D1, but enhanced by D2, receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

Repeated exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine has been shown to disrupt goal-directed instrumental actions and promote the early and abnormal development of goal-insensitive habitual responding (Nelson and Killcross, 2006). To investigate the neuropharmacological specificity of this effect as well as restore goal-directed responding in animals with pre-training amphetamine exposure, animals were treated with the non-selective dopamine antagonist ?-flupenthixol, the selective D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the selective D2 antagonist eticlopride, prior to instrumental training (three sessions). Subsequently, the reinforcer was paired with LiCL-induced gastric-malaise and animals were given a test of goal-sensitivity both in extinction and reacquisition. The effect of these dopaminergic antagonists on the sensitivity of lever press performance to outcome devaluation was assessed in animals with pre-training exposure to amphetamine (Experiments 1A–C) or in non-sensitized animals (Experiment 2). Both ?-flupenthixol and SCH23390 reversed accelerated habit formation following amphetamine sensitization. However, eticlopride appeared to enhance this effect and render instrumental performance compulsive as these animals were unable to inhibit responding both in extinction and reacquisition, even though a consumption test confirmed they had acquired an aversion to the reinforcer. These findings demonstrate that amphetamine induced-disruption of goal-directed behavior is mediated by activity at distinct dopamine receptor subtypes and may represent a putative model of the neurochemical processes involved in the loss of voluntary control over behavior.

Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Killcross, Simon

2013-01-01

137

Pressure reduction limits for rats subjected to various time/pressure exposures.  

PubMed

The impact of the combined effects of exposure time and hydrostatic pressure on pressure reduction is explored in this study. In Phase I of the study, excursion dives were made to 10, 20, and 30 ATA for 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 min. In Phase II, the animals were saturated at 1.3, 10, or 20 ATA for 60 min; each saturation exposure was followed by a 10-atm excursion dive of either 1, 5, 10, 20, or 40 min. The chamber gas mixture during all pressure exposures was 0.51 ATA oxygen, 0.79 ATA nitrogen, and the remainder helium. The subjects were 655 rats; during each pressure exposure 5 rats were exercised in a rotating cage. After each exposure, the rats were abruptly decompressed to a lesser pressure for observation and tabulation of the decompression sickness incidence. Results suggest that neither the starting saturation pressure nor the differential excursion pressure alters the time required for an animal to reach equilibrium with the surrounding environment. Pressure-reduction values, however, vary with both the exposure pressure and exposure time. These results will have a direct impact on the formulation of future decompression models. PMID:734800

Berghage, T E; Goehring, G S; Donelson, C

1978-12-01

138

[Hand-arm vibration syndrome: diagnostic aspects, dose-response relationship and exposure limits].  

PubMed

This paper reviews the clinical aspects and laboratory methods to diagnose the vascular, sensorial and neural components of the hand-arm vibration syndrome. The resolutions adopted by the experts of the Stockholm Workshop 94 are reported. The methods of measurement and assessment of both daily and cumulative vibration exposure are discussed with respect to the risk for vibration-induced disorders of the upper extremities. An update of the relationship between vibration exposure and the occurrence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) is given, as well as the results of epidemiologic studies of the reversibility of VWF after cessation of vibration exposure or introduction of vibration isolation systems in forest work. Regarding occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibrations, this review considers the guidelines and provisions contained in the European Communities (EC) Directive for machinery (89/393/EC) and the proposal for an EC Directive for physical agents (94/C 230/03). PMID:7731405

Bovenzi, M

1994-01-01

139

76 FR 52664 - Request for Information: Announcement of Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket...Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...occupational exposures to hazards associated with cancer...broader policy on toxicant identification and...

2011-08-23

140

A refined approach to estimate exposure for use in calculating the Maximum Residue Limit of veterinary drugs.  

PubMed

Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) are standards that represent the maximum residue concentration expected to be found if a veterinary drug is administered according to good practice in the use of veterinary drugs (GVP). MRLs are established only where the exposure to residues in food resulting from particular use patterns of the veterinary drug pass a public health risk assessment. The current model diet as used by major regulators overstates mean consumption of food for populations when compared to results from food surveys of actual consumption. Exposure to residues is overestimated when calculating long-term (chronic) exposure using the model diet leading to the risk to consumers being overstated. Additionally the model diet underestimates the size of large portions eaten by the group of consumers that eat large quantities of a particular food in a single meal potentially leading to understating of risks associated with exposure to residues of drugs that produce an adverse effect after a single exposure. A revision of dietary consumption figures is proposed that will better match the consumption figures used in point-estimates of dietary exposure to the timeframe for consumption that is relevant to the reference dose. PMID:22203043

MacLachlan, Dugald J; Mueller, Utz

2012-02-01

141

INTERACTION OF A MAGNETIZED SHELL WITH AN AMBIENT MEDIUM: LIMITS ON IMPULSIVE MAGNETIC ACCELERATION  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of relativistic magnetized ejecta with an ambient medium is studied for a range of structures and magnetization of the unshocked ejecta. We particularly focus on the effect of the ambient medium on the dynamics of an impulsive, high-sigma shell. It is found that for sufficiently high values of the initial magnetization {sigma}{sub 0} the evolution of the system is significantly altered by the ambient medium well before the shell reaches its coasting phase. The maximum Lorentz factor of the shell is limited to values well below {sigma}{sub 0}; for a shell of initial energy E = 10{sup 52} E{sub 52} erg and size r{sub 0} = 10{sup 12} T{sub 30} cm expelled into a medium having a uniform density n{sub i} , we obtain {Gamma}{sub max} {approx_equal} 180(E{sub 52}/T {sup 3}{sub 30} n{sub i}){sup 1/8} in the high-sigma limit. The reverse shock and any internal shocks that might form if the source is fluctuating are shown to be very weak. The restriction on the Lorentz factor is more severe for shells propagating in a stellar wind. Intermittent ejection of small sub-shells does not seem to help, as the shells merge while still highly magnetized. Lower sigma shells start decelerating after reaching the coasting phase and spreading away. The properties of the reverse shock then depend on the density profiles of the coasting shell and the ambient medium. For a self-similar cold shell the reverse shock becomes strong as it propagates inward, and the system eventually approaches the self-similar solution recently derived by Nakamura and Shigeyama.

Levinson, Amir, E-mail: Levinson@wise.tau.ac.i [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2010-09-10

142

Association of years of occupational quartz exposure with spirometric airflow limitation in Norwegian men aged 30-46 years  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The association between occupational quartz exposure and ventilatory function was investigated in men in a general population after adjusting for other potential determinants of outcome.?METHODS—All eligible men aged 30-46 years living in western Norway (n = 45 380) were invited to a cross sectional community survey. This included a self administered questionnaire (with respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures), spirometric recordings (using dry wedge bellow spirometers), and a chest radiograph (65% attendance). Measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in 91% (n = 26 803) of those who participated, 26 106 of whom performed successful spirometric tests and had normal chest radiographs and remained for further analysis. Age, body mass index, and technician standardised residuals ((observed minus predicted value)/residual standard error) of maximum FEV1/height2 and FVC/height2 were used as outcome variables for adjusted lung function levels, respectively.?RESULTS—Occupational quartz exposure was reported by 13% (n = 3445) of those who participated in the survey, with a mean duration of seven years. Among those exposed to quartz, significant inverse linear relationships were observed between years of exposure and FEV1 level and the ratio of FEV1/FVC, independent of host characteristics. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the difference in FEV1 associated with each year of quartz exposure was -4.3 ml (95% Cl -1.1 to -7.5 ml; p = 0.01) compared with -6.9 ml (95% Cl -4.7 to -9.1 ml; p<0.01) from smoking 20 cigarettes/day for one year after adjusting for age, atopy, asthma, wheezing, marital status, and other occupational exposures.?CONCLUSION—In men aged 30-46 years with occupational quartz exposure and normal chest radiographs the duration of occupational quartz exposure was an independent predictor for spirometric airflow limitation.??

Humerfelt, S.; Eide, G.; Gulsvik, A.

1998-01-01

143

The role of home smoking bans in limiting exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke in Hungary.  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally representative sample of 48 Hungarian settlements, completed paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaires addressing tobacco-related attitudes, opinions and behaviors. Chi-square tests, one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of demographics, socio-economic characteristics and home smoking policies on the risk of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home. Significantly higher risk of exposure was found among younger, lower educated and poorer people and among those having no or partial home smoking restrictions. There was a significant interaction between education level and home smoking policies: the effect of a smoking ban on exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was stronger for the lower educated group than the higher educated group. The results suggest that Hungarians are making good progress in implementing home smoking bans, and that in the majority of population these bans are working. More can be done to promote the uptake of home smoking bans among poorer and less educated subpopulations. PMID:22653684

Paulik, Edit; Maróti-Nagy, Á; Nagymajtényi, L; Rogers, T; Easterling, D

2013-02-01

144

Impulse noise exposure in early adulthood accelerates age-related hearing loss.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of impulse noise on age-related hearing loss. The study consisted of two groups. Each group contained 109 men. Group I comprised veterans with normal hearing at the end of 1979 sino-vietnamese war. All these veterans were randomly selected from Guangzhou Military Command. Group II were men with no military experience randomly chosen from the health examination center of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command. Pure-tone thresholds of these two groups were measured and compared. The pure-tone thresholds of Group I were poorer than those of Group II at the frequencies of 4, 6 and 8 kHz. Thus, impulse noise accelerates age-related hearing loss. PMID:23842602

Xiong, Min; Yang, Chuanhong; Lai, Huangwen; Wang, Jian

2014-06-01

145

Plasma exposure of different tungsten grades with plasma accelerators under ITER-relevant conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of tungsten irradiation experiments performed with three plasma facilities: the QSPA Kh-50 quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator, the PPA pulsed plasma gun and the magneto-plasma compressor. Targets made of different kinds of tungsten (sintered, rolled and deformed) were irradiated with powerful plasma streams at heat fluxes relevant to edge-localized modes in ITER. The irradiated targets were analyzed and two different meshes of cracks were identified. It has been shown that the major cracks do not depend on the tungsten grade. This has been attributed to ductile-to-brittle transition effects. Meshes of inter-granular micro-cracks were detected for energy loads above the melting threshold and these were probably caused by the re-solidification process. The blister-like and cellular-like structures were observed on sample surfaces exposed to helium and hydrogen plasmas.

Makhlaj, Vadym A.; Garkusha, Igor E.; Aksenov, Nikolay N.; Bazylev, Boris; Byrka, Oleg V.; Landman, Igor; Linke, Jochen; Malykhin, Sergey V.; Pugachov, Anatoliy T.; Sadowski, Marek J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Wirtz, Marius

2014-05-01

146

Airborne asbestos concentration from brake changing does not exceed permissible exposure limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use in the past, and to a lesser extent today, of chrysotile asbestos in automobile brake systems causes health concerns among professional mechanics. Therefore, we conducted four separate tests in order to evaluate an auto mechanic’s exposure to airborne asbestos fibers while performing routine brake maintenance. Four nearly identical automobiles from 1960s having four wheel drum brakes were used.

Charles L. Blake; Drew R. Van Orden; Marek Banasik; Raymond D. Harbison

2003-01-01

147

Effect of Eprinomectin Treatment at Calving on Milk Production in Dairy Herds with Limited Outdoor Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this studywas to determine the effect of anthelmintic treatment at calving in herds that were totally or semiconfined during the summer. In totally confined herds, lactating and dry cows were housed throughout the summer and had no access to pasture. In semiconfined herds, lactating and dry cows had lim- ited outdoor exposure to a small pasture or

F. Sithole; I. Dohoo; K. Leslie; L. DesCôteaux; S. Godden; J. Campbell; H. Stryhn; J. Sanchez

2005-01-01

148

Gender-related difference in sweat loss and its impact on exposure limits to heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the recently proposed predicted heat strain (PHS) model with respect to gender, particularly in relation to the estimation of admissible exposure durations for work in hot environments. Two experiments addressing the effects of the climatic conditions inside vehicles during summer with altogether 96 females and 114 males were analysed.

Peter Mehnert; Peter Bröde; Barbara Griefahn

2002-01-01

149

Short exposure to an enriched environment accelerates plasticity in the barrel cortex of adult rats  

PubMed Central

Cortical sensory neurons adapt their response properties to use and disuse of peripheral receptors in their receptive field. Changes in synaptic strength can be generated in cortex by simply altering the balance of input activity, so that a persistent bias in activity levels modifies cortical receptive field properties. Such activity-dependent plasticity in cortical cell responses occurs in rat cortex when all but two whiskers are trimmed for a period of time at any age. The up-regulation of evoked responses to the intact whiskers is first seen within 24 h in the supragranular layers [Diamond ME, Huang W, Ebner FF (1994) Laminar comparison of somatosensory cortical plasticity. Science 265(5180):1885–1888] and continues until a new stable state is achieved [Diamond ME, Armstrong-James M, Ebner FF (1993) Experience-dependent plasticity in adult rat barrel cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(5):2082–2086; Armstrong-James M, Diamond ME, Ebner FF (1994) An innocuous bias in whisker use in adult rat modifies receptive fields of barrel cortex neurons. J Neurosci 14:6978–6991]. These and many other results suggest that activity-dependent changes in cortical cell responses have an accumulation threshold that can be achieved more quickly by increasing the spike rate arising from the active region of the receptive field. Here we test the hypothesis that the rate of neuronal response change can be accelerated by placing the animals in a high activity environment after whisker trimming. Test stimuli reveal an highly significant receptive field bias in response to intact and trimmed whiskers in layer IV as well as in layers II–III neurons in only 15 h after whisker trimming. Layer IV barrel cells fail to show plasticity after 15–24 h in a standard cage environment, but produce a response bias when activity is elevated by the enriched environment. We conclude that elevated activity achieves the threshold for response modification more quickly, and this, in turn, accelerates the rate of receptive field plasticity.

Rema, V.; Armstrong-James, M.; Jenkinson, N.; Ebner, F.F.

2006-01-01

150

Guidance on the establishment of acceptable daily exposure limits (ADE) to support Risk-Based Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products.  

PubMed

Health-based limits for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) referred to as acceptable daily exposures (ADEs) are necessary to the pharmaceutical industry and used to derive acceptance limits for cleaning validation purposes and evaluating cross-carryover. ADEs represent a dose of an API unlikely to cause adverse effects if an individual is exposed, by any route, at or below this dose every day over a lifetime. Derivations of ADEs need to be consistent with ICH Q9 as well as other scientific approaches for the derivation of health-based limits that help to manage risks to both product quality and operator safety during the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. Previous methods for the establishment of acceptance limits in cleaning validation programs are considered arbitrary and have largely ignored the available clinical and toxicological data available for a drug substance. Since the ADE utilizes all available pharmaceutical data and applies scientifically acceptable risk assessment methodology it is more holistic and consistent with other quantitative risk assessments purposes such derivation of occupational exposure limits. Processes for hazard identification, dose response assessment, uncertainty factor analysis and documentation are reviewed. PMID:23291300

Sargent, Edward V; Faria, Ellen; Pfister, Thomas; Sussman, Robert G

2013-03-01

151

The relationship between anatomically correct electric and magnetic field dosimetry and publishe delectric and magnetic field exposure limits.  

PubMed

Electric and magnetic field exposure limits published by International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers are aimed at protection against adverse electrostimulation, which may occur by direct coupling to excitable tissue and, in the case of electric fields, through indirect means associated with surface charge effects (e.g. hair vibration, skin sensations), spark discharge and contact current. For direct coupling, the basic restriction (BR) specifies the not-to-be-exceeded induced electric field. The key results of anatomically based electric and magnetic field dosimetry studies and the relevant characteristics of excitable tissue were first identified. This permitted us to assess the electric and magnetic field exposure levels that induce dose in tissue equal to the basic restrictions, and the relationships of those exposure levels to the limits now in effect. We identify scenarios in which direct coupling of electric fields to peripheral nerve could be a determining factor for electric field limits. PMID:22619351

Kavet, Robert; Dovan, Thanh; Reilly, J Patrick

2012-12-01

152

The Limits of Two-Year Bioassay Exposure Regimens for Identifying Chemical Carcinogens  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. Objectives In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Discussion Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses—aspartame, cadmium, and toluene—suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Conclusions Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives.

Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F.; Davis, Devra Lee

2008-01-01

153

Limited exposure of rats to HâSOâ with and without Oâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sulfuric acid (HâSOâ) alone and with ozone (Oâ) on rats. To accomplish this, rats were exposed for 8 hours daily to an atmosphere containing either Nebulized HâSOâ, HâSOâ plus 0.9 ppM Oâ, or 0.9 ppM Oâ. The atmosphere in the exposure chambers was maintained at a fairly constant temperature

L. T. Juhos; M. J. Evans; R. Mussenden-Harvey; N. J. Furiosi; C. E. Lapple; G. Freeman

1978-01-01

154

Chimpanzees form long-term memories for food locations after limited exposure.  

PubMed

Remembering the location of fruiting trees for extended periods of time has been hypothesized to play a major role in the evolution of primate cognition. Such ability would be especially useful when paired with a fast learning mechanism capable of consolidating long-term memory after minimal exposure. We investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) can remember different food locations after minimal exposure (i.e., 1-2 trials) both after 24?hr and after 3-month. We released pairs of chimpanzees in their indoor enclosure (the enclosure of group A measured 430?m(2) and group B's measured 175?m(2) ) and tested them for four consecutive days (Baseline, Test, Retest, and Post-test). During the Test and Retest food was hidden in the same location whereas no food was hidden during the Baseline and Post-test days (control trials). Subjects were tested with four different locations and assessed for their retention after 24?hr and 3-month since the initial food discovery. Results revealed that chimpanzees accurately remembered the locations in which they found the food after one or two exposures to them, and both after 24?hr and a 3-month retention interval. Am. J. Primatol. 76:485-495, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24482025

Mendes, Natacha; Call, Josep

2014-05-01

155

Analysis of human brain exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields: a numerical assessment of spatially averaged electric fields and exposure limits.  

PubMed

Compliance with the established exposure limits for the electric field (E-field) induced in the human brain due to low-frequency magnetic field (B-field) induction is demonstrated by numerical dosimetry. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependency of dosimetric compliance assessments on the applied methodology and segmentations. The dependency of the discretization uncertainty (i.e., staircasing and field singularity) on the spatially averaged peak E-field values is first determined using canonical and anatomical models. Because spatial averaging with a grid size of 0.5?mm or smaller sufficiently reduces the impact of artifacts regardless of tissue size, it is a superior approach to other proposed methods such as the 99th percentile or smearing of conductivity contrast. Through a canonical model, it is demonstrated that under the same uniform B-field exposure condition, the peak spatially averaged E-fields in a heterogeneous model can be significantly underestimated by a homogeneous model. The frequency scaling technique is found to introduce substantial error if the relative change in tissue conductivity is significant in the investigated frequency range. Lastly, the peak induced E-fields in the brain tissues of five high-resolution anatomically realistic models exposed to a uniform B-field at ICNIRP and IEEE reference levels in the frequency range of 10?Hz to 100?kHz show that the reference levels are not always compliant with the basic restrictions. Based on the results of this study, a revision is recommended for the guidelines/standards to achieve technically sound exposure limits that can be applied without ambiguity. PMID:23404214

Chen, Xi-Lin; Benkler, Stefan; Chavannes, Nicholas; De Santis, Valerio; Bakker, Jurriaan; van Rhoon, Gerard; Mosig, Juan; Kuster, Niels

2013-07-01

156

Limited damage of tissue mimic caused by a collapsing bubble under low-frequency ultrasound exposure.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the bubble induced serious damage to tissue mimic exposed to 27-kHz ultrasound. The initial bubble radius ranged from 80 to 100?m, which corresponded approximately to the experimentally-evaluated resonant radius of the given ultrasound frequency. The tissue mimic consisted of 10wt% gelatine gel covered with cultured canine kidney epithelial cells. The collapsing bubble behaviour during the ultrasound exposure with negative peak pressures of several hundred kPa was captured by a high-speed camera system. After ultrasound exposure, a cell viability test was conducted based on microscopic bright-field images and fluorescence images for living and dead cells. In the viability test, cells played a role in indicating the damaged area. The bubble oscillations killed the cells, and on occasion detached layers of cultured cells from the gel. The damaged area was comparable or slightly larger than the initial bubble size, and smaller than the maximum bubble size. We concluded that only a small area in close proximity to the bubble could be damaged even above transient cavitation threshold. PMID:24751130

Yoshida, Kenji; Obata, Kazuya; Tsukamoto, Akira; Ushida, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

2014-08-01

157

Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.  

PubMed

The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups. PMID:21999884

Gandhi, Om P; Morgan, L Lloyd; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto; Han, Yueh-Ying; Herberman, Ronald B; Davis, Devra Lee

2012-03-01

158

High gradient cavity beat - wave accelerator at W band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed rf heating is a fundamental limit on high-gradient acceleration in copper structures. Reduction of pulsed heating is favored by a short exposure time for the copper; yet in conventional accelerators, efficiency requires an exposure time of order a cavity fill time. At W-Band, the cavity beat-wave transformer concept permits efficient energy transfer to resonant accelerating modes on a sub-nanosecond

David H. Whittum; Ping J. Chou; Heino Henke

1998-01-01

159

Resolution limitations from detector pulse width and jitter in a linear orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Recent and ongoing advances in timing electronics together with the development of ionization techniques suited to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) have contributed to renewed interest in this method of mass analysis. Whereas low resolving powers (m/†m < 500) were once an almost unavoidable drawback in TOF-MS, recent developments in instrument geometries have produced much higher resolving powers for many ion sources. The temporal width of detector pulses and jitter in timing electronics, however, lead to contributions to peak widths that are essentially independent of the mass-analyzer ion optics. The effective detector pulse width (†t d ? 1-10 ns typically) can be a limiting factor in the development of high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) instruments with modest drift lengths (?1 m), It also reduces the mass resolution more seriously for light ions. This article presents a method for distinguishing the instrumental "ion arrival-time" resolution (R o) of a linear TOF mass analyzer from that which is locally measured at a particular mass, limited by the broadening of the detector pulse width and electronics. The method also provides an estimate of †t d, that is useful in determining the temporal performance of the detection system. The model developed here is tested with data from a recently constructed orthogonal-acceleration TOF mass spectrometer equipped with a commercially available transient recorder (a LeCroy 400-Msamplejs digital oscilloscope) from which we obtained R o = 4240 ± 100 [full width at half maximum (FWHM)) and †t d = 3.0 ± 0.1 ns (FWHM). PMID:24222005

Coles, J N; Guilhaus, M

1994-08-01

160

Tinnitus and Other Auditory Problems - Occupational Noise Exposure below Risk Limits May Cause Inner Ear Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal?=?193. The following hearing tests were used: ? pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, ? transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; ? psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, ? forward masking, ? speech recognition in noise, ? tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise below risk levels, had dysfunctions almost identical to those of the more exposed Industry group.

Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Ake; Hagerman, Bjorn

2014-01-01

161

Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.  

PubMed

The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal?=?193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise below risk levels, had dysfunctions almost identical to those of the more exposed Industry group. PMID:24827149

Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

2014-01-01

162

The effectiveness of applying different permissible exposure limits in preserving the hearing threshold level: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Objectives: A systematic review was conducted to identify the effectiveness of different permissible exposure limits in preserving the hearing threshold level. This review compared the limits of the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health with those of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss is on an increasing trend globally. This review was performed to reduce the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss. Methods: We searched 3 major databases, i.e., PubMed, Embase and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals@Ovid, for studies published up until 1May 2013 without language restrictions. All study designs were included in this review. The studies were identified and retrieved by two independent authors. Results: Of 118 titles scanned, 14 duplicates were removed, and a total of 13 abstracts from all three databases were identified for full-text retrieval. From the full text, eight articles met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. These articles showed acceptable quality based on our scoring system. Most of the studies indicated that temporary threshold shifts were much lower when subjects were exposed to a noise level of 85 dBA or lower. Conclusions: There were more threshold shifts in subjects adopting 90 dBA compared with 85 dBA. These temporary threshold shifts may progress to permanent shifts over time. Action curtailing noise exposure among employees would be taken earlier on adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit, and hence prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss may be reduced.(J Occup Health 2014; 56: 1-11). PMID:24270928

Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

2014-04-17

163

69 FR 24164 - Interim Recommendations for Airborne Exposure Limits for Chemical Warfare Agents H and HD (Sulfur...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...threshold of effects level (referenced...potential agent exposure durations at higher level exposures, analytic...the human exposures of concern...inhalation cancer effects discussion...case was the exposure level or...CDC is aware of proposed...to go into effect on July 1...reduced exposures to sulfur...Airborne Exposure......

2004-05-03

164

Daily Exposure to Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Alters Estrous Cyclicity and Accelerates Primordial Follicle Recruitment Potentially Via Dysregulation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling Pathway in Adult Mice.  

PubMed

Humans are exposed daily to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer found in many consumer, medical, and building products containing polyvinyl chloride. Large doses of DEHP disrupt normal ovarian function; however, the effects of DEHP at environmentally relevant levels, the effects of DEHP on folliculogenesis, and the mechanisms by which DEHP disrupts ovarian function are unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that relatively low levels of DEHP disrupt estrous cyclicity as well as accelerate primordial follicle recruitment by dysregulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Adult CD-1 mice were orally dosed with DEHP (20 ?g/kg/day-750 mg/kg/day) daily for 10 and 30 days. Following dosing, the effects on estrous cyclicity were examined, and follicle numbers were histologically quantified. Further, the ovarian mRNA and protein levels of PI3K signaling factors that are associated with early folliculogenesis were quantified. The data indicate that 10- and 30-day exposure to DEHP prolonged the duration of estrus and accelerated primordial follicle recruitment. Specifically, DEHP exposure decreased the percentage of primordial follicles and increased the percentage of primary follicles counted following 10-day exposure and increased the percentage of primary follicles counted following 30-day exposure. DEHP exposure, at doses that accelerate folliculogenesis, increased the levels of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, and protein kinase B and decreased the levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog, potentially driving PI3K signaling. Collectively, relatively low levels of DEHP disrupt estrous cyclicity and accelerate primordial follicle recruitment potentially via a mechanism involving dysregulation of PI3K signaling. PMID:24804967

Hannon, Patrick R; Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A

2014-06-01

165

Limited exposure of rats to H(2)SO(4) with and without O3.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) alone and with ozone (O(3)) on rats. To accomplish this, rats were exposed for 8 hours daily to an atmosphere containing either nebulized H(2)SO(4), H(2)SO(4) plus 0.9 ppm O(3), or 0.9 ppm O(3). The atmosphere in the exposure chambers was maintained at a fairly constant temperature and humidity. Nebulized H(2)SO(4) was delivered uniformly to provide a particle size of about 0.3 micron mass median diameter (MMD) and a mass concentration of 2 mg/m(3). In preliminary experiments, animals exposed to 2 mg/m(3) of H(2)SO(4) daily for 82 days showed very slight morphologic injury to the respiratory tract. In contrast, biological effects were readily demonstrable in rats exposed to H(2)SO(4) plus O(3) or to O(3) alone, possibly with some enhancement of effect in animals exposed to the mixture. The effects observed were characteristic of the response to O(3) alone. PMID:659813

Juhos, L T; Evans, M J; Mussenden-Harvey, R; Furiosi, N J; Lapple, C E; Freeman, G

1978-01-01

166

Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3-NA Micro-Exposure Tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript discusses the multilayer coating results for the primary and secondary mirrors of the Micro Exposure Tool (MET): a 0.30-numerical aperture (NA) lithographic imaging system with 200 x 600 {micro}m{sup 2} field of view at the wafer plane, operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. Mo/Si multilayers were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on large-area, curved MET camera substrates, and a velocity modulation technique was implemented to consistently achieve multilayer thickness profiles with added figure errors below 0.1 nm rms to achieve sub-diffraction-limited performance. This work represents the first experimental demonstration of sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for high-NA EUV imaging systems.

Soufli, R; Hudyma, R M; Spiller, E; Gullikson, E M; Schmidt, M A; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L; Walton, C C; Taylor, J S

2007-01-03

167

Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2)-4.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure. PMID:24312602

Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

2013-01-01

168

Apoptosis of viral-infected airway epithelial cells limit viral production and is altered by corticosteroid exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Effects of respiratory viral infection on airway epithelium include airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation. Both features may contribute to the development of asthma. Excessive damage and loss of epithelial cells are characteristic in asthma and may result from viral infection. Objective To investigate apoptosis in Adenoviral-infected Guinea pigs and determine the role of death receptor and ligand expression in the airway epithelial response to limit viral infection. Methods Animal models included both an Acute and a Chronic Adeno-infection with ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation with/without corticosteroid treatment. Isolated airway epithelial cells were cultured to study viral production after infection under similar conditions. Immunohistochemistry, western blots and viral DNA detection were used to assess apoptosis, death receptor and TRAIL expression and viral release. Results In vivo and in vitro Adeno-infection demonstrated different apoptotic and death receptors (DR) 4 and 5 expression in response to corticosteroid exposure. In the Acute Adeno-infection model, apoptosis and DR4/5 expression was coordinated and were time-dependent. However, in vitro Acute viral infection in the presence of corticosteroids demonstrated delayed apoptosis and prolonged viral particle production. This reduction in apoptosis in Adeno-infected epithelial cells by corticosteroids exposure induced a prolonged virus production via both DR4 and TRAIL protein suppression. In the Chronic model where animals were ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged and were treated with corticosteroids, apoptosis was reduced relative to adenovirus-infected or corticosteroid alone. Conclusion Our data suggests that apoptosis of infected cells limits viral production and may be mediated by DR4/5 and TRAIL expression. In the Acute model of Adeno-infection, corticosteroid exposure may prolong viral particle production by altering this apoptotic response of the infected cells. This results from decreased DR4 and TRAIL expression. In the Chronic model treated with corticosteroids, a similar decreased apoptosis was observed. This data suggests that DR and TRAIL modulation by corticosteroids may be important in viral infection of airway epithelium. The prolonged virus release in the setting of corticosteroids may result from reduced apoptosis and suppressed DR4/TRAIL expression by the infected cells.

Singhera, Gurpreet K; Chan, Tiffany S; Cheng, Jenny Y; Vitalis, Timothy Z; Hamann, Kimm J; Dorscheid, Delbert R

2006-01-01

169

Exposure to sediments from polluted rivers has limited phenotypic effects on larvae and adults of Chironomus riparius.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies have sometimes failed to detect a relationship between toxic stress and morphological defects in invertebrates. Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for this lack of effect. (1) It was suggested that only a combination of stressful conditions - rather than a single one - would affect the phenotype. (2) Phenotypic defects should be detected on adult individuals, rather than on juveniles. (3) Phenotypic abnormalities might mostly affect the progeny of the exposed individuals, some contaminants exhibiting trans-generational effects. In the present study, we test those three hypotheses. We first examined the effects of a multiple exposure by using laboratory Chironomus riparius larvae cultured on two sediments sampled in contaminated rivers and those containing a mixture of mineral and organic compounds. On the larvae, we investigated mentum phenotypes: the frequency of phenodeviants, the shape fluctuating asymmetry and the mean shape. To test whether adult's morphology was more sensitive than the larval's, we also measured asymmetry and mean shape of the adult wings. Finally, to test for a trans-generational phenotypic effect, we measured mentum shape variations in the offspring derived from the measured adults. Overall, our results point out a very limited phenotypic response to contaminated sediments, suggesting that a multiple exposure is not necessarily sufficient to generate phenotypic defects. Adult traits were no more affected than larval traits, discarding the hypothesis that adult phenotypes would be more sensitive biomarkers. Finally, no effect was detected on the offspring generation, suggesting that no trans-generational effect occurs. This general lack of effect suggests that the use of phenotypic defects in C. riparius as an indicator of sediment contamination should be considered cautiously. PMID:24691209

Arambourou, Hélène; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Branchu, Philippe; Debat, Vincent

2014-06-15

170

How accurate and precise are limited sampling strategies in estimating exposure to mycophenolic acid in people with autoimmune disease?  

PubMed

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a potent immunosuppressant agent, which is increasingly being used in the treatment of patients with various autoimmune diseases. Dosing to achieve a specific target MPA area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h post-dose (AUC12) is likely to lead to better treatment outcomes in patients with autoimmune disease than a standard fixed-dose strategy. This review summarizes the available published data around concentration monitoring strategies for MPA in patients with autoimmune disease and examines the accuracy and precision of methods reported to date using limited concentration-time points to estimate MPA AUC12. A total of 13 studies were identified that assessed the correlation between single time points and MPA AUC12 and/or examined the predictive performance of limited sampling strategies in estimating MPA AUC12. The majority of studies investigated mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) rather than the enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) formulation of MPA. Correlations between MPA trough concentrations and MPA AUC12 estimated by full concentration-time profiling ranged from 0.13 to 0.94 across ten studies, with the highest associations (r (2) = 0.90-0.94) observed in lupus nephritis patients. Correlations were generally higher in autoimmune disease patients compared with renal allograft recipients and higher after MMF compared with EC-MPS intake. Four studies investigated use of a limited sampling strategy to predict MPA AUC12 determined by full concentration-time profiling. Three studies used a limited sampling strategy consisting of a maximum combination of three sampling time points with the latest sample drawn 3-6 h after MMF intake, whereas the remaining study tested all combinations of sampling times. MPA AUC12 was best predicted when three samples were taken at pre-dose and at 1 and 3 h post-dose with a mean bias and imprecision of 0.8 and 22.6 % for multiple linear regression analysis and of -5.5 and 23.0 % for maximum a posteriori (MAP) Bayesian analysis. Although mean bias was less when data were analysed using multiple linear regression, MAP Bayesian analysis is preferable because of its flexibility with respect to sample timing. Estimation of MPA AUC12 following EC-MPS administration using a limited sampling strategy with samples drawn within 3 h post-dose resulted in biased and imprecise results, likely due to a longer time to reach a peak MPA concentration (t max) with this formulation and more variable pharmacokinetic profiles. Inclusion of later sampling time points that capture enterohepatic recirculation and t max improved the predictive performance of strategies to predict EC-MPS exposure. Given the considerable pharmacokinetic variability associated with mycophenolate therapy, limited sampling strategies may potentially help in individualizing patient dosing. However, a compromise needs to be made between the predictive performance of the strategy and its clinical feasibility. An opportunity exists to combine research efforts globally to create an open-source database for MPA (AUC, concentrations and outcomes) that can be used and prospectively evaluated for AUC target-controlled dosing of MPA in autoimmune diseases. PMID:24327238

Abd Rahman, Azrin N; Tett, Susan E; Staatz, Christine E

2014-03-01

171

High-gradient cavity beat-wave accelerator at W-band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed rf heating is a fundamental limit on high-gradient acceleration in copper structures. Reduction of pulsed heating is favored by a short exposure time for the copper; yet in conventional accelerators, efficiency requires an exposure time of order of the cavity fill time. At the W-Band, the cavity beat-wave transformer concept permits efficient energy transfer to resonant accelerating modes on

D. H. Whittum; H. Henket; P. J. Chou

1997-01-01

172

Revision of French Occupational Exposure Limits of Asbestos and Recommendation of Measurement Method: Can the Dimensional Characteristics of the Asbestos Fibers (Long, Thin, Short) Be Taken Into Account?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France, the present regulations on occupational exposure to asbestos fibers take into account fibers (FRp: fibers measured for industrial hygiene) with the following dimensions: L > 5 ?m, D < 3 ?m, and L\\/D > 3 where L is the length and D the diameter of the fiber. The limit value is set at 0.1 f\\/cm for 1 hr.

M. El Yamani; G. Boulanger; E. Nerrière-Catelinois; A. Paillat; H. Modelon; A. Soyez; F. Paquet; S. Binet; P. Brochard

2012-01-01

173

Estimation the upper limit of prehistoric peak ground acceleration using the parameters of intact stalagmite in Plavecka Priepast, PP2 Slovakia-Seismic Hazard of Vienna and Bratislava  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A specially shaped (high, slim and more or less cylindrical), vulnerable, intact stalagmite (STM) in Plavecka Priepast PP2 has been examined last year. This STM is suitable for estimating the upper limit for horizontal peak ground acceleration generated by paleoearthquake. The method of our investigation is the same as before: --- the density, Young's modulus and tensile failure stress of broken STM samples (lying at the same hall of PP2, as the investigated stalagmite) have been measured in mechanical laboratory; --- the height and diameters of the intact STMs, as well as its natural frequency have been determined in situ; --- theoretical calculations based on these measurements then produce the value of horizontal ground acceleration resulting in failure, as well as the theoretical natural frequency of the STM; --- core samples were taken from a column dripstone standing in the same hall as the investigated stalagmite to obtain the age of the stalagmite, by Multi Collector - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis (MC-ICPMS). This technique can yield important new constraints on seismic hazard, as geological structures close to Plavecka Priepast PP2 cave did not generate strong paleoearthquakes in the last few thousand years which would have produced horizontal ground acceleration larger than the upper acceleration threshold that we determine from the STM. These results have to be taken into account, when calculating the seismic potential of faults near to PP2 cave as well as in Vienna basin Markgrafneusiedler fault. A particular important of this study results from the seismic hazard of two close-by capitals: Vienna and Bratislava.

Gribovszki, Katalin; Kovács, Károly; Mónus, Péter; Konecny, Pavel; Bokelmann, Goetz; Brimich, Ladislav

2014-05-01

174

Asymmetric otolith function and increased susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to variations in gravitoinertial acceleration level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Von Baumgarten and coworkers (1979, 1981) have suggested that asymmetries in otolith function between the left and right labyrinths may result from differences in otoconial mass and could play a role in space motion sickness. Such asymmetries would be centrally compensated for under terrestrial conditions, but on exposure to weightlessness the persisting central compensation would produce a central imbalance that could lead to motion sickness. In this work ocular counterrolling was used as a way of measuring the relative 'efficiency' of the left and right otoliths; the ocular counterrolling scores of individuals were compared with their susceptibility to motion sickness during passive exposure to variations in Gz in parabolic flight maneuvers. The experimental findings indicate that large asymmetries in counterrolling for leftward and rightward body tilts are associated with greater susceptibility to motion sickness in parabolic flight.

Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton; Johnson, Walter H.; Money, Kenneth E.

1987-01-01

175

Quantification of print, radio and television exposure among previous blood donors in Kenya: an opportunity for encouraging repeat donation in a resource-limited setting?  

PubMed

Blood services in sub-Saharan Africa experience blood shortages and low retention of voluntary, non-remunerated donors. To boost collections by encouraging repeat donations, the Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service is exploring the likelihood of reaching previous donors through targeted print, radio and television advertising. We analysed data from a national AIDS Indicator Survey to determine whether previous donors have significant exposure to media. Respondents reporting history of blood donation had significantly higher exposure to print, radio and television media than those without history of blood donation. Targeted media campaigns encouraging repeat donation are likely to reach previous donors even in resource-limited settings. PMID:20598106

Basavaraju, S V; Mwangi, J; Kellogg, T A; Odawo, L; Marum, L H

2010-10-01

176

Early exposure to toxic metals has a limited effect on blood pressure or kidney function in later childhood, rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic exposure to toxic metals such as arsenic and cadmium has been implicated in the development of kidney and cardiovascular diseases but few studies have directly measured exposure during inutero and early child development. Methods We investigated the impact of exposure to arsenic (mainly in drinking water) and cadmium (mainly in rice) during pregnancy on blood pressure and kidney function at 4.5 years of age in rural Bangladesh. The effect of arsenic exposure in infancy was also assessed. Results Within a cohort of 1887 children recruited into the MINIMat study, exposure to arsenic (maternal urinary arsenic, U-As), but not cadmium, during in utero development was associated with a minimal increase in blood pressure at 4.5 years. Each 1 mg/l increase in pregnancy U-As was associated with 3.69 mmHg (95% CI: 0.74, 6.63; P: 0.01) increase in child systolic and a 2.91 mmHg (95% CI: 0.41, 5.42; P: 0.02) increase in child diastolic blood pressure. Similarly, a 1 mg/l increase in child U-As at 18 months of age was associated with a 8.25 mmHg (95% CI: 1.37, 15.1; P: 0.02) increase in systolic blood pressure at 4.5 years. There was also a marginal inverse association between infancy U-As and glomerular filtration rate at 4.5 years (?33.4 ml/min/1.72 m2; 95% CI: ?70.2, 3.34; P: 0.08). No association was observed between early arsenic or cadmium exposure and kidney volume at 4.5 years assessed by ultrasound. Conclusions These modest effect sizes provide some evidence that arsenic exposure in early life has long-term consequences for blood pressure and maybe kidney function.

Hawkesworth, Sophie; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kippler, Maria; Fulford, Anthony JC; Arifeen, Shams E; Persson, Lars-Ake; Moore, Sophie E; Vahter, Marie

2013-01-01

177

Experimental Evaluation of Accelerated T1rho Relaxation Quantification in Human Liver Using Limited Spin-Lock Times  

PubMed Central

Objective It was reported lately that to obtain consistent liver T1rho measurement, at 3T MRI using six spin-lock times (SLTs), is feasible. In this study, the feasibility of using three or two SLT points to measure liver T1rho relaxation time was explored. Materials and Methods Seventeen healthy volunteers underwent 36 examinations. Three representative axial slices were selected to cut through the upper, middle, and lower liver. A rotary echo spin-lock pulse was implemented in a 2D fast field echo sequence. Spin-lock frequency was 500 Hz and the spin-lock times of 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 milliseconds (ms) were used for T1rho mapping. T1rho maps were constructed by using all 6 SLT points, three SLT points of 1, 20, and 50 ms, or two SLTs of 1 and 50 ms, respectively. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland and Altman plot were used to assess the measurement agreement. Results Two examinations were excluded, due to motion artifact at the SLT of 50 ms. With the remaining 34 examinations, the ICC for 6-SLT vs. 3-SLT T1rho measurements was 0.922, while the ICC for 6-SLT vs. 2-SLT T1rho measurement was 0.756. The Bland and Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.19 (95% limits of agreement: -1.34, 1.73) for 6-SLT vs. 3-SLT T1rho measurement, and the mean difference of 0.89 (95% limits of agreement: -1.67, 3.45) for 6-SLT vs. 2-SLT T1rho measurement. The scan re-scan reproducibility ICC (n = 11 subjects) was 0.755, 0.727, and 0.528 for 6-SLT measurement, 3-SLT measurement, and 2-SLT measurement, respectively. Conclusion Adopting 3 SLTs of 1, 20, and 50 ms can be an acceptable alternative for the liver T1rho measurement, while 2 SLTs of 1 and 50 ms do not provide reliable measurement.

Zhao, Feng; Deng, Min; Yuan, Jing; Teng, Gao-Jun; Ahuja, Anil T

2012-01-01

178

Evaluation of Real-Time Techniques to Measure Hydrogen Peroxide in Air at the Permissible Exposure Limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major occupational concern from bio-decontamination of equipment using vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VHP) generation systems is potential operator exposure outside the protective barrier from possible VHP leaks or accidental releases from the sealed piece of equipment during decontamination. For this reason, different real-time monitoring techniques were evaluated to determine their ability to accurately measure VHP at concentrations ranging from

Mark A. Puskar; Marcia R. Plese

1996-01-01

179

In vivo comparison of epithelial responses for S-8 versus JP-8 jet fuels below permissible exposure limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to characterize and compare the pulmonary effects in distal lung from a low-level exposure to jet propellant-8 fuel (JP-8) and a new synthetic-8 fuel (S-8). It is hypothesized that both fuels have different airway epithelial deposition and responses. Consequently, male C57BL\\/6 mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 and JP-8 at average concentrations of 53mg\\/m3 for 1h\\/day

Simon S. Wong; Jason Vargas; Alana Thomas; Cindy Fastje; Michael McLaughlin; Ryan Camponovo; R. Clark Lantz; Jeffrey Heys; Mark L. Witten

2008-01-01

180

Exposure to 56Fe irradiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) such as 56Fe, produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism. For example, an increased release of reactive oxygen species, and the subsequent oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused to the central nervous system, is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Therefore, dietary antioxidants, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, could be used as countermeasures to prevent the behavioral changes seen in these conditions. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment, and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a “map” provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts, particularly middle-aged ones, to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Casadesus, Gemma; Carey, Amanda N.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.

181

Degradation of ZnO-based window layers for thin-film CIGS by accelerated stress exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliability of ZnO-based window layer for CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells was investigated. Samples of RF magnetron-sputtered, single-layer intrinsic and Al-doped ZnO and their combined bilayer on glass substrates were exposed in a weatherometer (WOM) and damp heat (DH) conditions with or without acetic acid vapor. Some preliminary samples of single-layer Al-doped Zn1-xMgxO (ZMO) alloy, a potential replacement for Al:ZnO with a wider bandgap, were also evaluated in the DH. The Al-doped ZnO and ZMO films showed irreversible loss in the conducting properties, free carrier mobility, and characteristic absorption band feature after <500-h DH exposure, with the originally clear transparent films turned into white hazy insulating films and the degradation rate follows the trend of (DH + acetic acid) > DH > WOM. The degradation rate was also reduced by higher film thickness, higher deposition substrate temperature, and dry-out intervals. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis indicate that the ZnO-based films underwent structural degeneration by losing their highly (002) preferential orientation with possible transformation from hexagonal into cubic and formation of Zn(OH)2. Periodic optical micro-imaging observations suggested a temporal process that involves initial hydrolysis of the oxides at sporadic weak spots, swelling and popping of the hydrolyzed spots due to volume increase, segregation of hydrolyzed regions causing discontinuity of electrical path, hydrolysis of the oxide-glass interface, and finally, formation of insulating oxides/hydroxides with visible delamination over larger areas.

Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.; To, B.; DeHart, C.; Li, X.; Glick, S. H.

2008-08-01

182

Laser selection based on maximum permissible exposure limits for visible and middle-near infrared repetitively pulsed lasers.  

SciTech Connect

The Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) is central to laser hazard analysis and is in general a function of the radiant wavelength. The selection of a laser for a particular application may allow for flexibility in the selection of the radiant wavelength. This flexibility would allow the selection of a particular laser based on the MPE and the hazards associated with that radiant wavelength. The Calculations of the MPEs for various laser wavelength ranges are presented. Techniques for determining eye safe viewing distances for both aided and unaided viewing and the determination of flight hazard distances are presented as well.

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2004-03-01

183

Theoretical assessment of the maximum obtainable power in wireless power transfer constrained by human body exposure limits in a typical room scenario.  

PubMed

In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates. PMID:24889372

Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Umenei, Aghuinyue Esai

2014-07-01

184

Theoretical assessment of the maximum obtainable power in wireless power transfer constrained by human body exposure limits in a typical room scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates.

Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Esai Umenei, Aghuinyue

2014-07-01

185

In vivo comparison of epithelial responses for S-8 versus JP-8 jet fuels below permissible exposure limit.  

PubMed

This study was designed to characterize and compare the pulmonary effects in distal lung from a low-level exposure to jet propellant-8 fuel (JP-8) and a new synthetic-8 fuel (S-8). It is hypothesized that both fuels have different airway epithelial deposition and responses. Consequently, male C57BL/6 mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 and JP-8 at average concentrations of 53mg/m(3) for 1h/day for 7 days. A pulmonary function test performed 24h after the final exposure indicated that there was a significant increase in expiratory lung resistance in the S-8 mice, whereas JP-8 mice had significant increases in both inspiratory and expiratory lung resistance compared to control values. Neither significant S-8 nor JP-8 respiratory permeability changes were observed compared to controls, suggesting no loss of epithelial barrier integrity. Morphological examination and morphometric analysis of airway tissue demonstrated that both fuels showed different patterns of targeted epithelial cells: bronchioles in S-8 and alveoli/terminal bronchioles in JP-8. Collectively, our data suggest that both fuels may have partially different deposition patterns, which may possibly contribute to specific different adverse effects in lung ventilatory function. PMID:18930109

Wong, Simon S; Vargas, Jason; Thomas, Alana; Fastje, Cindy; McLaughlin, Michael; Camponovo, Ryan; Lantz, R Clark; Heys, Jeffrey; Witten, Mark L

2008-12-01

186

IN VIVO COMPARISON OF EPITHELIAL RESPONSES FOR S-8 VERSUS JP-8 JET FUELS BELOW PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to characterize and compare the pulmonary effects in distal lung from a low-level exposure to jet propellant-8 fuel (JP-8) and a new synthetic-8 fuel (S-8). It is hypothesized that both fuels have different airway epithelial deposition and responses. Consequently, male C57BL/6 mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 and JP-8 at average concentrations of 53 mg/m3 for 1 hour/day for 7 days. A pulmonary function test performed 24 hr after the final exposure indicated that there was a significant increase in expiratory lung resistance in the S-8 mice, whereas JP-8 mice had significant increases in both inspiratory and expiratory lung resistance compared to control values. Neither significant S-8 nor JP-8 respiratory permeability changes were observed compared to controls, suggesting no loss of epithelial barrier integrity. Morphological examination and morphometric analysis of airway tissue demonstrated that both fuels showed different patterns of targeted epithelial cells: bronchioles in S-8 and alveoli/terminal bronchioles in JP-8. Collectively, our data suggest that both fuels may have partially different deposition patterns, which may possibly contribute to specific different adverse effects in lung ventilatory function.

Wong, Simon S.; Vargas, Jason; Thomas, Alana; Fastje, Cindy; McLaughlin, Michael; Camponovo, Ryan; Lantz, R. Clark; Heys, Jeffrey; Witten, Mark L.

2010-01-01

187

Limiting human exposures through the ``as low as reasonably achievable`` process at a Department of Energy mixed waste site  

SciTech Connect

Applying a process to reduce human exposures to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is a cornerstone of the US Department of Energy`s radiation protection program, and this process is being used to develop cleanup levels for contaminated sites across the country. Under the ALARA process, exposures and risks are reduced as far below protective criteria as can reasonably be achieved--considering technical, economic, and social factors. Risk-based cleanup levels have been developed for radionuclides and chemicals in surface water and soil at the Weldon Spring site in Missouri, following explicit applications of the ALARA process. Among the lessons learned during these applications were the importance of three factors: (1) soliciting early input from the parties involved--because the ALARA process involves a range of technical and nontechnical issues; (2) maintaining site specificity for the ALARA analyses--because contaminant types and distributions will vary, as will local conditions and constraints; and (3) identifying cleanup levels in the planning phase that are distinct from those developed for the field phase--because remedies can be over-designed if the decision levels are the same as the ALARA goals for field work, such that little increased risk reduction is achieved for substantially higher costs.

MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J.; Haroun, L.; Blunt, D.; Dunning, D.

1994-09-01

188

The LDCE Particle Impact Experiment as flown on STS-46. [limited duration space environment candidate materials exposure (LDCE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many materials and techniques have been developed by the authors to sample the flux of particles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Though regular in-site sampling of the flux in LEO the materials and techniques have produced data which compliment the data now being amassed by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) research activities. Orbital debris models have not been able to describe the flux of particles with d sub p less than or = 0.05 cm, because of the lack of data. Even though LDEF will provide a much needed baseline flux measurement, the continuous monitoring of micron and sub-micron size particles must be carried out. A flight experiment was conducted on the Space Shuttle as part of the LDCE payload to develop an understanding of the Spatial Density (concentration) as a function of size (mass) for particle sizes 1 x 10(exp 6) cm and larger. In addition to the enumeration of particle impacts, it is the intent of the experiment that hypervelocity particles be captured and returned intact. Measurements will be performed post flight to determine the flux density, diameters, and subsequent effects on various optical, thermal control and structural materials. In addition to these principal measurements, the Particle Impact Experiment (PIE) also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment, e.g., thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen, etc. The experiment will measure the optical property changes of mirrors and will provide the fluence of the ambient atomic oxygen environment to other payload experimenters. In order to augment the amount of material returned in a form which can be analyzed, the survivability of the experiment as well as the captured particles will be assessed. Using Sandia National Laboratory's hydrodynamic computer code CTH, hypervelocity impacts on the materials which comprise the experiments have been investigated and the progress of these studies are reported.

Maag, Carl R.; Tanner, William G.; Borg, Janet; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Alexander, W. Merle; Maag, Andrew J.

1992-01-01

189

Future Accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These lectures contain (a) an overview of what might be learned from experiments at future (e bar)e, pp and ep colliders, (b) a review of limitations on circular and linear colliders, and (c) a description of some novel ideas for acceleration.

C. H. Llewellyn Smith

1986-01-01

190

Cadmium exposure and sulfate limitation reveal differences in the transcriptional control of three sulfate transporter (Sultr1;2) genes in Brassica juncea  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium (Cd) exposure and sulfate limitation induce root sulfate uptake to meet the metabolic demand for reduced sulfur. Although these responses are well studied, some aspects are still an object of debate, since little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which changes in sulfate availability and sulfur metabolic demand are perceived and transduced into changes in the expression of the high-affinity sulfate transporters of the roots. The analysis of the natural variation occurring in species with complex and highly redundant genome could provide precious information to better understand the topic, because of the possible retention of mutations in the sulfate transporter genes. Results The analysis of plant sulfur nutritional status and root sulfate uptake performed on plants of Brassica juncea – a naturally occurring allotetraploid species – grown either under Cd exposure or sulfate limitation showed that both these conditions increased root sulfate uptake capacity but they caused quite dissimilar nutritional states, as indicated by changes in the levels of nonprotein thiols, glutathione and sulfate of both roots and shoots. Such behaviors were related to the general accumulation of the transcripts of the transporters involved in root sulfate uptake (BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2). However, a deeper analysis of the expression patterns of three redundant, fully functional, and simultaneously expressed Sultr1;2 forms (BjSultr1;2a, BjSultr1;2b, BjSultr1;2c) revealed that sulfate limitation induced the expression of all the variants, whilst BjSultr1;2b and BjSultr1;2c only seemed to have the capacity to respond to Cd. Conclusions A novel method to estimate the apparent kM for sulfate, avoiding the use of radiotracers, revealed that BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2a/b/c are fully functional high-affinity sulfate transporters. The different behavior of the three BjSultr1;2 variants following Cd exposure or sulfate limitation suggests the existence of at least two distinct signal transduction pathways controlling root sulfate uptake in dissimilar nutritional and metabolic states.

2014-01-01

191

Solid state accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 10/sup 5/ TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

1987-05-05

192

A Solid state accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 10/sup 5/ TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

1986-11-06

193

Limitations Placed on the Time Coverage, Isoplanatic Patch Size and Exposure Time for Solar Observations Using Image Selection Procedures in the Presence of Telescope Aberrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image selection, adaptive optics and post-facto image restoration methods are all techniques being used for diffraction limited imaging with ground-based solar and stellar telescopes. Often these techniques are used in a hybrid form like e.g. the application of adaptive optics and/or post-facto image restoration in combination with already good images obtained by image selection in periods of good seeing. Fried (JOSA 56, 1372, 1966), Hecquet and Coupinot (J. Optics/Paris 16, 21, 1985) and Beckers ("Solar and Stellar Granulation", Kluwer, Rutten & Severino Eds, 55, 1988) already discussed the usefulness of image selection, or the "Lucky Observer" mode, for high resolution imaging. All assumed perfect telescope optics. In case of moderate telescope aberrations image selection can still lead to diffraction limited imaging but only when the atmospheric wavefront aberration happens to compensate that of the telescope. In this "Very Lucky Observer" mode the probability of obtaining a good image is reduced over the un-aberrated case, as are the size of the isoplanatic patch and the exposure time. We describe an analysis of these effects for varying telescope aberrations. These result in a strong case for the removal of telescope aberrations either by initial implementation or by the use of slow active optics.

Beckers, J. M.; Rimmele, T. R.

1996-12-01

194

Laser acceleration with open waveguides  

SciTech Connect

A unified framework based on solid-state open waveguides is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and damage of waveguide structure by high power laser. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration and ponderomotive-driven acceleration. Thus the solutions provided here encompass all mainstream approaches for laser acceleration, either in vacuum, gases or plasmas.

Xie, Ming

1999-03-01

195

Limitations of Norris-Landzberg equation and application of damage accumulation based methodology for estimating acceleration factors for Pb free solders  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing use of Pb free solder in Electronic assemblies the estimation of their reliability under field use conditions is becoming important. The acceleration factor for solder depends on delta T, dwell times, ramp rates, actual values of temperature extremes, and the type of package. During the last few years, a number of papers have been published to determine

Ahmer Syed

2010-01-01

196

Switched matrix accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We also provide an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392 GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium.

Whittum, David H.; Tantawi, Sami G.

2001-01-01

197

Erratic boulder trains and cosmogenic exposure dating of former glacial limits: A case-study from Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erratic Boulder Trains (EBTs) are a spectacular yet poorly-understood glacial geomorphological feature. These linear clusters of glacial erratic boulders help to illustrate the flow-lines of former glaciers by pin-pointing the parent rock from which they have originated and are often used as targets for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. Consequently, there is a need to understand their geomorphological significance to improve ice-sheet reconstructions and provide important contextual information for dating studies. The EBTs in Tierra del Fuego are some of the finest examples of this feature in the world, and this paper presents the first comprehensive mapping and physical assessment of four boulder trains. Unlike most other examples, they were deposited laterally rather than medially and are tightly clustered, presenting linear features only a few kilometres long that contain hundreds to thousands of huge boulders (often >8 m in diameter). The size and angularity of the boulders strongly supports the hypothesis that they were deposited as a supraglacial rock avalanche. The boulders have been the subject of previous cosmogenic dating, which have yielded anomalously young ages from deposits thought to be hundreds of thousands of years old. Analysis of weathering proxies shows little difference between boulder trains thought to be of radically different ages, with important implications for the timing of glaciations and potentially contradicting previous age constraints on glacial limits in the region.

Darvill, Christopher; Stokes, Chris; Bentley, Mike

2014-05-01

198

Administration of Diethylnitrosamine in the Immediate Postnatal Period Coupled with Exposure to a Choline Deficient Diet Accelerates Hepatocarcinogenesis in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine if the combination of: i. neonatal administration of diethylnitrosamine and ii. subsequent feeding of a choline deficient diet could accelerate hepatic premalignancy in the rat. The presence and size of premalignant nodules and the activity of the liver cancer enzyme marker g-glutamyltranspeptidase (gGT) were used as indicators of hepatic premalignancy. Three day

Susan Hemmings; Judee Strickland

2002-01-01

199

Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?  

SciTech Connect

The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 (Brazil)

2009-03-10

200

Limiter study  

SciTech Connect

Studies of energy deposition on a mushroom-shaped limiter have been performed on ZT-40M. Total energy deposition, estimated power deposition per unit area, the effects of gas puffing and vertical and error field application, and approximate time histories of the extent of the impact area are presented for two different current levels (120 and 190 kA), protrusions into the body of the plasma (+2 - +12 mm from the wall) and limiter materials. Photographs of a bare graphite and TiC-coated graphite limiter before and after exposure to the plasma are shown. Massive spallation of the TiC-coated limiter is observed at the higher current level. Spallation occurs during the discharge and after termination. The degree of spallation is dependent on the current level. The average power deposition on the limiter over the discharge is estimated to be less than or equal to 1 MW.

Downing, J.N.; Gordon, R.A.; Thomas, K.S.; Watt, R.G.

1983-08-01

201

Accelerators (3/5)  

ScienceCinema

1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

None

2011-10-06

202

Accelerators (5/5)  

ScienceCinema

1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

None

2011-10-06

203

Accelerators (4/5)  

ScienceCinema

1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

None

2011-10-06

204

Plasma Accelerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accelerator has potential applications in aerodynamic testing, as a source of high-speed plasma for research and as a propulsion system for space vehicles. The accelerator is capable of steady flow operation. The arrangement includes an accelerating c...

G. P. Wood A. F. Carter A. Busemann

1965-01-01

205

SN 1987A - The impact of greater than 50 MeV gamma-ray luminosity limits on theories of particle acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the data obtained from two flights of a balloonborne gamma-ray detector to observe SN 1987A was completed. The detector, which included a spark chamber to determine the arrival directions of the photons, was sensitive in the energy range 50-500 MeV. The 95 percent confidence upper limit to the flux on day 55 after the explosion has been established to be 1.1 x 10 exp -5 photons/sq cm/s and on day 407 to be 3.4 x 10 exp -5 photons/sq cm/s. These limits are compared with various theoretical predictions.

Sood, R. K.; Waldron, L.; Rochester, G. K.; Sumner, T. J.; Frye, G.; Jenkins, T.; Staubert, R.; Kendziorra, E.; Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.

1992-08-01

206

SN 1987A - The impact of greater than 50 MeV gamma-ray luminosity limits on theories of particle acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the data obtained from two flights of a balloonborne gamma-ray detector to observe SN 1987A was completed. The detector, which included a spark chamber to determine the arrival directions of the photons, was sensitive in the energy range 50-500 MeV. The 95 percent confidence upper limit to the flux on day 55 after the explosion has been established to be 1.1 x 10 exp -5 photons/sq cm/s and on day 407 to be 3.4 x 10 exp -5 photons/sq cm/s. These limits are compared with various theoretical predictions.

Sood, R. K.; Waldron, L.; Rochester, G. K.; Sumner, T. J.; Frye, G.; Jenkins, T.; Staubert, R.; Kendziorra, E.; Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.

1992-01-01

207

AN OVERVIEW OF THE ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS USED IN EVALUATING HEALTH IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposures to environmental pollutants widely vary depending on the emission patterns that result in microenvironmental pollutant concentrations, as well as behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with these pollutants. Each component of the s...

208

Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within a tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit, and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans.

Ehman, E. C.; Rossman, P. J.; Kruse, S. A.; Sahakian, A. V.; Glaser, K. J.

2008-02-01

209

Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure, and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast, and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values, and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans.

Ehman, E C; Rossman, P J; Kruse, S A; Sahakian, A V; Glaser, K J

2010-01-01

210

Limiting worker exposure to highly pathogenic avian influenza a (H5N1): a repeat survey at a rendering plant processing infected poultry carcasses in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background Current occupational and public health guidance does not distinguish between rendering plant workers and cullers/poultry workers in terms of infection risk in their respective roles during highly pathogenic avian influenza poultry outbreaks. We describe an operational approach to human health risk assessment decision making at a large rendering plant processing poultry carcasses stemming from two separate highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreaks in England during 2007. Methods During the first incident a uniform approach assigned equal exposure risk to all rendering workers in or near the production line. A task based exposure assessment approach was adopted during the second incident based on a hierarchy of occupational activities and potential for infection exposure. Workers assessed as being at risk of infection were offered personal protective equipment; pre-exposure antiviral prophylaxis; seasonal influenza immunisation; hygiene advice; and health monitoring. A repeat survey design was employed to compare the two risk assessment approaches, with allocation of antiviral prophylaxis as the main outcome variable. Results Task based exposure assessment during the second incident reduced the number of workers assessed at risk of infection from 72 to 55 (24% reduction) when compared to the first incident. No cases of influenza like illness were reported in workers during both incidents. Conclusions Task based exposure assessment informs a proportionate public health response in rendering plant workers during highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks, and reduces reliance on extensive antiviral prophylaxis.

2011-01-01

211

Acceleration in astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

Colgate, S.A.

1993-12-31

212

Bisphenol A Accelerates Toxic Amyloid Formation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: A Possible Link between Bisphenol A Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound widely used in manufacturing plastic products. Recent epidemiological studies suggest BPA exposure is positively associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the pancreatic ?-cells. Misfolding of hIAPP into toxic oligomers and mature fibrils can disrupt cell membrane and lead to ?-cell death, which is regarded as one of the causative factors of T2DM. To test whether there are any connections between BPA exposure and hIAPP misfolding, we investigated the effects of BPA on hIAPP aggregation using thioflavin-T based fluorescence, transmission electronic microscopy, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, size-exclusion chromatography,fluorescence-dye leakage assay in an artificial micelle system and the generation of reactive oxygen species in INS-1 cells. We demonstrated that BPA not only dose-dependently promotes the aggregation of hIAPP and enhances the membrane disruption effects of hIAPP, but also promotes the extent of hIAPP aggregation related oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that BPA exposure increased T2DM risk may involve the exacerbated toxic aggregation of hIAPP.

Gong, Hao; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Biao; Sun, Yue; Li, Chuanzhou; Li, Ting; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

2013-01-01

213

Biomonitoring - An Exposure Science Tool for Exposure and Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Biomonitoring studies of environmental stressors are useful for confirming exposures, estimating dose levels, and evaluating human health risks. However, the complexities of exposure-biomarker and biomarker-response relationships have limited the use of biomarkers in exposure sc...

214

Accelerated atmospheric corrosion testing using a cyclic wet/dry exposure test; Galvanic couples of aluminum with graphite neoprene rubber, galvanized steel, and steel  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum corrosion is important in overhead electrical conductors constructed from aluminum wire centrally reinforced by galvanized steel strands. Inspection of conductor after long service has implicated rubber bushing material, on the outside, and the galvanized strands, on the inside, as providing potential galvanic sites for the initiation of rapid aluminum corrosion. Therefore, the galvanic corrosion of aluminum in contact with graphite-loaded neoprene rubber, hot-dip galvanized steel and steel was assessed in a cyclic wet/dry exposure test using mixed-salts spray solutions containing appropriate ratios of sulfate and chloride ion. Aluminum was found to corrode at between 3 to 6 times its uncoupled rate when associated with the rubber material. While the eta-phase, relatively pure Zn, galvanized layer remained intact, galvanic corrosion of aluminum was slow. However, on exposure of the zeta-phase, Zn/Fe intermetallic layer, aluminum corroded about 35 times faster than expected in a solution with a high level of Cl{sup -} ion. The importance of these data to conductor lifetime is discussed.

Lyon, S.B.; Thompson, G.E.; Johnson, J.E.; Wood, G.C. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology); Ferguson, J.M. (Central Electricity Generating Board, Guildford (UK))

1989-11-01

215

Long-Day Photoperiod that Enhances Puberty Does Not Limit Body Growth in Holstein Heifers,†  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has demonstrated that extended photoperiod accelerates pubescence in dairy heifers thereby limiting time for mammary development, which could be detrimental to future milk yield. We hypothesized that the potential negative effects of rapid growth and puberty through long-day photoperiod (LDPP) exposure could be overcome with a greater sup- ply of metabolizable protein in dairy heifers fed rumen- undegradable

A. G. Rius; E. E. Connor; A. V. Capuco; P. E. Kendall; T. L. Auchtung-Montgomery; G. E. Dahl

2005-01-01

216

FFAGS FOR MUON ACCELERATION.  

SciTech Connect

Due to their finite lifetime, muons must be accelerated very rapidly. It is challenging to make the magnets ramp fast enough to accelerate in a synchrotron, and accelerating in a linac is very expensive. One can use a recirculating accelerator (like CEBAF), but one needs a different arc for each turn, and this limits the number of turns one can use to accelerate, and therefore requires significant amounts of RF to achieve the desired energy gain. An alternative method for muon acceleration is using a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator. Such an accelerator has a very large energy acceptance (a factor of two or three), allowing one to use the same arc with a magnetic field that is constant over time. Thus, one can in principle make as many turns as one can tolerate due to muon decay, therefore reducing the RF cost without increasing the arc cost. This paper reviews the current status of research into the design of FFAGs for muon acceleration. Several current designs are described and compared. General design considerations are also discussed.

BERG,J.S.KAHN,S.PALMER,R.TRBOJEVIC,D.JOHNSTONE,C.KEIL,Y.OGITSU,T.OHMORI,C.SESSLER,A.KOSCIELNIAK,S.

2003-06-26

217

Accelerator summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of the accelerator topics (CW electron accelerators, heavy ion colliders, kaon factories, polarized proton beams, and cooling rings) discussed in the 1984 conference on ``Intersections Between Particle and Nuclear Physics'' (Steamboat Springs) is presented. (AIP)

Mills, F. E.

1984-11-01

218

Accelerator summary  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the accelerator topics (CW electron accelerators, heavy ion colliders, kaon factories, polarized proton beams, and cooling rings) discussed in the 1984 conference on ''Intersections Between Particle and Nuclear Physics'' (Steamboat Springs) is presented. (AIP)

Mills, F.E.

1984-11-15

219

Future accelerators (?)  

SciTech Connect

I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

John Womersley

2003-08-21

220

The role of reported tobacco-specific media exposure on adult attitudes towards proposed policies to limit the portrayal of smoking in movies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the relative, independent contribution of reported tobacco-specific media exposure (pro-tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco advertising, and news coverage of tobacco issues) to US adults' support for policy efforts that aim to regulate the portrayal of smoking in movies.MethodsUsing the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey (ASHES-2), multivariable logistic regression was used to model the predicted probability that

Kelly D Blake; K. Viswanath; Robert J Blendon; Donna Vallone

2010-01-01

221

Collinear wake field acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along an axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it was observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. Some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme are explored. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator.

Bane, K. I. F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P. B.

1985-04-01

222

Collinear wake field acceleration  

SciTech Connect

In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

1985-04-01

223

Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538/Cancer and Leukemia Group B 30610).

Komaki, Ritsuko, E-mail: rkomaki@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ettinger, David S. [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Glisson, Bonnie S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Langer, Corey J. [Thoracic Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sause, William T. [Radiation Center, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas (United States)

2012-07-15

224

Loss of c-Met Accelerates Development of Liver Fibrosis in Response to CCl4 Exposure through Deregulation of Multiple Molecular Pathways  

PubMed Central

HGF/c-Met signaling plays a pivotal role in hepatocyte survival and tissue remodeling during liver regeneration. HGF treatment accelerates resolution of fibrosis in experimental animal models. Here, we utilized Metfl/fl;Alb-Cre+/? conditional knockout mice and a carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis model to formally address the role of c-Met signaling in hepatocytes in the context of chronic tissue injury. Histological changes during injury (4 weeks) and healing phase (4 weeks) were monitored by immunohistochemistry; expression levels of selected key fibrotic molecules were evaluated by western blotting, and time-dependent global transcriptomic changes were examined using a microarray platform. Loss of hepatocyte c-Met signaling altered hepatic microenvironment and aggravated hepatic fibrogenesis. Greater liver damage was associated with decreased hepatocyte proliferation, excessive stellate cell activation and rapid dystrophic calcification of necrotic areas. Global transcriptome analysis revealed a broad impact of c-Met on critical signaling pathways associated with fibrosis. Loss of hepatocyte c-Met caused a strong deregulation of chemotactic and inflammatory signaling (MCP-1, RANTES, Cxcl10) in addition to modulation of genes involved in reorganization of the cytoskeletal network (Actb, Tuba1a, Tuba8), intercellular communications and adhesion (Adam8, Icam1, Itgb2), control of cell proliferation (Ccng2, Csnk2a, Cdc6, cdk10), DNA damage and stress response (Rad9, Rad52, Ercc4, Gsta1 and 2, Jun). Our study demonstrates that deletion of c-Met receptor in hepatocytes results in pronounced changes in hepatic metabolism and microenvironment, and establishes an essential role for c-Met in maintaining the structural integrity and adaptive plasticity of the liver under adverse conditions.

Marquardt, Jens U; Seo, Daekwan; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis E; Uchida, Koichi; Gillen, Matthew C; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Kaposi-Novak, Pal; Conner, Elizabeth A; Factor, Valentina M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

2012-01-01

225

Loss of c-Met accelerates development of liver fibrosis in response to CCl(4) exposure through deregulation of multiple molecular pathways.  

PubMed

HGF/c-Met signaling plays a pivotal role in hepatocyte survival and tissue remodeling during liver regeneration. HGF treatment accelerates resolution of fibrosis in experimental animal models. Here, we utilized Met(fl/fl);Alb-Cre(+/-) conditional knockout mice and a carbon tetrachloride(CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis model to formally address the role of c-Met signaling in hepatocytes in the context of chronic tissue injury. Histological changes during injury (4weeks) and healing phase (4weeks) were monitored by immunohistochemistry; expression levels of selected key fibrotic molecules were evaluated by western blotting, and time-dependent global transcriptomic changes were examined using a microarray platform. Loss of hepatocyte c-Met signaling altered hepatic microenvironment and aggravated hepatic fibrogenesis. Greater liver damage was associated with decreased hepatocyte proliferation, excessive stellate cell activation and rapid dystrophic calcification of necrotic areas. Global transcriptome analysis revealed a broad impact of c-Met on critical signaling pathways associated with fibrosis. Loss of hepatocyte c-Met caused a strong deregulation of chemotactic and inflammatory signaling (MCP-1, RANTES, Cxcl10) in addition to modulation of genes involved in reorganization of the cytoskeletal network (Actb, Tuba1a, Tuba8), intercellular communications and adhesion (Adam8, Icam1, Itgb2), control of cell proliferation (Ccng2, Csnk2a, Cdc6, cdk10), DNA damage and stress response (Rad9, Rad52, Ercc4, Gsta1 and 2, Jun). Our study demonstrates that deletion of c-Met receptor in hepatocytes results in pronounced changes in hepatic metabolism and microenvironment, and establishes an essential role for c-Met in maintaining the structural integrity and adaptive plasticity of the liver under adverse conditions. PMID:22386877

Marquardt, Jens U; Seo, Daekwan; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis E; Uchida, Koichi; Gillen, Matthew C; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Kaposi-Novak, Pal; Conner, Elizabeth A; Factor, Valentina M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

2012-06-01

226

Induction linear accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

Birx, Daniel

1992-03-01

227

Ion Induction Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of beams in RF and induction accelerators share many common features. Likewise, there is considerable commonality between electron induction accelerators (see Chap. 7) and ion induction accelerators. However, in contrast to electron induction accelerators, there are fewer ion induction accelerators that have been operated as application-driven user facilities. Ion induction accelerators are envisioned for applications (see Chap. 10) such as Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), High Energy Density Physics (HEDP), and spallation neutron sources. Most ion induction accelerators constructed to date have been limited scale facilities built for feasibility studies for HIF and HEDP where a large numbers of ions are required on target in short pulses. Because ions are typically non-relativistic or weakly relativistic in much of the machine, space-charge effects can be of crucial importance. This contrasts the situation with electron machines, which are usually strongly relativistic leading to weaker transverse space-charge effects and simplified longitudinal dynamics. Similarly, the bunch structure of ion induction accelerators relative to RF machines results in significant differences in the longitudinal physics.

Barnard, John J.; Horioka, Kazuhiko

228

The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.  

PubMed

The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks. PMID:24829327

Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

2014-05-15

229

The importance of limited exposure to ultraviolet radiation and dietary factors in the aetiology of Asian rickets: a risk-factor model.  

PubMed

Regional variation in the prevalence of Asian rickets was examined in Coventry, Bradford and Glasgow. Records of 152 weeks of daylight outdoor exposure were obtained from 104 Glasgow Asian children, 53 of whom had been treated for rickets. Records of seven-day weighed dietary intake were obtained from 84 Asian children, 43 of whom had been treated for rickets. There was a marked north-south gradient in the prevalence of Asian rickets. In all cases of severe rickets with deformity the child was vegetarian. Severe rickets was associated with lower intake of meat, higher intake of chapati and lower daylight outdoor exposure values than in normal children. Multivariate analysis employing a combination of these variables provided good separation between rachitic and normal groups. A risk-factor model is proposed which suggests that regional variation in the prevalence of rickets among Asian communities in Britain is mainly determined by the effects of latitude and the nature of the urban environment on available ultraviolet radiation. Where UV radiation is restricted, individual propensity to rickets within a given Asian community is mainly determined by dietary factors. PMID:3659260

Henderson, J B; Dunnigan, M G; McIntosh, W B; Abdul-Motaal, A A; Gettinby, G; Glekin, B M

1987-05-01

230

Dose limits for astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.

Sinclair, W. K.

2000-01-01

231

Force Limited Vibration Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test data. A simple two degree of freedom system is shown and the governing equations for basic force limiting results for this system are reviewed. The design and results of the shuttle vibration forces (SVF) experiments are reviewed. The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) also was used to validate force limiting. Test instrumentation and supporting equipment are reviewed including piezo-electric force transducers, signal processing and conditioning systems, test fixtures, and vibration controller systems. Several examples of force limited vibration testing are presented with some results.

Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.

2005-01-01

232

High intensity hadron accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Accelerators needed to examine the intersections between nuclear and particle physics will require GeV energies with high beam intensities. Concerns about such high intensity machines are beam focusing, intensity limitations, power economics, and heavy ion applicability. These topics are the basis for this discussion. (AIP)

Teng, L.C.

1984-11-15

233

Plasma based accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A plasma medium can support a variety of wave motions which may be useful for accelerating charged particles. For highly relativistic beams the longitudinal electrostatic wave is most suitable and may be driven by laser or by particle beams. The basic principles, limitations and prospects for these devices are discussed.

Evans, R.G.

1987-05-05

234

Design and estimation of coded exposure point spread functions.  

PubMed

We address the problem of motion deblurring using coded exposure. This approach allows for accurate estimation of a sharp latent image via well-posed deconvolution and avoids lost image content that cannot be recovered from images acquired with a traditional shutter. Previous work in this area has used either manual user input or alpha matting approaches to estimate the coded exposure Point Spread Function (PSF) from the captured image. In order to automate deblurring and to avoid the limitations of matting approaches, we propose a Fourier-domain statistical approach to coded exposure PSF estimation that allows us to estimate the latent image in cases of constant velocity, constant acceleration, and harmonic motion. We further demonstrate that previously used criteria to choose a coded exposure PSF do not produce one with optimal reconstruction error, and that an additional 30 percent reduction in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of the latent image estimate can be achieved by incorporating natural image statistics. PMID:22585096

McCloskey, Scott; Ding, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jingyi

2012-10-01

235

Prolonged linear and radial accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall acceleration effects on the body and man's resistance to it are presented, including endurance limits, acceleration tolerances, and aftereffects. These effects on individual body systems are described for: (1) cardiovascular system, (2) respiratory system, (3) vision, (4) central nervous system, (5) endocrine glands, (6) gastrointestinal tract, and (7) renal system. Work capacity effects are also noted.

Vasilyev, P. V.; Kotovskaya, A. R.

1975-01-01

236

78 FR 33633 - Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields; Reassessment of Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Limits and Policies; Final...Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields AGENCY: Federal...

2013-06-04

237

Podcast: Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Podcast: Acceleration is a segment of the Force and Motion Short Course. The podcast is 2 minutes 13 seconds in duration. Presented by science experts and NSTA staff, the NSTA Online Short Courses are professional development opportunities de

2009-07-06

238

Accelerated molecular dynamics methods  

SciTech Connect

The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-04

239

Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.  

PubMed

According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

2009-01-01

240

Development and validation of limited sampling strategies for prediction of the systemic exposure to the novel anticancer agent E7070 (N-(3-chloro-7-indolyl)-1,4-benzenedisulphonamide)  

PubMed Central

Aims E7070 is a novel, sulphonamide anticancer agent currently under clinical development for the treatment of solid tumours. The aim of this study was to develop and validate limited sampling strategies for the prediction of E7070 exposure in two different treatment schedules for phase II studies using the Bayesian estimation approach. Methods Data from two phase I dose finding studies were used in which E7070 was administered either as a single 1 h infusion or as a daily 1 h infusion for 5 days. Plasma concentration-time data from 75 patients were randomly divided into an index data set, used for the development of the strategies, and a validation data set. Population pharmacokinetic parameters were derived on the basis of the index data set. The D-optimality algorithm was used for the selection of optimal time points for both treatment schedules. The developed strategies were compared by assessment of their predictive performance of exposure, expressed as AUC (area under the plasma concentration vs time curve), in the validation data set. Results The developed population pharmacokinetic model comprised three compartments, with saturable distribution to one peripheral compartment and both linear and saturable elimination from the central compartment. For the 1 h infusion, a four sample strategy was selected which resulted in unbiased and accurate predictions of AUC (bias 0.74%, precision 13%). A five sample strategy was generated for the daily times five schedule yielding unbiased (bias 3.2%) and precise (12% precision) predictions of AUC. Conclusions Optimal sampling strategies were developed and validated for estimation of E7070 exposure in two different treatment schedules. Both schedules enabled accurate and unbiased predictions of AUC.

van Kesteren, Charlotte; Mathot, R A A; Raymond, E; Armand, J P; Fumoleau, P; Punt, C; Ravic, M; Wanders, J; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M

2002-01-01

241

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI.

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

242

Accelerated life testing of spacecraft subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rationale and requirements for conducting accelerated life tests on electronic subsystems of spacecraft are presented. A method for applying data on the reliability and temperature sensitivity of the parts contained in a sybsystem to the selection of accelerated life test parameters is described. Additional considerations affecting the formulation of test requirements are identified, and practical limitations of accelerated aging are described.

Wiksten, D.; Swanson, J.

1972-01-01

243

A Plasma Wave Accelerator -- Surfatron I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles may be accelerated to arbitrarily high energy as they ride across the wave fronts. This paper describes this phenomenon for the Surfatron 1. The limitation on the total energy gain possible with recent plasma accelerator schemes such as the beat-wave accelerator of Tajima and Dawson is overcome by the Surfatron. By introducing a perpendicular magnetic field it is possible

T. Katsouleas; J. M. Dawson; C. Joshi

1983-01-01

244

Acceleration Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

Rogers, Melissa J. B.

1993-01-01

245

Accelerated degradation studies of MEH-PPV  

SciTech Connect

MEH-PPV, which normally has a reddish color, is well known to show photobleaching problems. The photobleaching can be greatly accelerated by exposure to laser light while in air. For example, shining 457 mn light of relatively low intensity (0.06 W/cm{sup 2}) on the MEH-PPV causes the photoluminescence to decrease by a factor of two within a few seconds of exposure, and to show a nearly complete bleaching of the material within 30 minutes. The degradation rate is strongly influenced by laser power, sample thickness, oxygen exposure during preparation and spinning, as well as the oxygen environment during the measurement. The photobleach is indicative of one class of degradation mechanisms limiting the usefulness of PPV based polymers in electroluminescent devices. MEH-PPV which was spin coated in a nitrogen environment and measured in vacuum showed no measurable photo-chemical degradation for measuring times of up to several hours. A dramatic decrease in PL intensity was observed, however, in the presence of oxygen, as well as in samples spin coated in air, but measured in vacuum. We present data on the PL of MEH-PPV, as a function of oxygen concentration.

Radousky, H.B.; Madden, A.D.; Pakbaz, K.; Hagler, T.W.; Lee, H.W.H.; Lorenzana, H.E.; Fox, G.A.; Elliker, P.R.

1995-07-01

246

Particle acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

1986-01-01

247

Plasma accelerator  

DOEpatents

There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Santa Fe, NM)

2002-01-01

248

Mental Acceleration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of the term "acceleration" to describe interventions to enhance children's intellectual potential is inappropriate, as the term cannot by justified from the standpoint of mental measurement, mental growth, genetics, or education. Maximizing a child's potential through creation of stimulating environments is recommended rather than…

Elkind, David

1988-01-01

249

A Meter-Scale Plasma Wakefield Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA) have recently shown substantial progress, attaining accelerating fields of more than 30 GV/m. The goal of the present experiment is to show that such accelerating fields can be sustained over the scale of a meter, resulting in a total energy gain comparable to the entire SLAC linear accelerator. We also seek to determine which factors limit the length of the interaction and determine the maximum achievable energy.

Ischebeck, Rasmus; Berry, Melissa; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark J.; Iverson, Richard; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Clayton, Christopher E.; Huang, Chengkun; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Mori, Warren B.; Zhou Miaomiao [University of California at Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Katsouleas, Thomas; Muggli, Patric; Oz, Erdem [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)

2006-11-27

250

BATSE sky exposure  

SciTech Connect

Angular sky exposure is presented for a number of published BATSE gamma-ray burst catalogs. A new algorithm was required due to telemetry gaps resulting from onboard tape recorder failures; the new algorithm improves the 1B Catalog exposure calculation. The most influential effects limiting BATSE's exposure are (1) deadtime due to triggering, (2) sky blockage by the Earth, and (3) trigger disabling when the spacecraft is in the SAA and over other specific Earth locations. Exposure has improved during the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) mission as a result of decreased Solar flares and magnetospheric particle events.

Hakkila, Jon [Mankato State University, Mankato Minnesota 56002-8400 (United States); Meegan, Charles A. [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Henze, William [Teledyne Brown at NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); McCollough, Michael [USRA at NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Kommers, Jefferson M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

1998-05-16

251

GRAPE Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I'll overview the past, present, and future of the GRAPE project, which started as the effort to design and develop specialized hardware for gravitational N-body problem. The current hardware, GRAPE-DR, has an architecture quite different from previous GRAPEs, in the sense that it is a collection of small, but programmable processors, while previous GRAPEs had hardwired pipelines. I'll discuss pros and cons of these two approaches, comparisons with other accelerators and future directions.

Makino, Junichiro

2011-04-01

252

MUON ACCELERATION  

SciTech Connect

One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

BERG,S.J.

2003-11-18

253

Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

Sandri, S.; Poggi, C. [ENEA, Radiation Protection Institute, IRP-FUAC, Frascati (Italy); Coniglio, A. [Medical Physics Department, S. Giovanni Calibita Hospital, Fatebenefratelli, Isola Tiberina, Roma (Italy); D'Arienzo, M. [ENEA, Ionizing Radiation Metrology National Institute, METR, Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

2011-12-13

254

Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

Sandri, S.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.; Poggi, C.

2011-12-01

255

Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed measurements of the axial velocity profile and electromagnetic structure of a high power, quasi-steady MPD discharge are used to formulate a gasdynamic model of the acceleration process. Conceptually dividing the accelerated plasma into an inner flow and an outer flow, it is found that more than two-thirds of the total power in the plasma is deposited in the inner flow, accelerating it to an exhaust velocity of 12.5 km/sec. The outer flow, which is accelerated to a velocity of only 6.2 km/sec, appears to provide a current conduction path between the inner flow and the anode. Related cathode studies have shown that the critical current for the onset of terminal voltage fluctuations, which was recently shown to be a function of the cathode area, appears to reach an asymptote for cathodes of very large surface area. Detailed floating potential measurements show that the fluctuations are confined to the vicinity of the cathode and hence reflect a cathode emission process rather than a fundamental limit on MPD performance.

Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

1974-01-01

256

Accelerators and the Accelerator Community  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

2008-06-01

257

ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS OF LINEAR PROTON ACCELERATOR STRUCTURES USING DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton accelerator structures for medical applications using Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) technology allow for the utilization of high electric field gradients on the order of 100 MV\\/m to accelerate the proton bunch. Medical applications involving cancer therapy treatment usually desire short bunch lengths on the order of hundreds of picoseconds in order to limit the extent of the energy deposited

S. D. Nelson; B. R. Poole; G. J. Caporaso

258

Laser Acceleration in Vacuum and Gases with Capillary Waveguide  

SciTech Connect

A unified framework is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration and distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and structure damage by high power laser if solid-state optical waveguide is used. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration and ponderomotive-driven acceleration. Thus this letter and its companion [1] provide solutions that are crucial to all mainstream approaches for laser acceleration, either in vacuum, gases or plasmas.

Xie, Ming

1999-02-01

259

Progress on Diamond-Based Cylindrical Dielectric Accelerating Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a high gradient diamond-based cylindrical dielectric loaded accelerator (DLA) is presented. A diamond-loaded DLA can potentially sustain accelerating gradients far in excess of the limits experimentally observed for conventional metallic accelerating structures. The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerators: high rf breakdown level, extremely low dielectric

A. Kanareykin; P. Schoessow; M. Conde; W. Gai

2006-01-01

260

Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

261

Aircraft Carrier Exposure Tests of Aluminum Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effort is underway to correlate results of accelerated laboratory corrosion tests with actual shipboard exposure of aircraft materials. This report describes the first of the series in which aluminum alloys with varying susceptibilities to exfoliation ...

E. J. Jankowsky S. J. Ketcham V. S. Agarwala

1979-01-01

262

Analysis of performance limitations for superconducting cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of superconducting cavities in accelerators can be limited by several factors, such as: field emission, quenches, arcing, rf power; and the maximum gradient at which a cavity can operate will be determined by the lowest of these limitations for that particular cavity. The CEBAF accelerator operates with over 300 cavities and, for each of them, the authors have

J. R. Delayen; L. R. Doolittle; C. E. Reece

1998-01-01

263

Microgravity acceleration measurement environment characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is a general-purpose instrumentation system designed to measure the accelerations onboard the shuttle Orbiter and shuttle/Spacelab vehicles. These measurements are used to support microgravity experiments and investigations into the microgravity environment of the vehicle. Acceleration measurement can be made at locations remote from the SAMS main instrumentation unit by the use of up to three remote triaxial sensor heads. The SAMS was developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in support of NASA's microgravity science programs. In the past, numerous acceleration measurement systems have flown on various space missions. These systems were tailored to measure accelerations for a narrow set of requirements and were limited in bandwidth, dynamic range, and recording capability. In addition, these systems were mission-peculiar and not easily modified for other applications or missions. The result has been an inability to accurately assess the expected microgravity environment prior to a mission for a particular experiment and/or location. The prime science objective for SAMS on the SL-J mission will be to measure the accelerations experienced by a multitude of experiments in the two racks of the Japanese First Materials Processing Test (FMPT). The FMPT consists of a variety of materials science and life science experiments contained in racks no. 7 and no. 10. The SAMS data will be made available to the FMPT principal investigators after the mission for their analysis with the FMPT data. A secondary science objective for SAMS will be the characterization of the acceleration environment of the Spacelab module. This will include an analysis of the acceleration transfer function of the Spacelab module which will utilize the FMPT acceleration measurement along with measurements at the rack no. 9 structure. Another analytical effort to be undertaken is a general characterization of the acceleration environment of the Spacelab as an orbiting laboratory. These analysis efforts will be in conjunction with similar measurements and analyses on other SAMS Spacelab missions.

Delombard, Richard

1993-01-01

264

Antimutagenicity of WR-1065 in L5178Y cells exposed to accelerated (56)Fe ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of the aminothiol WR-1065 [N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane] to protect L5178Y (LY) cells against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of exposure to accelerated (56)Fe ions (1.08 GeV/nucleon) was determined. It was found that while WR-1065 reduced the mutagenicity in both cell lines when it was present during the irradiation, the addition of WR-1065 after the exposure had no effect on the mutagenicity of the radiation in either cell line. No marked protection against the cytotoxic effects of exposure to (56)Fe ions was provided by WR-1065 when added either during or after irradiation in either cell line. We reported previously that WR-1065 protected the LY-S1 and LY-SR1 cell lines against both the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of X radiation when present during exposure, but that its protection when administered after exposure was limited to the mutagenic effects in the radiation-hypersensitive cell line, LY-S1. The results indicate that the mechanisms involved differ in the protection against cytotoxic compared to mutagenic effects and in the protection against damage caused by accelerated (56)Fe ions compared to X radiation.

Evans, H. H.; Evans, T. E.; Horng, M. F.

2002-01-01

265

Oxidised cosmic acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We give detailed proofs of several new no-go theorems for constructing flat four-dimensional accelerating universes from warped dimensional reduction. These new theorems improve upon previous ones by weakening the energy conditions, by including time-dependent compactifications, and by treating accelerated expansion that is not precisely de Sitter. We show that de Sitter expansion violates the higher-dimensional null energy condition (NEC) if the compactification manifold M is one-dimensional, if its intrinsic Ricci scalar R-ring vanishes everywhere, or if R-ring and the warp function satisfy a simple limit condition. If expansion is not de Sitter, we establish threshold equation-of-state parameters w below which accelerated expansion must be transient. Below the threshold w there are bounds on the number of e-foldings of expansion. If M is one-dimensional or R-ring everywhere vanishing, exceeding the bound implies the NEC is violated. If R-ring does not vanish everywhere on M, exceeding the bound implies the strong energy condition (SEC) is violated. Observationally, the w thresholds indicate that experiments with finite resolution in w can cleanly discriminate between different models which satisfy or violate the relevant energy conditions.

Wesley, Daniel H., E-mail: D.H.Wesley@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

266

The Muon Accelerator Program  

SciTech Connect

Multi-TeV Muon Colliders and high intensity Neutrino Factories have captured the imagination of the particle physics community. These new types of facility both require an advanced muon source capable of producing O(10{sup 21}) muons per year. The muons must be captured within bunches, and their phase space manipulated so that they fit within the acceptance of an accelerator. In a Neutrino Factory (NF), muons from this 'front end' are accelerated to a few GeV or a few tens of GeV, and then injected into a storage ring with long straight sections. Muon decays in the straight sections produce an intense neutrino beam. In a Muon Collider (MC) the muons must be cooled by a factor O(10{sup 6}) to produce beams that are sufficiently bright to give high luminosity in the collider. Bunches of positive and negative muons are then accelerated to high energy, and injected in opposite directions into a collider ring in which they collide at one or more interaction points. Over the last decade our understanding of the concepts and technologies needed for Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories has advanced, and it is now believed that, within a few years, with a well focused R&D effort (i) a Neutrino Factory could be proposed, and (ii) enough could be known about the technologies needed for a Muon Collider to assess the feasibility and cost of this new type of facility, and to make a detailed plan for the remaining R&D. Although these next NF and MC steps are achievable, they are also ambitious, and will require an efficient and dedicated organization to accomplish the desired goals with limited resources. The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has recently been created to propose and execute this R&D program.

Geer, Steve; /Fermilab; Zisman, Mike; /LBL, Berkeley

2011-08-01

267

High average power induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The induction accelerator is discussed with respect to general background and concept, beam transport, scaling, pulse power technology, and the electron beam injector. A discussion of the factors which affect the scaling of the intensity of the beam is given. Limiting factors include collective forces in the beam, virtual cathode formation, surroundings, and beam breakup instability. 24 refs., 11 figs. (WRF)

Swingle, J.C. (ed.)

1985-10-01

268

Six-degree-of-freedom whole-body vibration exposure levels during routine skidder operations.  

PubMed

This research focuses on quantifying six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure levels that occur in Northern Ontario skidders during routine field operating tasks. 6-DOF vibration running root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration levels at the operator/seat interface were determined for eight skidders while driving loaded, driving unloaded, picking up a load, dropping off a load and ploughing logs under field operating conditions. The acceleration data were weighted in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997 and evaluated for both health and comfort outcomes. The mean running RMS weighted translational and rotational accelerations all exceeded 0.36 m/s(2) and 0.14 rad/s(2). The greatest average accelerations occurred while driving unloaded with this condition displaying translational vibration total values (VTV) that exceeded the upper limit of the ISO 2631-1:1997 health caution zone within an average of 2.3 h. Utilizing 6-DOF VTV, virtually all operating conditions would be designated as uncomfortable. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study provides one of the most comprehensive reports on vibration exposures in seated vehicle operators. The results are geared towards ergonomists with discussions on health effects and measurement concerns, while providing the raw vibration exposure data that will be useful to vehicle, component and vibration sensor designers. PMID:20432089

Jack, R J; Oliver, M; Dickey, J P; Cation, S; Hayward, G; Lee-Shee, N

2010-05-01

269

A Compact Electromagnetic Accelerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electromagnetic pellet accelerator for the injection of glass beads into a plasma accelerator is used to simulate cometary dust for collection method development. The accelerator is described and a schematic diagram given. Its operational characteristi...

E. Igenbergs H. Kuczera P. Lell

1980-01-01

270

Radiography with Constant Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A constant value of the exposure (E = i t) produces a similar information whatever are the combinations that have been chosen to obtain it. However for the fast emulsions, this result is limited to some thicknesses. The quality control of structures requi...

P. A. Ruault

1976-01-01

271

Wakefields in Woodpile Accelerator Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The woodpile structure is a promising 3D photonic crystal for accelerating particles in a waveguide mode with speed-of-light phase velocity, driven by laser sources at optical frequencies. Using the simulation framework VORPAL, wakefields in possible woodpile structures have been simulated, with emphasis on eliminating unphysical transition radiation upon injecting the drive beam into the simulation. Operating at optical frequencies, the woodpile structure's small size would limit the maximum bunch change (though a high repetition rate would compensate for the high bunch charge, yielding a high current and eventually luminosity in an accelerator); calculation of the wakefields enables estimation of this maximum bunch charge.

Werner, Greg

2011-11-01

272

Future accelerator technology  

SciTech Connect

A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes.

Sessler, A.M.

1986-05-01

273

Accelerated degradation studies of MEH-PPV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MEH-PPV, which normally has a reddish color, is well known to show photobleaching problems. The photobleaching can be greatly accelerated by exposure to laser light while in air. For example, shining 457 mn light of relatively low intensity (0.06 W/cm(sup...

H. B. Radousky A. D. Madden K. Pakbaz T. W. Hagler H. W. H. Lee

1995-01-01

274

Chemical Exposure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Environmental Health Hormones Transcript Phthalates are a group of chemicals used to make ... the ban has helped lower exposure to some phthalates, while opening the door to others. Researchers looked ...

275

Laser acceleration in novel media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With newly available compact laser technology [1] we are capable of producing 100 PW-class laser pulses with a single-cycle duration on the femtosecond timescale. With this fs intense laser we can produce a coherent X-ray pulse that is also compressed, well into the hard X-ray regime (˜10 keV) and with a power up to as much as 10 Exawatts. We suggest utilizing these coherent X-rays to drive the acceleration of particles. Such X-rays are focusable far beyond the diffraction limit of the original laser wavelength and when injected into a crystal it forms a metallic-density electron plasma ideally suited for laser wakefield acceleration. If the X-ray field is limited by the Schwinger field at the focal size of ˜100 nm, the achievable energy is 1 PeV over 50 m. (If the X-rays are focused further, much higher energies beyond this are possible). These processes are not limited to only electron acceleration, and if ions are pre-accelerated to beyond GeV they are capable of being further accelerated using a LWFA scheme [2] to similar energies as electrons over the same distance-scales. Such high energy proton (and ion) beams can induce copious neutrons, which can also give rise to intense compact muon beams and neutrino beams that may be portable. High-energy gamma rays can also be efficiently emitted with a bril- liance many orders of magnitude above the brightest X-ray sources by this accelerating process, from both the betatron radiation as well as the dominant radiative-damping dynamics. With the exceptional conditions enabled by this technology we envision a whole scope of new physical phenomena, including: the possibility of laser self-focus in the vacuum, neutron manipulation by the beat of such lasers, zeptosecond spectroscopy of nuclei, etc. Further, we now introduce along with the idea of vacuum as a nonlinear medium, the Schwinger Fiber Accelerator. This is a self-organized vacuum fiber acceleration concept, in which the repeated process of self-focusing and defocusing for the X-ray pulse in vacuum forms a modulated fiber that guides the intense X-rays.

Tajima, T.

2014-05-01

276

High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport  

SciTech Connect

The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

1981-11-01

277

Maximal acceleration, Mach's principle, and the mass of the electron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent arguments for an upper limit to the proper acceleration of extended massive bodies are briefly reviewed. A transient mass shift in accelerated objects with non-constant proper mass density, expected in all locally Lorentz-invariant theories of gravitation which satisfy Mach's principle, is considered. This effect affects arguments for a maximal proper acceleration. It is shown that, while the widely discussed

James F. Woodward

1993-01-01

278

Natural sunlight accelerated weathering of photovoltaic modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic modules are exposed to the equivalent of ten years of sunlight aging in an accelerated exposure testing and evaluation program, the objective being to determine the long-term durability characteristics of flat plate modules in comparatively short periods of time. The modules are illuminated with concentrated sunlight in a large, sun-tracking, Fresnel-reflecting solar concentrator. The effects of the accelerated exposure are assessed by performing periodic visual inspections and electrical measurements. It is found that field-experienced failure modes are duplicated, that acceleration factors of 6x to 8x are readily attainable, and that the test method is feasible as a predictive tool for photovoltaic module lifetime durability.

Zerlaut, G. A.; Anderson, T. B.; Arnett, J. C.

1981-01-01

279

On Limits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of limits -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some limits that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?

Holzmann, Gerard J.

2008-01-01

280

Code Carnivals: resuscitating Code Blue training with accelerated learning.  

PubMed

Nurses in the hospital setting must be knowledgeable about resuscitation procedures and proficient in the delivery of care during an emergency. They must be ready to implement their knowledge and skills at a moment's notice. A common dilemma for many nurses is that cardiopulmonary emergencies (Code Blues) are infrequent occurrences. Therefore, how do nurses remain competent and confident in their implementation of emergency skills while having limited exposure to the equipment and minimal experience in emergency situations? A team of nurse educators at a regional medical center in Washington State applied adult learning theory and accelerated learning techniques to develop and present a series of learning activities to enhance the staff's familiarity with emergency equipment and procedures. The series began with a carnival venue that provided hands-on practice and review of emergency skills and was reinforced with subsequent random unannounced code drills led by both educators and charge nurses. PMID:20000265

Keys, Vicky A; Malone, Peggy; Brim, Carla; Schoonover, Heather; Nordstrom, Cindy; Selzler, Melissa

2009-12-01

281

Accelerating electromagnetic magic field from the C-metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various aspects of the C-metric representing two rotating charged black holes accelerated in opposite directions are summarized and its limits are considered. A particular attention is paid to the special-relativistic limit in which the electromagnetic field becomes the “magic field” of two oppositely accelerated rotating charged relativistic discs. When the acceleration vanishes the usual electromagnetic magic field of the Kerr-Newman black hole with gravitational constant set to zero arises. Properties of the accelerated discs and the fields produced are studied and illustrated graphically. The charges at the rim of the accelerated discs move along spiral trajectories with the speed of light. If the magic field has some deeper connection with the field of the Dirac electron, as is sometimes conjectured because of the same gyromagnetic ratio, the “accelerating magic field” represents the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated spinning electron. It generalizes the classical Born’s solution for two uniformly accelerated monopole charges.

Bi?ák, Ji?í; Kofro?, David

2009-09-01

282

68 FR 58348 - Final Recommendations for Protecting Human Health From Potential Adverse Effects of Exposure to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as the health effect in determining...deriving the VX exposure limits. As discussed...will minimize exposures. This adjustment...the calculated exposure limits are neither...adverse health effects have not been...previously recommended exposure limits. This...with the WPL. Exposures at the STEL...

2003-10-09

283

68 FR 54460 - Final Recommendations for Protecting Human Health from Potential Adverse Effects of Exposure to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...derive the GB exposure limit was miosis...as the health effect in determining...deriving the VX exposure limits. As discussed...will minimize exposures. This adjustment...adverse health effects have not been...previously recommended exposure limits. This...with the WPL. Exposures above the...

2003-09-17

284

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF PROTON ACCELERATORS FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS.  

SciTech Connect

There are many applications requiring high power proton accelerators of various kinds. However, each type of proton accelerator can only provide beam with certain characteristics, hence the match of accelerators and their applications need careful evaluation. In this talk, the beam parameters and performance limitations of linac, cyclotron, synchrotron, and FFAG accelerators are studied and their relative merits for application in neutron, muon, neutrino, and ADS will be assessed in terms of beam energy, intensity, bunch length, repetition rate, and beam power requirements. A possible match between the applications and the accelerator of choice is presented in a matrix form. The accelerator physics and technology issues and challenges involved will also be discussed.

WENG, W.T.

2006-05-29

285

INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHOD IN AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

286

Remote handling and accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area.

Wilson, M.T.

1983-01-01

287

Life's Limit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental limits to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh conditions of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.

Mancinelli, Rocco; Magazine, Astrobiology

288

Charged Particle Acceleration by Lasers in Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Several physical processes of laser electron acceleration in plasmas are revisited. A laser beam can drive plasma waves which in turn can accelerate resonant electrons. If these plasma waves can reach amplitude limited only by wave breaking alone, then the corresponding accelerating gradient in the plasma wave is of the order of electron rest mass energy per plasma skin depth, typically about GEV per centimeter. This is several orders of magnitudes higher than the conventional RF field gradient, giving rise to the possibility of compact accelerators needed for high energy physics research as well as medical and other applications. The chirped short pulse laser, with intensity exceeding the threshold for relativistic self focusing, can generate ion bubble in its wake by expelling electrons. The electrons at the bubble boundary, surge toward the stagnation point and pile up there. As the pile acquires a critical size, these electrons are injected into the bubble and accelerated by the combined fields of ion space charge and the plasma wave to Gev in energy. Most remarkably these electrons are bunched in phase space while being accelerated to high energy, resulting in near mono-energetic electron beam of high beam quality, with narrow energy spread. We review also other processes related to laser electron acceleration, such as acceleration in plasma wave assisted by ponderomotive force and betatron acceleration.

Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2007-07-11

289

Accelerator mass spectrometry of plutonium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of measuring plutonium isotope ratios by accelerator mass spectrometry has been demonstrated. Measurements on a test sample of known composition and on a blank showed that isotope ratios could be determined quantitatively, and that the present limit of detection by AMS is ? 106 atoms of plutonium. For 239Pu, this limit is at least two orders of magnitude

L. K. Fifield; R. G. Cresswell; M. L. di Tada; T. R. Ophel; J. P. Day; A. P. Clacher; S. J. King; N. D. Priest

1996-01-01

290

Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

Arcot, Divya K.

2010-01-01

291

Pesticide exposure in children.  

PubMed

Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth outcomes including physical birth defects, low birth weight, and fetal death, although the data are less robust than for cancer and neurodevelopmental effects. Children's exposures to pesticides should be limited as much as possible. PMID:23184105

Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

2012-12-01

292

Improved plasma accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

Cheng, D. Y.

1971-01-01

293

Unified accelerator libraries  

SciTech Connect

A 'Universal Accelerator Libraries' (UAL) environment is described. Its purpose is to facilitate program modularity and inter-program and inter-process communication among heterogeneous programs. The goal ultimately is to facilitate model-based control of accelerators.

Malitsky, Nikolay; Talman, Richard [Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1997-02-01

294

Applicatons of Accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The great diversity of possible applications of accelerators has been demonstrated in the past few years. Apart from the more familiar uses of accelerators for fundamental particle, nuclear, and solid state physics research, the applications range from mi...

J. S. Fraser

1979-01-01

295

Collective Acceleration of Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collective method for acceleration of ions is described. The problem of the formation of an electron ring cluster charged with ions, its stability and focusing, and some questions of acceleration are discussed. (Author)

A. B. Kuznetsov E. A. Parelshtein I. N. Ivanov K. A. R. Reshetnikov V. A. Preizendorf

1973-01-01

296

Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available to the International Space Station scientific community, introduces plans for extending microgravity analysis results to the newly arrived scientific laboratories, and provides summary information for known microgravity environment disturbers.

McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

2009-01-01

297

Beam transport issues in high current linear accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Stable beam transport may be the limiting factor in the development of a new generation of high current linear induction accelerators. Several important beam stability topics, including radial oscillations induced by an accelerating gap, the diocotron, resistive wall, and cyclotron maser instabilities, and the transverse beam breakup and image displacement instabilities. At present image displacement appears to represent the most serious limitation to high current beam transport in linear accelerator structures. 13 refs.

Miller, R.B.; Poukey, J.W.; Epstein, B.G.; Shope, S.L.; Genoni, T.C.; Franz, M.; Godfrey, B.B.; Adler, R.J.; Mondelli, A.

1981-06-01

298

Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6) is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the "Q-loss" and "f-dot" loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a "harmonic ratcheting" acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details are taken into consideration.

Cook, N.; Brennan, J. M.; Peggs, S.

2014-04-01

299

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This proceedings chapter will discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the evaluation of exposure as it relates to water quality criteria (WQC), sediment quality guidelines (SQG), and wildlife criteria (WC). Throughout this discussion, attempts are made to identify the methods ...

300

Accelerated test modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cycle life regression model, cycle life prediction model, and acceleration factors are discussed. A method was presented to: (1) select a mathematical model; (2) determine model coefficients using accelerated test data; (3) test model fit of the accelerated test data; and (4) predict normal packs.

Schwartz, D.

1978-01-01

301

Direction of Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this short lab, students observe the movement of an air bubble in a small level, attached to a toy truck, as it is moved from a stop, to a steady speed and back to a stop. This gives a visual to the concepts positive acceleration, zero acceleration and negative acceleration.

Mary Spaulding, Clearbrook-Gonvick Public School, Clearbrook Minnesota, based on an original activity from Physics Principles and Problems (1995) page 75.

302

Sustained linear acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subjective effects of sustained acceleration are discussed, including positive, negative, forward, backward, and lateral acceleration effects. Physiological effects, such as retinal and visual response, unconsciousness and cerebral function, pulmonary response, and renal output, are studied. Human tolerance and performance under sustained acceleration are ascertained.

Fraser, T. M.

1973-01-01

303

Angular Acceleration without Torque?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

Kaufman, Richard D.

2012-01-01

304

Accelerated large-scale multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a fundamental analysis method used in bioinformatics and many comparative genomic applications. Prior MSA acceleration attempts with reconfigurable computing have only addressed the first stage of progressive alignment and consequently exhibit performance limitations according to Amdahl's Law. This work is the first known to accelerate the third stage of progressive alignment on reconfigurable hardware. Results We reduce subgroups of aligned sequences into discrete profiles before they are pairwise aligned on the accelerator. Using an FPGA accelerator, an overall speedup of up to 150 has been demonstrated on a large data set when compared to a 2.4 GHz Core2 processor. Conclusions Our parallel algorithm and architecture accelerates large-scale MSA with reconfigurable computing and allows researchers to solve the larger problems that confront biologists today. Program source is available from http://dna.cs.byu.edu/msa/.

2011-01-01

305

Covariant Uniform Acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a 4D covariant Relativistic Dynamics Equation. This equation canonically extends the 3D relativistic dynamics equation , where F is the 3D force and p = m0?v is the 3D relativistic momentum. The standard 4D equation is only partially covariant. To achieve full Lorentz covariance, we replace the four-force F by a rank 2 antisymmetric tensor acting on the four-velocity. By taking this tensor to be constant, we obtain a covariant definition of uniformly accelerated motion. This solves a problem of Einstein and Planck. We compute explicit solutions for uniformly accelerated motion. The solutions are divided into four Lorentz-invariant types: null, linear, rotational, and general. For null acceleration, the worldline is cubic in the time. Linear acceleration covariantly extends 1D hyperbolic motion, while rotational acceleration covariantly extends pure rotational motion. We use Generalized Fermi-Walker transport to construct a uniformly accelerated family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the Weak Hypothesis of Locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K' to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. We obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system K' to an inertial frame K. We introduce the 4D velocity, an adaptation of Horwitz and Piron s notion of "off-shell." We derive the general formula for the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We obtain a formula for the angular velocity of a uniformly accelerated object. Every rest point of K' is uniformly accelerated, and its acceleration is a function of the observer's acceleration and its position. We obtain an interpretation of the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation as an acceleration transformation from K' to K.

Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

2013-04-01

306

Geldanamycin Analog 17-DMAG Limits Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Inhibition of p53 Activation and its Interaction with Heat-Shock Protein 90 kDa after Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ionizing radiation induces p53, and its inhibition improves mouse survival. We tested the effect of 17-dimethylamino-ethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) on p53 expression and function after radiation exposure. 17-DMAG, a heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, protects human T cells from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent caspase-3 activation. Using ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we found that ionizing radiation increased p53 accumulation, acute p53 phosphorylation, Bax expression and caspase-3/7 activation in a radiation dose- and time postirradiation-dependent manner. 17-DMAG inhibited these increases in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.93 ± 0.01 µM). Using in vitro models, we determined that inhibition of p53 by genetic knockout resulted in lower levels of caspase-3/7 activity 1 day after irradiation and enhanced survival at 10 days. Analysis of p53–Hsp90 interaction in ex vivo cell lysates indicated that the binding between the two molecules occurred after irradiation but 17-DMAG prevented the binding. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of p53 phosphorylation and Hsp90-dependent p53 stabilization after acute irradiation. Hsp90 inhibitors such as 17-DMAG may prove useful with radiation-based cancer therapy as well as for general radioprotection.

Fukumoto, Risaku; Kiang, Juliann G.

2014-01-01

307

Geldanamycin analog 17-DMAG limits apoptosis in human peripheral blood cells by inhibition of p53 activation and its interaction with heat-shock protein 90 kDa after exposure to ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation induces p53, and its inhibition improves mouse survival. We tested the effect of 17-dimethylamino-ethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) on p53 expression and function after radiation exposure. 17-DMAG, a heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, protects human T cells from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent caspase-3 activation. Using ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we found that ionizing radiation increased p53 accumulation, acute p53 phosphorylation, Bax expression and caspase-3/7 activation in a radiation dose- and time postirradiation-dependent manner. 17-DMAG inhibited these increases in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) ?=? 0.93 ± 0.01 µM). Using in vitro models, we determined that inhibition of p53 by genetic knockout resulted in lower levels of caspase-3/7 activity 1 day after irradiation and enhanced survival at 10 days. Analysis of p53-Hsp90 interaction in ex vivo cell lysates indicated that the binding between the two molecules occurred after irradiation but 17-DMAG prevented the binding. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of p53 phosphorylation and Hsp90-dependent p53 stabilization after acute irradiation. Hsp90 inhibitors such as 17-DMAG may prove useful with radiation-based cancer therapy as well as for general radioprotection. PMID:21663398

Fukumoto, Risaku; Kiang, Juliann G

2011-09-01

308

Immunological priming requires regulatory T cells and IL-10-producing macrophages to accelerate resolution from severe lung inflammation.  

PubMed

Overwhelming lung inflammation frequently occurs following exposure to both direct infectious and noninfectious agents and is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. In that context, immunomodulatory strategies may be used to limit severity of impending organ damage. We sought to determine whether priming the lung by activating the immune system, or immunological priming, could accelerate resolution of severe lung inflammation. We assessed the importance of alveolar macrophages, regulatory T cells, and their potential interaction during immunological priming. We demonstrate that oropharyngeal delivery of low-dose LPS can immunologically prime the lung to augment alveolar macrophage production of IL-10 and enhance resolution of lung inflammation induced by a lethal dose of LPS or by Pseudomonas bacterial pneumonia. IL-10-deficient mice did not achieve priming and were unable to accelerate lung injury resolution. Depletion of lung macrophages or regulatory T cells during the priming response completely abrogated the positive effect of immunological priming on resolution of lung inflammation and significantly reduced alveolar macrophage IL-10 production. Finally, we demonstrated that oropharyngeal delivery of synthetic CpG-oligonucleotides elicited minimal lung inflammation compared with low-dose LPS but nonetheless primed the lung to accelerate resolution of lung injury following subsequent lethal LPS exposure. Immunological priming is a viable immunomodulatory strategy used to enhance resolution in an experimental acute lung injury model with the potential for therapeutic benefit against a wide array of injurious exposures. PMID:24688024

Aggarwal, Neil R; Tsushima, Kenji; Eto, Yoshiki; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Mandke, Pooja; Mock, Jason R; Garibaldi, Brian T; Singer, Benjamin D; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Horton, Maureen R; King, Landon S; D'Alessio, Franco R

2014-05-01

309

Delayed Reproductive Effects Following Exposure to Toxic Chemicals during Critical Developmental Periods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The studies presented in the review indicate that perinatal exposure of the fetal or neonatal rodent to a toxicant can adversely affect reproductive development, reduce fertility and accelerate reproductive senescence. In rodents and humans exposure to DE...

L. E. Gray

1989-01-01

310

Notes on Laser Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies.

Tajima, T. [Kansai Photon Science Institute and Photon Medical Research Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan)

2008-06-24

311

Compact Plasma Accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plasma accelerator has been conceived for both material-processing and spacecraft-propulsion applications. This accelerator generates and accelerates ions within a very small volume. Because of its compactness, this accelerator could be nearly ideal for primary or station-keeping propulsion for spacecraft having masses between 1 and 20 kg. Because this accelerator is designed to generate beams of ions having energies between 50 and 200 eV, it could also be used for surface modification or activation of thin films.

Foster, John E.

2004-01-01

312

Studies of relativistic shock acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Monte Carlo simulations of diffusive shock acceleration at highly relativistic parallel and oblique (sub-luminal and super-luminal) shock waves with high upstream flow Lorentz gamma factors (?), which could be relevant to models of highly relativistic particle shock acceleration. We investigate numerically the acceleration properties in the relativistic and ultra relativistic flow regime (? ˜ 10 - 103), such as angular distribution, acceleration time constant, particle energy gain versus number of crossings and spectral shapes. Especially for the case of oblique shocks, the dependence on whether or not the scattering is pitch angle diffusion or large angle scattering is studied. The large angle model exhibits a distinctive structure in the basic power-law spectrum which is not nearly so obvious for small angle scattering. However, both models yield significant "speedup" or faster acceleration rates when compared with the conventional, non-relativistic expression for the time constant, or alternatively with the time scale rg/c, where rg is Larmor radius. The ?2 energization for the first crossing cycle and the significantly large energy gain for subsequent crossings as well as the high speed-up factors found, are important in supporting the Vietri and Waxman work on Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), ultra-high energy cosmic ray output, and consequently to neutrino and gamma-ray production. For super-luminal shocks, the energy gain and the spectral shapes of the accelerated particles are given. For the last investigation only large angle scattering is considered, partly because of computational time limitations and partly because this model provides the most favourable situation for acceleration and high gamma flows are used with Lorentz factors in the range 10-40. The particle's trajectory is followed along the magnetic field lines during shock crossings where the equivalent of a guiding centre approximation is inappropriate, constantly measuring its phase space co-ordinates in the fluid frames where E = 0. We find that a super-luminal "shock drift" mechanism—using large angle scatters—is less efficient in accelerating particles to the highest energies observed, allowing the speculation that the pitch angle scattering could be the key for very high energies to be attained (results to be published soon) in such a condition of high obliquity.

Meli, A.; Quenby, J. J.

313

Studies of Relativistic Shock Acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Monte Carlo simulations of diffusive shock acceleration at highly relativistic parallel and oblique (sub-luminal and super-luminal) shock waves with high upstream flow Lorentz gamma factors (?) which could be relevant to models of highly relativistic particle shock acceleration. We investigate numerically the acceleration properties in the relativistic and ultra relativistic flow regime (? ˜ 10-103), such as angular distribution, acceleration time constant, particle energy gain versus number of crossings and spectral shapes. Especially for the case of oblique shocks, the dependence on whether or not the scattering is pitch angle diffusion or large angle scattering is studied. The large angle model exhibits a distinctive structure in the basic power-law spectrum which is not nearly so obvious for small angle scattering. However, both models yield significant 'speed-up' or faster acceleration rates when compared with the conventional, non-relativistic expression for the time constant, or alternatively with the time scale rg/c where rg is Larmor radius. The ?2 energization for the first crossing cycle and the significantly large energy gain for subsequent crossings as well as the high 'speed up' factors found, are important in supporting the Vietri and Waxman work on Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) ultra-high energy cosmic ray output and consequently to neutrino, and gamma-ray production. For super-luminal shocks, the energy gain and the spectral shapes of the accelerated particles are given. For the last investigation only large angle scattering is considered, partly because of computational time limitations and partly because this model provides the most favourable situation for acceleration and high gamma flows are used with Lorentz factors in the range 10-40. The particle's trajectory is followed along the magnetic field lines during shock crossings where the equivalent of a guiding centre approximation is inappropriate, constantly measuring its phase space co-ordinates in the fluid frames where E=0. We find that a super-luminal 'shock drift' mechanism -using large angle scatters- is less efficient in accelerating particles to the highest energies observed, allowing the speculation that the pitch angle scattering could be the key for very high energies to be attained (results to be published soon) in such a condition of high obliquity.

Meli, A.; Quenby, J. J.

314

High brightness electron accelerator  

DOEpatents

A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM); Young, Lloyd M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

315

Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.  

PubMed Central

In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring.

Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

1984-01-01

316

Tritium Exposure Reconstruction Using Tree Rings at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous instances where historical exposures to contaminants can determine future health impacts, but limited means exist to reconstruct those exposures from current measurements and models. The National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has released tritiated water into the atmosphere through an adjacent stack since 1969. Some members of the surrounding community are concerned about potential health effects from the emissions and have questioned the accuracy and thoroughness of reported historical release quantities and environmental monitoring. A grove of Eucalyptus globulus surround the emission stack and were used to reconstruct historical exposure levels. Previous studies have demonstrated that plants can be reliably used as passive monitors for tritiated water, as well as many other contaminants. Because trees can sequester tritium into wood during photosynthesis, a tree provides a temporal variation of exposure at least on an annual basis. Milligram-sized samples of wood from cores were measured for carbon-14 and tritium using accelerator mass spectrometry. The carbon-14 measurements were matched with bomb curve levels of carbon-14 to independently assess the age of the wood used for organically bound tritium measurements. The tritium exposure reconstruction was consistent with annual exposure monitoring and release quantities reported by LBNL over the last 30 years. Because this location has an episodic release pattern and complex topographic and meteorological variation, the historical assessment from these environmental measurements is likely to have less uncertainty than mathematical modeling efforts.

Love, A. H.; Hunt, J. R.; Knezovich, J. P.

2002-12-01

317

Relativistic particle acceleration using lasers and plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the pioneering work of Tajima and Dawson on the laser electron accelerator, experiments on the excitation of high-amplitude plasma waves by beat-wave, photon wakefield and self-resonant wakefield have been performed in plasmas and give evidence of electron acceleration in the range 1 - 100 MeV for distances of less than one centimetre. Electrons, either from the plasma itself, or injected from outside, are accelerated to these relativistic energies by the longitudinal electric field of the laser-excited plasma wave whose phase velocity is close to the speed of light. After a short survey of the excitation mechanism of this relativistic plasma wave, the scaling laws which link the electric field of the plasma wave, the energy gain of accelerated electrons and the acceleration length to the parameters of the laser will be recalled. Then, limits for the energy of accelerated electrons will be given in the case of passing and trapped electrons as well as in the case of wavebreaking. These classical results will be compared with recent experimental results of electron acceleration in CO2 and Nd, beat-wave, as well as for self-resonant wakefield. Future experiments on photon wakefield will be discussed. Relevant work performed to improve the energy gain of acceleration schemes such as light channelling by preformed plasmas or by relativistic effects will be discussed.

Matthieussent, G.

1997-05-01

318

Lifetime Prediction for Degradation of Solar Mirrors using Step-Stress Accelerated Testing (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This research is to illustrate the use of statistical inference techniques in order to quantify the uncertainty surrounding reliability estimates in a step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) scenario. SSADT can be used when a researcher is faced with a resource-constrained environment, e.g., limits on chamber time or on the number of units to test. We apply the SSADT methodology to a degradation experiment involving concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors and compare the results to a more traditional multiple accelerated testing paradigm. Specifically, our work includes: (1) designing a durability testing plan for solar mirrors (3M's new improved silvered acrylic "Solar Reflector Film (SFM) 1100") through the ultra-accelerated weathering system (UAWS), (2) defining degradation paths of optical performance based on the SSADT model which is accelerated by high UV-radiant exposure, and (3) developing service lifetime prediction models for solar mirrors using advanced statistical inference. We use the method of least squares to estimate the model parameters and this serves as the basis for the statistical inference in SSADT. Several quantities of interest can be estimated from this procedure, e.g., mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) and warranty time. The methods allow for the estimation of quantities that may be of interest to the domain scientists.

Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Kennedy, C.; Gray, M.; Jones, W.

2011-09-01

319

An introduction to acceleration mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration. (LSP)

Palmer, R.B.

1987-05-01

320

Plasma inverse transition acceleration  

SciTech Connect

It can be proved fundamentally from the reciprocity theorem with which the electromagnetism is endowed that corresponding to each spontaneous process of radiation by a charged particle there is an inverse process which defines a unique acceleration mechanism, from Cherenkov radiation to inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) [1], from Smith-Purcell radiation to inverse Smith-Purcell acceleration (ISPA) [2], and from undulator radiation to inverse undulator acceleration (IUA) [3]. There is no exception. Yet, for nearly 30 years after each of the aforementioned inverse processes has been clarified for laser acceleration, inverse transition acceleration (ITA), despite speculation [4], has remained the least understood, and above all, no practical implementation of ITA has been found, until now. Unlike all its counterparts in which phase synchronism is established one way or the other such that a particle can continuously gain energy from an acceleration wave, the ITA to be discussed here, termed plasma inverse transition acceleration (PITA), operates under fundamentally different principle. As a result, the discovery of PITA has been delayed for decades, waiting for a conceptual breakthrough in accelerator physics: the principle of alternating gradient acceleration [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. In fact, PITA was invented [7, 8] as one of several realizations of the new principle.

Xie, Ming

2001-06-18

321

Airbreathing Acceleration Toward Earth Orbit  

SciTech Connect

As flight speed increases, aerodynamic drag rises more sharply than the availability of atmospheric oxygen. The ratio of oxygen mass flux to dynamic pressure cannot be improved by changing altitude. The maximum possible speed for airbreathing propulsion is limited by the ratio of air capture area to vehicle drag area, approximately Mach 6 at equal areas. Simulation of vehicle acceleration shows that the use of atmospheric oxygen offers a significant potential for minimizing onboard consumables at low speeds. These fundamental calculations indicate that a practical airbreathing launch vehicle would accelerate to near steady-state speed while consuming only onboard fuel, then transition to rocket propulsion. It is suggested that an aircraft carrying a rocket-propelled vehicle to approximately Mach 5 could be a realistic technical goal toward improving access to orbit.

Whitehead, J C

2007-05-09

322

Critical Acceleration and Quantum Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the physics frontier of strong acceleration; both classical and quantum physics need further development in order to be able to address this newly accessible area of physics. In this lecture we discuss what strong acceleration means and possible experiments using electron-laser collisions and, data available from ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We review the foundations of the current understanding of charged particle dynamics in presence of critical forces and discuss the radiation reaction inconsistency in electromagnetic theory and the apparent relation with quantum physics and strong field particle production phenomena. The role of the quantum vacuum as an inertial reference frame is emphasized, as well as the absence of such a `Machian' reference frame in the conventional classical limit of quantum field theory.

Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance

2013-12-01

323

EXOTIC MAGNETS FOR ACCELERATORS.  

SciTech Connect

Over the last few years, several novel magnet designs have been introduced to meet the requirements of new, high performance accelerators and beam lines. For example, the FAIR project at GSI requires superconducting magnets ramped at high rates ({approx} 4 T/s) in order to achieve the design intensity. Magnets for the RIA and FAIR projects and for the next generation of LHC interaction regions will need to withstand high doses of radiation. Helical magnets are required to maintain and control the polarization of high energy protons at RHIC. In other cases, novel magnets have been designed in response to limited budgets and space. For example, it is planned to use combined function superconducting magnets for the 50 GeV proton transport line at J-PARC to satisfy both budget and performance requirements. Novel coil winding methods have been developed for short, large aperture magnets such as those used in the insertion region upgrade at BEPC. This paper will highlight the novel features of these exotic magnets.

WANDERER, P.

2005-09-18

324

Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically.

Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

2013-01-01

325

Domestic asbestos exposure: a review of epidemiologic and exposure data.  

PubMed

Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48-10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers' exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

2013-11-01

326

Limitation factors of targets behaviour in accelerator experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of question which deal with the serviceability of structural materials for the beam stop first-wall and stripper targets of the Moscow Meson Facility (MMF) are considered. This report compares the effects on target lifetime of factors such as radiation damage, thermal heating, constant and dynamic thermostresses, and erosion of target material by sputtering, blistering and other processes. The hardware and software employed by the radiation physics team of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (INR RAS) are described.

Lebedev, S. G.

1997-02-01

327

THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S E

2009-08-17

328

Criminal exposure.  

PubMed

In August, an HIV-positive man plead guilty to sexually assaulting a 14-year-old boy. The sleeping boy awoke to find [name removed] sexually assaulting him, while watching a pornographic video. [Name removed] plead guilty to the assault with intent to rape a child. In addition, [name removed] received three counts of indecent assault and battery on a child, and exposure of pornographic material to a minor. [Name removed] will remain on probation for five years, although the prosecution had recommended sentencing [name removed] to four or five years in prison. The boy continues to be tested for HIV. PMID:11366904

1999-09-01

329

Optically pulsed electron accelerator  

DOEpatents

An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

Fraser, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

330

Optically pulsed electron accelerator  

DOEpatents

An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

1985-05-20

331

The foxhole accelerating structure  

SciTech Connect

This report examines some properties of a new type of open accelerating structure. It consists of a series of rectangular cavities, which we call foxholes, joined by a beam channel. The power for accelerating the particles comes from an external radiation source and enters the cavities through their open upper surfaces. Analytic and computer calculations are presented showing that the foxhole is a suitable structure for accelerating relativistic electrons.

Fernow, R.C.; Claus, J.

1992-07-17

332

High-intensity accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The design of high-intensity accelerators is described, using examples of machines being built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The major design problem with these accelerators is associated with control of beam loss when accelerator intensity is increased. Beam dynamics, beam loss, and the radio-frequency quadrupole structure are discussed in the first part of the chapter followed by an explanation of plans to achieve high-intensity operation in three projects: the Fusion Material Irradiation Tests (a joint effort with the Hanford Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington), the Proton Storage Ring (an addition to the LAMPF accelerator), and the Racetrack Microtron Project (with the National Bureau of Standards).

Knapp, E.A.

1981-01-01

333

Resonances in accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Various resonances important in accelerators are analyzed, with the intention of demonstrating their essential similarity. Transverse instabilities of bunched electron beams are emphasized, including beam--beam effects.

Talman, R.

1987-02-25

334

Resonances in accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Various resonances important in accelerators are analyzed, with the intention of demonstrating their essential similarity. Transverse instabilities of bunched electron beams are emphasized, including beam-beam effects.

Talman, R.

1986-06-01

335

Particle acceleration in flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particle acceleration is intrinsic to the primary energy release in the impulsive phase of solar flares, and we cannot understand flares without understanding acceleration. New observations in soft and hard X-rays, gamma-rays and coherent radio emissions are presented, suggesting flare fragmentation in time and space. X-ray and radio measurements exhibit at least five different time scales in flares. In addition, some new observations of delayed acceleration signatures are also presented. The theory of acceleration by parallel electric fields is used to model the spectral shape and evolution of hard X-rays. The possibility of the appearance of double layers is further investigated.

Benz, Arnold O.; Kosugi, Takeo; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benka, Steve G.; Chupp, Edward L.; Enome, Shinzo; Garcia, Howard; Holman, Gordon D.; Kurt, Victoria G.; Sakao, Taro

1994-01-01

336

Accelerator-based BNCT.  

PubMed

The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. PMID:24365468

Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; Del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

2014-06-01

337

Android Acceleration Application  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first of two sequential lessons, students create mobile apps that collect data from an Android device's accelerometer and then store that data to a database. This lesson provides practice with MIT's App Inventor software and culminates with students writing their own apps for measuring acceleration. In the second lesson, students are given an app for an Android device, which measures acceleration. They investigate acceleration by collecting acceleration vs. time data using the accelerometer of a sliding Android device. Then they use the data to create velocity vs. time graphs and approximate the maximum velocity of the device.

IMPART RET Program, College of Information Science & Technology,

338

Charged particle accelerator grating  

DOEpatents

A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

Palmer, Robert B. (Shoreham, NY)

1986-01-01

339

Accelerators and Nobel Laureates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article written by Sven Kullander at the Nobel e-Museum discusses the importance of particle accelerators to physics in a historical context. After studying their basic operatation, users can then learn about the many accelerator inventions and their assistance in various discoveries such as x-rays and electrons. The website provides links to descriptions of the many Nobel Prize winners who have utilized accelerators in their important work. Users can view images of the large accelerators from all over the world including the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the United State.

Kullander, Sven

340

Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

1980-09-12

341

TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter  

SciTech Connect

An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm/sup 2/ can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs.

Yu, W S; Powell, J R; Usher, J L

1980-01-01

342

67 FR 15134 - Measuring and Controlling Asbestos Exposure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...measures are effective in reducing...Sampling and Awareness of Asbestos...determine miners' exposure levels to...indicate few exposures above the...take-home exposures, and the...help us to effectively evaluate and...short-term exposure limits, and...Sampling and Awareness of...

2002-03-29

343

Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures  

SciTech Connect

Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

Cowan, Benjamin M.

2007-08-22

344

Plasma beat-wave accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We perform an analytic study of some quantities relevant to the plasma beat-wave accelerator (PBWA) concept. We obtain analytic expressions for the plasma frequency, longitudinal electron velocity, plasma density and longitudinal plasma electric field of a nonlinear longitudinal electron plasma oscillation with amplitude less than the wave-breaking limit and phase velocity approaching the speed of light. We also estimate the luminosity of a single-pass e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear PBWA collider assuming the energy and collision beamstrahlung are fixed parameters.

Noble, R.J.

1983-06-01

345

Radiation from charges in the continuum limit  

SciTech Connect

It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

2013-06-15

346

Diffraction limited slit spectrography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to obtain diffraction limited spectrograms of two- dimensional extended objects from a series of ground-based slit- spectrograms. The method is a combination of differential speckle interferometry and a rapid spectrograph scanning scheme. The slit of a spectrograph is scanned over the solar surface while simultaneous images of the reflective slit plate (slit-jaw images) and spectrograms are recorded with an exposure time that is short with respect to seeing-induced variations. A Knox-Thompson speckle reconstruction scheme is applied to the slit jaw images. From the individual slit- jaw images and the speckle reconstruction the instantaneous point spread function can be determined for any location along the slit. The recorded spectrograms can then be restored with the inverted linear operator that describes the formation of the spectrograms. The method has been applied to observations of the quiet solar granulation.

Keller, Christoph U.

1994-09-01

347

Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

Graybiel, A.

1975-01-01

348

Is there a limit on solar flare proton fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that solar flare proton fluxes are limited in magnitude by saturation effects inherent to the acceleration mechanism is explored. If cyclotron damping of Alfven waves acts to accelerate protons, the criterion that the damping time is comparable to the acceleration time provides a fast particle number density at which protons load the wave spectrum. The limiting flux at 1 AU is obtained by a volume integration over the acceleration region and redistribution into an interplanetary emission cone. A simplified explosion model permits a delineation between volume and surface acceleration mechanisms in terms of a temporal parameter, the effective duration of acceleration. It is concluded that the limiting flux may be a realistic concept, but that further investigation is warranted to sharpen the criterion.

Barbosa, D. D.

1980-01-01

349

Diethylstilbestrol exposure.  

PubMed

Diethylstilbestrol is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen that was used to prevent miscarriage and other pregnancy complications between 1938 and 1971 in the United States. In 1971, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about the use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy after a relationship between exposure to this synthetic estrogen and the development of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix was found in young women whose mothers had taken diethylstilbestrol while they were pregnant. Although diethylstilbestrol has not been given to pregnant women in the United States for more than 30 years, its effects continue to be seen. Women who took diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer than the general population and therefore should be encouraged to have regular mammography. Women who were exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero may have structural reproductive tract anomalies, an increased infertility rate, and poor pregnancy outcomes. However, the majority of these women have been able to deliver successfully. Recommendations for gynecologic examinations include vaginal and cervical digital palpation, which may provide the only evidence of clear cell adenocarcinoma. Initial colposcopic examination should be considered; if the findings are abnormal, colposcopy should be repeated annually. If the initial colposcopic examination is normal, annual cervical and vaginal cytology is recommended. Because of the higher risk of spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and preterm delivery, obstetric consultation may be required for pregnant women who had in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure. The male offspring of women who took diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy have an increased incidence of genital abnormalities and a possibly increased risk of prostate and testicular cancer. Routine prostate cancer screening and testicular self-examination should be encouraged. PMID:15168959

Schrager, Sarina; Potter, Beth E

2004-05-15

350

Accelerators for energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number approximately 200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, approximately 10 keV and to the high density state, approximately 1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system.

Katayama, Takeshi

1993-11-01

351

Diagnostics for induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

Fessenden, T.J.

1996-04-01

352

Unified accelerator libraries  

SciTech Connect

A {open_quotes}Universal Accelerator Libraries{close_quotes} (UAL) environment is described. Its purpose is to facilitate program modularity and inter-program and inter-process communication among heterogeneous programs. The goal ultimately is to facilitate model-based control of accelerators. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Malitsky, N.; Talman, R. [Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1997-02-01

353

Microscale acceleration history discriminators  

DOEpatents

A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

354

Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?  

SciTech Connect

Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?.

Lach, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O Box 500, Batavia Illinois (United States)

2010-07-29

355

Two-Beam Accelerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) consists of a long high-gradient accelerator structure (HGS) adjacent to an equal-length Free Electron Laser (FEL). In the FEL, a beam propagates through a long series of undulators. At regular intervals, waveguides couple m...

A. M. Sessler D. B. Hopkins

1986-01-01

356

Two-Beam Accelerator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) consists of a long high-gradient accelerator structure (HGS) adjacent to an equal-length Free Electron Laser (FEL). In the FEL, a beam propagates through a long series of undulators. At regular intervals, waveguides couple m...

A. M. Sessler D. B. Hopkins

1987-01-01

357

Physics of Particle Acceleration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of particle accelerators was reviewed with regard to energy and cost. The problems of funding much larger and slower particle accelerators was considered. The question of new ideas and techniques was raised and, with this in mind, the vari...

J. D. Lawson

1982-01-01

358

J-PARC Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is under construction in Tokai site. The linac beam commissioning started last fall, while the beam commissioning of the 3-GeV Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) will start this fall. The status of the J-PARC accelerator is reported with emphasis on the technical development accomplished for the J-PARC.

Yamazaki, Yoshishige [J-PARC Center High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Atomic Energy Organization (JAEA) Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

2008-02-21

359

KEK digital accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

2011-07-01

360

Acceleration of heavy ions by radiation pressure.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible acceleration of heavy ions by the resonance scattering of radiation near bright stellar objects is examined. Planck spectra are assumed. At any radiation temperature, heavy-ion energies are found to be limited by aberration and Doppler effects. Photoionization is found to limit maximum radiation temperatures and energies for each ion. Collisional ionization by ambient electrons and ions may further limit heavy-ion energies. Because of these limitations, the production of the more energetic cosmic rays by this mechanism appears to be very improbable. If supernova radiation temperatures are high enough, they may produce heavy ions with energies up to several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. O and B stars appear to be able to accelerate certain heavy ions to 200 and 80 MeV per nucleon, respectively.

Nakada, M. P.

1973-01-01

361

Cataract after exposure to non-ionizing radiant energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case histories of two individuals exposed to thermal radiation emitted from an electric oven and range were presented. In one patient, earlier exposure to medical diathermy appears to have initiated delayed or late-appearing, capsular cataracts. Instead of the anticipated slow progression, the cataractogenesis was accelerated following recent, repeated exposure to the intense, infrared radiation. In the other patient, exposed

M M Zaret; W Z Snyder; L Birenbaum

1976-01-01

362

Secular Acceleration of Barnard's Star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barnard's Star should have significant secular acceleration because it lies close to the Sun and has the highest known proper motion along with a large radial velocity. It will pass within about 1.4 pc in another 9,750 years. Secular changes in proper motion and radial velocity are essentially the Coriolis and centrifugal accelerations, respectively, arising from use of a rotating coordinate system defined by the Sun-star radius vector. Although stellar space velocities measured with respect to the Sun are essentially constant, these perspective effects arise with changing distance and viewing angle. Hipparcos-2 plus Nidever et al. (2002) predict a perspective change in the proper motion of 1.285±0.006 mas yr-2 for Barnard's Star. Recent analysis of 900+ photographic plates between 1968 and 1998 with the 26.25-in (0.67-m) McCormick refractor detected a secular acceleration of 1.25±0.04 mas yr-2, which agrees with the predicted value within the measurement errors. Earlier, Benedict et al. (1999) measured its secular acceleration to be 1.2±0.2 mas yr-2 using 3 years of HST FGS observations. Similarly, a perspective change in radial velocity of 4.50±0.01 m s-1 yr-1 can be predicted for Barnard's Star. Kürster et al. (2003) detected variations in their observations of it that are largely attributable to secular acceleration along the line of sight with some contribution from stellar activity. Although secular acceleration effects have been limited for past studies of stellar motions, they can be significant for observations extending over decades or for high-precision measurements required to detect extrasolar planets. Future studies will need to consider this factor for the nearest stars and for those with large proper motions or radial velocities. NSF grant AST 98-20711; Litton Marine Systems; Peninsula Community Foundation Levinson Fund; UVa Governor's Fellowship, Dean's F&A Fellowship, and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences; and, US Naval Observatory supported this research.

Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Ianna, P. A.

2009-01-01

363

Shock tube spherical particle accelerating study for drag coefficient determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   An original particle accelerating technique has been developed for a shock tube. The trajectories of calibrated spherical\\u000a particles and in diameter have been measured by the multiple exposure shadowgraph technique coupled with a high speed drum camera. Both\\u000a particle velocity and acceleration, deduced from the experimental trajectories, allow the determination of the drag coefficients\\u000a for different, subsonic and supersonic,

C. Devals; G. Jourdan; J.-L. Estivalezes; E. E. Meshkov; L. Houas

2003-01-01

364

Acceleration of exp 14 C BEAMS in Electrostatic Accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operational problems in the production and acceleration of exp 14 C beams for nuclear structure research in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Van de Graaff accelerators are discussed. Methods for the control of contamination in ion sources, accelerators an...

L. J. Rowton J. R. Tesmer

1981-01-01

365

Analyzing radial acceleration with a smartphone acceleration sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper continues the sequence of experiments using the acceleration sensor of smartphones (for description of the function and the use of the acceleration sensor, see Ref. 1) within this column, in this case for analyzing the radial acceleration.

Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

2013-03-01

366

Application of High Temperature Superconductors to Accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, a large effort has been made by the scientific community to investigate this field towards a possible application of the new oxide superconductors to different devices like SMES, magnetic bearings, flywheels energy storage, magnetic shielding, transmission cables, fault current limiters, etc. However, all present day large scale applications using superconductivity in accelerator technology

A. Ballarino

2000-01-01

367

Exposure to Air Pollution Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The biological mechanisms by which PM exposure induces cardiovascular effects remain to be elucidated. One important limitation is the lack of sens...

368

Exposure Measurement Action Level and Occupational Environmental Variability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Standards define an exposure measurement action level as one half of the current permissible exposure limits. The action level is the point at which certain provisions of the proposed stand...

N. A. Leidel K. A. Busch W. E. Crouse

1975-01-01

369

PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES IN BANSKA BYSTRICA, SLOVAKIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have associated adverse health impacts with ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), though these studies have been limited in their characterization of personal exposure to PM. An exposure study of healthy nonsmoking adults and children was cond...

370

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-01-01

371

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-06-01

372

Exposure control for HDR video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an algorithm for determining the exposure times for High Dynamic Range (HDR) video by adapting them to the current lighting. Due to the limited capability of the sensor used, only two exposures per frame can be taken. For each image, the histogram for the exposure time of the other image is estimated. When this histogram is subtracted from the original, the result can be used to adjust the exposure time to the current lighting situation by standard exposure control algorithms. The subtraction removes the dynamic range already covered by the other image, thus the exposure time can be optimized for the residual dynamic range. The algorithm has been compared with state-of-the-art algorithms for HDR imaging. It is proven to have comparable results in mean squared error to a ground truth gained from real-world data. Furthermore this algorithm is capable of running during the capturing process of a video, since it doesn't require additional exposures than those already taken.

Bürker, M.; Rößing, C.; Lensch, H. P. A.

2014-05-01

373

Large electrostatic accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

Jones, C.M.

1984-01-01

374

Exposure to stallion accelerates the onset of mares' cyclicity.  

PubMed

Horses (Equus caballus) belong to the group of seasonally polyestrous mammals. Estrous cycles typically start with increasing daylight length after winter, but mares can differ greatly in the timing of onset of regular estrus cycles. Here, we test whether spatial proximity to a stallion also plays a role. Twenty-two anestrous mares were either exposed to one of two stallions (without direct physical contact) or not exposed (controls) under experimental conditions during two consecutive springs (February to April). Ovarian activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasound and stallion's direct contact time with each mare was determined three times per week for one hour each. We found that mares exposed to a stallion ovulated earlier and more often during the observational period than mares that were not exposed to stallions. Neither stallion identity nor direct contact time, mare age, body condition, size of her largest follicle at the onset of the experiment, or parasite burden significantly affected the onset of cyclicity. In conclusion, the timing of estrous cycles and cycle frequency, i.e., crucial aspects of female reproductive strategy, strongly depend on how the mares perceive their social environment. Exposing mares to the proximity of a stallion can therefore be an alternative to, for example, light programs or elaborated hormonal therapies to start the breeding season earlier and increase the number of estrous cycles in horses. PMID:24815602

Wespi, B; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C; Burger, D

2014-07-15

375

Guidelines for Safe Human Exposure to Impact Acceleration. Update A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tolerance levels for living human volunteers are defined and developed for minimum risk injury. The experimentally safe levels of impact, derived from a variety of sources, are suggested as guidelines for torso-restrained volunteers, where the freely movi...

D. L. Matson M. S. Weiss S. T. Mawn

1989-01-01

376

Exposure chamber  

DOEpatents

A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA)

1980-01-01

377

Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Among the highest priorities for action under the ''Hanford Federal Facility and Agreement and Consent Order'', hereafter referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, is the retrieval, treatment and disposal of Hanford Site tank waste. Tank waste is recognized as one of the primary threats to the Columbia River and one of the most complex technical challenges. Progress has been made in resolving safety issues, characterizing tank waste and past tank leaks, enhancing double-shell tank waste transfer and operations systems, retrieving single-shell tank waste, deploying waste treatment facilities, and planning for the disposal of immobilized waste product. However, limited progress has been made in developing technologies and providing a sound technical basis for tank system closure. To address this limitation the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project was created to develop information through technology demonstrations in support of waste retrieval and closure decisions. To complete its mission the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project has adopted performance objectives that include: protecting human health and the environment; minimizing/eliminating potential waste releases to the soil and groundwater; preventing water infiltration into the tank; maintaining accessibility of surrounding tanks for future closure; maintaining tank structural integrity; complying with applicable waste retrieval, disposal, and closure regulations; and maintaining flexibility for final closure options in the future.

SAMS, T.L.

2003-02-01

378

75 FR 25279 - Device Improvements to Reduce the Number of Under-Doses, Over-Doses, and Misaligned Exposures...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Misaligned Exposures From Therapeutic Radiation; Public Meeting; Request for Comments...Misaligned Exposures from Therapeutic Radiation.'' The purpose of this meeting is...manufacturers of linear accelerators, radiation therapy treatment planning...

2010-05-07

379

A Personal Record: Is Acceleration Worth the Effort?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reprint of an article on the positive experiences of parents who accelerated their gifted children is preceded by a commentary that highlights the important factors that need to be considered before a child is accelerated: academic preparation, school personnel support, and parents' understanding of the limitations of enrichment programs.…

Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.

2002-01-01

380

Unavailability of wind turbines due to wind-induced accelerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malfunctioning of acceleration-sensitive equipment in wind turbines has the potential to affect their annual failure rates during normal operating conditions. Current protective measures for wind turbines are triggered by wind speed. However, this option neglects the structural response of the wind turbines, and limits the possibility of effectively controlling accelerations at the top of the wind towers. In this

Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio; Biswajit Basu

2008-01-01

381

Employing Multiple CUDA Devices to Accelerate LTL Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the CUDA technology has been used to accelerate many computation demanding tasks. For example, in our previous work we have shown how CUDA technology can be employed to accelerate the process of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) Model Checking. While the raw computing power of a CUDA enabled device is tremendous, the applicability of the technology is quite often limited

Jiri Barnat; Petr Bauch; Lubos Brim; Milan Ceska

2010-01-01

382

The phase of particle acceleration in the flare development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is given that the particle acceleration in flares is confined to the initial phase of the flare development preceding the Ha flare maximum and lasting for less than 10 min. The impulsive acceleration process is confined to a relatively small limited volume of about 5 × 1027 cm3 in the region of highest magnetic gradient in the flare, and

Z. Švestka

1970-01-01

383

Limitations of skin protection.  

PubMed

Skin protection products and gloves are essential constituents of personal protective equipment at workplaces, which can be used in a complementary way, each offering particular benefits and disadvantages. In many workplace situations, both measures are being used either in an alternating or in a combined manner, typically in professions with exposures to mild irritants and a high wet-work load, such as hairdressers, healthcare workers or employees in the food-processing industry. Skin protection creams can be used to reduce unnecessarily long glove usage in order to reduce occlusion-related effects on the skin barrier. Whenever rotating machines are used, these products are the only option due to safety regulations. However, some particular requirements can be postulated for skin-protective products claimed especially to be used in combination with gloves. Reduction of glove-induced perspiration, of stratum corneum swelling, and postocclusive barrier impairment are intended attributes of such products, which have been already successfully implemented in some commercially available products. On the other hand it has to be proven that the ingredients do not interfere with the glove material, neither in the way of degrading the material, thus making it permeable for harmful substances, nor by enhancing the potential release of rubber allergens. Examples out of the literature are reviewed showing that skin products can exhibit unpredictable effects on the allergen release of rubber materials, if not thoroughly tested for this purpose beforehand. Some raw materials should be avoided in protection products, though they are of established value when used in afterwork emollients to accelerate barrier recovery. Usage of moisturizers, in contrast to special barrier products, at the workplace together or even under gloves is therefore judged critically, although selected products showed beneficial effects in particular experimental settings. Another future option is the implementation of 'active gloves' that are intended to gradually release ingredients that help to strengthen and preserve skin barrier integrity. PMID:17312367

Schliemann, Sibylle

2007-01-01

384

Accelerator Toolbox for MATLAB  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model particle accelerators and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. At SSRL, it has become the modeling code of choice for the ongoing design and future operation of the SPEAR 3 synchrotron light source. AT was designed to take advantage of power and simplicity of MATLAB--commercially developed environment for technical computing and visualization. Many examples in this paper illustrate the advantages of the AT approach and contrast it with existing accelerator code frameworks.

Terebilo, Andrei

2001-05-29

385

Wake field acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the possibility of accelerating particles with high gradients in a ''Wake Field Transformer'' (1,2). The progress of this experiment will be described. The development of the high current hollow beam electron gun was continued. In the conventional linac, the hollow beam was accelerated to about 6 MeV. Beam monitors came into operation, two gap monitors, two fluorescent monitors and a C-hacekerenkov monitor. Calculations with the computer code WAKTRACK(3) gave the final details for the high energy section of the accelerator that will be installed during 1986.

Bialowons, W.; Bremer, H.D.; Decker, F.h.; Hartrott, M.v.; Lewin, H.C.; Voss, G.h.; Weiland, T.; Wilhelm, P.; Chengde, X.; Yokoya, K.; and others

1987-05-05

386

NRL Compact Accelerator Theory Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NRL compact accelerator theory studies in support of the Spiral Line Induction Accelerator (SLIA) and the Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) are summarized in a series of short papers. The first of these papers describes the ELBA three-dimensional bea...

A. W. Ali F. Mako G. Joyce J. Krall R. F. Hubbard

1990-01-01

387

Amps particle accelerator definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

Sellen, J. M., Jr.

1975-01-01

388

Considerations of acceleration effects in relativistic kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extended special-relativistic formalism incorporating non-inertial frames undergoing constant proper acceleration is developed as a natural outgrowth of Einstein's 1905 and 1907 treatises. Based on the so-called clock hypothesis, tacitly used by Einstein, and enunciated by von Laue in 1913, which states that the rate of a ideal clock is independent of its momentary acceleration, extended special relativity (ESR) makes use of the Moeller transformation and generalizes the work of Brehme to form a consistent mathematical framework, revealing a number of hitherto hidden features. From this basis, a number of highly interesting kinematic phenomena are considered, among which are: the nonconstancy of the speed of light and the variation of time rates within an accelerated system; the Doppler shift and aberration of light in a noninertial system, viewed by an inertial observer; the curved path of a light signal, preparatory to a treatment of the spatial and temporal Terrell effects in the ESR formalism. The ensuing equations are compared with special relativistic results, and in each case the role of acceleration in the formulae is defined. Quantitative calculations were made, and the results shown in graph form. The ESR formalism is then shown to be a particular case of the general-relativistic formalism. The limits of the accelerated observer's universe and the limits of the theory are discussed.

Caviness, Kenneth Edwin

389

Learning about Accelerated Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When accelerated learning programs succeed, they do so in part because they invoke and integrate skills and basic information, theoretical understanding, and natural knowledge. The trainer must blend these elements appropriately. (JOW)

Caine, Geoffrey; Caine, Renate Nummela

1989-01-01

390

Modulational effects in accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffu...

T. Satogata

1997-01-01

391

Acceleration of Logarithmic Convergence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we shall give a characterization of all monotonically decreasing sequence of positive terms, whose sum converge and then introduce a Transformation which can be used to accelerate the convergence of a large class of logarithmically convergent series.

Gaskin, J. G.; Ford, W. F.

1998-01-01

392

Accelerating Translational Research  

Cancer.gov

Accelerating Translational Research Coordinating and facilitating translational research initiatives across the NCI and the cancer research community. NCI Translational Science Meetings NCI Translates - July 28-29, 2011 NCI Translates - 2009 NCI Translates

393

Accelerator shielding design for PFNA applications  

SciTech Connect

The Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) method utilizes the capability of high-energy neutrons to penetrate deeply and stimulate the emission of characteristic gamma rays that can be detected and used to identify and image the emitting chemical elements. The PFNA method interrogates the object using a directional beam consisting of short bursts of fast neutrons from a pulsed deuteron accelerator, with the neutrons generated in a deuteron gas target. In order to study the performance of the PFNA system, a National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) Pelletron accelerator was acquired and installed at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) facility in Santa Clara, California. The NEC Pelletron accelerator produces 6- or 12-MHz pulses of up to 6-MeV deuterons with a beam current that will reach up to 100 [mu]A. There are several identifiable radiation sources during operation of the PFNA system: (1) neutron production target and deuteron beam stop; (2) neutrons and gamma rays from the interrogation area; (3) X rays generated inside the accelerator because of free electrons between the accelerator tube segments, which are at different potentials; and (4) neutrons and gamma rays generated by deuteron striking limiting apertures within the acceleration column.

Shayer, Z.; Clayton, J.E.; Gozani, T. (SAIC, Santa Clara, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

394

Maximal acceleration is non-rotating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer whose acceleration vector is Fermi-Walker transported is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer. The converse is also true if the spacetime is symmetric under reversing both t and 0264-9381/15/6/020/img1 together. Thus a congruence of non-rotating acceleration worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a stationary congruence accelerating locally extremely (SCALE). These congruences are defined completely locally, unlike the case of zero angular momentum observers (ZAMOs), which requires knowledge around a symmetry axis. The SCALE subcase of a stationary congruence accelerating maximally (SCAM) is made up of stationary worldlines that may be considered to be locally most nearly at rest in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. Formulae for the angular velocity and other properties of the SCALEs are given explicitly on a generalization of an equatorial plane, infinitesimally near a symmetry axis, and in a slowly rotating gravitational field, including the far-field limit, where the SCAM is shown to be counter-rotating relative to infinity. These formulae are evaluated in particular detail for the Kerr-Newman metric. Various other congruences are also defined, such as a stationary congruence rotating at minimum (SCRAM), and stationary worldlines accelerating radially maximally (SWARM), both of which coincide with a SCAM on an equatorial plane of reflection symmetry. Applications are also made to the gravitational fields of maximally rotating stars, the Sun and the Solar System.

Page, Don N.

1998-06-01

395

Relativistic jets and Ccsmic ray acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays are accelerated in astrophysical plasmas which collide at supersonic speeds where shock waves are formed, and along with other instabilities, they compete for the dissipation and acceleration mechanisms. The diffusive acceleration mechanism plays a leading role in the explanation of very high energy cosmic rays observed. In this mechanism, particles are repeatedly gaining energy in multiple crossings of an astrophysical shock discontinuity, due to collisions with upstream and downstream magnetic scattering centers, resulting in a power-law spectrum extending up to very high energies. Relativistic jets and their shocks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is a prominent source for particle acceleration. Especially, relativistic single or multiple shocks have been theorized and observed along the jets of AGN and are claimed to be responsible for accelerating even the highest-energy cosmic rays observed. In this paper we will report and discuss the cosmic ray acceleration efficiency and properties of single or multiple shocks in the limit of relativistic plasmas in AGN jet environments.

Meli, A.

2012-02-01

396

Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments  

SciTech Connect

The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

Misuri, Alessio

2002-06-01

397

Human EMF Exposure Health Hazard Range Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former research brought standards that define electromagnetic field strength safety limits regarding human health in order to prevent harmful exposures. All wireless devices must comply those regulations so there is a need for electromagnetic exposure inspection. In broader analysis it is reasonable to apply more complex, but consistent procedure for harmful area valuation by determining the compliance boundary. It's very

A. Sarolic; B. Modlic; G. Sisul; M. Cvitkovic

2008-01-01

398

Ground Motion and Its Effects in Accelerator Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of ground motion on accelerator design are discussed. The limitations on performance are discussed for various categories of motion. For example, effects due to ground settlement, tides, seismic disturbances and man-induced disturbances are in...

G. E. Fischer

1985-01-01

399

ACCLIB: Accelerators as libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerator based computing is a popular design paradigm employed by designers to help meet the power-performance requirements of modern System-on-chips (SoCs). However, the non-recurring costs (hardware design, HW\\/SW integration, logic and physical design, and mask generation) required to design SoCs have significantly increased, to the point where only very high-volume products are now able to invest in accelerator-based computing. The

Yue Du

2011-01-01

400

APT accelerator. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE\\/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual

G. Lawrence; D. Rusthoi

1995-01-01

401

Rolamite acceleration sensor  

DOEpatents

A rolamite acceleration sensor which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Briner, Clifton F. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Samuel B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

402

CEBAF accelerator achievements  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

Y.C. Chao, M. Drury, C. Hovater, A. Hutton, G.A. Krafft, M. Poelker, C. Reece, M. Tiefenback

2011-06-01

403

Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

Foster, William

2009-01-01

404

Vacuum Beat Wave Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) utilizes two laser beams with differing wavelengths to accelerate particles in vacuo.(Sprangle et al., Opt. Comm. 124), 69 (1996); Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. E 52, 5443 (1995). The mechanism relies on the v×B force, circumventing the so-called Lawson-Woodward theorem. A proof-of-principle experiment will be performed at the Naval Research Laboratory, based on design

C. I. Moore; B. Hafizi; E. Esarey; P. Sprangle; A. Ganguly; J. L. Hirshfield

1997-01-01

405

Laser electron accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intense electromagnetic pulse can create weak plasma oscillations through the action of the nonlinear ponderomotive force. Electrons trapped in the wake can be accelerated to high energy. Existing glass lasers of power density 10 to the 18th W\\/sq cm shone on plasmas of densities 10 to the 18th\\/cu cm can yield gigaelectronvolts of electron energy per centimeter of acceleration

T. Tajima; J. M. Dawson

1979-01-01

406

Acceleration for the ?+?- collider  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss possible acceleration scenarios and methods for a ? +-?- collider. The accelerator must take the beams from ~100 MeV to 2 TeV energies within the muon life-time (2.2×10-6E?\\/m? ?S), while compressing bunches of ~1012 muons from m to cm bunch lengths. A linac, recirculating linac, and very rapid-cycling synchrotron approaches are studied. A multiple recirculating linac approach is

D. Summers; D. Neuffer; Q.-S. Shu; E. Willen

1997-01-01

407

70 FR 15681 - Interagency Proposal on the Classification of Commercial Credit Exposures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by commercial exposures...management's close attention. If left...This limits the effectiveness of the current...credit risk exposure. To address...characteristics that influence loss severity...all commercial exposures. For borrowers...management's close attention and...

2005-03-28

408

Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

1995-05-01

409

Current Fragmentation and Particle Acceleration in Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle acceleration in solar flares remains an outstanding problem in plasma physics and space science. While the observed particle energies and timescales can perhaps be understood in terms of acceleration at a simple current sheet or turbulence site, the vast number of accelerated particles, and the fraction of flare energy in them, defies any simple explanation. The nature of energy storage and dissipation in the global coronal magnetic field is essential for understanding flare acceleration. Scenarios where the coronal field is stressed by complex photospheric motions lead to the formation of multiple current sheets, rather than the single monolithic current sheet proposed by some. The currents sheets in turn can fragment into multiple, smaller dissipation sites. MHD, kinetic and cellular automata models are used to demonstrate this feature. Particle acceleration in this environment thus involves interaction with many distributed accelerators. A series of examples demonstrate how acceleration works in such an environment. As required, acceleration is fast, and relativistic energies are readily attained. It is also shown that accelerated particles do indeed interact with multiple acceleration sites. Test particle models also demonstrate that a large number of particles can be accelerated, with a significant fraction of the flare energy associated with them. However, in the absence of feedback, and with limited numerical resolution, these results need to be viewed with caution. Particle in cell models can incorporate feedback and in one scenario suggest that acceleration can be limited by the energetic particles reaching the condition for firehose marginal stability. Contemporary issues such as footpoint particle acceleration are also discussed. It is also noted that the idea of a "standard flare model" is ill-conceived when the entire distribution of flare energies is considered.

Cargill, P. J.; Vlahos, L.; Baumann, G.; Drake, J. F.; Nordlund, Å.

2012-11-01

410

In utero antiepileptic drug exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy outcomes following in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are uncertain, limiting an evidenced-based approach. Objective To determine if fetal outcomes vary as a function of different in utero AED exposures. Methods This ongoing prospective observational study across 25 epilepsy centers in the USA and UK enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy from October 1999 to February 2004 to determine if differential long-term cognitive and behavioral neurodevelopmental effects exist across the four most commonly used AEDs. This initial report focuses on the incidence of serious adverse outcomes including major congenital malformations (which could be attributable to AEDs) or fetal death. A total of 333 mother/child pairs were analyzed for monotherapy exposures: carbamazepine (n = 110), lamotrigine (n = 98), phenytoin (n = 56), and valproate (n = 69). Results Response frequencies of pregnancies resulting in serious adverse outcomes for each AED were as follows: carbamazepine 8.2%, lamotrigine 1.0%, phenytoin 10.7%, and valproate 20.3%. Distribution of serious adverse outcomes differed significantly across AEDs and was not explained by factors other than in utero AED exposure. Valproate exhibited a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions More adverse outcomes were observed in pregnancies with in utero valproate exposure vs the other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These results combined with several recent studies provide strong evidence that valproate poses the highest risk to the fetus. For women who fail other AEDs and require valproate, the dose should be limited if possible.

Meador, K.J.; Baker, G.A.; Finnell, R.H.; Kalayjian, L.A.; Liporace, J.D.; Loring, D.W.; Mawer, G.; Pennell, P.B.; Smith, J.C.; Wolff, M.C.

2007-01-01

411

? Limit Disruptions in Tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important limitation on the performance of tokamaks is the limitation imposed by disruptions. Attempts to increase ? beyond a critical limit ?c are thwarted by a sudden loss of thermal confinement.(E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 2), 4216 (1995) The thermal quench is extremely rapid; the timescale over which energy is lost is of the order of 100 ? sec. At the same time, there is no evidence of magnetic reconnection or large magnetic perturbations during the thermal quench. Disruptions occur at values of ? below the linear ideal MHD stability limit ?_ideal the experimental ? limit ?c is approximately one-half the linear ideal MHD stability limit. (Y. Nagayama, et al., Phys. Fluids B 5), 2571 (1993) In the vicinity of ?_c, minor ? disruptions are observed that exhibit the same characteristics as major ? disruptions, but are less violent so that the plasma can recover without termination of the discharge. Thus, the ultimate stability of the discharge is determined by nonlinear effects. We present nonlinear MHD simulations of high ? tokamaks that reproduce the salient features of the thermal quench in ? limit disruptions, and elucidate the physics underlying the disruptions. In the simulations, thermal confinement in high ? tokamaks is destroyed by fingers of hot plasma that jet out from the center of the discharge to the edge, while fingers of cold edge plasma are injected into the center. (R.G. Kleva and P.N. Guzdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80), 3081 (1998) The fingers are driven by large scale convective vortices that extend all the way from the center of the discharge out to the edge of the plasma near the wall. In the nonlinear phase the instability leads to the creation of steeper gradients in the pressure that accelerate the growth of the fingers. The loss of confinement is extremely rapid; confinement is destroyed in just a few tens of microseconds, consistent with experimental observations. The magnetic field is nearly unchanged during the rapid loss of thermal confinement by the fingers, which is also consistent with the observations. As ? is reduced in magnitude in the simulations, the plasma is still linearly unstable because of non-ideal effects, but the fingers grow more slowly and the plasma is stabilized nonlinearly. As the fingers grow, an axisymmetric flow is self-consistently generated nonlinearly, containing both poloidal and toroidal components. This axisymmetric flow does not lie in a flux surface, but instead the poloidal component of the flow consists of two vortices, one located above the midplane of the torus and the other below. This self-consistent flow opposes the growth of the fingers and stops the motion of the hot fingers to the wall, thereby maintaining thermal confinement and stabilizing the tokamak plasma nonlinearly. Like the minor ? disuptions observed in tokamaks, a small decrease in ? in our simulations leads nonlinearly to a rearrangement of the thermal energy, but not to a loss in global confinement because the energy does not reach the wall. ^* In collaboration with Parvez N. Guzdar

Kleva, Robert G.

1998-11-01

412

Two-dimensional beat wave acceleration simulation  

SciTech Connect

Finite laser beam particle simulations of beat wave acceleration show that a coherent plasma wave excited by two-colinear laser beams at a difference frequency equal to the plasma frequency can produce maximum electron energies as predicted by simple one-dimensional theory. The time to saturation and the saturation amplitude of the plasma wave electric field agrees with the Rosenbluth-Liu theory. Stimulated Raman scattering does not appear to degrade the electron acceleration process. Eventually self-focussing and filamentation limit the lifetime of the coherent plasma wave to tens of picoseconds for an intense CO/sub 2/ laser beam.

Kindel, J.M.; Forslund, D.W.; Mori, W.B.; Joshi, C.; Dawson, J.M.

1984-01-01

413

HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System was designed to permit experimenters and operations staff controlled access to beam transport and experiment areas with accelerated beam present. Neutron-Gamma detectors are mounted in eaeh area at points of maximum dose rate and the resulting signals are integrated by redundan~ circuitry; beam is stopped if dose rate or integrated dose exceeds established limits. This paper will describe the system, in use for several vears at the HRIBF, and discuss changes recently made to modernize the system and to make the system compliant with DOE Order 5480.25 and related ORNL updated safety rules.

Blankenship, J.L.; Juras, R.C.

1998-11-04

414

Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

Batalov, I.; /Moscow, MIPT; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

415

TRACKING OF ACCELERATION WITH HNJ METHOD.  

SciTech Connect

After reviewing the principle of operation of acceleration with the method of Harmonic Number Jump (HNJ) in a Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator for protons and heavy ions, we report in this talk the results of computer simulations performed to assess the capability and the limits of the method in a variety of practical situations. Though the study is not yet completed, and there still remain other cases to be investigated, nonetheless the tracking results so far obtained are very encouraging, and confirm the validity of the method.

RUGGIERO,A.G.

2007-11-05

416

Results from non-accelerator experiments  

SciTech Connect

The diversity of non-accelerator experiments is at first look both dazzling and even daunting. However, nearly all of these experiments strive to attain the same goal, to search for new physics, beyond the current Standard Model. These measurements are also unified in the fact that their results are often dominated by systematic uncertainties. This review necessarily covers only a limited subset of non-accelerator experiments, and will concentrate on the experimental areas where there has been significant recent progress. The topics reviewed include neutrino mazes, double beta decay, solar neutrino, and long-baseline neutrino oscillation measurements.

Wilkerson, J.F.

1992-12-31

417

Results from non-accelerator experiments  

SciTech Connect

The diversity of non-accelerator experiments is at first look both dazzling and even daunting. However, nearly all of these experiments strive to attain the same goal, to search for new physics, beyond the current Standard Model. These measurements are also unified in the fact that their results are often dominated by systematic uncertainties. This review necessarily covers only a limited subset of non-accelerator experiments, and will concentrate on the experimental areas where there has been significant recent progress. The topics reviewed include neutrino mazes, double beta decay, solar neutrino, and long-baseline neutrino oscillation measurements.

Wilkerson, J.F.

1992-01-01

418

EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance

Robert Bingham

2009-01-01

419

The Dose Response Relationship between In Ear Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objectives Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use hearing protection and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. Methods At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory program to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high frequency hearing loss over a six year period using a mixed effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Workers’ high frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, interquartile range 74 to 80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high frequency hearing loss (p = 0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. Conclusion At-ear noise exposures below 85dBA did not show an association with risk of high frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure.

Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E.; Neitzel, Richard L.

2014-01-01

420

On Particle Acceleration Rate in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that collisionless shocks are major sites of particle acceleration in the universe, but the details of the acceleration process are still not well understood. The particle acceleration rate, which can shed light on the acceleration process, is rarely measured in astrophysical environments. Here, we use observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, which are weakly magnetized relativistic collisionless shocks in ion-electron plasma, to constrain the rate of particle acceleration in such shocks. We find, based on X-ray and GeV afterglows, an acceleration rate that is most likely very fast, approaching the Bohm limit, when the shock Lorentz factor is in the range of ? ~ 10-100. In that case X-ray observations may be consistent with no amplification of the magnetic field in the shock upstream region. We examine the X-ray afterglow of GRB 060729, which is observed for 642 days showing a sharp decay in the flux starting about 400 days after the burst, when the shock Lorentz factor is ~5. We find that inability to accelerate X-ray-emitting electrons at late time provides a natural explanation for the sharp decay, and that also in that case acceleration must be rather fast, and cannot be more than a 100 times slower than the Bohm limit. We conclude that particle acceleration is most likely fast in GRB afterglows, at least as long as the blast wave is ultrarelativistic.

Sagi, Eran; Nakar, Ehud

2012-04-01

421

Salt-Fog Accelerated Testing of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to determine the durability under accelerated salt-fog exposure of six commercially available composites. These composites included glass- reinforced vinylesters, polyesters, phenolics, and an epoxy. Durability was measur...

A. Caceres, R. M. Jamond, T. A. Hoffard, L. J. Malvar

2002-01-01

422

Analysis of performance limitations for superconducting cavities  

SciTech Connect

The performance of superconducting cavities in accelerators can be limited by several factors, such as: field emission, quenches, arcing, rf power; and the maximum gradient at which a cavity can operate will be determined by the lowest of these limitations for that particular cavity. The CEBAF accelerator operates with over 300 cavities and, for each of them, the authors have determined the maximum operating gradient and its limiting factor. They have developed a model that allows them to determine the distribution of gradients that could be achieved for each of these limitations independently of the others. The result of this analysis can guide an R&D program to achieve the best overall performance improvement. The same model can be used to relate the performance of single-cell and multi-cell cavities.

J. R. Delayen; L. R. Doolittle; C. E. Reece

1998-08-01

423

Accelerator-based Neutron Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the earliest experiments defining the properties of the neutron, accelerators have played an important role in providing neutrons for research and applications. For many years, neutrons produced at accelerator facilities have complemented capabilities available from reactor-based sources. Now, with the declining availability of reactor facilities, upgrades of existing accelerator facilities and proposed new, more powerful accelerator-based sources will be

James B. Ball

1997-01-01

424

Plasma-based accelerator structures  

SciTech Connect

Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-e