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1

Deriving exposure limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically many different agencies and standards organizations have proposed laser occupational exposure limits (EL1s) or maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels. Although some safety standards have been limited in scope to manufacturer system safety performance standards or to codes of practice most have included occupational EL''s. Initially in the 1960''s attention was drawn to setting EL''s however as greater experience accumulated in the use of lasers and some accident experience had been gained safety procedures were developed. It became clear by 1971 after the first decade of laser use that detailed hazard evaluation of each laser environment was too complex for most users and a scheme of hazard classification evolved. Today most countries follow a scheme of four major hazard classifications as defined in Document WS 825 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The classifications and the associated accessible emission limits (AEL''s) were based upon the EL''s. The EL and AEL values today are in surprisingly good agreement worldwide. There exists a greater range of safety requirements for the user for each class of laser. The current MPE''s (i. e. EL''s) and their basis are highlighted in this presentation. 2. 0

Sliney, David H.

1990-07-01

2

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR CHEMICALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are tools to help employers protect the health of those who may be exposed to chemicals in their workplace. Under the United Kingdom Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations they define adequate control by inhalation.? OELs are set by the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) on advice from its Advisory Committee on Toxic

M Topping

2001-01-01

3

ACCELERATED EXPOSURE TESTING Accelerated exposure testing has become increasingly  

E-print Network

for applications such as metal corrosion and protective coatings Atmospheric exposure testing of equipment salt solution, and ultraviolet radiation can be programmed dynamically to test requirements. A process environments simulation Corrosion evaluation and mitigation technologies Thermal stability testing Thermal

Chapman, Clark R.

4

Toward WHO-recommended occupational exposure limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WHO Project on Recommended Health-based Limits in Occupational Exposure resulted in the development of occupational exposure limit (OEL) values for a few groups of widely used industrial chemicals. A comparative analysis of the WHO-recommended OEL and existing OEL in selected countries has been made. It was shown that in the OEL's development, there is need for harmonization of methodology,

M. I. Mikheev

1995-01-01

5

Accelerated iterative band-limited extrapolation algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iterative algorithms of Papoulis-Gerchberg and Cadzow are well-known algorithms for solving the band-limited extrapolation problem. These algorithms, however, are usually slowly convergent. We propose an acceleration scheme for both algorithms, based on finding best approximation in appropriate subspaces. The acceleration scheme can also be applied to other cases of signal restoration, which admit Youla's method of alternating orthogonal projections.

Benjamin G. Salomon; Hanoch Ur

2004-01-01

6

Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. PMID:14735274

Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

2010-01-01

7

Nonlinear shock acceleration beyond the Bohm limit  

E-print Network

We suggest a physical mechanism whereby the acceleration time of cosmic rays by shock waves can be significantly reduced. This creates the possibility of particle acceleration beyond the knee energy at ~10^15eV. The acceleration results from a nonlinear modification of the flow ahead of the shock supported by particles already accelerated to the knee momentum at p ~ p_*. The particles gain energy by bouncing off converging magnetic irregularities frozen into the flow in the shock precursor and not so much by re-crossing the shock itself. The acceleration rate is thus determined by the gradient of the flow velocity and turns out to be formally independent of the particle mean free path (m.f.p.). The velocity gradient is, in turn, set by the knee-particles at p ~ p_* as having the dominant contribution to the CR pressure. Since it is independent of the m.f.p., the acceleration rate of particles above the knee does not decrease with energy, unlike in the linear acceleration regime. The reason for the knee formation at p ~ p_* is that particles with $p > p_*$ are effectively confined to the shock precursor only while they are within limited domains in the momentum space, while other particles fall into ``loss-islands'', similar to the ``loss-cone'' of magnetic traps. This structure of the momentum space is due to the character of the scattering magnetic irregularities. They are formed by a train of shock waves that naturally emerge from unstably growing and steepening magnetosonic waves or as a result of acoustic instability of the CR precursor. These losses steepen the spectrum above the knee, which also prevents the shock width from increasing with the maximum particle energy.

M. A. Malkov; P. H. Diamond

2005-09-08

8

Space-charge limits in linear accelerators  

SciTech Connect

This report presents equations that allow an approximate evaluation of the limiting beam current for a large class of radio-frequency linear accelerators, which use quadrupole strong focusing. Included are the Alvarez, the Wideroe, and the radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The limiting-current formulas are presented for both the longitudinal and the transverse degrees of freedom by assuming that the average space-charge force in the beam bunch arises from a uniformly distributed charge within an azimuthally symmetric three-dimensional ellipsoid. The Mathieu equation is obtained as an approximate, but general, form for the transverse equation of motion. The smooth-approximation method is used to obtain a solution and an expression for the transverse current limit. The form of the current-limit formulas for different linac constraints is discussed.

Wangler, T.P.

1980-12-01

9

Exposure of Polymeric Glazing Materials Using NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) selectively reflects and concentrates natural sunlight ultraviolet irradiance below 475 nm onto exposed samples to provide accelerated weathering of materials while keeping samples within realistic temperature limits. This paper will explain the design and implementation of the UAWS which allow it to simulate the effect of years of weathering in weeks of exposure. Exposure chamber design and instrumentation will be discussed for both a prototype UAWS used to test glazing samples as well as a commercial version of UAWS. Candidate polymeric glazing materials have been subjected to accelerated exposure testing at a light intensity level of up to 50 UV suns for an equivalent outdoor exposure in Miami, FL exceeding 15 years. Samples include an impact modified acrylic, fiberglass, and polycarbonate having several thin UV-screening coatings. Concurrent exposure is carried out for identical sample sets at two different temperatures to allow thermal effects to be quantified along with resistance to UV.

Bingham, C.; Jorgensen, G.; Wylie, A.

2010-01-01

10

Limiting radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.  

PubMed

Background An increase in the prevalence of urological stone disease and the refinement of endo-urological techniques has seen a concomitant rise in the use of fluoroscopy during surgery. As such there has been increasing concern in regards to the intra-operative radiation exposure to both clinicians and patients . Objective To audit contemporary data on radiation exposure during PCNL, in comparison with published series, and demonstrate that relatively low levels are achievable with clinical vigilance and attention to technique Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective analysis of all PCNL's undertaken between July 2005 and December 2011. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis Primary outcome measure was fluoroscopy times and associated radiation exposure, measured as dose area product (DAP). No statistical analysis was undertaken. Results and Limitations Between July 2005 and October 2011, 376 PCNLs were performed. Data were available on 348 patients including 16 paediatric cases. Mean DAP and ST over the whole study period were 452cGycm2 and 96s respectively. On a year by year basis the ST and DAP reduced from 917 to 375 and from 180 to 65 respectively. We acknowledge the limitation of this being a retrospective case series. Conclusions This study represents the largest series to date on radiation exposure during PCNL, and compares favourably with other published series, including those purporting novel techniques. Subtle changes in surgical technique and experience over time, can lead to low screening times, and can be potentially achieved by all operators performing PCNL within a high through-put centre. Patient Summary It is now recognised that surgical outcome in stone surgery is related to case load. The radiation dose the patient receives during a PCNL is increasingly recognised to be an important factor and can be reduced by careful technique and experience. PMID:25423185

Hanna, Luke; Walmsley, Byron H; Rogers, Anne; Devenish, Sue; Keoghane, Stephen R

2014-11-25

11

Human exposure limits to hypergolic fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past four decades, many studies have been conducted on the toxicities of the rocket propellants hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MH). Numerous technical challenges have made it difficult to unambiguously interpret the results of these studies, and there is considerable divergence between results obtained by different investigators on the inhalation concentrations (MAC's) for each toxic effect inducible by exposure to hypergolic fuels in spacecraft atmospheres, NASA undertook a critical review of published and unpublished investigations on the toxicities of these compounds. The current state of the art practices for similar studies. While many questions remain unanswered, MAC's were determined using the best available data for a variety of toxic endpoints for potential continuous exposure durations ranging from 1 hour to 180 days. Spacecraft MAC's (SMAC's) were set for each compound based on the most sensitive toxic endpoint at each exposure duration.

Garcia, H. D.; James, J. T.; Limero, T. F.

1992-01-01

12

Nonlinear dynamics of autonomous vehicles with limits on acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of autonomous vehicle platoons with limits on acceleration and deceleration is determined. If the leading-vehicle acceleration remains within the limits, all vehicles in the platoon remain within the limits when the relative-velocity feedback coefficient is equal to the headway time constant [k=1/h]. Furthermore, if the sensitivity ?>1/h, no collisions occur. String stability for small perturbations is assumed and the initial condition is taken as the equilibrium state. Other values of k and ? that give stability with no collisions are found from simulations. For vehicles with non-negligible mechanical response, simulations indicate that the acceleration-feedback-control gain might have to be dynamically adjusted to obtain optimal performance as the response time changes with engine speed. Stability is demonstrated for some perturbations that cause initial acceleration or deceleration greater than the limits, yet do not cause collisions.

Davis, L. C.

2014-07-01

13

Pushing the Limits of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A renewed interest in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) from nuclear physics laboratories is emerging in connection with Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). At the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) we are exploring the AMS capabilities of the 25-MV Tandem acclerator. Behind this effort is the realization that two fields of research - AMS and RIBs - complement each other in techniques. Development of effective and efficient beam purification techniques is of common interest to both AMS and the RIB program. Two main characteristics of the 25-MV Tandem provide unique opportunities for performing the highest sensitivity measurements of AMS; namely i) the highest operating voltage in the world, and ii) a folded geometry which involves a 180 degree magnet in the terminal. For the RIB program, we have used AMS techniques to improve the sensitivity of detection of some radioactive species in the measurement of unknown massses of n-rich nuclei. For AMS, we have concentrated in exploring two important isotopes, 14C and 36Cl, for applications that require the highest sensitivity. We have successfully measured 36Cl/Cl ratios as low as a few times 10-16 in seawater samples demonstrating that our set has the highest sensitivity for this isotope and proving that 36Cl can be measured at the levels required for a tracer in oceanography.

Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Danchev, M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Doupe, J. [University of Toronto; Fuentes Madariaga, Beatriz E [ORNL; Gomez Del Campo, Jorge [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Juras, Raymond C [ORNL; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Litherland, Albert E [ORNL; Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Meigs, Martha J [ORNL; Mills, Gerald D [ORNL; Mueller, Paul Edward [ORNL; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [ORNL; Pavan, John R [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL

2007-01-01

14

ELRA: The exposure limiting robotic apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A problem situation involving the handling of radioactive material at Argonne National Laboratory -- West (ANL-W) was solved through the use of remote handling techniques, providing significant exposure reduction to personnel. Robotic devices can be useful, but the cost of a robot is often prohibitive for many jobs. A low cost, disposable robot was built which successfully removed a highly radioactive and potentially explosive system from a hot cell at ANL-W.

Knighton, G.C.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Wilkes, C.W.

1992-09-01

15

Nondiffracting accelerating wave packets beyond the paraxial limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-accelerating Airy wave packets have stimulated rapidly growing research interest in the past five years. However, optical Airy beams are inherently subjected to the paraxial limit. Here, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally linear and nonlinear self-accelerating beams propagating along circular trajectories beyond the paraxial approximation. Such nonparaxial accelerating beams are exact solutions of the Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, we introduce and demonstrate nonparaxial Mathieu and Weber accelerating beams, generalizing the concept of all previously found accelerating wave packets. We show that such beams bend into large angles along elliptical or parabolic trajectories but still retain nondiffracting and self-healing capabilities. The circular nonparaxial accelerating beams can be considered as a special case of the Mathieu accelerating beams, while an Airy beam is only a special case of the Weber beams at the paraxial limit. Not only do generalized nonparaxial accelerating wave packets open up many possibilities of beam engineering for applications, but the fundamental concept developed here can be applied to other linear wave systems in nature, ranging from electromagnetic and elastic waves to matter waves.

Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yi; Li, Tongcang; Cannan, Drake; Yin, Xiaobo; Morandotti, Roberto; Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiang

2013-03-01

16

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limit is 4 W/kg, averaged over any 10 grams of tissue (defined as a tissue volume in the shape of a cube). Exposure may...to reduce or avoid exposure by administrative or engineering controls and work practices, such as use of...

2013-10-01

17

Extensive changes to occupational exposure limits in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important tool to protect workers from adverse chemical exposures and its detrimental effects on their health. The Ministry of Labor (MOL) can establish and publish OELs based on the Industrial Safety and Health Act in Korea. The first set of OELs was announced by the MOL in 1986. At that time, it

Jee Yeon Jeong; Sangjun Choi; Young Lim Kho; Pan Gyi Kim

2010-01-01

18

10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements...assure that no worker is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in...

2013-01-01

19

10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.  

...Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements...assure that no worker is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in...

2014-01-01

20

10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements...assure that no worker is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in...

2011-01-01

21

10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements...assure that no worker is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in...

2012-01-01

22

10 CFR 850.22 - Permissible exposure limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 850.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements...assure that no worker is exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium greater than the permissible exposure limit established in...

2010-01-01

23

Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is\\u000a difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials\\u000a that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials\\u000a limits the number of specific OELs that

P. A. Schulte; V. Murashov; R. Zumwalde; E. D. Kuempel; C. L. Geraci

2010-01-01

24

Linking accelerated laboratory and outdoor exposure results for PV polymeric materials: a mechanistic study of EVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking accelerated laboratory test to field performance for predicting the service life of polymeric materials are being investigated at NIST using the reliability-based methodology. Based on this methodology, a successful linkage between the laboratory and field exposure data for a model polymeric material has been made. Recently, this methodology, for the first time, was introduced to the lifetime assessment of PV polymeric materials. In this paper, a mechanistic study of the degradation of three unstabilized model ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) systems---uncured EVA, cured EVA and laminated EVA---was carried out under accelerated laboratory exposure and outdoor exposure. The NIST SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) was used for the accelerated laboratory tests, and the outdoor exposure was conducted in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Simultaneous multiple stresses, including temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation, were applied individually or in combination during SPHERE exposure. The effects of the environmental factors on the main degradation mechanisms of different EVA systems were investigated. The results showed that the UV radiation was the most important factor for the degradation of EVA and a synergistic effect occurred between UV radiation and relative humidity. A slower degradation rate was observed for the laminated system as a result of limited diffusion of O2 and H2O into EVA. It was also found that the substantial chemical changes of the uncured EVA system did not yield yellowing, which was dramatically different from the peroxide cured EVA system. Additionally, the chemical degradation modes of the three EVA systems exposed outdoors appeared to be similar to those exposed to the SPHERE. The implication of this work to the current test standards was discussed.

Gu, Xiaohong; Pang, Yongyan; Lin, Chiao-Chi; Liu, Kaipeng; Nguyen, Tinh; Chin, Jaonnie W.

2013-09-01

25

Limitation to Communication of Fermionic System in Accelerated Frame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we investigate communication between an inertial observer and an accelerated observer, sharing fermionic system, when they use classical and quantum communication using single rail or dual rail encoding. The purpose of this work is to understand the limit to the communication between an inertial observer and an accelerated observer, with single rail or dual rail encoding of fermionic system. We observe that at the infinite acceleration, the coherent information of single(or double) rail quantum channel vanishes, but those of classical ones may have finite values. In addition, we see that even when considering a method beyond the single-mode approximation, for the communication between Alice and Bob, the dual rail entangled state seems to provide better information transfer than the single rail entangled state, when we take a fixed choice of the Unruh mode. Moreover, we find that the single-mode approximation may not be sufficient to analyze communication of fermionic system in an accelerated frame.

Chang, Jinho; Kwon, Younghun

2014-09-01

26

Perceptual and oculomotor evidence of limitations on processing accelerating motion.  

PubMed

Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that humans are less sensitive to image acceleration than to image speed (e.g., Gottsdanker, 1956; Werkhoven, Snippe, & Toet, 1992). Because there is evidence that a common motion-processing stage subserves perception and pursuit (e.g., Watamaniuk & Heinen, 1999), either pursuit should be similarly impaired in discriminating acceleration or it must receive input from a system different from the one that processes visual motion for perception. We assessed the sensitivity of pursuit to acceleration or speed, and compared the results with those obtained in perceptual experiments done with similar stimuli and tasks. Specifically, observers pursued or made psychophysical judgments of targets that moved at randomly selected base speeds and subsequent accelerations. Oculomotor and psychophysical discrimination were compared by analyzing performance for the entire stimulus set sorted by either target acceleration or speed. Thresholds for pursuit and perception were higher for target acceleration than speed, further evidence that a common motion-processing stage limits the performance of both systems. PMID:14765954

Watamaniuk, Scott N J; Heinen, Stephen J

2003-01-01

27

Beijing ambient particle exposure accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice by upregulating visfatin expression.  

PubMed

Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with atherosclerosis. However, research on the effect of real-world exposure to ambient PM in regulating visfatin expression in an animal model is very limited. The objective is to investigate whether Beijing ambient PM exposure could accelerate atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice by upregulating visfatin expression. Forty male ApoE(-/-) mice were exposed to untreated ambient air (PM group, n = 20) or filtered air (FA group, n = 20), 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for 2 months. During the exposure, the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the two groups were continuously monitored. Moreover, a receptor source apportionment model was applied to apportion sources of PM2.5. At the end of the exposure, visfatin in plasma and aorta, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in blood samples, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined, and the plaque area of the atherosclerosis lesions was quantified. PM-exposed mice were significantly higher than FA-exposed mice in terms of plasma visfatin, OxLDL, MDA, serum TC, LDL, TNF-? as well as IL-6, TNF-?, OxLDL, and MDA in BALF, while SOD and GSH-Px activities in plasma and BALF were reduced in PM-exposed mice. Pathological analysis of the aorta demonstrated that the plaque area and visfatin protein in the PM group increased significantly compared to the FA group. Our findings indicate that ambient PM exposure could accelerate atherosclerosis, which is related to visfatin upregulation, as well as the activation of inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24523034

Wan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaobing; Shao, Jiman; Zhou, Fenghua; Jia, Yuhua; Sun, Xuegang; Zhao, Xiaoshan; Chen, Yuyao; Diao, Jianxin; Zhang, Lei

2014-09-01

28

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

...population/uncontrolled exposure limits, amateur licensees authorized under part 97...and information has been provided to the amateur licensee and members of his/her household...nearby persons who are not members of the amateur licensee's household must be...

2014-10-01

29

The development and regulation of occupational exposure limits in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, on an administrative basis, establishes and supervises the Administrative Concentration Level, which can be viewed as an Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) legally binding employers to maintain a good working environment. The Japan Society for Occupational Health, on a scientific basis, establishes the Recommended OELs, which can be viewed as a reference value for

Ken Takahashi; Toshiaki Higashi

2006-01-01

30

Accelerated Fatigue of Dentin with Exposure to Lactic Acid  

PubMed Central

Composite restorations accumulate more biofilm than other dental materials. This increases the likelihood for the hard tissues supporting a restoration (i.e. dentin and enamel) to be exposed to acidic conditions beyond that resulting from dietary variations. In this investigation the fatigue strength and fatigue crack growth resistance of human coronal dentin were characterized within a lactic acid solution (with pH=5) and compared to that of controls evaluated in neutral conditions (pH=7). A comparison of the fatigue life distributions showed that the lactic acid exposure resulted in a significant reduction in the fatigue strength (p?0.001), and nearly 30% reduction in the apparent endurance limit (from 44 MPa to 32 MPa). The reduction in pH also caused a significant decrease (p?0.05) in the threshold stress intensity range required for the initiation of cyclic crack growth, and significant increase in the incremental rate of crack extension. Exposure of tooth structure to lactic acid may cause demineralization, but it also increases the likelihood of restored tooth failures via fatigue, and after short time periods. PMID:23948166

Majd, H.; Ryou, H.; Mutluay, M. M.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Arola, D.

2013-01-01

31

LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART I: HANDLING OBSERVATIONS BELOW DETECTION LIMITS  

EPA Science Inventory

Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how censoring of non-detects affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Appropriate methods for handling censored below-detection-limit (BDL) values in this context were...

32

Laser Proton acceleration from mass limited silicon foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent studies on laser proton acceleration experiments using mass limited silicon targets. Small micro machined silicon foils with 2 ?m thickness and 20x20 ?m2 to 100x100?m2 size mounted on very tiny stalks were shot with the 100 TW LULI Laser (long pulse 150 fs) and with the new 150 TW DRACO Laser facility (short pulse 30 fs) of the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf. The experiments were carried out using high contrast levels. Proton spectra have been measured with magnetic spectrometers and radio chromic film stacks.

Zeil, K.; Kraft, S.; Richter, T.; Metzkes, J.; Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T. E.; Fuchs, J.; Buffechoux, S.

2009-11-01

33

The Occupational Exposure Limit for Fluid Aerosol Generated in Metalworking Operations: Limitations and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge related to the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for fluid aerosols including either mineral or chemical oil that are generated in metalworking operations, and to discuss whether their OEL can be appropriately used to prevent several health risks that may vary among metalworking fluid (MWF) types. The OEL (time-weighted average; 5 mg/m3, short-term exposure limit ; 15 mg/m3) has been applied to MWF aerosols without consideration of different fluid aerosol-size fractions. The OEL, is also based on the assumption that there are no significant differences in risk among fluid types, which may be contentious. Particularly, the health risks from exposure to water-soluble fluids may not have been sufficiently considered. Although adoption of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's recommended exposure limit for MWF aerosol (0.5 mg/m3) would be an effective step towards minimizing and evaluating the upper respiratory irritation that may be caused by neat or diluted MWF, this would fail to address the hazards (e.g., asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by microbial contaminants generated only by the use of water-soluble fluids. The absence of an OEL for the water-soluble fluids used in approximately 80-90 % of all applicants may result in limitations of the protection from health risks caused by exposure to those fluids. PMID:22953224

2012-01-01

34

FETAL DEXAMETHASONE EXPOSURE ACCELERATES DEVELOPMENT OF RENAL FUNCTION: RELATIONSHIP TO DOSE, CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND GROWTH INHIBITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fetal exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids slows cellular development and impairs organ performance, in association with growth retardation. evertheless, low doses of glucocorticoids may enhance cell differentiation and accelerate specific functions. he current study examine...

35

Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing - Part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of metals to predict service life of metal-based structures in corrosive environments has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions similar to those of the corrosive environment. Their reliability to correlate to atmospheric exposure test results is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated corrosion testing has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long-term service life of a metal, despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard, and their use is crucial, a method that correlates timescales from accelerated testing to atmospheric exposure would be very valuable. This paper presents work that began with the characterization of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Beachside Corrosion Test Site. The chemical changes that occur on low carbon steel, during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions, were investigated using surface chemistry analytical methods. The corrosion rates and behaviors of panels subjected to long-term and accelerated corrosion conditions, involving neutral salt fog and alternating seawater spray, were compared to identify possible timescale correlations between accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The results, as well as preliminary findings on the correlation investigation, are presented.

Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

2012-01-01

36

Development of occupational exposure limits for the Hanford tank farms.  

PubMed

Production of plutonium for the United States' nuclear weapons program from the 1940s to the 1980s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Recent attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to more modern tanks and result in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2MHILL, the managers of the Hanford site tank farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an industrial hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2MHILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs. PMID:20180654

Still, Kenneth R; Gardner, Donald E; Snyder, Robert; Anderson, Thomas J; Honeyman, James O; Timchalk, Charles

2010-04-01

37

Emergency exposure limits: a guide to quality assurance and safety.  

PubMed

Emergency exposure limits (EELs) are necessary in disaster prevention, preparation, and repression. Occupational EELs are available for many chemicals, but are of low toxicological adequacy. An animal experimental EEL of high toxicological adequacy available for many irritant chemicals is the concentration causing a 50% decrease in respiratory rate (RD50). The most outstanding EELs for the general population are the emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). A theoretical framework for a three-limit system is developed by the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Center (ECETOC). ECETOC found over one order of magnitude variation between assessments of several companies. Nine selected EELs were classified in three clusters of increasing degrees of seriousness of health effects. There was little consistency within clusters, making it impossible to combine EELs. It is recommended to develop a toxicologically adequate EEL in an intercontinental context with cooperation of industry and (supra)national regulatory bodies. ERPGs can be taken as a start. The framework developed by ECETOC can be used to improve the limit setting procedure. A 5- to 10-year update should become part of the procedure. Attention should be devoted to the use of expert judgment. The minimal uncertainty in EELs should be expressed by presenting ranges instead of single values. PMID:1344216

Woudenberg, F; van der Torn, P

1992-10-01

38

Accelerated corrosion tests for aerospace materials: current limitations and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines accelerated methods for the corrosion testing of materials, coatings and surface treatments used in the aerospace and defence industries. The drawbacks with some current accelerated corrosion tests are examined, particularly the problems experienced with neutral salt spray tests. Specific examples are given which identify the acute discrepancy between salt spray and marine exposure in the corrosion testing of metallic

K. R. Baldwin; C. J. E. Smith

1999-01-01

39

Acceleration of Key Reactions as a Strategy to Elucidate the Rate-Limiting Chemistry Underlying  

E-print Network

Acceleration of Key Reactions as a Strategy to Elucidate the Rate-Limiting Chemistry Underlying of accelerating each step separately, while monitoring the rate of formation of the end product of the series of phototransduction turn-off. These reactions were accelerated separately and to- gether by adding hydroxylamine and

Wensel, Theodore G.

40

Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.  

PubMed

There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory NOAEChuman" can be derived. In contrast, inhalation studies with rodents investigate the second pathway that yields an "irritative NOAECanimal." Usually the data for both pathways is not available and extrapolation across species is necessary. Part 3 comprises an empirical approach for the derivation of a default factor for interspecies differences. Therefore, from those substances under discussion in German scientific and regulatory bodies, 19 substances were identified known to be human irritants with available human and animal data. The evaluation started with three substances: ethyl acrylate, formaldehyde, and methyl methacrylate. For these substances, appropriate chronic animal and a controlled human exposure studies were available. The comparison of the sensory NOAEChuman with the irritative NOAECanimal (chronic) resulted in an interspecies extrapolation factor (iEF) of 3 for extrapolating animal data concerning local sensory irritating effects. The adequacy of this iEF was confirmed by its application to additional substances with lower data density (acetaldehyde, ammonia, n-butyl acetate, hydrogen sulfide, and 2-ethylhexanol). Thus, extrapolating from animal studies, an iEF of 3 should be applied for local sensory irritants without reliable human data, unless individual data argue for a substance-specific approach. PMID:25182421

Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

2014-10-01

41

Approaches and Considerations for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants: Report of Recent Symposia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 50 years significant strides have been made in reducing occupational exposure to airborne chemicals. To a large extent, the impetus behind the reductions has been the identification of presumably safe levels of exposure, or occupational exposure limits (OELs). Most of the reduction in exposure has been to chemicals such as hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, nephrotoxins, and carcinogens that cause

Dennis Paustenbach

2001-01-01

42

Quantify landslide exposure in areas with limited hazard information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Daunia region, located in the North-western part of Apulia (Southern Italy), landslides are the main source of damage to properties in the urban centers of the area, involving especially transportation system and the foundation stability of buildings. In the last 50 years, the growing demand for physical development of these unstable minor hillside and mountain centers has produced a very rapid expansion of built-up areas, often with poor planning of urban and territorial infrastructures, and invasion of the agricultural soil. Because of the expansion of the built-up towards not safe areas, human activities such as deforestation or excavation of slopes for road cuts and building sites, etc., have become important triggers for landslide occurrence. In the study area, the probability of occurrence of landslides is very difficult to predict, as well as the expected magnitude of events, due to the limited data availability on past landslide activity. Because the main limitations concern the availability of temporal data on landslides and triggering events (frequency), run-out distance and landslide magnitude, it was not possible to produce a reliable landslide hazard map and, consequently, a risk map. Given these limitations in data availability and details, a qualitative exposure map has been produced and combined with a landslide susceptibility map, both generated using a spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) procedure in a GIS system, for obtaining the qualitative landslide risk map. The qualitative analysis has been provided the spatial distribution of the exposure level in the study area; this information could be used in a preliminary stage of regional planning. In order to have a better definition of the risk level in the Daunia territory, the quantification of the economic losses at municipal level was carried out. For transforming these information on economic consequences into landslide risk quantification, it was necessary to assume the temporal probability of landslides, on the basis of the expert knowledge on the landslide phenomena. For each of twenty-five municipalities included in the study area, the expected losses (or consequences), in monetary terms, due to different hazard scenarios have been evaluated. After calculating the economic losses, the total risk at municipal level was evaluated, by generating the risk curves and calculating the area under the curves. The analysis of the risk curves related to the 25 municipalities has showed that the total risk values, expressed in monetary terms, is higher for the bigger municipal areas located in the southern part of the study area where the elevation is lower, as are more numerous the elements at risk distributed on the municipal territory. Finally, this quantitative risk assessment procedure, which calculates the exposure in monetary terms of elements at risk, allows to establish the changes in risk in future with urban development and monetary inflation.

Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.; Van Westen, C. J.

2012-04-01

43

Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to VGDF and pesticides is associated with longitudinal decline in lung function. We used 12,772 observations from 2,527 participants in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study, a general-population-based cohort study that followed subjects for 25 years, from 1965 to the last survey in 1989/1990. Job-specific exposure was estimated with the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Associations between exposures and annual changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 as a percentage of inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1%VC) were assessed with linear mixed-effect models including sex, age, and level of lung function at the first measurement and pack-years of smoking at the last measurement. We tested for interaction between smoking and occupational exposure and assessed associations separately for never smokers and ever smokers. Exposure to VGDF was not associated with accelerated lung function decline after adjustment for co-exposure to pesticides. Exposure to pesticides, both in the last-held job and as a cumulative measure, was associated with accelerated decline in FEV1 and FEV1%VC, especially among ever smokers, where we found an excess change in FEV1 of -6.9 mL/year (95% confidence interval: -10.2, -3.7) associated with high pesticide exposure. PMID:24780843

de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

2014-06-01

44

Preliminary results of accelerated exposure testing of solar cell system components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plastic samples and solar cell sub modules were exposed to an accelerated outdoor environment in Arizona and an accelerated simulated environment in a cyclic ultraviolet exposure tester which included humidity exposure. These tests were for preliminary screening of materials suitable for use in the manufacture of solar cell modules which are to have a 20-year lifetime. The samples were exposed for various times up to six months, equivalent to a real time exposure of four years. Suitable materials were found to be FEP-A, FEP-C, PFA, acrylic, silicone compounds and adhesives and possibly parylene. The method of packaging the sub modules was also found to be important to their performance.

Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

1977-01-01

45

Strategy of the scientific committee on occupational exposure limits (SCOEL) in the derivation of occupational exposure limits for carcinogens and mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting standards, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs) for carcinogenic substances must consider modes of action.\\u000a At the European Union level, the scientific committee on occupational exposure limits (SCOEL) has discussed a number of chemical\\u000a carcinogens and has issued recommendations. For some carcinogens, health-based OELs were recommended, while quantitative assessments\\u000a of carcinogenic risks were performed for others. For purposes of

Hermann M. Bolt; Alicia Huici-Montagud

2008-01-01

46

Approaches for the development of occupational exposure limits for man-made mineral fibres (MMMFs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are an essential tool in the control of exposure to hazardous chemical agents, and serve to minimise the occurrence of occupational diseases associated with such exposure. The setting of OELs, together with other associated measures, forms an essential part of the European Community’s strategy on health and safety at work, upon which the legislative framework for

Kyriakoula Ziegler-Skylakakis

2004-01-01

47

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2010-07-01

48

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2013-07-01

49

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2014-07-01

50

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2012-07-01

51

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2011-07-01

52

Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants: The Approach in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1990, the European Commission initiated a program to establish European Union (EU)-wide occupational exposure limits (OELs). As in the United States and other countries, a panel of experts known as the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) was identified and brought together to identify the proper values. This article describes the approach used by SCOEL to identify

Maureen Meldrum

2001-01-01

53

Photothermal stability of encapsulated Si solar cells and encapsulation materials upon accelerated exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various samples of crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cells that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Transmittance, fluorescence, color indices, impedance spectroscopy, laser optical beam induced current (OBIC), and light and dark current–voltage (I–V) measurements were used to characterize the samples. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene

F. J. Pern; S. H. Glick

2000-01-01

54

Proposal for hand-arm vibration exposure limits adopted for Japanese workers operating hand-held vibration tools.  

PubMed

On the basis of data presented in our previous, reports, the current study was undertaken to estimate frequency-weighted hand-arm vibration exposure limits for various daily exposure times. The procedures for the present study were as follows. (1) The prevalence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) as well as the vibration exposure were investigated in various groups of workers operating hand-held vibrating tools. The vibration magnitude of various tools was measured and the results were presented as the energy-equivalent frequency-weighted root-mean-square (m/s2 rms) acceleration. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the prevalence of VWF and the measured vibration magnitude (R2 = 0.5, P < 0.05). Hence, it was concluded that in decisions concerning quantitative recommendations for vibration exposure, the prevalence of VWF should be considered. (2) By a careful selection of available publications which contain useful information on duration of vibration exposure of < or = 2 h/day and the occurrence of VWF, a significant correlation between the prevalence of VWF and the vibration magnitude could be observed. The regression equation was estimated as: y = -18.5 + 4.6 (x), R2 = 0.8. On the basis of this equation, it was speculated that the prevalence of VWF in workers using vibrating tools might be restricted to the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon in the Japanese general population if the 2-h daily vibration exposure is about 4.5 m/s2 rms. (3) Regarding this speculation, the equation provided in the documentation of ISO 5349 was used and modified as: [alpha h,w)eq,t = (alpha h,w)eq,2(2/t)1/2 (m/s2 rms)] and then the vibration limit values for daily exposure of 1 min to 8 h were calculated. (4) In order to achieve compatibility with standards of other countries, and to formulate an easy method for using the recommended values presented here, the daily exposure time of 8, 4, 2, 1 and 0.5 h were selected. The correspondence vibration magnitudes were in the range 22-9.0 m/s2 rms, and the lower limit (2.2 m/s2 rms) was assumed as the permissible vibration exposure limit for an 8-h working period. The proposed daily vibration limits were then compared with those recommended by other institutions. PMID:9215928

Mirbod, S M; Iwata, H

1997-01-01

55

Research of the optical properties of solar-reflective materials subjected to accelerated and nonaccelerated exposure tests. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research on candidate reflective materials for use in solar thermal power applications is reported. The candidate materials have been subjected to exposure tests conducted previously at the Phoenix, Arizona test site. The samples have been exposed to each of three test conditions - one non-accelerated and two different accelerated tests (nominally 8 suns). Post-exposure optical measurements of spectral reflectance were then conducted for the exposure test samples. Reflectance specularity data for the subject materials are obtained from optical measurements performed by Battelle-PNL. Summarized is an investigation of the accumulated reflectance data for correlations using three of the various materials included in the exposure test sample set. (LEW)

Rausch, R A

1980-10-01

56

Safe human exposure limits for airborne linear siloxanes during spaceflight  

PubMed Central

Background Low molecular weight siloxanes are used in industrial processes and consumer products, and their vapors have been detected in the atmospheres of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for siloxane vapors to protect astronaut health. Since publication of these original SMACs, new studies and new risk assessment approaches have been published that warrant re-examination of the SMACs. Objective To reevaluate SMACs published for octamethyltrisiloxane (L3) for exposures ranging from 1 hour to 180 days, to develop a 1000-day SMAC, and to expand the applicability of those values to the family of linear siloxanes. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify studies conducted since the SMACs for L3 were set in 1994. The updated data were reviewed to determine the sensitive toxicity endpoints, and current risk assessment approaches and methods for dosimetric adjustments were evaluated. Results Recent data were used to update the original 1-hour, 24-hour, 30-day, and 180-day SMACs for L3, and a 1000-day SMAC was developed to protect crewmembers during future exploration beyond Earth orbit. Group SMACs for the linear siloxane family, including hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), L3, decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4), and dodecamethylpentasiloxane (L5), were set for exposures of 1-hour to 1000 days. Conclusion New SMACs, based on acute pulmonary and neurotoxicity at high doses only achievable with L2 and potential liver effects following longer-term exposures to L2 and L3, were established to protect crewmembers from the adverse effects of exposure to linear siloxanes. PMID:24255951

García, Hector D.; McMullin, Tami S.; Tobin, Joseph M.; James, John T.

2013-01-01

57

Calculations of diffusion and diffusion-limited processes in Ni3Al using accelerated molecular dynamics  

E-print Network

Calculations of diffusion and diffusion-limited processes in Ni3Al using accelerated molecular a systematic microscopic approach to diffusion and diffusion-limited processes in Ni3Al. These processes have by Rong et al. [2] in Ni3Al. They found that, during creep, edge dislocations commonly dissociated

Daw, Murray S.

58

Estimating the odds ratio when exposure has a limit of detection  

E-print Network

Estimating the odds ratio when exposure has a limit of detection Stephen R Cole,1 * Haitao Chu,2. Results In the example, the estimated odds ratio (OR) varied by 1.22-fold across methods, from 1.45 to 1 for an exposure with an LOD when estimat- ing the odds ratio (OR). In particular, we describe an example

Cole, Stephen R.

59

Occupational exposure limits for 30 organophosphate pesticides based on inhibition of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity and other relevant data for 30 organophosphate pesticides were evaluated to suggest inhalation occupational exposure limits (OELs), and to support development of a risk assessment strategy for organophosphates in general. Specifically, the value of relative potency analysis and the predictability of inhalation OELs by acute toxicity measures and by repeated oral exposure NOELs was assessed. Suggested OELs are based

Jan E Storm; Karl K Rozman; John Doull

2000-01-01

60

BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF MATING ACCELERATION AFTER EXPOSURE OF MALE C. CAPITATA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) TO GINGER AND ORANGE OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The behavioral mechanism of mating acceleration after exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger root oil (GO) or to orange peel oil (OO) was studied in the laboratory. Exposure to both oils increased the frequency of sexual signaling. In a wind tunnel females were attracted at similar rat...

61

Metalworking Fluid Mist Occupational Exposure Limits: A Discussion of Alternative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIOSH published a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids (MWF) in 1998 that was designed to prevent respiratory disorders associated with these industrial lubricants. The REL of 0.4 mg\\/m (as a time-weighted average for up to 10 hours) was for the fraction of aerosol corresponding to deposition in the thoracic region of the lungs. This nonregulatory occupational exposure limit

Howard Cohen; Eugene M. White

2006-01-01

62

Accelerated 20-year sunlight exposure simulation of a photochromic foldable intraocular lens in a rabbit model  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To assess the long-term biocompatibility and photochromic stability of a new photochromic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) under extended ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. SETTING John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS A Matrix Aurium photochromic IOL was implanted in right eyes and a Matrix Acrylic IOL without photochromic properties (n = 6) or a single-piece AcrySof Natural SN60AT (N = 5) IOL in left eyes of 11 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to a UV light source of 5 mW/cm2 for 3 hours during every 8-hour period, equivalent to 9 hours a day, and followed for up to 12 months. The photochromic changes were evaluated during slitlamp examination by shining a penlight UV source in the right eye. After the rabbits were humanely killed and the eyes enucleated, study and control IOLs were explanted and evaluated in vitro on UV exposure and studied histopathologically. RESULTS The photochromic IOL was as biocompatible as the control IOLs after 12 months under conditions simulating at least 20 years of UV exposure. In vitro evaluation confirmed the retained optical properties, with photochromic changes observed within 7 seconds of UV exposure. The rabbit eyes had clinical and histopathological changes expected in this model with a 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The new photochromic IOL turned yellow only on exposure to UV light. The photochromic changes were reversible, reproducible, and stable over time. The IOL was biocompatible with up to 12 months of accelerated UV exposure simulation. PMID:21241924

Werner, Liliana; Abdel-Aziz, Salwa; Peck, Carolee Cutler; Monson, Bryan; Espandar, Ladan; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Wilcox, Chris; Mamalis, Nick

2011-01-01

63

The NREL outdoor accelerated-weathering tracking system and photovoltaic module exposure results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52×1.83 m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was ±15% for a clear-sky summer day with ± 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m2 of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40° up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13% TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95% compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OATS tracking problems, maintenance, and repair. For December 1997 through July 1998, the SRRL cumulative exposure was 99% compared to the respective monthly averages from years 1961 through 1990 at Boulder, Colorado.

Basso, Thomas S.

1999-03-01

64

The NREL outdoor accelerated-weathering tracking system and photovoltaic module exposure results  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52{times}1.83&hthinsp;m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was {plus_minus}15{percent} for a clear-sky summer day with {plus_minus} 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m{sup 2} of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40{degree} up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13{percent} TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95{percent} compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OATS tracking problems, maintenance, and repair. For December 1997 through July 1998, the SRRL cumulative exposure was 99{percent} compared to the respective monthly averages from years 1961 through 1990 at Boulder, Colorado. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Basso, T.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado, 80401-3393 (United States)

1999-03-01

65

The NREL Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System and Photovoltaic Module Exposure Results  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52 x 1.83 m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was '' 15% for a clear-sky summer day with '' 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m2 of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40{sup o} up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13% TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95% compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OAT S tracking problems, maintenance, and repair. For December 1997 through July 1998, the SRRL cumulative exposure was 99% compared to the respective monthly averages from years 1961 through 1990 at Boulder, Colorado.

Basso, T. S.

1998-10-31

66

Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude  

DOEpatents

A beam current limiter for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity.

Bogaty, John M. (Lombard, IL); Clifft, Benny E. (Park Forest, IL); Bollinger, Lowell M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1995-01-01

67

Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude  

DOEpatents

A beam current limiter is disclosed for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity. 6 figs.

Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Bollinger, L.M.

1995-08-08

68

Further Analysis of Accelerated Exposure Testing of Thin-Glass Mirror Matrix  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power (CSP) companies have deployed thin-glass mirrors produced by wet-silver processes on {approx}1-mmthick, relatively lightweight glass. These mirrors are bonded to metal substrates in commercial installations and have the confidence of the CSP industry. Initial hemispherical reflectance is {approx}93%-96%, and the cost is {approx}$16.1/m{sup 2}-$43.0/m{sup 2}. However, corrosion was observed in mirror elements of operational solar systems deployed outdoors for 2 years. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Advanced Materials Team has been investigating this problem. First, it was noted that this corrosion is very similar to the corrosion bands and spots observed on small (45 mm x 67 mm) thin-glass mirrors laminated to metal substrates with several different types of adhesives and subjected to accelerated exposure testing (AET) at NREL. The corrosion appears as dark splotches in the center of the mirror, with a corresponding 5%-20% loss in reflectivity. Secondly, two significant changes in mirror manufacture have occurred in the wet-chemistry process because of environmental concerns. The first is the method of forming a copper-free reflective mirror, and the second is the use of lead-free paints. However, the copper-free process requires stringent quality control and the lead-free paints were developed for interior applications. A test matrix of 84 combinations of sample constructions (mirror type/backprotective paint/adhesive/substrate) was devised for AET as a designed experiment to identify the most-promising mirrors, paints, and adhesives for use with concentrator designs. Two types of accelerated exposure were used: an Atlas Ci5000 WeatherOmeter (CI5000) and a BlueM damp-heat chamber. Based on an analysis of variance (ANOVA), the various factors and interactions were modeled. These samples now have more than 36 months of accelerated exposure, and most samples have completed their test cycle. We will discuss the results of the final exposure testing of these mirror samples. Glass mirrors with copper back-layers and heavily leaded paints have been considered robust for outdoor use. However, the basic mirror composition of the new mirrors is radically different from that of historically durable solar mirrors, and the outdoor durability must be determined.

Kennedy, C. E.; Terwilliger, K.; Jorgensen, G. J.

2007-01-01

69

Scientific basis for uncertainty factors used to establish occupational exposure limits for pharmaceutical active ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional “safety factor”; method has been used for years to establish occupational exposure limits (OELs) for active ingredients used in drugs. In the past, a single safety factor was used to address all sources of uncertainty in the limit setting process. The traditional 100?fold safety factor commonly used to derive an acceptable daily intake value incorporates a default factor

Bruce D. Naumann; Patricia A. Weideman

1995-01-01

70

Prenatal Exposure to Low Levels of Androgen Accelerates Female Puberty Onset and Reproductive Senescence in Mice  

PubMed Central

Sex steroid hormone production and feedback mechanisms are critical components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and regulate fetal development, puberty, fertility, and menopause. In female mammals, developmental exposure to excess androgens alters the development of the HPG axis and has pathophysiological effects on adult reproductive function. This study presents an in-depth reproductive analysis of a murine model of prenatal androgenization (PNA) in which females are exposed to a low dose of dihydrotestosterone during late prenatal development on embryonic d 16.5–18.5. We determined that PNA females had advanced pubertal onset and a delay in the time to first litter, compared with vehicle-treated controls. The PNA mice also had elevated testosterone, irregular estrous cyclicity, and advanced reproductive senescence. To assess the importance of the window of androgen exposure, dihydrotestosterone was administered to a separate cohort of female mice on postnatal d 21–23 [prepubertal androgenization (PPA)]. PPA significantly advanced the timing of pubertal onset, as observed by age of the vaginal opening, yet had no effects on testosterone or estrous cycling in adulthood. The absence of kisspeptin receptor in Kiss1r-null mice did not change the acceleration of puberty by the PNA and PPA paradigms, indicating that kisspeptin signaling is not required for androgens to advance puberty. Thus, prenatal, but not prepubertal, exposure to low levels of androgens disrupts normal reproductive function throughout life from puberty to reproductive senescence. PMID:22778229

Witham, Emily A.; Meadows, Jason D.; Shojaei, Shadi; Kauffman, Alexander S.

2012-01-01

71

Quantification of volatile organic compounds in smoke from prescribed burning and comparison with occupational exposure limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed burning represents a serious threat to personnel fighting fires due to smoke inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure by foresters to smoke from prescribed burning, focusing on exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The methodology for smoke sampling was first evaluated. Potentially dangerous compounds were identified among the VOCs emitted by smoke fires at four prescribed burning plots located around Corsica. The measured mass concentrations for several toxic VOCs were generally higher than those measured in previous studies due to the experimental framework (short sampling distance between the foresters and the flame, low combustion, wet vegetation). In particular, benzene, phenol and furfural exceeded the legal short-term exposure limits published in Europe and/or the United States. Other VOCs such as toluene, ethybenzene or styrene remained below the exposure limits. In conclusion, clear and necessary recommendations were made for protection of personnel involved in fighting fires.

Romagnoli, E.; Barboni, T.; Santoni, P.-A.; Chiaramonti, N.

2014-05-01

72

Evaluation of the health impact of lowering the formaldehyde occupational exposure limit for Quebec workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at assessing the impact on irritating effects of lowering the current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for formaldehyde in occupational settings in the Province of Quebec, Canada, from a 2ppm ceiling value to 1, 0.75 or 0.3ppm. This was achieved through (i) a re-assessment of the exposure–response relationship based on a pooled analysis of published controlled human studies

Nolwenn Noisel; Michèle Bouchard; Gaétan Carrier

2007-01-01

73

Limited utility of Birkhoff's theorem in modified Newtonian dynamics: Nonzero accelerations inside a shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the consequences of Birkhoff’s theorem in general relativity (GR) and in modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). We study, in particular, the system of a finite-mass test particle inside a spherical shell. In both GR and MOND, we find nonvanishing acceleration for that test particle. The direction of the acceleration is such that it pushes the test particle toward the center of the shell. In GR, the acceleration is found analytically in the case of a small test mass with a small displacement from the center of the shell. In MOND, the acceleration is found analytically in the limit of large test mass and small displacement, and a comparison to numerical values is made. Numerical simulations are done for more general cases with parameters that mimic the system of a galaxy in a cluster. In GR, the acceleration is highly suppressed and physically insignificant. In MOND, on the contrary, the acceleration of the point particle can be a significant fraction of the field just outside of the spherical shell.

Dai, De-Chang; Matsuo, Reijiro; Starkman, Glenn

2010-01-01

74

Limited utility of Birkhoff's theorem in modified Newtonian dynamics: Nonzero accelerations inside a shell  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the consequences of Birkhoff's theorem in general relativity (GR) and in modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). We study, in particular, the system of a finite-mass test particle inside a spherical shell. In both GR and MOND, we find nonvanishing acceleration for that test particle. The direction of the acceleration is such that it pushes the test particle toward the center of the shell. In GR, the acceleration is found analytically in the case of a small test mass with a small displacement from the center of the shell. In MOND, the acceleration is found analytically in the limit of large test mass and small displacement, and a comparison to numerical values is made. Numerical simulations are done for more general cases with parameters that mimic the system of a galaxy in a cluster. In GR, the acceleration is highly suppressed and physically insignificant. In MOND, on the contrary, the acceleration of the point particle can be a significant fraction of the field just outside of the spherical shell.

Dai Dechang [Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States); Matsuo, Reijiro; Starkman, Glenn [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States)

2010-01-15

75

Overgeneralizing belonging: limited exposure to baby-faced targets increases the feeling of social belonging.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that exposure to babyish faces can serve a social surrogacy function, such that even limited exposure to babyish faces can fulfill social belongingness needs. We manipulated the sex and facial maturity of a target face seen in an imagined social interaction, on a between-participants basis. Regardless of target sex, individuals indicated greater satisfaction of social belongingness needs following an imagined interaction with a babyish face, compared to a mature adult face. These results indicate that brief exposure to babyish (relative to mature) faces, even without an extensive interaction, can lead to the satisfaction of social belongingness needs. PMID:25154111

Sacco, Donald F; Wilson, John Paul; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wirth, James H

2014-01-01

76

Accelerated exposure tests of encapsulated Si solar cells and encapsulation materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a series of accelerated exposure test (AET) studies for various crystalline-Si (c-Si) and amorphous-Si (a-Si) cell samples that were encapsulated with different superstrates, pottants, and substrates. Nonuniform browning patterns of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pottants were observed for glass/EVA/glass-encapsulated c-Si cell samples under solar simulator exposures at elevated temperatures. The polymer/polymer-configured laminates with Tedlar or Tefzel did not discolor because of photobleaching reactions, but yellowed with polyester or nylon top films. Delamination was observed for the polyester/EVE layers on a-Si minimodules and for a polyolefin-based thermoplastic pottant at high temperatures. For all tested c-Si cell samples, irregular changes in the current-voltage parameters were observed that could not be accounted for simply by the transmittance changes of the superstrate/pottant layers. Silicone-type adhesives used under UV-transmitting polymer top films were observed to cause greater cell current/efficiency loss than EVA or polyethylene pottants.

Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

1999-03-01

77

A Critical Appraisal of the Setting and Implementation of Occupational Exposure Limits in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978 in the Netherlands occupational exposure limits, designated maxi mum accepted concentrations (MACs), have been established by a three-step procedure. In the first, purely health-based, step the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (DECOS), a committee of the Health Council of the Netherlands, establishes a health-based recommended occupational expo sure limit (HBR-OEL). In the second, feasibility, step the Subcommittee

V. J. Feron; C. Hoeksema; J. H. E. Artsa; P. C. Noordam; C. L. Maas

1994-01-01

78

Establishing an Occupational Exposure Limit for Hexavalent Chromium in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Criteria Document for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], currently under preparation at the Institute of Occupational Health, University of Birmingham, is intended for use in setting an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for Cr(VI) in the European Union (EU). The requirement for establishing OELs, specifically known as indicative limit values, in the EU is set out in Council Directive 80\\/1107\\/EEC, amended by

Hilary J. Cross; Stephen P. Faux; Leonard S. Levy

1997-01-01

79

A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits  

PubMed Central

A colorimetric sensor array has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of 20 toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) at their PELs (permissible exposure limits). The color changes in an array of chemically responsive nanoporous pigments provide facile identification of the TICs with an error rate below 0.7%. PMID:20221484

Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

2010-01-01

80

A proposed methodology for setting occupational exposure limits for hydrocarbon solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure limit (OEL) development for hydrocarbon solvents is complicated because most of these solvents have complex compositions and only a few representative constituents have been studied in detail. A proposed solution to this problem is to group constituents with similar physical, chemical, and toxicological properties and to assign “guidance values” to each group. A unique OEL can then be

Richard H. Mckee; Arlean M. Medeiros; Wayne C. Daughtrey

2005-01-01

81

Carcinogenicity and Other Health Effects of Acrylonitrile with Reference to Occupational Exposure Limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupational exposure limit for acrylonitrile (AN) has been set by many organizations on the basis of its carcinogenicity. However, recent epidemiological studies do not afford evidence supporting the hypothesis that AN is carcinogenic to humans. Review of the 18 published cohort studies revealed that, although there is not adequate evidence in humans for carcinogenicity of AN, the possibility of

Haruhiko SAKURAI

2000-01-01

82

Approach to Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how scientists in the Netherlands set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for sensory irritants. When they tackle this issue, a number of key questions need to be answered. For example, did the studies indeed measure sensory irritation and not cytotoxicity? When the irritant is an odorant, can interference of olfactory stimulation be excluded? In the case of subjective

V. J. Feron; J. H. E. Arts; J. Mojet

2001-01-01

83

A Proposed Approach for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Sensory Irritants Based on Chemosensory Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for odorous or irritating chemicals is a global occupational health challenge. However, often there is inadequate knowledge about the toxicology of these chemicals to set an OEL and their irritation potencies are usually not rec- ognized until they are manufactured or used in large quantities. Methods: In this paper, the importance of accounting for

SHANNON H. GAFFNEY; DENNIS J. PAUSTENBACH

2007-01-01

84

The Importance of Human Data in the Establishment of Occupational Exposure Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of animal vs. human data for the purposes of establishing human risk was examined for four pharmaceutical compounds: acetylsalicylic acid, cyclophosphamide, indomethacin and clofibric acid. Literature searches were conducted to identify preclinical and clinical data useful for the derivation of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) from which a number of risk values including occupational exposure limits (OELs) could be

Edward V. Sargent; Bruce D. Naumann; David G. Dolan; Ellen C. Faria; Lisa Schulman

2002-01-01

85

Optimal proton acceleration from lateral limited foil sections and different laser pulse durations at relativistic intensity  

SciTech Connect

The proton acceleration from a thin foil irradiated by a laser pulse at relativistic intensities is a process highly dependent on the electron dynamic at the rear side of the foil. By reducing the lateral size of the laser irradiated foil the hot electrons are confined in a small volume leading to an enhancement of both the maximum proton energy and the conversion efficiency in the target normal sheath acceleration regime. In this paper we demonstrate that an optimal lateral size of the target can be found. While a smaller target surface leads to a better hot electron confinement and enhances the Debye sheath accelerating the protons, it also leads to an increase of preplasma formation due to limited laser contrast available experimentally and hence to a decrease of the proton acceleration. The experimentally found optimum is in good agreement with analytic theory and 2D particle in cell simulations. In addition, the maximum proton energy as a function of pulse duration has been investigated. The experimental results fit to an analytical model.

Toncian, T.; Swantusch, M.; Toncian, M.; Willi, O. [Institut fuer Laser- und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Universitaetstrasse 1, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Andreev, A. A. [Max-Born Institute, 12849 Berlin (Germany); STC 'Vavilov State Optical Institute', 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Platonov, K. Y. [Max-Born Institute, 12849 Berlin (Germany)

2011-04-15

86

Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: a discussion of alternative methods.  

PubMed

NIOSH published a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids (MWF) in 1998 that was designed to prevent respiratory disorders associated with these industrial lubricants. The REL of 0.4 mg/m(3) (as a time-weighted average for up to 10 hours) was for the fraction of aerosol corresponding to deposition in the thoracic region of the lungs. This nonregulatory occupational exposure limit (OEL) corresponded to approximately 0.5 mg/m(3) for total particulate mass. Although this REL was designed to prevent respiratory disorders from MWF exposures, NIOSH acknowledged that exposures below the REL may still result in occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis--two of the most significant respiratory illnesses associated with MWF. In the 8 years since the publication of the NIOSH MWF REL, neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended an exposure limit for water-soluble MWF specifically, other than their previous exposure limits for mineral oil. An informal effort to benchmark companies involved in the manufacture of automobiles and automotive parts in North America indicated that most companies are using the NIOSH MWF REL as a guide for the purchase of new equipment. Furthermore, most companies have adopted a goal to limit exposures to below 1.0 mg/m3. We failed to find any company that has strictly enforced an OEL of 1.0 mg/m(3) through the use of either administrative controls or personal protective equipment, when engineering controls failed to bring the exposures to below this limit. We also found that most companies have failed to implement specific medical surveillance programs for those employees exposed to MWF mist above 1.0 mg/m(3). Organization Resources Counselors (ORC) published in 1999 (on their website) a "best practices" manual for maintaining MWF systems and reducing the likelihood of MWF-related illnesses. The emphasis of this approach was on control techniques, and there was no assignment of a specific OEL for MWF due to the wide variety of fluids that exist. The ORC did suggest that maintaining exposure levels to below 2.0 mg/m(3) would assist in minimizing upper respiratory complaints associated with MWF. Although the ORC manual indicated that MWF vary in composition and no single OEL is likely to be appropriate for all such fluids, it adopted a very similar concept to control banding, placing all MWF operations into a single band using similar (if not identical) controls. OSHA, in lieu of adopting a 6B health standard for MWF, has also published a voluntary "best practices" manual on their website. Their document drew heavily from the work of ORC and also incorporated information from the 1998 NIOSH MWF criteria document. Industrial users of MWF need to have guidance, such as an OEL, to determine when either engineering, administrative controls, or personal protective equipment must be implemented to protect their employees. The purpose of this article is to explore various approaches that might be taken to result in a single or multiple limits for exposures to MWF and its components. Approaches such as control banding are discussed in terms of an alternative to the use of an OEL. PMID:16857649

Cohen, Howard; White, Eugene M

2006-09-01

87

Accelerators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the purpose of particle accelerators? On this web page, part of a particle physics tutorial, students read that accelerators solve two problems. The accelerators provide an increase in momentum to produce particles of small wavelength, and the fast-moving particles can create new particles when smashed together. A photograph of the inside of a particle accelerator is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Group, Lawrence B.

2002-01-01

88

Subclinical Carbon Monoxide Limits Apoptosis in the Developing Brain After Isoflurane Exposure  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics cause widespread apoptosis in the developing brain. Carbon monoxide (CO) has antiapoptotic properties, and exhaled endogenous CO is commonly rebreathed during low-flow anesthesia in infants and children, resulting in subclinical CO exposure. Thus, we aimed to determine whether CO could limit isoflurane-induced apoptosis in the developing brain. METHODS Seven-day-old male CD-1 mouse pups underwent 1-hour exposure to 0 (air), 5, or 100 ppm CO in air with or without isoflurane (2%). We assessed carboxyhemoglobin levels, cytochrome c peroxidase activity, and cytochrome c release from forebrain mitochondria after exposure and quantified the number of activated caspase-3 positive cells and TUNEL positive nuclei in neocortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus/thalamus. RESULTS Carboxyhemoglobin levels approximated those expected in humans after a similar time-weighted CO exposure. Isoflurane significantly increased cytochrome c peroxidase activity, cytochrome c release, the number of activated caspase-3 cells, and TUNEL positive nuclei in the forebrain of air-exposed mice. CO, however, abrogated isoflurane-induced cytochrome c peroxidase activation and cytochrome c release from forebrain mitochondria and decreased the number of activated caspase-3 positive cells and TUNEL positive nuclei after simultaneous exposure with isoflurane. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, the data indicate that CO can limit apoptosis after isoflurane exposure via inhibition of cytochrome c peroxidase depending on concentration. Although it is unknown whether CO directly inhibited isoflurane-induced apoptosis, it is possible that low-flow anesthesia designed to target rebreathing of specific concentrations of CO may be a desired strategy to develop in the future in an effort to prevent anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in infants and children. PMID:24413549

Cheng, Ying; Levy, Richard J.

2014-01-01

89

Optical projection lithography at half the Rayleigh resolution limit by two photon exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, with the advent of femtosecond pulse technology, two-photon absorption has commenced to be used for exposing photo-resists. It is natural to ask then, what is the spatial resolution of two-photon lithography? There has already been some discussion of resolution limits in two-photon, scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. We will find that ordinary two-photon exposure of photo-resist merely enhances

E. Yablonovitch; R. B. Vrijen

1998-01-01

90

Correspondence between occupational exposure limit and biological action level values for alkoxyethanols and their acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The Finnish occupational exposure limit (OEL) values for alkoxyethanols and their acetates were lowered in 1996. A reevaluation\\u000a of the correspondence between the new OEL value and the biological action level (BAL) was thus needed. This study was conducted\\u000a in silkscreen printing enterprises, where 2-alkoxyethanols and their acetates are mainly used as solvents. The air\\/urine correlations\\u000a between 2-methoxyethylacetate, 2-ethoxyethylacetate,

J. Laitinen

1998-01-01

91

The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?  

SciTech Connect

At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

Brisson, Michael

2013-06-03

92

A proposed methodology for setting occupational exposure limits for hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure limit (OEL) development for hydrocarbon solvents is complicated because most of these solvents have complex compositions and only a few representative constituents have been studied in detail. A proposed solution to this problem is to group constituents with similar physical, chemical, and toxicological properties and to assign "guidance values" to each group. A unique OEL can then be calculated for each solvent, using a reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) based on the liquid composition. This procedure follows the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) generic advice for complex mixtures and is recommended by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive for OEL calculations by hydrocarbon solvent manufacturers. The RCP is justified, as the toxicological properties of the constituents are additive and the differences between the vapor and liquid compositions do not substantially affect the calculated exposure limits. The guidance values are based principally on acute central nervous system depression and eye and respiratory tract irritation, effects that are the most sensitive indicators of hydrocarbon solvent exposure. One benefit of this procedure is that it is a relatively simple but practical procedure that requires limited compositional information. Further, it provides OEL recommendations that are consistent with occupational experience and current regulatory advice. Groupings and guidance values are proposed, and sample calculations are provided. PMID:16174635

McKee, Richard H; Medeiros, Arlean M; Daughtrey, Wayne C

2005-10-01

93

Benzene Exposure Near the U.S. Permissible Limit Is Associated with Sperm Aneuploidy  

PubMed Central

Background Benzene is a common industrial chemical known to induce leukemia and other blood disorders, as well as aneuploidy, in both human blood cells and sperm at exposures > 10 ppm. Recent reports have identified health effects at exposure levels < 1 ppm, the permissible exposure limit (PEL; 8 hr) set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Objective We investigated whether occupational exposures to benzene near 1 ppm induce aneuploidy in sperm. Methods We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization to measure the incidence of sperm with numerical abnormalities of chromosomes X, Y, and 21 among 33 benzene-exposed men and 33 unexposed men from Chinese factories. Individual exposures were assessed using personal air monitoring and urinary concentrations of benzene and trans,trans-muconic acid (E,E-MA). Air benzene concentrations were not detectable in unexposed men; in exposed men, concentrations ranged from below the detection limit to 24 ppm (median, 2.9 ppm), with 27% of exposed men (n = 9) having concentrations of ? 1 ppm. Exposed men were categorized into low and high groups based on urinary E,E-MA (median concentrations of 1.9 and 14.4 mg/L, respectively; median air benzene of 1 and 7.7 ppm, respectively), and aneuploidy frequencies were compared with those of unexposed men. Results Sperm aneuploidy increased across low- and high-exposed groups for disomy X [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–3.4; and IRR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5–4.9, respectively], and for overall hyperhaploidy for the three chromosomes investigated (IRR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0–2.4; and IRR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5–3.6, respectively). We also found elevated disomy X and hyperhaploidy in the nine men exposed to ? 1 ppm benzene compared with unexposed men (IRR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–3.0; and IRR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.9, respectively). Conclusions Benzene appeared to increase the frequencies of aneuploid sperm for chromosomes associated with chromosomal abnormality syndromes in human offspring, even in men whose air benzene exposure was at or below the U.S. permissible exposure limit. PMID:20418200

Xing, Caihong; Marchetti, Francesco; Li, Guilan; Weldon, Rosana H.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Young, Suzanne; Schmid, Thomas E.; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Eskenazi, Brenda

2010-01-01

94

Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... from a site? Reference Section 1. What is environmental exposure? Environmental exposure occurs when you contact a ... of Page 4. Will I get sick from environmental exposure? Being exposed does not mean you will ...

95

Tolerable Limits of Oscillatory Accelerations Due to Rolling Motions Experienced by One Pilot During Automatic-Interceptor Flight Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited flight - test data obtained from an automatically controlled interceptor during runs in which oscillatory rolling motions were encountered have been correlated with the pilot's comments regarding his ability to tolerate the imposed lateral accelerations.

Brissenden, Roy F.; Cheatham, Donald C.; Champine, Robert A.

1961-01-01

96

[Study of mineral saturation of lumbar vertebral bones in th course of systemic exposure to +Gz accelerations].  

PubMed

Of a pressing aspect of pilots' exposure to high levels of head-to-seat accelerations (+Gz) is the high risk of vertebral traumatization. In this connection, mineral saturation of the lumbar vertebral in test subjects systematically exposed to +Gz accelerations on centrifuge over two months and pilots of highly manouevrable fighters has been investigated. Results of the study point it out that systematic flight g-loads bring about an increase in vertebral bone mineralization. Thus, following a series of +Gz exposures of the test subjects the integrated content of mineral substances and the density of structural composition of vertebrals Z2-Z4 showed the average rises by 4.6% and 4.15%, respectively; however, the same parameters in the pilots were higher than in the control group by 8.8% and 10.6%, respectively. The paper discusses possible mechanisms underlying these phenomena. PMID:8974608

Kaliakin, V V; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Vasilév, A I

1996-01-01

97

Limitations and problems in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation exposure.  

PubMed Central

Some of the problems in determining the cancer risk of low-level radiation from studies of exposed groups are reviewed and applied to the study of Hanford workers by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale. Problems considered are statistical limitations, variation of cancer rates with geography and race, the "healthy worker effect," calendar year and age variation of cancer mortality, choosing from long lists, use of proportional mortality rates, cigarette smoking-cancer correlations, use of averages to represent data distributions, ignoring other data, and correlations between radiation exposure and other factors that may cause cancer. The current status of studies of the Hanford workers is reviewed. PMID:7336763

Cohen, B. L.

1981-01-01

98

Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the research performed during the time period from 8/1/2010 to 7/31/2013. It consists of two parts describing our studies in two directions: (a) analysis of factors limiting operation of dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures where the main problem is the occurrence of multipactor on dielectric surfaces, and (b) studies of effects associated with either RF magnetic or RF electric fields which may cause the RF breakdown in high-gradient metallic accelerating structures. In the studies of DLA structures, at least, two accomplishments should be mentioned: the development of a 3D non-stationary, self-consistent code describing the multipactor phenomena and yielding very good agreement with some experimental data obtained in joint ANL/NRL experiments. In the metallic structures, such phenomena as the heating and melting of micro-particles (metallic dust) by RF electric and magnetic fields in single-shot and rep-rate regimes is analyzed. Also, such processes in micro-protrusions on the structure surfaces as heating and melting due to the field emitted current and the Nottingham effect are thoroughly investigated with the account for space charge of emitted current on the field emission from the tip.

Nusinovich, Gregory S. [University of Maryland; Antonsen, Thomas M. [University of Maryland; Kishek, Rami [University of Maryland

2014-07-25

99

Ion acceleration and anomalous transport in the near wake of a plasma limiter  

SciTech Connect

Ion acceleration and anomalous transport were studied experimentally in the near wake region of an electrically floating disk limiter immersed in two different types of collisionless, supersonically flowing, magnetized plasmas: the first initially quiescent, the second initially turbulent. Ion densities and velocity distributions were obtained using a nonperturbing laser induced fluorescence diagnostic. Large-amplitude, low-frequency turbulence was observed at the obstacle edge and in the wake. Rapid ion and electron configuration space transport and ion velocity space transport were observed. Configuration space and velocity space transport were similar for both quiescent and turbulent plasma-obstacle systems, suggesting that plasma-obstacle effects outweigh the effects of initial plasma turbulence levels. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Sheehan, D.P.; Bowles, J.; McWilliams, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (United States)

1997-09-01

100

Pulmonary Evaluation of Permissible Exposure Limit of Syntroleum S-8 Synthetic Jet Fuel in Mice  

PubMed Central

No current studies have systematically examined pulmonary health effects associated with Syntroleum S-8 synthetic jet fuel (S-8). In order to gain an understanding about the threshold concentration in which lung injury is observed, C57BL/6 male mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 for 1 h/day for 7 days at average concentrations of 0 (control), 93, 352, and 616 mg/m3. Evaluation of pulmonary function, airway epithelial barrier integrity, and pathohistology was performed 24 h after the final exposures. Significant decreases were detected in expiratory lung resistance and total lung compliance of the 352 mg/m3 group, for which no clear concentration-dependent alterations could be determined. No significant changes in respiratory permeability were exhibited, indicating that there was no loss of epithelial barrier integrity following S-8 exposure. However, morphological examination and morphometric analysis of distal lung tissue, by using transmission electron microscopy, revealed cellular damage in alveolar type II epithelial cells, with significant increases in volume density of lamellar bodies/vacuoles at 352 and 616 S-8 mg/m3. Moreover, terminal bronchiolar Clara injury, as evidenced by apical membrane blebs, was observed at relatively low concentrations, suggesting if this synthetic jet fuel is utilized, the current permissible exposure limit of 350 mg/m3 for hydrocarbon fuels should cautiously be applied. PMID:19357071

Wong, Simon S.; Thomas, Alana; Barbaris, Brian; Lantz, R. Clark; Witten, Mark L.

2009-01-01

101

Implications of pulsed chemical exposures for aquatic life criteria and wastewater permit limits.  

PubMed

Subacute effects of pulsed copper, zinc, or ammonia exposures were examined, including a range of pulse concentrations, durations, frequencies, and recovery times between pulses, using short-term chronic Pimephales promelas and 21-d Daphnia magna tests. Sublethal effects were rarely observed independent of mortality. Effects were observed only at concentrations near the species continuous exposure 48 h LC50 for each chemical. Daphnia often rebounded from temporary reproduction effects, meeting or exceeding control responses by the end of the test. Effects of 24 h ammonia or copper pulses were diminished soon after the pulse was removed, while 24 h zinc pulses caused continued effects for several days following removal of the pulse, indicating a slower uptake and/or depuration rate for zinc. D. magna exhibited less mortality as copper pulses were spaced further apart, while fish were equally or more affected with longer recovery times between copper pulses, indicative of different adaptation mechanisms between the two species. Responses were not predictable based on either average concentration or a combination of duration and concentration. Chronic water quality criteria and effluent permit limits, expressed as a 4- or 30-d average concentration, respectively, may not be appropriate for protecting against effects of pulsed exposures, depending on the frequency, magnitude, and duration of pulses, as well as the recovery period between events. PMID:16955918

Diamond, Jerome M; Klaine, Stephen J; Butcher, Jonathan B

2006-08-15

102

Cosmogenic 10Be Exposure Age Limits on the Angel Lake Glaciation, Ruby Mountains, Northeastern Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of Pleistocene glaciations in the northern Great Basin of the interior western U.S. has been known for decades. Nonetheless, this area has received considerably less attention than the eastern and western extremes of the Great Basin, despite being centrally located among numerous well-dated Pleistocene glacial chronologies and in a setting where such chronologies can provide clues to the influence of North American ice sheets, Great Basin paleolakes, and atmospheric circulation changes on climate change. Among the most extensively glaciated mountains in the Great Basin are the Ruby and East Humboldt Mountains in northeastern Nevada, where the type localities for the last two Pleistocene glaciations in the region, the Lamoille and Angel Lake Glaciations, are found. The glacial record in these two ranges includes sequences of moraines deposited during the Angel Lake Glaciation, displaying abundant material suitable for terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be surface-exposure dating. Exposure ages of boulders from atop a sequence of well-preserved moraines in Seitz Canyon in the western Ruby Mountains limit the end of the Angel Lake Glaciation to 19.3 ± 1.0 ka. This preliminary age limit verifies that the Angel Lake Glaciation coincided with marine oxygen-isotope stage 2 and the global Last Glacial Maximum, and suggests that mountain glaciers in northeastern Nevada began retreating in step with the Laurentide Ice Sheet. When compared to glacial chronologies from elsewhere in the region, this age limit indicates an early start of the last deglaciation relative to the Sierra Nevada and the Wasatch Mountains, at the western and eastern extremes of the Great Basin respectively. Furthermore, this age limit suggests that ice retreat began before the highstands of the largest Great Basin paleolakes, Lakes Bonneville and Lahontan. Further development of the glacial chronology of the northern Great Basin is needed to evaluate the significance of these apparent age differences, and will provide a useful framework for resolving the pattern of climate change during the last glacial-interglacial transition.

Laabs, B. J.; Munroe, J. S.; Best, L. C.; Caffee, M. W.

2011-12-01

103

Working toward exposure thresholds for blast-induced traumatic brain injury: Thoracic and acceleration mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in blast-induced lung injury resulted in exposure thresholds that are useful in understanding and protecting humans from such injury. Because traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure has become a prominent medical and military problem, similar thresholds should be identified that can put available research results in context and guide future research toward protecting war fighters as well

Michael W. Courtney; Amy C. Courtney

2011-01-01

104

Asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, and airflow limitation in long-term Canadian chrysotile miners and millers  

SciTech Connect

To investigate further the relationships of asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, and airflow limitation, we have obtained detailed pulmonary function tests (PFT) in 331 long-term Canadian chrysotile workers, 34 of whom were lifetime nonsmokers. Three disease categories were defined on the bases of standard diagnostic criteria, gallium-67 lung uptake, and the lung pressure-volume curve. Category A was composed of workers without changes suggestive of alveolitis or asbestosis. There were eight nonsmokers (ns), among whom we found a statistically significant 30% reduction in airflow conductance (Gus) at low lung volume, which is consistent with the concept of an asbestos airway lesion. The 85 smokers (sm) of category A had reduction of Gus at both high and low lung volumes. Category B was composed of workers without asbestosis but with evidence of asbestos alveolitis. In the six ns, Gus was significantly reduced to 50% normal at low lung volume. The 59 sm had reduction of Gus at both high and low lung volumes but less severely than sm in category A. Category C was composed of workers with asbestosis. The 20 ns had restrictive pattern of lung function, and Gus was decreased to 39% normal at 50% TLC. The 153 sm in C had airflow reduction comparable to sm in B. We concluded that asbestos exposure, which leads to asbestos airway disease, asbestos peribronchiolar alveolitis, and asbestosis, causes airflow limitation at low lung volume but does not reduce the expiratory flow rates on the flow-volume curve in lifetime nonsmokers. In the smoking asbestos workers with alveolitis or asbestosis, the major component of airflow limitation is a smoking effect. In these smoking workers, rigidity of the lung lessens airflow obstruction associated with smoking at the expense of increased work of breathing.

Begin, R.; Boileau, R.; Peloquin, S.

1987-01-01

105

Effect of Ultrasonic Peening and Accelerated Corrosion Exposure on the Residual Stress Distribution in Welded Marine Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specimens of DH36 marine steel were prepared with welded attachments. Residual stress measurements were made on the samples as-welded, following an ultrasonic peening treatment, and following accelerated corrosion exposure after ultrasonic peening. Neutron diffraction and the contour method were used for determining the residual stress profiles. The welding introduces tensile near-surface residual stress, approaching the material yield strength, and the ultrasonic peening overlays this with a compressive residual stress. Material removal by corrosion decreases the peak surface compressive stress slightly, by removal of a layer of stressed material, but does not cause significant redistribution of the residual stress profile.

Ahmad, Bilal; Fitzpatrick, Michael E.

2014-12-01

106

UVB exposure does not accelerate rates of litter decomposition in a semi-arid riparian ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground litter decomposition is controlled mainly by substrate quality and climate factors across terrestrial ecosystems, but photodegradation from exposure to high-intensity ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation may also be important in arid and semi-arid environments. We investigated the interactive effects of UVB exposure and litter quality on decomposition in a Tamarix-invaded riparian ecosystem during the establishment of an insect biological control agent

Shauna M. Uselman; Keirith A. Snyder; Robert R. Blank; Timothy J. Jones

2011-01-01

107

UVB Exposure Does Not Accelerate Rates of Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Riparian Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground litter decomposition is controlled mainly by substrate quality and climate factors across terrestrial ecosystems, but photodegradation from exposure to high-intensity ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation may also be important in arid and semi-arid environments. We investigated the interactive effects of UVB exposure and litter quality on decomposition in a Tamarix-invaded riparian ecosystem during the establishment of an insect biological control agent

S. M. Uselman; K. A. Snyder; R. R. Blank; T. J. Jones

2010-01-01

108

Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

Nielsen, Gunnar D.

2012-01-01

109

Lack of blood formate accumulation in humans following exposure to methanol vapor at the current permissible exposure limit of 200 ppm  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of formate, the putative toxic metabolite of methanol, in the blood and the relationship between pulmonary intake and blood methanol concentration were investigated in six human volunteers following a 6-hr exposure to 200 ppm methanol (the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration 8-hr time-weighted average permissible exposure limit). At the end of a 6-hr exposure to 200 ppm methanol at rest, the blood methanol concentration was increased from a mean of 1.8 micrograms/mL to 7.0 micrograms/mL. Under light exercise, the total amount of methanol inhaled during the 6-hr exposure period was 1.8 times that inhaled at rest. However, no statistically significant increase in blood methanol concentration was observed under exercise: the concentrations averaged 8.1 micrograms/mL. Formate did not accumulate in the blood above its background level following the 6-hr exposures to 200 ppm methanol whether subjects were exposed at rest or during exercise. Unlike the data collected from epidemiologic studies, the authors' results were obtained under well-controlled methanol exposure conditions and by using appropriate dietary restrictions. The data show that (1) the biological load of methanol would be the same regardless of whether workers are engaged in light physical activity when they are exposed to methanol vapors below 200 ppm and (2) the formate that is associated with acute methanol toxicities in humans does not accumulate in blood when methanol exposure concentrations are below 200 ppm.

Lee, E.W.; Terzo, T.S.; D'Arcy, J.B.; Gross, K.B.; Schreck, R.M. (Biomedical Science Department, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI (United States))

1992-02-01

110

Derivation of an occupational exposure limit for inorganic borates using a weight of evidence approach.  

PubMed

Inorganic borates are encountered in many settings worldwide, spurring international efforts to develop exposure guidance (US EPA, 2004; WHO, 2009; ATSDR, 2010) and occupational exposure limits (OEL) (ACGIH, 2005; MAK, 2011). We derived an updated OEL to reflect new data and current international risk assessment frameworks. We assessed toxicity and epidemiology data on inorganic borates to identify relevant adverse effects. International risk assessment frameworks (IPCS, 2005, 2007) were used to evaluate endpoint candidates: reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and sensory irritation. For each endpoint, a preliminary OEL was derived and adjusted based on consideration of toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and other uncertainties. Selection of the endpoint point of departures (PODs) is supported by dose-response modeling. Developmental toxicity was the most sensitive systemic effect. An OEL of 1.6mgB/m(3) was estimated for this effect based on a POD of 63mgB/m(3) with an uncertainty factor (UF) of 40. Sensory irritation was considered to be the most sensitive effect for the portal of entry. An OEL of 1.4mgB/m(3) was estimated for this effect based on the identified POD and an UF of 1. An OEL of 1.4mgB/m(3) as an 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) is recommended. PMID:24525063

Maier, A; Vincent, M; Hack, E; Nance, P; Ball, W

2014-04-01

111

Quantitative property–property relationships for computing Occupational Exposure Limits and Vapour Hazard Ratios of organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapour Hazard Ratio (VHR) is used in solvent substitution to select the best replacement option regarding overexposure potential of solvents. However, VHR calculations are limited by the availability of Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs). The overall objective of this study was to develop quantitative property–property relationship (QPPR) approaches for computing OELs, in view of supporting the derivation of VHRs for solvents

M. Debia; K. Krishnan

2010-01-01

112

Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system  

E-print Network

Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system Biology, University of California Center for Ocean Health, Santa Cruz, CA 95060; dSea Otter Research southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation

Wilmers, Chris

113

The NREL Outdoor Accelerated-Weathering Tracking System Photovoltaic Module Exposure Results  

SciTech Connect

Status results are presented for the Outdoor Accelerated-Weathering Tracking System (OATS) first study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. Studies began in November 1997 on pairs of commercially available crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV modules kept at constant resistive load.

Basso, T. S.

2000-01-01

114

Reach performance while wearing the Space Shuttle launch and entry suit during exposure to launch accelerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmen aboard the Space Shuttle are subjected to accelerations during ascent (the powered flight phase of launch) which range up to +3 G(sub x). Despite having 33 missions and nine years experience, not to mention all the time spent in development prior to the first flight, no truly quantitative reach study wearing actual crew equipment, using actual Shuttle seats and restraints has ever been done. What little information exists on reach performance while under acceleration has been derived primarily from subjective comments gathered retrospectively from Shuttle flight crews during their post mission debrief. This lack of reach performance data has resulted in uncertainty regarding emergency procedures that can realistically be performed during and actual Shuttle ascent versus what is practiced in the ground-fixed and motion-based Shuttle Simulators. With the introduction on STS-26 of the current Shuttle escape system, the question of reach performance under launch accelerations was once again raised. The escape system's requirement that each crewman wear a Launch/Entry Suit (LES), parachute harness, and parachute were all anticipated to contribute to a further degradation of reach performance during Shuttle ascent accelerations. In order to answer the reach performance question in a quantitative way, a photogrammetric method was chosen so that the actual reach values and associated envelopes could be captured. This would allow quantitative assessment of potential task performance impact and identify areas where changes to our Shuttle ascent emergency procedures might be required. Also, such a set of reach values would be valid for any similar acceleration profile using the same crew equipment. Potential Space Station applications of this data include predicting reach performance during Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) operations.

Bagian, James P.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schafer, Lauren E.; Probe, John D.; Krutz, Robert W., Jr.

1993-01-01

115

Accelerated habit formation following amphetamine exposure is reversed by D1, but enhanced by D2, receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

Repeated exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine has been shown to disrupt goal-directed instrumental actions and promote the early and abnormal development of goal-insensitive habitual responding (Nelson and Killcross, 2006). To investigate the neuropharmacological specificity of this effect as well as restore goal-directed responding in animals with pre-training amphetamine exposure, animals were treated with the non-selective dopamine antagonist ?-flupenthixol, the selective D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the selective D2 antagonist eticlopride, prior to instrumental training (three sessions). Subsequently, the reinforcer was paired with LiCL-induced gastric-malaise and animals were given a test of goal-sensitivity both in extinction and reacquisition. The effect of these dopaminergic antagonists on the sensitivity of lever press performance to outcome devaluation was assessed in animals with pre-training exposure to amphetamine (Experiments 1A–C) or in non-sensitized animals (Experiment 2). Both ?-flupenthixol and SCH23390 reversed accelerated habit formation following amphetamine sensitization. However, eticlopride appeared to enhance this effect and render instrumental performance compulsive as these animals were unable to inhibit responding both in extinction and reacquisition, even though a consumption test confirmed they had acquired an aversion to the reinforcer. These findings demonstrate that amphetamine induced-disruption of goal-directed behavior is mediated by activity at distinct dopamine receptor subtypes and may represent a putative model of the neurochemical processes involved in the loss of voluntary control over behavior. PMID:23720609

Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Killcross, Simon

2013-01-01

116

Repeated exposure to stressors do not accelerate atherosclerosis in ApoE ?\\/? mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychosocial stress is suggested to play a significant role in development of cardiovascular disease. To evaluate the effects of repeated exposure to stress on atherosclerosis in atherosclerosis-prone ApoE?\\/? mice we used five different stressors. We further sought to determine whether stress combined with high salt diet induces dysfunctional neurohormonal regulation and impaired salt excretion, thus amplifying the atherogenic potential of

Evelina Bernberg; Irene J. Andersson; Sofia Tidstrand; Maria E. Johansson; Göran Bergström

2009-01-01

117

The role of odor and irritation, as well as risk perception, in the setting of occupational exposure limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper reviews current research regarding the relationship between odor perception or irritation and setting an occupational\\u000a exposure limit (OEL). Special focus was directed at those settings where a small fraction of persons report unacceptable responses\\u000a to concentrations well below the OEL. Methods: We evaluated the published literature on the topic of irritation and olfactory response to exposure to

Dennis J. Paustenbach; Shannon H. Gaffney

2006-01-01

118

Acceleration of Age-Related Hearing Loss by Early Noise Exposure: Evidence of a Misspent Youth  

PubMed Central

Age-related and noise-induced hearing losses in humans are multifactorial, with contributions from, and potential interactions among, numerous variables that can shape final outcome. A recent retrospective clinical study suggests an age-noise interaction that exacerbates age-related hearing loss in previously noise-damaged ears (Gates et al., 2000). Here, we address the issue in an animal model by comparing noise-induced and age-related hearing loss (NIHL; AHL) in groups of CBA/CaJ mice exposed identically (8-16 kHz noise band at 100 dB sound pressure level for 2 h) but at different ages (4-124 weeks) and held with unexposed cohorts for different postexposure times (2-96 weeks). When evaluated 2 weeks after exposure, maximum threshold shifts in young-exposed animals (4-8 weeks) were 40-50 dB; older-exposed animals (? 16 weeks) showed essentially no shift at the same postexposure time. However, when held for long postexposure times, animals with previous exposure demonstrated AHL and histopathology fundamentally unlike unexposed, aging animals or old-exposed animals held for 2 weeks only. Specifically, they showed substantial, ongoing deterioration of cochlear neural responses, without additional change in preneural responses, and corresponding histologic evidence of primary neural degeneration throughout the cochlea. This was true particularly for young-exposed animals; however, delayed neuropathy was observed in all noise-exposed animals held 96 weeks after exposure, even those that showed no NIHL 2 weeks after exposure. Data suggest that pathologic but sublethal changes initiated by early noise exposure render the inner ears significantly more vulnerable to aging. PMID:16481444

Kujawa, Sharon G.; Liberman, M. Charles

2007-01-01

119

UVB Exposure Does Not Accelerate Rates of Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Riparian Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aboveground litter decomposition is controlled mainly by substrate quality and climate factors across terrestrial ecosystems, but photodegradation from exposure to high-intensity ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation may also be important in arid and semi-arid environments. We investigated the interactive effects of UVB exposure and litter quality on decomposition in a Tamarix-invaded riparian ecosystem during the establishment of an insect biological control agent in northern Nevada. Feeding by the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on Tamarix spp. trees leads to altered leaf litter quality and increased exposure to solar UVB radiation from canopy opening. In addition, we examined the dynamics of litter decomposition of the invasive exotic Lepidium latifolium, because it is well-situated to invade beetle-infested Tamarix sites. Three leaf litter types (natural Tamarix, beetle-affected Tamarix, and L. latifolium) differing in substrate quality were decomposed in litterbags for one year in the field. Litterbags were subjected to one of three treatments: (1) Ambient UVB or (2) Reduced UVB (where UVB was manipulated by using clear plastic films that transmit or block UVB), and (3) No Cover (a control used to test for the effect of using the plastic films, i.e. a cover effect). Results showed a large cover effect on rates of decomposition and nutrient release, and our findings suggested that frequent cycles of freeze-thaw, and possibly rainfall intensity, influenced decomposition at this site. Contrary to our expectations, greater UVB exposure did not result in faster rates of decomposition. Greater UVB exposure resulted in decreased rates of decomposition and P release for the lower quality litter and no change in rates of decomposition and nutrient release for the two higher quality litter types, possibly due to a negative effect of UVB on soil microbes. Among litter types, rates of decomposition and net release of N and P followed this ranking: L. latifolium > beetle-affected Tamarix > natural Tamarix. Altered nutrient dynamics with beetle introduction as well as the rapid decomposition rates exhibited by L. latifolium are consistent with vulnerability to secondary invasion. In this desert ecosystem, decomposition and nutrient release were strongly affected by litter type and much less so by UVB exposure.

Uselman, S. M.; Snyder, K. A.; Blank, R. R.; Jones, T. J.

2010-12-01

120

Environmental Lead Exposure Accelerates Progressive Diabetic Nephropathy in Type II Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Whether environmental lead exposure has a long-term effect on progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic patients remains unclear. A total of 107 type II diabetic patients with stage 3 diabetic nephropathy (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) range, 30–60?mL/min/1.73?m2) with normal body lead burden (BLB) (<600??g/72?hr in EDTA mobilization tests) and no history of exposure to lead were prospectively followed for 2 years. Patients were divided into high-normal BLB (>80??g) and low-normal BLB (<80??g) groups. The primary outcome was a 2-fold increase in the initial creatinine levels, long-term dialysis, or death. The secondary outcome was a change in eGFR over time. Forty-five patients reached the primary outcome within 2 years. Although there were no differences in baseline data and renal function, progressive nephropathy was slower in the low-normal BLB group than that in the high-normal BLB group. During the study period, we demonstrated that each 100??g increment in BLB and each 10??g increment in blood lead levels could decrease GFR by 2.2?mL/min/1.72?m2 and 3.0?mL/min/1.72?m2 (P = 0.005), respectively, as estimated by generalized equations. Moreover, BLB was associated with increased risk of achieving primary outcome. Environmental exposure to lead may have a long-term effect on progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic patients. PMID:23555094

Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Yen, Tzung-Hai

2013-01-01

121

Historical limitations of determinant based exposure groupings in the rubber manufacturing industry  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study the validity of using a cross-sectional industry-wide exposure survey to develop exposure groupings for epidemiological purposes that extend beyond the time period in which the exposure data were collected. Methods: Exposure determinants were used to group workers into high, medium, and low exposure groups. The contrast of this grouping and other commonly used grouping schemes based on plant and department within this exposure survey and a previously conducted survey within the same industry (and factories) were estimated and compared. Results: Grouping of inhalable and dermal exposure based on exposure determinants resulted in the highest, but still modest, contrast (? ? 0.3). Classifying subjects based on a combination of plant and department resulted in a slightly lower contrast (? ? 0.2). If the determinant based grouping derived from the 1997 exposure survey was used to classify workers in the 1988 survey the average contrast decreased significantly for both exposures (? ? 0.1). On the contrary, the exposure classification based on plant and department increased in contrast (from ? ? 0.2 to ? ? 0.3) and retained its relative ranking overtime. Conclusions: Although determinant based groupings seem to result in more efficient groupings within a cross-sectional survey, they have to be used with caution as they might result in significant less contrast beyond the studied population or time period. It is concluded that a classification based on plant and department might be more desirable for retrospective studies in the rubber manufacturing industry, as they seem to have more historical relevance and are most likely more accurately recorded historically than information on exposure determinants in a particular industry. PMID:16234406

Vermeulen, R; Kromhout, H

2005-01-01

122

Defining Occupational and Consumer Exposure Limits for Nanomaterials - First Experiences from REACH Registrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By 1 December 2010 substances manufactured or imported in the EU >= 1000 t (as well as certain other substances) had to be registered under the REACH Regulation 1907/2006. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) in close cooperation with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) carried out an analysis and assessment of what type of information on nanomaterials was provided in the received registrations. The aim of the assessment was to develop options for an adaptation of the REACH regulation to ensure proper information generation and reporting and an appropriate risk/safety assessment of nanomaterials (Nano Support project). It should be noted that this analysis and assessment was not a compliance check of the dossiers. From 26000 submitted registration dossiers covering 4700 substances finally 25 dossiers (19 substances) were identified to cover nanomaterials or nanoforms of a substance. It is possible that other dossiers are considered to cover nanomaterials or nanoforms by the registrants, however such dossiers could not be identified to address nanoforms given the information contained in those dossiers. The identified 25 dossiers were subject to a detailed analysis and assessment of information provided for all endpoints including substance identity, physico-chemical properties, human health, environmental fate & behaviour, ecotoxicity, PBT6 assessment, Classification and Labelling as well as the attached Chemical Safety Report documenting the Chemical Risk/Safety Assessment. In order to evaluate how the safety of workers and consumers was ensured, it was appropriate to check how the "Derived No (Minimum) Effect Levels" (DN(M)ELs) were established for substances, covering nanomaterials or nanoforms. DNELs were established mainly for long term inhalation exposure of workers. Half of the assessed dossiers included an oral long term DNEL for the general population. DNELs were usually not specific for nanosized forms and, in the few cases where they were calculated for nanosized materials, they were not derived from hazard data for the nanoform. Different methods for deriving the DNELs were applied and few dossiers derived DNELs by applying the default assessment factors in the REACH guidance. Several DNELs were based on available Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) for inhalable and respirable dust or the nuisance dust levels, which have not been established for nanosized materials. In general lower (i.e. less strict) assessment factors were applied with different types of justification. All DNELs were expressed in the mass metrics. It is important to note that submission, identification and selection of the dossiers addressed in this study was done before the adoption of the EC recommendation (2011/696/EU) on a definition of nanomaterial and before the publication of the revised ECHA guidance documents that include recommendations for nanomaterials.

Aschberger, K.; Klöslova, Z.; Falck, G.; Christensen, F. M.

2013-04-01

123

Plasma exposure of different tungsten grades with plasma accelerators under ITER-relevant conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of tungsten irradiation experiments performed with three plasma facilities: the QSPA Kh-50 quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator, the PPA pulsed plasma gun and the magneto-plasma compressor. Targets made of different kinds of tungsten (sintered, rolled and deformed) were irradiated with powerful plasma streams at heat fluxes relevant to edge-localized modes in ITER. The irradiated targets were analyzed and two different meshes of cracks were identified. It has been shown that the major cracks do not depend on the tungsten grade. This has been attributed to ductile-to-brittle transition effects. Meshes of inter-granular micro-cracks were detected for energy loads above the melting threshold and these were probably caused by the re-solidification process. The blister-like and cellular-like structures were observed on sample surfaces exposed to helium and hydrogen plasmas.

Makhlaj, Vadym A.; Garkusha, Igor E.; Aksenov, Nikolay N.; Bazylev, Boris; Byrka, Oleg V.; Landman, Igor; Linke, Jochen; Malykhin, Sergey V.; Pugachov, Anatoliy T.; Sadowski, Marek J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Wirtz, Marius

2014-05-01

124

Relative Humidity in Limited Streamer Tubes for Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's BaBar Detector  

SciTech Connect

The BABAR Detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center studies the decay of B mesons created in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The outermost layer of the detector, used to detect muons and neutral hadrons created during this process, is being upgraded from Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) to Limited Streamer Tubes (LSTs). The standard-size LST tube consists of eight cells, where a silver-plated wire runs down the center of each. A large potential difference is placed between the wires and ground. Gas flows through a series of modules connected with tubing, typically four. LSTs must be carefully tested before installation, as it will be extremely difficult to repair any damage once installed in the detector. In the testing process, the count rate in most modules showed was stable and consistent with cosmic ray rate over an approximately 500 V operating range between 5400 to 5900 V. The count in some modules, however, was shown to unexpectedly spike near the operation point. In general, the modules through which the gas first flows did not show this problem, but those further along the gas chain were much more likely to do so. The suggestion was that this spike was due to higher humidity in the modules furthest from the fresh, dry inflowing gas, and that the water molecules in more humid modules were adversely affecting the modules' performance. This project studied the effect of humidity in the modules, using a small capacitive humidity sensor (Honeywell). The sensor provided a humidity-dependent output voltage, as well as a temperature measurement from a thermistor. A full-size hygrometer (Panametrics) was used for testing and calibrating the Honeywell sensors. First the relative humidity of the air was measured. For the full calibration, a special gas-mixing setup was used, where relative humidity of the LST gas mixture could be varied from almost dry to almost fully saturated. With the sensor calibrated, a set of sensors was used to measure humidity vs. time in the LSTs. The sensors were placed in two sets of LST modules, one gas line flowing through each set. These modules were tested for count rate v. voltage while simultaneously measuring relative humidity in each module. One set produced expected readings, while the other showed the spike in count rate. The relative humidity in the two sets of modules looked very similar, but it rose significantly for modules further along the gas chain.

Lang, M.I.; /MIT; Convery, M.; /SLAC; Menges, W.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

2005-12-15

125

Comparison of the concepts used to develop and apply occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationales used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (AC-GIH) to recommend exposure limits for 10 chemicals were reviewed. The 10 chemicals chosen were known to produce chronic disease after prolonged overexposure in the workplace. The chemicals were toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulfide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica, and vinyl chloride. The rationales used by

D HALTON

1988-01-01

126

Exposure to sediments from polluted rivers has limited phenotypic effects on larvae and adults of Chironomus riparius  

E-print Network

Exposure to sediments from polluted rivers has limited phenotypic effects on larvae and adults by using laboratory Chironomus riparius larvae cultured on two sediments sampled in contaminated rivers Shape changes Chironomus riparius Polluted sediment Laboratory studies have sometimes failed to detect

Debat, Vincent

127

Thermal noise limit in measuring the gravitational constant G using the angular acceleration method and the dynamic deflection method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general comparison is made between two methods of measuring the gravitational constant G. The angular acceleration method can avoid the anelasticity effect since the torsion fiber is not twisted. The dynamic deflection method is similar in principle but it does not use feedback, therefore a major noise introduced by the feedback control system in the angular acceleration method can be avoided. Both methods have their advantages and can be performed with the same device. Based on different expressions of G, we have expressed the signal-to-noise ratio and calculated the thermal noise limit for both methods. In order to get a lower thermal noise limit, the dynamic deflection method should avoid resonance.

Luo, Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Dian-Hong

2013-09-01

128

SIMULATIONS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION BEYOND THE CLASSICAL SYNCHROTRON BURNOFF LIMIT IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION: AN EXPLANATION OF THE CRAB FLARES  

SciTech Connect

It is generally accepted that astrophysical sources cannot emit synchrotron radiation above 160 MeV in their rest frame. This limit is given by the balance between the accelerating electric force and the radiation reaction force acting on the electrons. The discovery of synchrotron gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula, well above this limit, challenges this classical picture of particle acceleration. To overcome this limit, particles must accelerate in a region of high electric field and low magnetic field. This is possible only with a non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic process, like magnetic reconnection. We present the first numerical evidence of particle acceleration beyond the synchrotron burnoff limit, using a set of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of ultra-relativistic pair plasma reconnection. We use a new code, Zeltron, that includes self-consistently the radiation reaction force in the equation of motion of the particles. We demonstrate that the most energetic particles move back and forth across the reconnection layer, following relativistic Speiser orbits. These particles then radiate >160 MeV synchrotron radiation rapidly, within a fraction of a full gyration, after they exit the layer. Our analysis shows that the high-energy synchrotron flux is highly variable in time because of the strong anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the energetic particles. We discover a robust positive correlation between the flux and the cut-off energy of the emitted radiation, mimicking the effect of relativistic Doppler amplification. A strong guide field quenches the emission of >160 MeV synchrotron radiation. Our results are consistent with the observed properties of the Crab flares, supporting the reconnection scenario.

Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, University of Colorado, UCB 390, Boulder, CO 80309-0390 (United States); Begelman, M. C., E-mail: benoit.cerutti@colorado.edu, E-mail: greg.werner@colorado.edu, E-mail: uzdensky@colorado.edu, E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

2013-06-20

129

Minimum-Time Travel for a Vehicle with Acceleration Limits: Theoretical Analysis and Receding-Horizon Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is proposed to generate minimum-time optimal velocity profiles for a vehicle with prescribed acceleration limits\\u000a along a specified path. The necessary optimality conditions are explicitly derived, allowing the construction of the optimal\\u000a solution semianalytically. A receding horizon implementation is also proposed for the on-line implementation of the velocity\\u000a optimizer. Robustness of the receding horizon algorithm is guaranteed by

Efstathios Velenis; Panagiotis Tsiotras

2008-01-01

130

The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

2013-01-01

131

Protocol for a drugs exposure pregnancy registry for implementation in resource-limited settings  

PubMed Central

Background The absence of robust evidence of safety of medicines in pregnancy, particularly those for major diseases provided by public health programmes in developing countries, has resulted in cautious recommendations on their use. We describe a protocol for a Pregnancy Registry adapted to resource-limited settings aimed at providing evidence on the safety of medicines in pregnancy. Methods/Design Sentinel health facilities are chosen where women come for prenatal care and are likely to come for delivery. Staff capacity is improved to provide better care during the pregnancy, to identify visible birth defects at delivery and refer infants with major anomalies for surgical or clinical evaluation and treatment. Consenting women are enrolled at their first antenatal visit and careful medical, obstetric and drug-exposure histories taken; medical record linkage is encouraged. Enrolled women are followed up prospectively and their histories are updated at each subsequent visit. The enrolled woman is encouraged to deliver at the facility, where she and her baby can be assessed. Discussion In addition to data pooling into a common WHO database, the WHO Pregnancy Registry has three important features: First is the inclusion of pregnant women coming for antenatal care, enabling comparison of birth outcomes of women who have been exposed to a medicine with those who have not. Second is its applicability to resource-poor settings regardless of drug or disease. Third is improvement of reproductive health care during pregnancies and at delivery. Facility delivery enables better health outcomes, timely evaluation and management of the newborn, and the collection of reliable clinical data. The Registry aims to improves maternal and neonatal care and also provide much needed information on the safety of medicines in pregnancy. PMID:22943425

2012-01-01

132

Limited acceleration mechanism for cell loss free flow control in ATM networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new feedback congestion control mechanism for the flow control of the best-effort traffic in ATM networks. This new mechanism belongs to the class of feedback control schemes that ensures no data losses. It operates based on a new single-bit feedback scheme which provides continuation, acceleration and deceleration signals. The new mechanism can guarantee cell loss free

Hong Liu; Enmin Song; Reza Sotudeh

133

Exposure to radiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism; oxidative stress damage to the central nervous system caused by an increased release of reactive oxygen species is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a "map" provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

134

Association of years of occupational quartz exposure with spirometric airflow limitation in Norwegian men aged 30-46 years  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The association between occupational quartz exposure and ventilatory function was investigated in men in a general population after adjusting for other potential determinants of outcome.?METHODS—All eligible men aged 30-46 years living in western Norway (n = 45 380) were invited to a cross sectional community survey. This included a self administered questionnaire (with respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and occupational exposures), spirometric recordings (using dry wedge bellow spirometers), and a chest radiograph (65% attendance). Measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in 91% (n = 26 803) of those who participated, 26 106 of whom performed successful spirometric tests and had normal chest radiographs and remained for further analysis. Age, body mass index, and technician standardised residuals ((observed minus predicted value)/residual standard error) of maximum FEV1/height2 and FVC/height2 were used as outcome variables for adjusted lung function levels, respectively.?RESULTS—Occupational quartz exposure was reported by 13% (n = 3445) of those who participated in the survey, with a mean duration of seven years. Among those exposed to quartz, significant inverse linear relationships were observed between years of exposure and FEV1 level and the ratio of FEV1/FVC, independent of host characteristics. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the difference in FEV1 associated with each year of quartz exposure was -4.3 ml (95% Cl -1.1 to -7.5 ml; p = 0.01) compared with -6.9 ml (95% Cl -4.7 to -9.1 ml; p<0.01) from smoking 20 cigarettes/day for one year after adjusting for age, atopy, asthma, wheezing, marital status, and other occupational exposures.?CONCLUSION—In men aged 30-46 years with occupational quartz exposure and normal chest radiographs the duration of occupational quartz exposure was an independent predictor for spirometric airflow limitation.?? PMID:9828850

Humerfelt, S.; Eide, G.; Gulsvik, A.

1998-01-01

135

Limits of NbTi and Nb3Sn, and development of W& R Bi-2212 High Field Accelerator Magnets  

SciTech Connect

NbTi accelerator dipoles are limited to magnetic fields (H) of about 10 T, due to an intrinsic upper critical field (H{sub c2}) limitation of 14 T. To surpass this restriction, prototype Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets are being developed which have reached 16 T. We show that Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole technology is practically limited to 17 to 18 T due to insufficient high field pinning, and intrinsically to 20 to 22 T due to H{sub c2} limitations. Therefore, to obtain magnetic fields approaching 20 T and higher, a material is required with a higher H{sub c2} and sufficient high field pinning capacity. A realistic candidate for this purpose is Bi-2212, which is available in round wires and sufficient lengths for the fabrication of coils based on Rutherford-type cables. We initiated a program to develop the required technology to construct accelerator magnets from 'wind-and-react' (W&R) Bi-2212 coils. We outline the complications that arise through the use of Bi-2212, describe the development paths to address these issues, and conclude with the design of W&R Bi-2212 sub-scale magnets.

Cheng, Daniel; Dietderich, Daniel; Ferrracin, Paolo; Prestemon, Soren; Sabbi, GianLuca; Scanlan, Ron; Godeke, A.

2007-06-01

136

Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits  

SciTech Connect

Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

2006-02-06

137

Limitations of predicting in vivo biostability of multiphase polyurethane elastomers using temperature-accelerated degradation testing.  

PubMed

Polyurethane biostability has been the subject of intense research since the failure of polyether polyurethane pacemaker leads in the 1980s. Accelerated in vitro testing has been used to isolate degradation mechanisms and predict clinical performance of biomaterials. However, validation that in vitro methods reproduce in vivo degradation is critical to the selection of appropriate tests. High temperature has been proposed as a method to accelerate degradation. However, correlation of such data to in vivo performance is poor for polyurethanes due to the impact of temperature on microstructure. In this study, we characterize the lack of correlation between hydrolytic degradation predicted using a high temperature aging model of a polydimethylsiloxane-based polyurethane and its in vivo performance. Most notably, the predicted molecular weight and tensile property changes from the accelerated aging study did not correlate with clinical explants subjected to human biological stresses in real time through 5 years. Further, DMTA, ATR-FTIR, and SAXS experiments on samples aged for 2 weeks in PBS indicated greater phase separation in samples aged at 85°C compared to those aged at 37°C and unaged controls. These results confirm that microstructural changes occur at high temperatures that do not occur at in vivo temperatures. In addition, water absorption studies demonstrated that water saturation levels increased significantly with temperature. This study highlights that the multiphase morphology of polyurethane precludes the use of temperature accelerated biodegradation for the prediction of clinical performance and provides critical information in designing appropriate in vitro tests for this class of materials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 159-168, 2015. PMID:24810790

Padsalgikar, Ajay; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Genevieve; Touchet, Tyler; Iacob, Ciprian; Mellin, Lisa; Norlin-Weissenrieder, Anna; Runt, James

2015-01-01

138

Probing the limits to muscle-powered accelerations: lessons from jumping bullfrogs.  

PubMed

The function of many muscles during natural movements is to accelerate a mass. We used a simple model containing the essential elements of this functional system to investigate which musculoskeletal features are important for increasing the mechanical work done in a muscle-powered acceleration. The muscle model consisted of a muscle-like actuator with frog hindlimb muscle properties, operating across a lever to accelerate a load. We tested this model in configurations with and without a series elastic element and with and without a variable mechanical advantage. When total muscle shortening was held constant at 30%, the model produced the most work when the muscle operated with a series elastic element and an effective mechanical advantage that increased throughout the contraction (31 J kg(-1) muscle vs 26.6 J kg(-1) muscle for the non-compliant, constant mechanical advantage configuration). We also compared the model output with the dynamics of jumping bullfrogs, measured by high-speed video analysis, and the length changes of the plantaris muscle, measured by sonomicrometry. This comparison revealed that the length, force and power trajectory of the body of jumping frogs could be accurately replicated by a model of a fully active muscle operating against an inertial load, but only if the model muscle included a series elastic element. Sonomicrometer measurements of the plantaris muscle revealed an unusual, biphasic pattern of shortening, with high muscle velocities early and late in the contraction, separated by a period of slow contraction. The model muscle produced this pattern of shortening only when an elastic element was included. These results demonstrate that an elastic element can increase the work output in a muscle-powered acceleration. Elastic elements uncouple muscle fiber shortening velocity from body movement to allow the muscle fibers to operate at slower shortening velocities and higher force outputs. A variable muscle mechanical advantage improves the effectiveness of elastic energy storage and recovery by providing an inertial catch mechanism. These results can explain the high power outputs observed in jumping frogs. More generally, our model suggests how the function of non-muscular elements of the musculoskeletal system enhances performance in muscle-powered accelerations. PMID:12819264

Roberts, Thomas J; Marsh, Richard L

2003-08-01

139

Polymer gel dosimetry for neutron beam in the Neutron Exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to investigate whether gel dosimetry could be used to measure neutron beams. We irradiated a BANG3-type polymer gel dosimeter using neutron beams in the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. First, the polymer gels were irradiated from 0 to 7.0 Gy to investigate the dose-R2 responses. Irradiated gels were evaluated using 1.5-T magnetic resonance R2 images. Second, the polymer gels were irradiated to 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 Gy to acquire a depth-R2 response curve. The dose-R2 response curve was linear up to approximately 7 Gy, with a slope of 1.25 Gy?1·s?1. Additionally, compared with the photon- irradiated gels, the neutron-irradiated gels had lower R2 values. The acquired depth-R2 curves of the central axis from the 3.0- and 5.0-Gy neutron dose-irradiated gels exhibited an initial build-up. Although, a detailed investigation is needed, polymer gel dosimetry is effective for measuring the dose-related R2 linearity and depth-R2 relationships of neutron beams.

Kawamura, H.; Sato, H.; Hamano, T.; Suda, M.; Yoshii, H.

2015-01-01

140

Cetacean noise criteria revisited in the light of proposed exposure limits for harbour porpoises.  

PubMed

The impact of underwater noise on marine life calls for identification of exposure criteria to inform mitigation. Here we review recent experimental evidence with focus on the high-frequency cetaceans and discuss scientifically-based initial exposure criteria. A range of new TTS experiments suggest that harbour and finless porpoises are more sensitive to sound than expected from extrapolations based on results from bottlenose dolphins. Furthermore, the results from TTS experiments and field studies of behavioural reactions to noise, suggest that response thresholds and TTS critically depend on stimulus frequency. Sound exposure levels for pure tones that induce TTS are reasonably consistent at about 100dB above the hearing threshold for pure tones and sound pressure thresholds for avoidance reactions are in the range of 40-50dB above the hearing threshold. We propose that frequency weighting with a filter function approximating the inversed audiogram might be appropriate when assessing impact. PMID:25467877

Tougaard, Jakob; Wright, Andrew J; Madsen, Peter T

2014-11-20

141

Measuring exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in observational epidemiologic studies: current tools and applications and their limits123  

PubMed Central

Much experimental evidence supports a protective role of dietary polyphenols against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. However, results from observational epidemiologic studies are still limited and are often inconsistent. This is largely explained by the difficulties encountered in the estimation of exposure to the polyphenol metabolome, which is composed of ?500 polyphenols distributed across a wide variety of foods and characterized by diverse biological properties. Exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in epidemiologic studies can be assessed by the use of detailed dietary questionnaires or the measurement of biomarkers of polyphenol intake. The questionnaire approach has been greatly facilitated by the use of new databases on polyphenol composition but is limited by bias as a result of self-reporting. The use of polyphenol biomarkers holds much promise for objective estimation of polyphenol exposure in future metabolome-wide association studies. These approaches are reviewed and their advantages and limitations discussed by using examples of epidemiologic studies on polyphenols and cancer. The current improvement in these techniques, along with greater emphasis on the intake of individual polyphenols rather than polyphenols considered collectively, will help unravel the role of these major food bioactive constituents in disease prevention. PMID:24787490

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Touillaud, Marina; Rothwell, Joseph A; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

2014-01-01

142

Behavioral Flexibility and Response Selection Are Impaired after Limited Exposure to Oxycodone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to adapt to situations in which rewards and goals change. Potentially addictive drugs may impair flexible decision-making by altering brain mechanisms that compute reward expectancies, thereby facilitating maladaptive drug use. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested the effects of oxycodone exposure on…

Seip-Cammack, Katharine M.; Shapiro, Matthew L.

2014-01-01

143

Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Select Ethylene Glycol Ethers Using PBPK Models and Monte Carlo Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, EGME), ethoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, EGEE), and ethoxyethyl acetate (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, EGEEA) are all developmental toxicants in laboratory animals. Due to the imprecise nature of the exposure data in epidemiology studies of these chemicals, we relied on human and animal phar- macokinetic data, as well as animal toxicity data, to derive

L. M. Sweeney; J. F. Holson; M. D. Whorton; K. M. Thompson; M. L. Gargas

144

Fundamental and practical limits to image acceleration in parallel magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Imaging speed in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited by the performance of magnetic field gradients and the rate of power deposition in tissue. Parallel MRI techniques overcome these constraints by ...

Ohliger, Michael A

2005-01-01

145

Limiting iron availability confers neuroprotection from chronic mild carbon monoxide exposure in the developing auditory system of the rat.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency and chronic mild carbon monoxide (CO) exposure are nutritional and environmental problems that can be experienced simultaneously. We examined the effects of chronic mild CO exposure and iron availability on auditory development in the rat. We propose that chronic mild CO exposure creates an oxidative stress condition that impairs the spiral ganglion neurons. The CO-exposed rat pups had decreased neurofilament proteins and increased copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in the spiral ganglion neurons. We conclude that the increased amount of SOD1 causes an increase in hydrogen peroxide production that allows the Fenton reaction to occur. This reaction uses both iron and hydrogen peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals and leads to the development of oxidative stress that impairs neuronal integrity. However, rat pups with decreased iron and CO exposure (ARIDCO) exhibited in their cochlea an up-regulation of transferrin, whereas their expression of neurofilament proteins and SOD1 were similar to control. Consequently, reduced iron availability and the normal expression of SOD1 do not promote oxidative stress in the cochlea. By using basal c-Fos expression as a marker for cellular activation we found a significant reduction in c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in iron-adequate rat pups exposed to CO. By contrast, rather than being reduced, c-Fos expression in the ARIDCO group is the same as for controls. We conclude that the cochlea of rat pups with normal iron availability is selectively affected by mild CO exposure, causing a chronic oxidative stress, whereas limiting iron availability ameliorates the effect caused by mild CO exposure by averting conditions that facilitate oxidative stress. PMID:15880490

Webber, Douglas S; Lopez, Ivan; Korsak, Rose A; Hirota, Sean; Acuna, Dora; Edmond, John

2005-06-01

146

Development of an occupational exposure limit for n-propylbromide using benchmark dose methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of an occupational exposure level (OEL) for n-propylbromide (nPB) using benchmark dose methods. nPB is a non-ozone depleting solvent, proposed under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) for use as a precision vapor degreaser. OELs have generally been developed on the basis of a NOAEL or LOAEL and application of uncertainty factors; this paper represents

Mark E. Stelljes; Rosemary R. Wood

2004-01-01

147

Accelerated rates of floral evolution at the upper size limit for flowers.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theory explains phenotypic change as the result of natural selection, with constraint limiting the direction, magnitude, and rate of response [1]. Constraint is particularly likely to govern evolutionary change when a trait is at perceived upper or lower limits. Macroevolutionary rates of floral-size change are unknown for any angiosperm family, but it is predicted that rates should be diminished near the upper size limit of flowers, as has been shown for mammal body mass [2]. Our molecular results show that rates of floral-size evolution have been extremely rapid in the endoholoparasite Rafflesia, which contains the world's largest flowers [3]. These data provide the first estimates of macroevolutionary rates of floral-size change and indicate that in this lineage, floral diameter increased by an average of 20 cm (and up to 90 cm)/million years. In contrast to our expectations, it appears that the magnitude and rate of floral-size increase is greater for lineages with larger flowered ancestors. This study suggests that constraints on rates of floral-size evolution may not be limiting in Rafflesia, reinforcing results of artificial- and natural-selection studies in other plants that demonstrated the potential for rapid size changes [4-6]. PMID:18848446

Barkman, Todd J; Bendiksby, Mika; Lim, Seok-Hong; Salleh, Kamarudin Mat; Nais, Jamili; Madulid, Domingo; Schumacher, Trond

2008-10-14

148

Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.  

PubMed

The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups. PMID:21999884

Gandhi, Om P; Morgan, L Lloyd; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto; Han, Yueh-Ying; Herberman, Ronald B; Davis, Devra Lee

2012-03-01

149

Limited damage of tissue mimic caused by a collapsing bubble under low-frequency ultrasound exposure.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the bubble induced serious damage to tissue mimic exposed to 27-kHz ultrasound. The initial bubble radius ranged from 80 to 100 ?m, which corresponded approximately to the experimentally-evaluated resonant radius of the given ultrasound frequency. The tissue mimic consisted of 10 wt% gelatine gel covered with cultured canine kidney epithelial cells. The collapsing bubble behaviour during the ultrasound exposure with negative peak pressures of several hundred kPa was captured by a high-speed camera system. After ultrasound exposure, a cell viability test was conducted based on microscopic bright-field images and fluorescence images for living and dead cells. In the viability test, cells played a role in indicating the damaged area. The bubble oscillations killed the cells, and on occasion detached layers of cultured cells from the gel. The damaged area was comparable or slightly larger than the initial bubble size, and smaller than the maximum bubble size. We concluded that only a small area in close proximity to the bubble could be damaged even above transient cavitation threshold. PMID:24751130

Yoshida, Kenji; Obata, Kazuya; Tsukamoto, Akira; Ushida, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

2014-08-01

150

Early postnatal sound exposure induces lasting neuronal changes in the inferior colliculus of senescence accelerated mice (SAMP8): a morphometric study on GABAergic neurons and NMDA expression.  

PubMed

Senescence-acceleration-prone mice (SAMP8) provide a model to study the influence of early postnatal sound exposure upon the aging auditory midbrain. SAMP8 were exposed to a 9-kHz monotone of either 53- or 65-dB sound pressure level during the first 30 postnatal days, the neurons in the auditory midbrain responding selectively to 9 kHz were localized by c-fos immunohistochemistry and the following parameters were compared to control SAMP8 not exposed to sound: mortality after sound exposure, dendritic spine density, and quantitative neurochemical alterations in this 9-kHz isofrequency lamina. For morphometric analysis, animals were examined at 1, 4, and 8 months of age. Serial sections of the inferior colliculus were Golgi impregnated or stained immunohistochemically for the expression of epsilon1 subunit of NMDA receptor or GABA. Mortality after exposure to 53 dB was the same as in controls, but was markedly increased from 7 months of age onward after postnatal exposure to 65 dB. No gross morphological alterations were observed in the auditory midbrain after sound exposure. However, sound exposure to 53 or 65 dB significantly reduced dendritic spine density by 11% at 4 months or by 11-17% both at 1 and 4 months of age, respectively. The effect of sound exposure upon neurons expressing the NMDAepsilon1 subunit was dose-dependent. Increasing with age until 4 months in control mice and remaining essentially stable thereafter, the percentage of NMDAepsilon1-immunoreactive neurons was significantly elevated by 40-66% in 1- and 8-month-old SAMP8 exposed to 53 dB, whereas no significant effect of 65 dB was apparent. The proportion of GABAergic cells declined with age in controls. It was significantly decreased at 1 month after 53 and 65 dB sound exposure. In contrast, it was elevated at later stages, being significantly increased at 4 months after exposure to 53 dB and at 8 months after exposure to 65 dB. The total cell number in the 9-kHz isofrequency lamina of SAMP8 decreased with age, but was not affected by exposure to either 53 or 65 dB. The present results indicate that early postnatal exposure to a monotone of mild intensity has long-term effects upon the aging auditory brain stem. Some of the changes induced by sound exposure, e.g., decline in spine density, are interpreted as accelerations of the normal aging process, whereas other effects, e.g., increased NMDAepsilon1 expression after 53 dB and elevated GABA expression after both 53 and 65 dB, are not merely explicable by accelerated aging. PMID:12735628

Lorke, Dietrich Ernst; Wong, Lai Yung; Lai, Helen W L; Poon, Paul W F; Zhang, Aiqun; Chan, Wood Yee; Yew, David Tai Wai

2003-04-01

151

Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.  

PubMed

The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal?=?193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise below risk levels, had dysfunctions almost identical to those of the more exposed Industry group. PMID:24827149

Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

2014-01-01

152

Tinnitus and Other Auditory Problems – Occupational Noise Exposure below Risk Limits May Cause Inner Ear Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal?=?193. The following hearing tests were used: ? pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, ? transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; ? psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, ? forward masking, ? speech recognition in noise, ? tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise below risk levels, had dysfunctions almost identical to those of the more exposed Industry group. PMID:24827149

Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

2014-01-01

153

OH Around the World: A Comparison of U.S. and Japanese Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Substances and Biological Monitoring Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares current values for occupational exposure criteria in Japan and the United States and briefly describes the Japanese organization. The values recommended by the committee of the Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSOH) correspond fairly closely with those of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) and biological exposure index (BEI™) committees, perhaps

Toru Takebayashi; Kazuyuki Omae; R. J. Sherwood

1996-01-01

154

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19

155

Limited Internal Radiation Exposure Associated with Resettlements to a Radiation-Contaminated Homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster  

PubMed Central

Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12–30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers’ resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309–1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1–18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10-2-4.1 x 10-2 mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure. PMID:24312602

Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

2013-01-01

156

Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2)-4.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure. PMID:24312602

Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

2013-01-01

157

Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The processes promoting disease in wild animal populations are highly complex, yet identifying these processes is critically important for conservation when disease is limiting a population. By combining field studies with epidemiologic tools, we evaluated the relationship between key factors impeding southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation. This threatened population has struggled to recover despite protection, so we followed radio-tagged sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure. We identified patterns of pathogen infection that are linked to individual animal behavior, prey choice, and habitat use. We detected a high-risk spatial cluster of S. neurona infections in otters with home ranges in southern Monterey Bay and a coastal segment near San Simeon and Cambria where otters had high levels of infection with T. gondii. We found that otters feeding on abalone, which is the preferred prey in a resource-abundant marine ecosystem, had a very low risk of infection with either pathogen, whereas otters consuming small marine snails were more likely to be infected with T. gondii. Individual dietary specialization in sea otters is an adaptive mechanism for coping with limited food resources along central coastal California. High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery.

Johnson, Christine K.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, James A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

2014-01-01

158

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1986-01-01

159

Limits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will see how the idea of a limit can be presented both in formal epsilon-delta-style terms, and using corresponding animations. After calculating a limit for a simple example function, we point out that limits do not always exist.

2013-06-21

160

“Nuisance Dust”: Unprotective Limits for Exposure to Coal Mine Dust in the United States, 1934–1969  

PubMed Central

I examine the dismissal of coal mine dust as a mere nuisance, not a potentially serious threat to extractive workers who inhaled it. In the 1930s, the US Public Health Service played a major role in conceptualizing coal mine dust as virtually harmless. Dissent from this position by some federal officials failed to dislodge either that view or the recommendation of minimal limitations on workplace exposure that flowed from it. Privatization of regulatory authority after 1940 ensured that miners would lack protection against respiratory disease. The reform effort that overturned the established misunderstanding in the late 1960s critically depended upon both the production of scientific findings and the emergence of a subaltern movement in the coalfields. This episode illuminates the steep challenges often facing advocates of stronger workplace health standards. PMID:23237176

2013-01-01

161

A Proposal for Calculating Occupational Exposure Limits for Volatile Organic Compounds Acting as Sensory Irritants on the Basis of Their Physicochemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common biological effect of exposure to workplace chemicals is sensory irritation. The ACGIH® threshold limit values (TLVs®) are developed based on data derived from industrial settings as well as experimental human and animal studies. Considering the limited amount of human data and the tendency to reduce the volume of animal testing, there is a need for an alternative method

Marek Jakubowski; S?awomir Czerczak

2010-01-01

162

Acute effects of 10-minute exposure to hydrogen fluoride in rats and derivation of a short-term exposure limit for humans.  

PubMed

A series of acute inhalation exposures of female rats was conducted with hydrogen fluoride (HF) to establish a concentration-response curve for nonlethal exposures. Durations of 2 and 10 min were used to simulate possible short-term exposures. Concentrations of HF ranged from 593 to 8621 ppm for 2-min exposures and from 135 to 1764 ppm for 10-min exposures. Additional exposures were performed for 60 min at 20 and 48 ppm HF for comparison to existing Emergency Response Planning Guidelines. Animals were evaluated on the day after exposure for changes in parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage, pulmonary function, hematology, serum chemistry, body weight, organ weights, and histopathology. Most exposures were performed with orally cannulated animals to bypass absorption of HF in the nose and achieve maximum delivery of HF to the lower airways. One of the primary uses of the resulting data was to estimate a concentration to which most people could be exposed for 10 min without severe of irreversible health effects. This level was 130 ppm. It was predicted that irritation would occur at this concentration, but the effects on t he respiratory tract would not be "serious" and would be expected to be reversible. The results of this experiment and the subsequent analysis of the data provide an important aid in he planning of responses to an accidental release of HF. PMID:9693073

Dalbey, W; Dunn, B; Bannister, R; Daughtrey, W; Kirwin, C; Reitman, F; Steiner, A; Bruce, J

1998-06-01

163

Radiolabeled microsphere technique in conscious subjects during acceleration exposures on the USAFAM centrifuge. Final report, August 1977-November 1978  

SciTech Connect

The methods used to apply the radiolabeled microsphere technique for the study of the effects of +Gz acceleration on regional blood flows are presented. A remote-control system designed to infuse suspensions of microspheres into the left atrium on conscious animals is outlined as is a device which allows the remote, sequential withdrawal of six blood samples. Results are presented which demonstrate that the cautious application of the radiolabeled microsphere technique using the outlined systems can produce good information about the effects of +Gz acceleration on regional blood flows.

Laughlin, M.H.; Jaggars, J.L.

1980-03-01

164

Exposure to high or low glucose levels accelerates the appearance of markers of endothelial cell senescence and induces dysregulation of nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that aging impairs endothelial cell response to glucose stress, we utilized a human umbilical vein endothelial cell in vitro model in which clinically relevant concentrations of normal (5.5 mM), high (25 mM), and low (1.5mM) glucose were tested. With advancing population doubling, exposure to normal glucose gradually decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, resulting in slow, progressive development of markers of cell senescence (by population doubling level [PDL] 44). High or low glucose treatment accelerated the appearance of markers of senescence (by ~PDL 35) along with declines in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to alternating low and high glucose gave even more rapid acceleration in the appearance of markers of senescence (by ~PDL 18) and reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels. Thus, exposure to low and high glucose induces earlier appearance of markers of endothelial cell senescence and dysregulation of the nitric oxide synthase gene and protein expression and function. These findings will help to elucidate endothelial dysfunction associated with glucose intolerance and improve future therapy for diabetic seniors. PMID:23585419

Rogers, Steven C; Zhang, Xiaomin; Azhar, Gohar; Luo, Shaoke; Wei, Jeanne Y

2013-12-01

165

250 mSv: Temporary Increase in the Emergency Exposure Dose Limit in Response to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident and its Decision Making Process.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 led to an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). In response to this accident, on 14 March 2011, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan enforced a ordinance that temporarily increased the radiation exposure dose limit allowed during the emergency to 250 mSv. This paper explains the process of a) temporarily increasing emergency dose limits, b) controlling for the combined emergency and normal exposure doses, and c) reducing the limit back to 100 mSv. Major issues addressed when deliberating the reduction of the emergency limits includes the following: a) political initiative, b) a phased reduction of dose limits and c) transitional measures for workers who were exposed to more than 100 mSv. The paper also identifies key challenges that need further deliberation to be resolved. These include a) establishing a standard protocol to set emergency dose limits, such as pre-accident establishment or post-accident amendment; b) designating the conditions in which to apply or amend emergency dose limits; c) selecting methods of radiation control for individuals who are exposed to more than the normal exposure dose limit during emergency work; and d) designating the conditions under which to terminate or reduce emergency dose limits after the accident. PMID:25436995

Yasui, Shojiro

2014-12-01

166

Limitations of current dosimetry for intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation with high dose rate iridium-192 and electronic brachytherapy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is a method of treating early stage breast cancer using a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy source positioned within the lumpectomy cavity. An expandable applicator stretches the surrounding tissue into a roughly spherical or elliptical shape and the dose is prescribed to 1 cm beyond the edge of the cavity. Currently, dosimetry for these treatments is most often performed using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism. The TG-43 dose-rate equation determines the dose delivered to a homogeneous water medium by scaling the measured source strength with standardized parameters that describe the radial and angular features of the dose distribution. Since TG-43 parameters for each source model are measured or calculated in a homogeneous water medium, the dosimetric effects of the patient's dimensions and composition are not accounted for. Therefore, the accuracy of TG-43 calculations for intracavitary APBI is limited by the presence of inhomogeneities in and around the target volume. Specifically, the breast is smaller than the phantoms used to determine TG-43 parameters and is surrounded by air, ribs, and lung tissue. Also, the composition of the breast tissue itself can affect the dose distribution. This dissertation is focused on investigating the limitations of TG-43 dosimetry for intracavitary APBI for two HDR brachytherapy sources: the VariSource TM VS2000 192Ir source and the AxxentRTM miniature x-ray source. The dose for various conditions was determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. Accurate measurements and calculations were achieved through the implementation of new measurement and simulation techniques and a novel breast phantom was developed to enable anthropomorphic phantom measurements. Measured and calculated doses for phantom and patient geometries were compared with TG-43 calculated doses to illustrate the limitations of TG-43 dosimetry for intracavitary APBI. TG-43 dose calculations overestimate the dose for regions approaching the lung and breast surface and underestimate the dose for regions in and beyond less-attenuating media such as lung tissue, and for lower energies, breast tissue as well.

Raffi, Julie A.

167

Exposure to 56Fe irradiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be pr...

168

Asymmetric otolith function and increased susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to variations in gravitoinertial acceleration level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Von Baumgarten and coworkers (1979, 1981) have suggested that asymmetries in otolith function between the left and right labyrinths may result from differences in otoconial mass and could play a role in space motion sickness. Such asymmetries would be centrally compensated for under terrestrial conditions, but on exposure to weightlessness the persisting central compensation would produce a central imbalance that could lead to motion sickness. In this work ocular counterrolling was used as a way of measuring the relative 'efficiency' of the left and right otoliths; the ocular counterrolling scores of individuals were compared with their susceptibility to motion sickness during passive exposure to variations in Gz in parabolic flight maneuvers. The experimental findings indicate that large asymmetries in counterrolling for leftward and rightward body tilts are associated with greater susceptibility to motion sickness in parabolic flight.

Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton; Johnson, Walter H.; Money, Kenneth E.

1987-01-01

169

A new limit on the time between the nucleosynthesis and the acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova remnants using the Co/Ni ratio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using new cross section measurements of Ni into Co, data on the Co/Ni ratio in cosmic rays from the HEAO C spacecraft have been reinterpreted in terms of the time between nucleosynthesis and the acceleration of cosmic rays, delta t. The observed Co/Ni ratio is now consistent with interstellar fragmentation only, leading to a small or zero source abundance. In terms of the decay of e-process nucleosynthesis nuclides into Co after a supernova explosion, this permits an estimate of delta t = 4-30,000 yr for the time between nucleosynthesis and the acceleration of cosmic rays if supernovae are the direct progenitors of cosmic rays. These age limits are used in conjunction with models of the expansion of supernova remnants (SNRs), to estimate that cosmic rays are accelerated when the radius of these remnants is between 0.1 and 25 pc.

Webber, W. R.; Gupta, M.

1990-01-01

170

Revision of French Occupational Exposure Limits of Asbestos and Recommendation of Measurement Method: Can the Dimensional Characteristics of the Asbestos Fibers (Long, Thin, Short) Be Taken Into Account?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France, the present regulations on occupational exposure to asbestos fibers take into account fibers (FRp: fibers measured for industrial hygiene) with the following dimensions: L > 5 ?m, D < 3 ?m, and L\\/D > 3 where L is the length and D the diameter of the fiber. The limit value is set at 0.1 f\\/cm for 1 hr.

M. El Yamani; G. Boulanger; E. Nerrière-Catelinois; A. Paillat; H. Modelon; A. Soyez; F. Paquet; S. Binet; P. Brochard

2012-01-01

171

Membrane tension accelerates rate-limiting voltage-dependent activation and slow inactivation steps in a Shaker channel.  

PubMed

A classical voltage-sensitive channel is tension sensitive--the kinetics of Shaker and S3-S4 linker deletion mutants change with membrane stretch (Tabarean, I.V., and C.E. Morris. 2002. Biophys. J. 82:2982-2994.). Does stretch distort the channel protein, producing novel channel states, or, more interestingly, are existing transitions inherently tension sensitive? We examined stretch and voltage dependence of mutant 5aa, whose ultra-simple activation (Gonzalez, C., E. Rosenman, F. Bezanilla, O. Alvarez, and R. Latorre. 2000. J. Gen. Physiol. 115:193-208.) and temporally matched activation and slow inactivation were ideal for these studies. We focused on macroscopic patch current parameters related to elementary channel transitions: maximum slope and delay of current rise, and time constant of current decline. Stretch altered the magnitude of these parameters, but not, or minimally, their voltage dependence. Maximum slope and delay versus voltage with and without stretch as well as current rising phases were well described by expressions derived for an irreversible four-step activation model, indicating there is no separate stretch-activated opening pathway. This model, with slow inactivation added, explains most of our data. From this we infer that the voltage-dependent activation path is inherently stretch sensitive. Simulated currents for schemes with additional activation steps were compared against datasets; this showed that generally, additional complexity was not called for. Because the voltage sensitivities of activation and inactivation differ, it was not possible to substitute depolarization for stretch so as to produce the same overall PO time course. What we found, however, was that at a given voltage, stretch-accelerated current rise and decline almost identically--normalized current traces with and without stretch could be matched by a rescaling of time. Rate-limitation of the current falling phase by activation was ruled out. We hypothesize, therefore, that stretch-induced bilayer decompression facilitates an in-plane expansion of the protein in both activation and inactivation. Dynamic structural models of this class of channels will need to take into account the inherent mechanosensitivity of voltage-dependent gating. PMID:14744987

Laitko, Ulrike; Morris, Catherine E

2004-02-01

172

Derivation of an Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) for Methylene Chloride Based on Acute CNS Effects and Relative Potency Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is

Jan E. Storm; Karl K. Rozman

1998-01-01

173

Acceleration test for small three-phase integral horsepower induction motors-techniques, limitation, and problems of the test and interpretation of the results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at the realization of the acceleration method for the small three-phase integral horsepower induction motors as referred to IEEE standard 112-1996. Testing on the small induction motors with an increasing moment of inertia technique is proposed. The characteristic results, the current-speed and torque-speed characteristics, are presented. In addition, verification of the results, limitation, and problems of this

W. Sae-kok; P. Lumyong

2003-01-01

174

Quantification of print, radio and television exposure among previous blood donors in Kenya: an opportunity for encouraging repeat donation in a resource-limited setting?  

PubMed

Blood services in sub-Saharan Africa experience blood shortages and low retention of voluntary, non-remunerated donors. To boost collections by encouraging repeat donations, the Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service is exploring the likelihood of reaching previous donors through targeted print, radio and television advertising. We analysed data from a national AIDS Indicator Survey to determine whether previous donors have significant exposure to media. Respondents reporting history of blood donation had significantly higher exposure to print, radio and television media than those without history of blood donation. Targeted media campaigns encouraging repeat donation are likely to reach previous donors even in resource-limited settings. PMID:20598106

Basavaraju, S V; Mwangi, J; Kellogg, T A; Odawo, L; Marum, L H

2010-10-01

175

Language-Dependent Pitch Encoding Advantage in the Brainstem Is Not Limited to Acceleration Rates that Occur in Natural Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experience-dependent enhancement of neural encoding of pitch in the auditory brainstem has been observed for only specific portions of native pitch contours exhibiting high rates of pitch acceleration, irrespective of speech or nonspeech contexts. This experiment allows us to determine whether this language-dependent advantage transfers to…

Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Smalt, Christopher J.; Bidelman, Gavin M.

2010-01-01

176

Long-term perchloroethylene exposure: a limited meta-analysis of neurobehavorial deficits in occupationally and residentially exposed groups  

EPA Science Inventory

The literature concerning the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects of long-term exposure to perchloroethylene (PERC) in humans was meta-analyzed to provide a quantitative review and synthesis. The useable data base from this literature comprised studies reporting effec...

177

Quantitative property-property relationships for computing occupational exposure limits and vapour hazard ratios of organic solvents.  

PubMed

Vapour Hazard Ratio (VHR) is used in solvent substitution to select the best replacement option regarding overexposure potential of solvents. However, VHR calculations are limited by the availability of Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs). The overall objective of this study was to develop quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) approaches for computing OELs, in view of supporting the derivation of VHRs for solvents without OELs. QPPRs were developed for estimating OELs using a database of 88 solvents which have health-based Time-Weighted Average (TWA) OELs published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Three surrogates of biotic lipid : air partition coefficients [n-octanol : air (K(oa)), olive oil : air (K(oila)) and fat : air (K(fa))] were selected for evaluating the descriptive/predictive relationship with OELs for solvents with local modes of action. For solvents with systemic modes of action, the prediction of OEL needs to consider quantitative differences in toxicokinetics (i.e. kinetic variability factor, KVF) and toxicological potency (i.e. effective internal concentration, EIC). The n-octanol : water (K(ow)), the oil : water (K(oilw)) and the fat : water (K(fw)) partition coefficients were selected for evaluating the relationship with EICs. For local modes of action, K(oa) is the most accurate predictor of OELs [OEL (ppm) = 10(((-0.45 x log K(oa)) + 3.65)); n = 21, r²= 0.71, PRESS/SSY = 0.36, F = 45.5 with p < 0.001] and the mean (±SD) (range) of the recommended to predicted OELs was 1.04 ± 0.61 (0.2-2.5). For systemic modes of action, KVFs and EICs vary in a range from 0.73 to 41.4 µmol L?¹ and 1.20-848 µmol L?¹, respectively. K(ow) is an accurate predictor of calculated EICs [EIC (µmol L?¹) = 10 (((-1.16 x log K(ow)) + 3.65)); n = 27, r²= 0.88, PRESS/SSY = 0.12, F = 181 with p < 0.001] and 50% of the predicted OEL values were within a factor of two of the recommended TWA OELs. Overall, 61% and 87% of the predicted VHRs were within a factor of two and five, respectively, of the calculated VHRs. The QPPR models developed in this study represent potentially useful tools for estimating provisional OELs for solvents lacking such guideline values. These provisional OELs are developed only to support initial estimations of VHR for dealing with the challenge of solvent substitution where relative values rather than absolute values of OEL and vapour pressure guide the hygienist in making pragmatic decisions for managing occupational health hazards. PMID:21120751

Debia, M; Krishnan, K

2010-10-01

178

NIOSH comments to DOL on the Mine Safety and Health Administration proposed rule on permissible exposure limit for diesel particulate, July 10, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The testimony discussed the views of NIOSH concerning the establishment of a permissible exposure limit for diesel particulate to control exposure to diesel exhaust in the mining industry. As requested by the Mine Safety and Health Association, NIOSH was in the process of developing a sampling and analytical method for airborne diesel exhaust particles and had proposed the use of elemental carbon as a surrogate measure of particulate diesel exhaust. The testimony also reviewed the genotoxicity of diesel soot. Studies have indicated that respired diesel soot particles on the surface of the lung alveoli and respiratory bronchioles can be dispersed in the surfactant rich aqueous phase lining of the surfaces. Other specific issues discussed included the effect of environmental background levels of diesel particulate on diesel particulate exposure, health effects resulting from exposure to diesel particulate, methods available to measure diesel particulate exposure in underground mines, and after treatment devices being developed for over the road vehicles and the level of diesel particulate reduction that can be achieved. Attachments presented a research plan for the development of a sampling and analytical method for airborne diesel exhaust particles, and a status report on the project.

Niemeier, R.W.

1992-07-10

179

An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone  

E-print Network

of Advisory Committee: Col. Harry J. Suggs The 3M organic vapor monitors were investigated. for their use in monitoring a short term exposure limit (STEL) of Acetone, MEK, and MIBK. The monitors were also investigated to see if one monitor used to measure... three sequential STEL's collected the same amount of contaminant as monitors exposed to each STEL separately. The monitors were exposed to the contaminant in a closed system. Analysis of the monitors was done using a gas chromatograph...

Andrew, Lloyd B.

1982-01-01

180

Revision of French Occupational Exposure Limits of Asbestos and recommendation of measurement method: Can the dimensional characteristics of the asbestos fibres (long, thin, short) be taken into account?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France, the current regulations on occupational exposure to asbestos fibres take into account fibres (FRp: fibres measured for industrial hygiene) with the following dimensions: L > 5 ?m, D < 3 ?m and L\\/D > 3 where L is the length and D the diameter of the fibre. The limit value is set at 0.1 f\\/cm for 1 hour. By definition short

M. El Yamani; G. Boulanger; E. Nerrière-Catelinois; A. Paillat; H. Modelon; A. Soyez; F. Paquet; S. Binet; P. Brochard

2011-01-01

181

Chronic ozone exacerbates the reduction in photosynthesis and acceleration of senescence caused by limited N availability in Nicotiana sylvestris  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated ozone (O3) and limiting soil nitrogen (N) availability both negatively affect crop performance. However, little is known about how the combination of elevated O3 and limiting N affect crop growth and metabolism. In this study, we grew tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) in ambient and elevated O...

182

Laser acceleration with open waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified framework based on solid-state open waveguides is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and damage of waveguide structure by a high power laser. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration

Ming Xie; Ming

1999-01-01

183

Limits of NbTi and Nb3Sn, and Development of W&R Bi-2212 HighField Accelerator Magnets  

SciTech Connect

NbTi accelerator dipoles are limited to magnetic fields (H)of about 10 T, due to an intrinsic upper critical field(Hc2) limitationof 14 T. To surpass this restriction, prototype Nb3Sn magnets are beingdeveloped which have reached 16 T. We show that Nb3Sn dipole technologyis practically limited to 17 to 18 T due to insufficient high fieldpinning, and intrinsically to 20 to 22 T due to Hc2 limitations.Therefore, to obtain magnetic fields approaching 20 T and higher, amaterial is required with a higher Hc2 and sufficient high field pinningcapacity. A realistic candidate for this purpose is Bi-2212, which isavailable in roundwires and sufficient lengths for the fabrication ofcoils based on Rutherford-type cables. We initiated a program to developthe required technology to construct accelerator magnets from'windand-react' (W&R) Bi-2212 coils. We outline the complicationsthat arise through the use of Bi-2212, describe the development paths toaddress these issues, and conclude with the design of W&R Bi-2212sub-scale magnets.

Godeke, A.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Prestemon,S.O.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.

2006-12-01

184

The Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Particles for the Induction of Chromosome Damage: Track Structure Effects and Cytogenetic Signatures of High-LET Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Track structure models predict that at a fixed value of LET, particles with lower charge number, Z will have a higher biological effectiveness compared to particles with a higher Z. In this report we investigated how track structure effects induction of chromosomal aberration in human cells. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with various energies of accelerated iron, silicon, neon, or titanium ions and chromosome damage was assessed in using three color FISH chromosome painting in chemically induced PCC samples collected a first cell division post irradiation. The LET values for these ions ranged from 30 to 195 keV/micrometers. Of the particles studied, Neon ions have the highest biological effectiveness for induction of total chromosome damage, which is consistent with track structure model predictions. For complex-type exchanges 64 MeV/ u Neon and 450 MeV/u Iron were equally effective and induced the most complex damage. In addition we present data on chromosomes exchanges induced by six different energies of protons (5 MeV/u to 2.5 GeV/u). The linear dose response term was similar for all energies of protons suggesting that the effect of the higher LET at low proton energies is balanced by the production of nuclear secondaries from the high energy protons. All energies of protons have a much higher percentage of complex-type chromosome exchanges than gamma rays, signifying a cytogenetic signature for proton exposures.

George, K.; Hada, M.; Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2012-01-01

185

Work to save dose: contrasting effective dose rates from radon exposure in workplaces and residences against the backdrop of public and occupational limits  

SciTech Connect

Office workers are exposed to radon while at work and at home. Though there has been a multitude of studies reporting the measurements of radon concentrations and potential lung and effective doses associated with radon and progeny exposure in homes, similar studies on the concentrations and subsequent effective dose rates in the non-mine workplaces are lacking. Additionally, there are few, if any, comparative analyses of radon exposures at more 'typical' workplace with residential exposures within the same county. The purposes of this study were to measure radon concentrations in office and residential spaces in the same county and explore the radiation dose implications. Sixty-five track-etch detectors were deployed in office spaces and 47 were deployed in residences, all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, USA. The sampling periods for these measurements were generally about three months. The measured concentrations were used to calculate and compare effective dose rates resulting from exposure while at work and at home. Results showed that full-time office workers receive on average about 8 times greater exposure at home than while in the office (2.3 mSv yr-! versus 0.3 mSv yr-!). The estimated effective dose rate for a more homebound person was about 3 mSv yr-!. Estimating effective doses from background radon exposure in the same county as Los Alamos National Laboratory, with thousands of'radiological workers,' highlights interesting contrasts in radiation protection standards that span public and occupational settings. For example, the effective dose rate from background radon exposure in unregulated office spaces ranged up to 1.1 mSv yr-!, which is similar to the 1 mSv yr-! threshold for regulation ofa 'radiological worker,' as defined in the Department of Energy regulations for occupational exposure. Additionally, the estimated average effective dose total of> 3 mSv yf! from radon background exposure in homes stands in contrast to the 0.1 mSv yr-! air pathway effective public dose limit regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency for radioactive air emissions.

Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcnaughton, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

186

Health Council of The Netherlands: no need to change from SAR to time-temperature relation in electromagnetic fields exposure limits.  

PubMed

The Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN) and other organisations hold the basic assumption that induced electric current and the generation and absorption of heat in biological material caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are the only causal effects with possible adverse consequences for human health that have been scientifically established to date. Hence, the exposure guidelines for the 10?MHz-10?GHz frequency range are based on avoiding adverse effects of increased temperatures that may occur of the entire human body at a specific absorption rate (SAR) level above 4?W/kg. During the workshop on Thermal Aspects of Radio Frequency Exposure on 11-12 January 2010 in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, the question was raised whether there would be a practical advantage in shifting from expressing the exposure limits in SAR to expressing them in terms of a maximum allowable temperature increase. This would mean defining adverse time-temperature thresholds. In this paper, the HCN discusses the need for this, considering six points: consistency, applicability, quantification, causality, comprehensibility and acceptability. The HCN concludes that it seems unlikely that a change of dosimetric quantity will help us forward in the discussion on the scientific controversies regarding the existence or non-existence of non-thermal effects in humans following long duration, low intensity exposure to electromagnetic fields. Therefore, the HCN favours maintaining the current approach of basic restrictions and reference levels being expressed as SAR and in V/m or µT, respectively. PMID:21591902

van Rhoon, Gerard C; Aleman, André; Kelfkens, Gert; Kromhout, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Flora E; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wadman, Wytse J; Van De Weerdt, Rik D H J; Zwamborn, A Peter M; Van Rongen, Eric

2011-01-01

187

Temporary Blinding Limits versus Maximum Permissible Exposure - A Paradigm Change in Risk Assessment for Visible Optical Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety considerations in the field of laser radiation have traditionally been restricted to maximum permissible exposure levels defined as a function of wavelength and exposure duration. But in Europe according to the European Directive 2006/25/EC on artificial optical radiation the employer has to include in his risk assessment indirect effects from temporary blinding. Whereas sufficient knowledge on various deterministic risks exists, only sparse quantitative data is available for the impairment of visual functions due to temporary blinding from visible optical radiation. The consideration of indirect effects corresponds to a paradigm change in risk assessment when situations have to be treated, where intrabeam viewing of low-power laser radiation is likely or other non-coherent visible radiation might influence certain visual tasks. In order to obtain a sufficient basis for the assessment of certain situations, investigations of the functional relationships between wavelength, exposure time and optical power and the resulting interference on visual functions have been performed and the results are reported. The duration of a visual disturbance is thus predictable. In addition, preliminary information on protective measures is given.

Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter

188

Theoretical assessment of the maximum obtainable power in wireless power transfer constrained by human body exposure limits in a typical room scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates.

Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Esai Umenei, Aghuinyue

2014-07-01

189

Theoretical assessment of the maximum obtainable power in wireless power transfer constrained by human body exposure limits in a typical room scenario.  

PubMed

In this study, the maximum received power obtainable through wireless power transfer (WPT) by a small receiver (Rx) coil from a relatively large transmitter (Tx) coil is numerically estimated in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 10 MHz based on human body exposure limits. Analytical calculations were first conducted to determine the worst-case coupling between a homogeneous cylindrical phantom with a radius of 0.65 m and a Tx coil positioned 0.1 m away with the radius ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m. Subsequently, three high-resolution anatomical models were employed to compute the peak induced field intensities with respect to various Tx coil locations and dimensions. Based on the computational results, scaling factors which correlate the cylindrical phantom and anatomical model results were derived. Next, the optimal operating frequency, at which the highest transmitter source power can be utilized without exceeding the exposure limits, is found to be around 2 MHz. Finally, a formulation is proposed to estimate the maximum obtainable power of WPT in a typical room scenario while adhering to the human body exposure compliance mandates. PMID:24889372

Chen, Xi Lin; De Santis, Valerio; Umenei, Aghuinyue Esai

2014-07-01

190

Limiting human exposures through the ``as low as reasonably achievable`` process at a Department of Energy mixed waste site  

SciTech Connect

Applying a process to reduce human exposures to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is a cornerstone of the US Department of Energy`s radiation protection program, and this process is being used to develop cleanup levels for contaminated sites across the country. Under the ALARA process, exposures and risks are reduced as far below protective criteria as can reasonably be achieved--considering technical, economic, and social factors. Risk-based cleanup levels have been developed for radionuclides and chemicals in surface water and soil at the Weldon Spring site in Missouri, following explicit applications of the ALARA process. Among the lessons learned during these applications were the importance of three factors: (1) soliciting early input from the parties involved--because the ALARA process involves a range of technical and nontechnical issues; (2) maintaining site specificity for the ALARA analyses--because contaminant types and distributions will vary, as will local conditions and constraints; and (3) identifying cleanup levels in the planning phase that are distinct from those developed for the field phase--because remedies can be over-designed if the decision levels are the same as the ALARA goals for field work, such that little increased risk reduction is achieved for substantially higher costs.

MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J.; Haroun, L.; Blunt, D.; Dunning, D.

1994-09-01

191

Acceleration without Horizons  

E-print Network

We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

Alaric Doria; Gerardo Munoz

2015-02-18

192

Acceleration without Horizons  

E-print Network

We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

Doria, Alaric

2015-01-01

193

MATERIAL IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES FOR HIGH POWER ACCELERATORS*  

E-print Network

MATERIAL IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES FOR HIGH POWER ACCELERATORS* N. Simos# , H. Kirk, L. Trung, H under severe shock and high irradiation exposure. The limitations of solid materials to function as high performance targets and in particular the effects of irradiation on key material properties are assessed

McDonald, Kirk

194

The LDCE Particle Impact Experiment as flown on STS-46. [limited duration space environment candidate materials exposure (LDCE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many materials and techniques have been developed by the authors to sample the flux of particles in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Though regular in-site sampling of the flux in LEO the materials and techniques have produced data which compliment the data now being amassed by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) research activities. Orbital debris models have not been able to describe the flux of particles with d sub p less than or = 0.05 cm, because of the lack of data. Even though LDEF will provide a much needed baseline flux measurement, the continuous monitoring of micron and sub-micron size particles must be carried out. A flight experiment was conducted on the Space Shuttle as part of the LDCE payload to develop an understanding of the Spatial Density (concentration) as a function of size (mass) for particle sizes 1 x 10(exp 6) cm and larger. In addition to the enumeration of particle impacts, it is the intent of the experiment that hypervelocity particles be captured and returned intact. Measurements will be performed post flight to determine the flux density, diameters, and subsequent effects on various optical, thermal control and structural materials. In addition to these principal measurements, the Particle Impact Experiment (PIE) also provides a structure and sample holders for the exposure of passive material samples to the space environment, e.g., thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen, etc. The experiment will measure the optical property changes of mirrors and will provide the fluence of the ambient atomic oxygen environment to other payload experimenters. In order to augment the amount of material returned in a form which can be analyzed, the survivability of the experiment as well as the captured particles will be assessed. Using Sandia National Laboratory's hydrodynamic computer code CTH, hypervelocity impacts on the materials which comprise the experiments have been investigated and the progress of these studies are reported.

Maag, Carl R.; Tanner, William G.; Borg, Janet; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Alexander, W. Merle; Maag, Andrew J.

1992-01-01

195

Tolerance of ARPE 19 cells to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos is limited to concentration and time of exposure.  

PubMed

Age related macular degeneration is a blinding disease common in elder adults. The prevalence of age related macular degeneration has been found to be 1.8% in the Indian population. Organophosphates are widely used insecticides with well documented neurological effects, and the persistent nature of these compounds in the body results in long term health effects. Farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides in USA had an earlier onset of age related macular degeneration when compared to unexposed controls. A recent study found significant levels of an organophosphate, termed chlorpyrifos, in the blood samples of Indian farmers. Therefore, in understanding the link between age related macular degeneration and chlorpyrifos, the need for investigation is important. Our data show that ARPE-19 (retinal pigment epithelial cells) exhibit a cytoprotective response to chlorpyrifos as measured by viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, superoxide dismutase activity, and increased levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione, after 24?h exposure to chlorpyrifos. However, this cytoprotective response was absent in ARPE-19 cells exposed to the same range of concentrations of chlorpyrifos for 48?h. These results have physiological significance, since HPLC analysis showed that effects of chlorpyrifos were mediated through its entry into ARPE-19 cells. HPLC analysis also showed that chlorpyrifos remained stable, as we recovered up to 80% of the chlorpyrifos added to 6 different ocular tissues. PMID:25619908

Gomathy, Narayanan; Sumantran, Venil N; Shabna, A; Sulochana, K N

2015-01-01

196

Cadmium exposure and sulfate limitation reveal differences in the transcriptional control of three sulfate transporter (Sultr1;2) genes in Brassica juncea  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium (Cd) exposure and sulfate limitation induce root sulfate uptake to meet the metabolic demand for reduced sulfur. Although these responses are well studied, some aspects are still an object of debate, since little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which changes in sulfate availability and sulfur metabolic demand are perceived and transduced into changes in the expression of the high-affinity sulfate transporters of the roots. The analysis of the natural variation occurring in species with complex and highly redundant genome could provide precious information to better understand the topic, because of the possible retention of mutations in the sulfate transporter genes. Results The analysis of plant sulfur nutritional status and root sulfate uptake performed on plants of Brassica juncea – a naturally occurring allotetraploid species – grown either under Cd exposure or sulfate limitation showed that both these conditions increased root sulfate uptake capacity but they caused quite dissimilar nutritional states, as indicated by changes in the levels of nonprotein thiols, glutathione and sulfate of both roots and shoots. Such behaviors were related to the general accumulation of the transcripts of the transporters involved in root sulfate uptake (BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2). However, a deeper analysis of the expression patterns of three redundant, fully functional, and simultaneously expressed Sultr1;2 forms (BjSultr1;2a, BjSultr1;2b, BjSultr1;2c) revealed that sulfate limitation induced the expression of all the variants, whilst BjSultr1;2b and BjSultr1;2c only seemed to have the capacity to respond to Cd. Conclusions A novel method to estimate the apparent kM for sulfate, avoiding the use of radiotracers, revealed that BjSultr1;1 and BjSultr1;2a/b/c are fully functional high-affinity sulfate transporters. The different behavior of the three BjSultr1;2 variants following Cd exposure or sulfate limitation suggests the existence of at least two distinct signal transduction pathways controlling root sulfate uptake in dissimilar nutritional and metabolic states. PMID:24884748

2014-01-01

197

Occupational exposure to complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in ambient air: desorption from activated charcoal using accelerated solvent extraction can replace carbon disulfide?  

PubMed

A desorption study of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been conducted by use of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different solvents were tested to extract activated charcoal tubes with the objective of replacing carbon disulfide, used in official methods, because of its highly toxic health and environmental effects. Extraction conditions, for example temperature and number of cycles, were investigated and optimized. The definitive extraction procedure selected was use of acetone at 150 °C and two consecutive extraction cycles at a pressure of 1,500 psi. Considering a sample volume of 0.005 Nm(3), corresponding to a sampling time of 8 h at a flow rate of 0.01 L min(-1), the method was validated over the concentration range 65-26,300 ?g Nm(-3). The lowest limit of quantification was 6 ?g Nm(-3), and recovery for the 93 % of analytes ranged from 65 to 102 %. For most of the compounds, relative standard deviations were less than 15 % for inter and intra-day precision. Uncertainty of measurement was also determined: the relative expanded uncertainty was always below 29.6 %, except for dichlorodifluoromethane. This work shows that use of friendlier solvent, for example acetone, coupled with use of ASE, can replace use of CS(2) for chemical removal of VOCs from activated charcoal. ASE has several advantages over traditional solvent-extraction methods, including shorter extraction time, minimum sample manipulation, high reproducibility, and less extraction discrimination. No loss of sensitivity occurs and there is also a salutary effect on bench workers' health and on the smell of laboratory air. PMID:22968683

Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero

2013-01-01

198

Acceleration-Induced Nonlocality  

E-print Network

The standard relativistic theory of accelerated reference frames in Minkowski spacetime is described. The measurements of accelerated observers are considered and the limitations of the standard theory, based on the hypothesis of locality, are pointed out. The physical principles of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers are presented. The implications of the nonlocal theory are briefly discussed.

Bahram Mashhoon

2003-01-17

199

Multigenerational exposure to ocean acidification during food limitation reveals consequences for copepod scope for growth and vital rates.  

PubMed

The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key component of northern Atlantic food webs, linking energy-transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. We examined the effect of different ocean acidification (OA) scenarios (i.e., ambient, 1080, 2080, and 3080 ?atm CO2) over two subsequent generations under limited food availability. Determination of metabolic and feeding rates, and estimations of the scope for growth, suggests that negative effects observed on vital rates (ontogenetic development, somatic growth, fecundity) may be a consequence of energy budget constraints due to higher maintenance costs under high pCO2-environments. A significant delay in development rate among the parental generation animals exposed to 2080 ?atm CO2, but not in the following F1 generation under the same conditions, suggests that C. finmarchicus may have adaptive potential to withstand the direct long-term effects of even the more pessimistic future OA scenarios but underlines the importance of transgenerational experiments. The results also indicate that in a more acidic ocean, increased energy expenditure through rising respiration could lower the energy transfer to higher trophic levels and thus hamper the productivity of the northern Atlantic ecosystem. PMID:25225957

Pedersen, Sindre A; Håkedal, Ole Jacob; Salaberria, Iurgi; Tagliati, Alice; Gustavson, Liv Marie; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Olsen, Anders J; Altin, Dag

2014-10-21

200

Exposure–response relationships for the ACGIH threshold limit value for hand-activity level: results from a pooled data study of carpal tunnel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper aimed to quantify exposure–response relationships between the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists’ (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for hand-activity level (HAL) and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods Manufacturing and service workers previously studied by six research institutions had their data combined and re-analyzed. CTS cases were defined by symptoms and abnormal nerve conduction. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using proportional hazards regression after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and CTS predisposing conditions. Results The longitudinal study comprised 2751 incident-eligible workers, followed prospectively for up to 6.4 years and contributing 6243 person-years of data. Associations were found between CTS and TLV for HAL both as a continuous variable [HR 1.32 per unit, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.11–1.57] and when categorized using the ACGIH action limit (AL) and TLV. Those between the AL and TLV and above the TLV had HR of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.5) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.1), respectively. As independent variables (in the same adjusted model) the HR for peak force (PF) and HAL were 1.14 per unit (95% CI 1.05–1.25), and 1.04 per unit (95% CI 0.93–1.15), respectively. Conclusion Those with exposures above the AL were at increased risk of CTS, but there was no further increase in risk for workers above the TLV. This suggests that the current AL may not be sufficiently protective of workers. Combinations of PF and HAL are useful for predicting risk of CTS. PMID:25266844

Kapellusch, Jay M; Gerr, Frederic E; Malloy, Elizabeth J; Garg, Arun; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Bao, Stephen S; Burt, Susan E; Dale, Ann Marie; Eisen, Ellen A; Evanoff, Bradley A; Hegmann, Kurt T; Silverstein, Barbara A; Theise, Matthew S; Rempel, David M

2014-01-01

201

A Solid state accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 10/sup 5/ TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

1986-11-06

202

Induction of genomic instability in TK6 human lymphoblasts exposed to 137Cs gamma radiation: comparison to the induction by exposure to accelerated 56Fe particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The induction of genomic instability in TK6 human lymphoblasts by exposure to (137)Cs gamma radiation was investigated by measuring the frequency and characteristics of unstable clones isolated approximately 36 generations after exposure. Clones surviving irradiation and control clones were analyzed for 17 characteristics including chromosomal aberrations, growth defects, alterations in response to a second irradiation, and mutant frequencies at the thymidine kinase and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase loci. Putative unstable clones were defined as those that exhibited a significant alteration in one or more characteristics compared to the controls. The frequency and characteristics of the unstable clones were compared in clones exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays or (56)Fe particles. The majority of the unstable clones isolated after exposure to either gamma rays or (56)Fe particles exhibited chromosomal instability. Alterations in growth characteristics, radiation response and mutant frequencies occurred much less often than cytogenetic alterations in these unstable clones. The frequency and complexity of the unstable clones were greater after exposure to (56)Fe particles than to gamma rays. Unstable clones that survived 36 generations after exposure to gamma rays exhibited increases in the incidence of dicentric chromosomes but not of chromatid breaks, whereas unstable clones that survived 36 generations after exposure to (56)Fe particles exhibited increases in both chromatid and chromosome aberrations.

Evans, Helen H.; Horng, Min-Fen; Ricanati, Marlene; Diaz-Insua, M.; Jordan, Robert; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.

2003-01-01

203

Linear Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

Sidorin, Anatoly [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna (Russian Federation)

2010-01-05

204

The Use of a Vehicle Acceleration Exposure Limit Model and a Finite Element Crash Test Dummy Model to Evaluate the Risk of Injuries During Orion Crew Module Landings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

Lawrence, Charles; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala; Brinkley, James W.; Shemwell, David M.

2008-01-01

205

Effects of limited exposure of rabbit chondrocyte cultures to parathyroid hormone and dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate on cartilage-characteristic proteoglycan synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of rabbit chondrocyte cultures with PTH or (Bu)2cAMP for 30 h increased by 2- to 3-fold the incorporation of (35S)sulfate and 3H radioactivity with glucosamine as the precursor into large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans characteristically found in cartilage matrix. However, PTH and (Bu)2cAMP did not increase either (35S)sulfate incorporation into small proteoglycans or the incorporation of 3H radioactivity into hyaluronic acid and other glycosaminoglycans. PTH and (Bu)2cAMP also increased the incorporation of (3H) serine into both proteoglycans and total protein. In all cultures described above, the stimulation of (3H)serine incorporation into proteoglycans exceeded that of (3H)serine incorporation into total protein. These data indicate that PTH and (Bu)2cAMP selectively stimulate cartilage proteoglycan synthesis while they increase total protein synthesis. Since cAMP seems to play a mediatory role in the action of PTH, we elected to examine the effects of a limited exposure of chondrocytes to PTH or (Bu)2cAMP on the synthesis of proteoglycans. Treatment with PTH or (Bu)2cAMP for only the initial 2-7 h did not increase the rates of incorporation of (35S)sulfate, the 3H radioactivity with glucosamine, and (3H)serine into proteoglycans, as measured at 30 h, despite the fact that this treatment brought about a rapid and transient rise in the cAMP level. Furthermore, the application of prostaglandin I2 at concentrations that increased cAMP levels in a similar fashion as did PTH did not affect (35S) sulfate incorporation into proteoglycans.

Kato, Y.; Koike, T.; Iwamoto, M.; Kinoshita, M.; Sato, K.; Hiraki, Y.; Suzuki, F.

1988-05-01

206

Accelerators (3/5)  

ScienceCinema

1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

None

2011-10-06

207

Accelerators (5/5)  

ScienceCinema

1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

None

2011-10-06

208

Acceleration in astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

Colgate, S.A.

1993-12-31

209

Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure, and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast, and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values, and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans. PMID:18263949

Ehman, E C; Rossman, P J; Kruse, S A; Sahakian, A V; Glaser, K J

2010-01-01

210

Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats produces limited effects on endocrine, behavioral, or gene expression measures in adult male rats  

PubMed Central

Stress and/or antidepressants during pregnancy have been implicated in a wide range of long-term effects in the offspring. We investigated the long-term effects of prenatal stress and/or clinically relevant antidepressant exposure on male adult offspring in a model of the pharmacotherapy of maternal depression. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that delivered clinically relevant exposure to the antidepressant escitalopram throughout gestation. Subsequently, pregnant females were exposed on gestational days 10–20 to a chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm. The male offspring were analyzed in adulthood. Baseline physiological measurements were largely unaltered by prenatal manipulations. Behavioral characterization of the male offspring, with or without pre-exposure to an acute stressor, did not reveal any group differences. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in a faster return towards baseline following the peak response to an acute restraint stressor, but not an airpuff startle stressor, in adulthood. Microarray analysis of the hippocampus and hypothalamus comparing all treatment groups revealed no significantly-altered transcripts. Real time PCR of the hippocampus confirmed that several transcripts in the CRFergic, serotonergic, and neural plasticity pathways were unaffected by prenatal exposures. This stress model of maternal depression and its treatment indicate that escitalopram use and/or stress during pregnancy produced no alterations in our measures of male adult behavior or the transcriptome, however prenatal stress exposure resulted in some evidence for increased glucocorticoid negative feedback following an acute restraint stress. Study design should be carefully considered before implications for human health are ascribed to prenatal exposure to stress or antidepressant medication. PMID:23906943

Bourke, Chase H.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Olson, Darin E.; Owens, Michael J.

2013-01-01

211

Acceleration in de Sitter spacetimes  

E-print Network

We propose a definition of uniform accelerated frames in de Sitter spacetimes exploiting the Nachtmann group theoretical method of introducing coordinates on these manifolds. Requiring the transformation between the static frame and the accelerated one to depend continuously on acceleration in order to recover the well-known Rindler approach in the flat limit, we obtain a new metric with a reasonable physical meaning.

Ion I. Cotaescu

2014-07-11

212

Android Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students prepare for the associated activity in which they investigate acceleration by collecting acceleration vs. time data using the accelerometer of a sliding Android device. Based on the experimental set-up for the activity, students form hypotheses about the acceleration of the device. Students will investigate how the force on the device changes according to Newton's Second Law. Different types of acceleration, including average, instantaneous and constant acceleration, are introduced. Acceleration and force is described mathematically and in terms of processes and applications.

IMPART RET Program, College of Information Science & Technology,

213

Collinear wake field acceleration  

SciTech Connect

In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

1985-04-01

214

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

215

Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.  

PubMed

According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

2009-01-01

216

BATSE Sky Exposure  

E-print Network

Angular sky exposure is presented for a number of published BATSE gamma-ray burst catalogs. A new algorithm was required due to telemetry gaps resulting from onboard tape recorder failures; the new algorithm improves the 1B Catalog exposure calculation. The most influential effects limiting BATSE's exposure are (1) deadtime due to triggering, (2) sky blockage by the Earth, and (3) trigger disabling when the spacecraft is in the SAA and over other specific Earth locations. Exposure has improved during the CGRO mission as a result of decreased Solar flares and magnetospheric particle events.

Jon Hakkila; Charles A. Meegan; Geoffrey N. Pendleton; William Henze; Michael McCollough; Jefferson M. Kommers; Michael S. Briggs

1997-12-05

217

BATSE sky exposure  

SciTech Connect

Angular sky exposure is presented for a number of published BATSE gamma-ray burst catalogs. A new algorithm was required due to telemetry gaps resulting from onboard tape recorder failures; the new algorithm improves the 1B Catalog exposure calculation. The most influential effects limiting BATSE's exposure are (1) deadtime due to triggering, (2) sky blockage by the Earth, and (3) trigger disabling when the spacecraft is in the SAA and over other specific Earth locations. Exposure has improved during the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) mission as a result of decreased Solar flares and magnetospheric particle events.

Hakkila, Jon [Mankato State University, Mankato Minnesota 56002-8400 (United States); Meegan, Charles A. [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Henze, William [Teledyne Brown at NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); McCollough, Michael [USRA at NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Kommers, Jefferson M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

1998-05-16

218

Rating Exposure Control Using Bayesian Decision Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented for applying Bayesian statistical techniques to the problem of determining, from the usual limited number of exposure measurements, whether the exposure profile for a similar exposure group can be considered a Category 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 exposure. The categories were adapted from the AIHA exposure category scheme and refer to (0) negligible or trivial

Paul Hewett; Perry Logan; John Mulhausen; Gurumurthy Ramachandran; Sudipto Banerjee

2006-01-01

219

Uniqueness of current cosmic acceleration  

SciTech Connect

One of the strongest arguments against the cosmological constant as an explanation of the current epoch of accelerated cosmic expansion is the existence of an earlier, dynamical acceleration, i.e. inflation. We examine the likelihood that acceleration is an occasional phenomenon, putting stringent limits on the length of any accelerating epoch due to minimally coupled dark energy between recombination and the recent acceleration; such an epoch must last less than 0.05 e-fold (at z>2) or the matter power spectrum is modified by more than 20%.

Linder, Eric V. [Berkeley Lab and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-15

220

The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.  

PubMed

The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks. PMID:24829327

Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

2014-05-15

221

Limitations of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel Guidelines on the Use of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We applied the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Panel (CP) guidelines for the use of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to patients treated with this technique to determine the ability of the guidelines to differentiate patients with significantly different clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 199 patients treated with APBI and 199 with whole-breast irradiation (WBI) (matched for tumor size, nodal status, age, margins, receptor status, and tamoxifen use) were stratified into the three ASTRO CP levels of suitability ('suitable,' 'cautionary,' and 'unsuitable') to assess rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure, distant metastases, disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival based on CP category. Median follow-up was 11.1 years. Results: Analysis of the APBI and WBI patient groups, either separately or together (n = 398), did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in 10-year actuarial rates of IBTR when stratified by the three ASTRO groups. Regional nodal failure and distant metastasis were generally progressively worse when comparing the suitable to cautionary to unsuitable CP groups. However, when analyzing multiple clinical, pathologic, or treatment-related variables, only patient age was associated with IBTR using WBI (p = 0.002). Conclusions: The ASTRO CP suitable group predicted for a low risk of IBTR; however, the cautionary and unsuitable groups had an equally low risk of IBTR, supporting the need for continued refinement of patient selection criteria as additional outcome data become available and for the continued accrual of patients to Phase III trials.

Vicini, Frank, E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Arthur, Douglas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Wazer, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Peter; Mitchell, Christina; Wallace, Michelle; Kestin, Larry; Ye, Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2011-03-15

222

Exposure to MIV-150 from a High-Dose Intravaginal Ring Results in Limited Emergence of Drug Resistance Mutations in SHIV-RT Infected Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

When microbicides used for HIV prevention contain antiretroviral drugs, there is concern for the potential emergence of drug-resistant HIV following use in infected individuals who are either unaware of their HIV infection status or who are aware but still choose to use the microbicide. Resistant virus could ultimately impact their responsiveness to treatment and/or result in subsequent transmission of drug-resistant virus. We tested whether drug resistance mutations (DRMs) would emerge in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus expressing HIV reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) after sustained exposure to the potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 delivered via an intravaginal ring (IVR). We first treated 4 SHIV-RT-infected animals with daily intramuscular injections of MIV-150 over two 21 day (d) intervals separated by a 7 d drug hiatus. In all 4 animals, NNRTI DRMs (single and combinations) were detected within 14 d and expanded in proportion and diversity with time. Knowing that we could detect in vivo emergence of NNRTI DRMs in response to MIV-150, we then tested whether a high-dose MIV-150 IVR (loaded with >10 times the amount being used in a combination microbicide IVR in development) would select for resistance in 6 infected animals, modeling use of this prevention method by an HIV-infected woman. We previously demonstrated that this MIV-150 IVR provides significant protection against vaginal SHIV-RT challenge. Wearing the MIV-150 IVR for 56 d led to only 2 single DRMs in 2 of 6 animals (430 RT sequences analyzed total, 0.46%) from plasma and lymph nodes despite MIV-150 persisting in the plasma, vaginal fluids, and genital tissues. Only wild type virus sequences were detected in the genital tissues. These findings indicate a low probability for the emergence of DRMs after topical MIV-150 exposure and support the advancement of MIV-150-containing microbicides. PMID:24586674

Hsu, Mayla; Keele, Brandon F.; Aravantinou, Meropi; Krawczyk, Noa; Seidor, Samantha; Abraham, Ciby J.; Zhang, Shimin; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Derby, Nina; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Mizenina, Olga; Gettie, Agegnehu; Grasperge, Brooke; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael J.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Fernández-Romero, José A.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.; Robbiani, Melissa

2014-01-01

223

Exposure to MIV-150 from a high-dose intravaginal ring results in limited emergence of drug resistance mutations in SHIV-RT infected rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

When microbicides used for HIV prevention contain antiretroviral drugs, there is concern for the potential emergence of drug-resistant HIV following use in infected individuals who are either unaware of their HIV infection status or who are aware but still choose to use the microbicide. Resistant virus could ultimately impact their responsiveness to treatment and/or result in subsequent transmission of drug-resistant virus. We tested whether drug resistance mutations (DRMs) would emerge in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus expressing HIV reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) after sustained exposure to the potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 delivered via an intravaginal ring (IVR). We first treated 4 SHIV-RT-infected animals with daily intramuscular injections of MIV-150 over two 21 day (d) intervals separated by a 7 d drug hiatus. In all 4 animals, NNRTI DRMs (single and combinations) were detected within 14 d and expanded in proportion and diversity with time. Knowing that we could detect in vivo emergence of NNRTI DRMs in response to MIV-150, we then tested whether a high-dose MIV-150 IVR (loaded with >10 times the amount being used in a combination microbicide IVR in development) would select for resistance in 6 infected animals, modeling use of this prevention method by an HIV-infected woman. We previously demonstrated that this MIV-150 IVR provides significant protection against vaginal SHIV-RT challenge. Wearing the MIV-150 IVR for 56 d led to only 2 single DRMs in 2 of 6 animals (430 RT sequences analyzed total, 0.46%) from plasma and lymph nodes despite MIV-150 persisting in the plasma, vaginal fluids, and genital tissues. Only wild type virus sequences were detected in the genital tissues. These findings indicate a low probability for the emergence of DRMs after topical MIV-150 exposure and support the advancement of MIV-150-containing microbicides. PMID:24586674

Hsu, Mayla; Keele, Brandon F; Aravantinou, Meropi; Krawczyk, Noa; Seidor, Samantha; Abraham, Ciby J; Zhang, Shimin; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Derby, Nina; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Mizenina, Olga; Gettie, Agegnehu; Grasperge, Brooke; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael J; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

2014-01-01

224

Accelerating and Retarding Anomalous Diffusion  

E-print Network

In this paper Gaussian models of retarded and accelerated anomalous diffusion are considered. Stochastic differential equations of fractional order driven by single or multiple fractional Gaussian noise terms are introduced to describe retarding and accelerating subdiffusion and superdiffusion. Short and long time asymptotic limits of the mean squared displacement of the stochastic processes associated with the solutions of these equations are studied. Specific cases of these equations are shown to provide possible descriptions of retarding or accelerating anomalous diffusion.

Chai Hok Eab; S. C. Lim

2012-01-27

225

On the use of advanced numerical models for the evaluation of dosimetric parameters and the verification of exposure limits at workplaces.  

PubMed

With the next transposition of the 2004/40/EC Directive, employers will become responsible for the electromagnetic field level at the workplace. To make this task easier, the scientific community is compiling practical guidelines to be followed. This work aims at enriching such guidelines, especially for the dosimetric issues. More specifically, some critical aspects related to the application of numerical dosimetric techniques for the verification of the safety limit compliance have been highlighted. In particular, three different aspects have been considered: the dosimetric parameter dependence on the shape and the inner characterisation of the exposed subject as well as on the numerical algorithm used, and the correlation between reference limits and basic restriction. Results and discussions demonstrate how, even by using sophisticated numerical techniques, in some cases a complex interpretation of the result is mandatory. PMID:19846463

Catarinucci, L; Tarricone, L

2009-12-01

226

Statistical analysis of accelerated experiments in mechanics using a mechanical accelerated life model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated testing of mechanical products offers great potential for development in reliability life testing. Unfortunately, difficulties met in accelerated life testing have limited its applications and acceptance. This paper presents a discussion of the different approaches to accelerate life of mechanical materials. The importance of failure mechanism models and the separate treatment of failure mechanisms during accelerated life tests are

O. Tebbi; F. Guerin; B. Dumon

2003-01-01

227

Decay accelerating factor (CD55) protects neuronal cells from chemical hypoxia-induced injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Activated complement system is known to mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration following exposure to hypoxic-ischemic insults. Therefore, inhibition of the complement activation cascade may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of ischemic brain injury. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, also known as CD55) inhibits complement activation by suppressing the function of C3\\/C5 convertases, thereby limiting local generation or deposition of

Ying Wang; Yansong Li; Shawn L. Dalle Lucca; Milomir Simovic; George C. Tsokos; Jurandir J. Dalle Lucca

2010-01-01

228

Shadows of a maximal acceleration  

E-print Network

A quantum mechanical upper limit on the value of particle accelerations, or maximal acceleration (MA), is applied to compact stars. A few MA fermions are at most present in canonical white dwarfs and neutron stars. They drastically alter a star's stability conditions.

G. Papini

2002-11-04

229

Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiation Therapy with Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: RTOG 0239  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin–etoposide chemotherapy for limited small cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%).. Patients and Methods Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 U.S. and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m2 IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m2 IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin+etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (CTC v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (RECIST); and local control. Results Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% CI 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (RTOG 0538/CALGB 30610). PMID:22560543

Komaki, Ritsuko; Paulus, Rebecca; Ettinger, David S.; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Langer, Corey J.; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.; Choy, Hak

2012-01-01

230

Dose limits for astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.

Sinclair, W. K.

2000-01-01

231

Video exposure assessments demonstrate excessive laboratory formaldehyde exposures.  

PubMed

Video exposure assessments were conducted in a comparative anatomy laboratory using formaldehyde-preserved sharks and cats. Work in the facility using time-integrated samplers indicated personal and area concentrations generally below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit. However, complaints about room air quality were frequent and routine. Using a photoionization detector with an integral data logger, total ionizables present were sampled as a surrogate for formaldehyde. After synchronizing time tracks from the datalogger concentrations with simultaneously created videotapes of laboratory tasks, composite video exposure overlays were generated. Use of this video exposure method revealed very short-lived, excessively high peak exposure events, whereas conventional time-weighted averages indicated the majority (30/32) of personal exposures were below the OSHA limit of 0.75 ppm. These legally acceptable exposure levels were associated with self-reported symptoms of burning nose and eyes and eye irritation. Thus, transient peak formaldehyde concentrations not detected by longer term averaging studies could be responsible for the health effects reported. The video exposure monitoring method demonstrated that close dissection work, opening peritoneal cavities, and specimen selection activities were most likely the causes of elevated student exposures. Teaching assistants' exposures were the highest, exceeding OSHA limits on several occasions. The utility of the video monitoring method for conducting enhanced, critical task exposure assessments is discussed. PMID:12746068

Ryan, Timothy J; Burroughs, G Edward; Taylor, Katy; Kovein, Ronald J

2003-06-01

232

Accelerated molecular dynamics methods  

SciTech Connect

The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-04

233

Acceleration switch  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-08-17

234

Podcast: Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Podcast: Acceleration is a segment of the Force and Motion Short Course. The podcast is 2 minutes 13 seconds in duration. Presented by science experts and NSTA staff, the NSTA Online Short Courses are professional development opportunities de

2009-07-06

235

Angular Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The simulation of a rotating wheel below shows the relationship between angular position, angular velocity, and angular acceleration. Graphs of angular position and angular velocity as a function of time are shown.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

236

Accelerated Degradation of Polymers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this laboratory exercise, you will monitor changes in the visual appearance of the samples, chemical changes and molecular weight changes as a function of exposure condition. Analysis of the neat and degraded systems will be done using visual evaluation, FTIR analysis and GPC analysis. After in-class presentation, completion of hands-on laboratory experiment and review of the information provided, you should be able to: ⢠Confidently discuss the mechanism of breakdown for a polymeric material exposed to various environmental conditions. ⢠Prepare samples and record an accurate account of their preparation for use in an outdoor environment and in an accelerated weathering chamber (Q-sun).

Derosa, Rebecca L.

2008-09-26

237

Particle Acceleration by MHD Turbulence  

E-print Network

Recent advances in understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence call for revisions in the picture of particle acceleration. We make use of the recently established scaling of slow and fast MHD modes in strong and weak MHD turbulence to provide a systematic study of particle acceleration in magnetic pressure (low-$\\beta$) and gaseous pressure (high-$\\beta$) dominated plasmas. We consider the acceleration by large scale compressions in both slow and fast particle diffusion limits. We compare the results with the acceleration rate that arises from resonance scattering and Transit-Time Damping (TTD). We establish that fast modes accelerate particles more efficiently than slow modes. We find that particle acceleration by pitch-angle scattering and TTD dominates acceleration by slow or fast modes when the spatial diffusion rate is small. When the rate of spatial diffusion of particles is high, we establish an enhancement of the efficiency of particle acceleration by slow and fast modes in weak turbulence. We show that highly supersonic turbulence is an efficient agent for particle acceleration. We find that even incompressible turbulence can accelerate particles on the scales comparable with the particle mean free path.

Jungyeon Cho; A. Lazarian

2005-10-21

238

Laser Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now a fact that focusing an intense ultra short laser pulse onto a gas jet or thin targets, generates energetic collimated electrons or ions forming ultra short beams of energies > 100 MeV. The different mechanisms to explain such laser accelerated electrons or ions will be discussed. Data obtained by recent experiments will be presented. We report the experiment planed to study laser accelerated ions and/or particles using picosecond and femtosecond high energy laser pulses focused to achieve intensities >1018 watts/cm2. The design of the interaction chamber and the choice of targets as well as the ultra fast detection techniques will be speculated. This source of accelerated ions having unique properties is expected to become an interesting tool for many fields in physics, chemistry and biology. It can enable advances of devices to be used in medicine.

El Nadi, Lotfia M.; Mansour, Mohy S.; Abdellatif, Galila; Reda, Mohamad Atef

2010-04-01

239

Staged Laser driven Electron Acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser plasma accelerators have made tremendous progress over the last decade. Currently electron energies around 1 GeV [W. Leemans et al., Nature Physics 2, 696 (2006)] and above can be achieved. In the acceleration process, laser energy is transferred, via generation of a plasma wakefield by the laser pulse, to the electrons. The acceleration of electrons stops, when the laser energy is depleted. To increase the electron energy in current LPA schemes, laser systems with more pulse energy are needed, thus current laser plasma accelerators are limited by laser technology. Today, several projects are using or planning to use PW class laser systems to achieve electron energies up to 10 GeV [W. P. Leemans et al., AAC proceedings (2012)]. These laser systems represent the latest development in laser technology and are able to deliver the highest achievable laser intensities today. To overcome the electron energy limitation a staged acceleration concept is necessary. In this scheme multiple acceleration stages are placed in series, each driven by a separate laser pulse. Now the final electron energy is limited by the number of stages only. In a concept study a 1TeV electron-positron collider based on staged acceleration was envisioned in reference [W. P. Leemans and E. Esarey, Physics Today, 62, 44 (2009)]. We will present the latest results on a staged laser plasma experiment in which two stages and two laser pulses are used.

Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Shaw, Brian; Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

2012-10-01

240

Acceleration Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

Rogers, Melissa J. B.

1993-01-01

241

Six-degree-of-freedom whole-body vibration exposure levels during routine skidder operations.  

PubMed

This research focuses on quantifying six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure levels that occur in Northern Ontario skidders during routine field operating tasks. 6-DOF vibration running root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration levels at the operator/seat interface were determined for eight skidders while driving loaded, driving unloaded, picking up a load, dropping off a load and ploughing logs under field operating conditions. The acceleration data were weighted in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997 and evaluated for both health and comfort outcomes. The mean running RMS weighted translational and rotational accelerations all exceeded 0.36 m/s(2) and 0.14 rad/s(2). The greatest average accelerations occurred while driving unloaded with this condition displaying translational vibration total values (VTV) that exceeded the upper limit of the ISO 2631-1:1997 health caution zone within an average of 2.3 h. Utilizing 6-DOF VTV, virtually all operating conditions would be designated as uncomfortable. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study provides one of the most comprehensive reports on vibration exposures in seated vehicle operators. The results are geared towards ergonomists with discussions on health effects and measurement concerns, while providing the raw vibration exposure data that will be useful to vehicle, component and vibration sensor designers. PMID:20432089

Jack, R J; Oliver, M; Dickey, J P; Cation, S; Hayward, G; Lee-Shee, N

2010-05-01

242

Plasma accelerator  

DOEpatents

There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Santa Fe, NM)

2002-01-01

243

Accelerated Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

Ford, William J.

2010-01-01

244

Particle acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

1986-01-01

245

Antimutagenicity of WR-1065 in L5178Y cells exposed to accelerated (56)Fe ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of the aminothiol WR-1065 [N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane] to protect L5178Y (LY) cells against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of exposure to accelerated (56)Fe ions (1.08 GeV/nucleon) was determined. It was found that while WR-1065 reduced the mutagenicity in both cell lines when it was present during the irradiation, the addition of WR-1065 after the exposure had no effect on the mutagenicity of the radiation in either cell line. No marked protection against the cytotoxic effects of exposure to (56)Fe ions was provided by WR-1065 when added either during or after irradiation in either cell line. We reported previously that WR-1065 protected the LY-S1 and LY-SR1 cell lines against both the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of X radiation when present during exposure, but that its protection when administered after exposure was limited to the mutagenic effects in the radiation-hypersensitive cell line, LY-S1. The results indicate that the mechanisms involved differ in the protection against cytotoxic compared to mutagenic effects and in the protection against damage caused by accelerated (56)Fe ions compared to X radiation.

Evans, H. H.; Evans, T. E.; Horng, M. F.

2002-01-01

246

Compact accelerator  

DOEpatents

A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-02-06

247

Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed measurements of the axial velocity profile and electromagnetic structure of a high power, quasi-steady MPD discharge are used to formulate a gasdynamic model of the acceleration process. Conceptually dividing the accelerated plasma into an inner flow and an outer flow, it is found that more than two-thirds of the total power in the plasma is deposited in the inner flow, accelerating it to an exhaust velocity of 12.5 km/sec. The outer flow, which is accelerated to a velocity of only 6.2 km/sec, appears to provide a current conduction path between the inner flow and the anode. Related cathode studies have shown that the critical current for the onset of terminal voltage fluctuations, which was recently shown to be a function of the cathode area, appears to reach an asymptote for cathodes of very large surface area. Detailed floating potential measurements show that the fluctuations are confined to the vicinity of the cathode and hence reflect a cathode emission process rather than a fundamental limit on MPD performance.

Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

1974-01-01

248

Radio-Frequency Acceleration System for the MURA 50MeV Electron Accelerator: Theoretical Considerations and Description. XI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical considerations pertinent to the design of the radio-frequency acceleration system for the MURA 50-MeV electron accelerator are presented. Parameters of the acceleration system are developed on the basis of these considerations. Theoretical limitations of the maximum stacked beam obtainable with this acceleration system are given.

K. R. Symon; E. M. Rowe; D. A. Swenson; L. H. Johnston

1964-01-01

249

Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

1986-01-01

250

Accelerators and the Accelerator Community  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

2008-06-01

251

Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

2011-06-30

252

The physiological basis for spacecraft environmental limits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limits for operational environments are discussed in terms of acceptable physiological changes. The environmental factors considered are pressure, contaminants, temperature, acceleration, noise, rf radiation, and weightlessness.

Waligora, J. M. (compiler)

1979-01-01

253

Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

Arcot, Divya K.

2010-01-01

254

Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

1989-01-01

255

Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations  

SciTech Connect

We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5x10{sup -14} m/s{sup 2}.

Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Physics Department, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Earth and Space Science Department, Saint Joseph's College, Rensselaer, Indiana 47978 (United States); Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2007-04-13

256

Engineering design of the Saturn accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saturn accelerator is a large flash x-ray simulator being constructed as a part of Sandia's Simulation Technology Laboratory. The performance goal of the machine is to provide x-ray exposure capabilities of 5 x 10¹² rads\\/s (Si) and 5 cal\\/g (Au) uniformly distributed over a 500 cm² target area. The operational goal of the machine is to provide this exposure

J. D. Boyes; J. S. Cap; G. M. Douglas; T. L. Franklin; J. M. Hart; H. C. Ives; S. J. Robischon; B. L. Smith; W. O. Stoppkotte; D. M. VanDeValde

1987-01-01

257

Plasma wake field accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme of electron acceleration, employing relativistic electron bunches in a cold plasma, is analyzed. The wake field of a leading bunch is derived in a single-particle model. We then extend the model to include finite bunch length effect. In particular, we discuss the relation between the charge distributions of the driving bunch and the energies transformable to the trailing electrons. It is shown that for symmetric charge distribution of the driving bunches, the maximum energy gain for a driven electron is 2..gamma../sub 0/mc/sup 2/. This limitation can be overcome by introducing asymmetric charge distributions. 13 refs., 5 figs.

Chen, P.; Dawson, J.M.

1985-03-01

258

Oxidised cosmic acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We give detailed proofs of several new no-go theorems for constructing flat four-dimensional accelerating universes from warped dimensional reduction. These new theorems improve upon previous ones by weakening the energy conditions, by including time-dependent compactifications, and by treating accelerated expansion that is not precisely de Sitter. We show that de Sitter expansion violates the higher-dimensional null energy condition (NEC) if the compactification manifold M is one-dimensional, if its intrinsic Ricci scalar R-ring vanishes everywhere, or if R-ring and the warp function satisfy a simple limit condition. If expansion is not de Sitter, we establish threshold equation-of-state parameters w below which accelerated expansion must be transient. Below the threshold w there are bounds on the number of e-foldings of expansion. If M is one-dimensional or R-ring everywhere vanishing, exceeding the bound implies the NEC is violated. If R-ring does not vanish everywhere on M, exceeding the bound implies the strong energy condition (SEC) is violated. Observationally, the w thresholds indicate that experiments with finite resolution in w can cleanly discriminate between different models which satisfy or violate the relevant energy conditions.

Wesley, Daniel H., E-mail: D.H.Wesley@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

259

Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.  

PubMed Central

In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring. PMID:6499824

Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

1984-01-01

260

Tritium Exposure Reconstruction Using Tree Rings at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous instances where historical exposures to contaminants can determine future health impacts, but limited means exist to reconstruct those exposures from current measurements and models. The National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has released tritiated water into the atmosphere through an adjacent stack since 1969. Some members of the surrounding community are concerned about potential health effects from the emissions and have questioned the accuracy and thoroughness of reported historical release quantities and environmental monitoring. A grove of Eucalyptus globulus surround the emission stack and were used to reconstruct historical exposure levels. Previous studies have demonstrated that plants can be reliably used as passive monitors for tritiated water, as well as many other contaminants. Because trees can sequester tritium into wood during photosynthesis, a tree provides a temporal variation of exposure at least on an annual basis. Milligram-sized samples of wood from cores were measured for carbon-14 and tritium using accelerator mass spectrometry. The carbon-14 measurements were matched with bomb curve levels of carbon-14 to independently assess the age of the wood used for organically bound tritium measurements. The tritium exposure reconstruction was consistent with annual exposure monitoring and release quantities reported by LBNL over the last 30 years. Because this location has an episodic release pattern and complex topographic and meteorological variation, the historical assessment from these environmental measurements is likely to have less uncertainty than mathematical modeling efforts.

Love, A. H.; Hunt, J. R.; Knezovich, J. P.

2002-12-01

261

Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

2013-01-01

262

Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-print Network

Meetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested by one of us for devices that produce beams of chemically interesting species at relative kinetic

Zare, Richard N.

263

Search for Dark Photons with Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dark photon as the mediator of an interaction of the dark sector is a well motivated extension of the standard model. While possible dark matter particles are heavy and seem to be beyond the reach of current accelerators, the dark photon is not necessarily heavy and might have a mass in the range of existing accelerators. In recent years, an extensive experimental program at several accelerators for the search for dark photons were established. In this talk, recent results and progress in the determination of exclusion limits with accelerators is presented.

Merkel, Harald

2014-11-01

264

Radiation Shielding at High-Energy Electron and Proton Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The goal of accelerator shielding design is to protect the workers, general public, and the environment against unnecessary prompt radiation from accelerator operations. Additionally, shielding at accelerators may also be used to reduce the unwanted background in experimental detectors, to protect equipment against radiation damage, and to protect workers from potential exposure to the induced radioactivity in the machine components. The shielding design for prompt radiation hazards is the main subject of this chapter.

Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab; Liu, James C.; /SLAC

2007-12-10

265

Repair of overheating linear accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a proton accelerator that produces high energy particle beams for experiments. These beams include neutrons and protons for diverse uses including radiography, isotope production, small feature study, lattice vibrations and material science. The Drift Tube Linear Accelerator (DTL) is the first portion of a half mile long linear section of accelerator that raises the beam energy from 750 keV to 100 MeV. In its 31st year of operation (2003), the DTL experienced serious issues. The first problem was the inability to maintain resonant frequency at full power. The second problem was increased occurrences of over-temperature failure of cooling hoses. These shortcomings led to an investigation during the 2003 yearly preventative maintenance shutdown that showed evidence of excessive heating: discolored interior tank walls and coper oxide deposition in the cooling circuits. Since overheating was suspected to be caused by compromised heat transfer, improving that was the focus of the repair effort. Investigations revealed copper oxide flow inhibition and iron oxide scale build up. Acid cleaning was implemented with careful attention to protection of the base metal, selection of components to clean and minimization of exposure times. The effort has been very successful in bringing the accelerator through a complete eight month run cycle allowing an incredible array of scientific experiments to be completed this year (2003-2004). This paper will describe the systems, investigation analysis, repair, return to production and conclusion.

Barkley, Walter; Baldwin, William; Bennett, Gloria; Bitteker, Leo; Borden, Michael; Casados, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Gorman, Fred; Johnson, Kenneth; Kurennoy, Sergey; Martinez, Alberto; O’Hara, James; Perez, Edward; Roller, Brandon; Rybarcyk, Lawrence; Stark, Peter; Stockton, Jerry

2004-01-01

266

High Transformer ratios in collinear wakefield accelerators.  

SciTech Connect

Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.

Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

2008-01-01

267

Particle acceleration in solar flares: observations versus numerical simulations  

E-print Network

Particle acceleration in solar flares: observations versus numerical simulations A O Benz, P C processes such as isotropization and magnetic trapping are made. Keywords: Particle acceleration, hard X. As the electric field of reconnection with possible parallel component capable of particle acceleration is limited

268

High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport  

SciTech Connect

The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

1981-11-01

269

Radiation Safety System of the B-Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center  

SciTech Connect

The radiation safety system (RSS) of the B-Factory accelerator facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is described. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation exposure due to beam operation, consists of the access control system (ACS) and the radiation containment system (RCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the very high radiation levels inside a beamline shielding housing. The ACS consists of barriers, a standard entry module at every entrance, and beam stoppers. The RCS prevents people from being exposed to the radiation outside a shielding housing, due to either normal or abnormal operation. The RCS consists of power limiting devices, shielding, dump/collimator, and an active radiation monitor system. The inter-related system elements for the ACS and RCS, as well as the associated interlock network, are described. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS are also compared with the regulatory requirements.

Liu, James C

1998-10-12

270

Covariant Uniform Acceleration  

E-print Network

We show that standard Relativistic Dynamics Equation F=dp/d\\tau is only partially covariant. To achieve full Lorentz covariance, we replace the four-force F by a rank 2 antisymmetric tensor acting on the four-velocity. By taking this tensor to be constant, we obtain a covariant definition of uniformly accelerated motion. We compute explicit solutions for uniformly accelerated motion which are divided into four types: null, linear, rotational, and general. For null acceleration, the worldline is cubic in the time. Linear acceleration covariantly extends 1D hyperbolic motion, while rotational acceleration covariantly extends pure rotational motion. We use Generalized Fermi-Walker transport to construct a uniformly accelerated family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the Weak Hypothesis of Locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K' to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. We obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system K' to an inertial frame K. We derive the general formula for the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We obtain a formula for the angular velocity of a uniformly accelerated object. Every rest point of K' is uniformly accelerated, and its acceleration is a function of the observer's acceleration and its position. We obtain an interpretation of the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation as an acceleration transformation from K' to K.

Yaakov Friedman; Tzvi Scarr

2011-05-03

271

I. ACCELERATION A. Introduction  

E-print Network

I. ACCELERATION A. Introduction Following cooling and initial bunch compression, the beams must be rapidly accelerated. The acceleration needed for a Higgs collider is probably the most conventional part undertaken. A sequence of linacs would work, but would be expensive. Some form of circulating acceleration

McDonald, Kirk

272

Laser acceleration in novel media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With newly available compact laser technology [1] we are capable of producing 100 PW-class laser pulses with a single-cycle duration on the femtosecond timescale. With this fs intense laser we can produce a coherent X-ray pulse that is also compressed, well into the hard X-ray regime (˜10 keV) and with a power up to as much as 10 Exawatts. We suggest utilizing these coherent X-rays to drive the acceleration of particles. Such X-rays are focusable far beyond the diffraction limit of the original laser wavelength and when injected into a crystal it forms a metallic-density electron plasma ideally suited for laser wakefield acceleration. If the X-ray field is limited by the Schwinger field at the focal size of ˜100 nm, the achievable energy is 1 PeV over 50 m. (If the X-rays are focused further, much higher energies beyond this are possible). These processes are not limited to only electron acceleration, and if ions are pre-accelerated to beyond GeV they are capable of being further accelerated using a LWFA scheme [2] to similar energies as electrons over the same distance-scales. Such high energy proton (and ion) beams can induce copious neutrons, which can also give rise to intense compact muon beams and neutrino beams that may be portable. High-energy gamma rays can also be efficiently emitted with a bril- liance many orders of magnitude above the brightest X-ray sources by this accelerating process, from both the betatron radiation as well as the dominant radiative-damping dynamics. With the exceptional conditions enabled by this technology we envision a whole scope of new physical phenomena, including: the possibility of laser self-focus in the vacuum, neutron manipulation by the beat of such lasers, zeptosecond spectroscopy of nuclei, etc. Further, we now introduce along with the idea of vacuum as a nonlinear medium, the Schwinger Fiber Accelerator. This is a self-organized vacuum fiber acceleration concept, in which the repeated process of self-focusing and defocusing for the X-ray pulse in vacuum forms a modulated fiber that guides the intense X-rays.

Tajima, T.

2014-05-01

273

Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating timescales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions upon the acceleration process. The role of the plasma resistivity in these processes is examined, and possible sources of anomalous resistivity are summarized. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined.

Holman, G. D.

1984-01-01

274

Accelerating electromagnetic magic field from the C-metric  

E-print Network

Various aspects of the C-metric representing two rotating charged black holes accelerated in opposite directions are summarized and its limits are considered. A particular attention is paid to the special-relativistic limit in which the electromagnetic field becomes the "magic field" of two oppositely accelerated rotating charged relativistic discs. When the acceleration vanishes the usual electromagnetic magic field of the Kerr-Newman black hole with gravitational constant set to zero arises. Properties of the accelerated discs and the fields produced are studied and illustrated graphically. The charges at the rim of the accelerated discs move along spiral trajectories with the speed of light. If the magic field has some deeper connection with the field of the Dirac electron, as is sometimes conjectured because of the same gyromagnetic ratio, the "accelerating magic field" represents the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated spinning electron. It generalizes the classical Born's solution for two uniformly accelerated monopole charges.

Jiri Bicak; David Kofron

2009-06-05

275

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF PROTON ACCELERATORS FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS.  

SciTech Connect

There are many applications requiring high power proton accelerators of various kinds. However, each type of proton accelerator can only provide beam with certain characteristics, hence the match of accelerators and their applications need careful evaluation. In this talk, the beam parameters and performance limitations of linac, cyclotron, synchrotron, and FFAG accelerators are studied and their relative merits for application in neutron, muon, neutrino, and ADS will be assessed in terms of beam energy, intensity, bunch length, repetition rate, and beam power requirements. A possible match between the applications and the accelerator of choice is presented in a matrix form. The accelerator physics and technology issues and challenges involved will also be discussed.

WENG, W.T.

2006-05-29

276

Accelerated partial breast irradiation.  

PubMed

Local therapies to treat newly diagnosed breast cancer include a lumpectomy with radiation therapy or a mastectomy. The 20-year data from studies about the safety and efficacy of lumpectomy with full-breast radiation therapy support the safety of this regimen and its role to decrease the risk of ipsilateral recurrence and increase long-term survivorship of women with breast cancer. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) provides radiation therapy to the tumor bed but spares the remaining breast tissue. APBI accelerates the time required to complete the therapy regimen, with a range of one intraoperative session to five consecutive days compared to five to seven weeks. Several techniques exist to administer APBI, including the insertion of a balloon into the lumpectomy space. Of interest is the widespread use of APBI in community and academic settings that has preceded outcomes of large, randomized clinical trials. Because of selection bias in a number of small, single-institution, nonrandomized studies, published data are of limited value to ensure APBI as a standard of care. PMID:25253109

Bauer, Elfrida; Lester, Joanne L

2014-10-01

277

Exposure to Air Pollution Enhances the Generation of Vascular Microparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies associate exposure to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The biological mechanisms by which PM exposure induces cardiovascular effects remain to be elucidated. One important limitation is the lack of sens...

278

PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICLES IN BANSKA BYSTRICA, SLOVAKIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have associated adverse health impacts with ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM), though these studies have been limited in their characterization of personal exposure to PM. An exposure study of healthy nonsmoking adults and children was cond...

279

Cataract after exposure to non-ionizing radiant energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case histories of two individuals exposed to thermal radiation emitted from an electric oven and range were presented. In one patient, earlier exposure to medical diathermy appears to have initiated delayed or late-appearing, capsular cataracts. Instead of the anticipated slow progression, the cataractogenesis was accelerated following recent, repeated exposure to the intense, infrared radiation. In the other patient, exposed

M M Zaret; W Z Snyder; L Birenbaum

1976-01-01

280

Quartz and Dust Exposure in Swedish Iron Foundries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to respirable quartz continues to be a major concern in the Swedish iron foundry industry. Recommendations for reducing the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL) to 0.05 mg\\/m and the corresponding ACGIH® threshold limit value (ACGIH-TLV) to 0.025 mg\\/m prompted this exposure survey. Occupational exposure to respirable dust and respirable quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries, representing different

Lena Andersson; Ing-Liss Bryngelsson; Carl-Göran Ohlson; Peter Nayström; Bengt-Gunnar Lilja; Håkan Westberg

2008-01-01

281

Exposure chamber  

DOEpatents

A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA)

1980-01-01

282

Cabin attendants’ exposure to vibration and shocks during landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) has noted that cabin attendants have reported an increase in health problems associated with landing. The European Union reports cover health problems related to neck, shoulder, and lower-back injuries. Moreover, analysis of these reports shows that the problems are often associated with specific airplanes that have a longer tail behind the rear wheels and appear more often in attendants who sit in the back of planes rather then the front. Against this background, this study measures and describes the vibration during landing in specific airplanes to evaluate the health risk for the cabin attendants. Measurements were conducted on regular flights with passengers in the type of airplane, Boeing 737-800, which was related to the highest per cent of reported health problems. All measurements were performed the same day during three landings in one airplane with the same pilots and cabin attendants. The measurements were carried out simultaneously on the cabin crew seats in the back and front of the passenger cabin. Under the cabin crew's seat cushions, a triaxiell seat-accelerometer was placed to measure the vibration in three axes. The signals from the accelerometers were amplified by charge amplifiers and stored on tape. The stored data were analysed with a computer-based analyse system. For the cabin attendants, the dominant direction for the vibration load during landing is the up-and-down direction although some vibration also occurs in the other horizontal directions. The exposure to vibration is higher on the rear crew seat compared to the front seat. For instance, both the vibration dose value (VDV) and the frequency-weighted acceleration in the dominant direction are more then 50% higher on the rear seat. The frequency-weighted acceleration and the VDV measured at the crew seats are below the exposure limits as described by the European vibration directive. The evaluation of the cabin attendants' exposure to multiple shocks during landing shows that the potential of an adverse health effect for the cabin attendants is low in the front of the airplane and increases to moderate in the rear. Although this is a limited study, it could be conclude that there could be a risk for cabin attendants due to the exposure of multiple shocks. Therefore, efforts should be spent to minimize their risk by developing a better seat cushion and back support to lessen the effects of shocks. In addition, attendants should be informed about the most suitable posture to take during landing.

Burström, Lage; Lindberg, Lennart; Lindgren, Torsten

2006-12-01

283

Accelerator mass spectrometry of plutonium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of measuring plutonium isotope ratios by accelerator mass spectrometry has been demonstrated. Measurements on a test sample of known composition and on a blank showed that isotope ratios could be determined quantitatively, and that the present limit of detection by AMS is ? 106 atoms of plutonium. For 239Pu, this limit is at least two orders of magnitude

L. K. Fifield; R. G. Cresswell; M. L. di Tada; T. R. Ophel; J. P. Day; A. P. Clacher; S. J. King; N. D. Priest

1996-01-01

284

Acceleration Environment of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment on the International Space Station has been accomplished by two accelerometer systems since 2001. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System records the quasi-steady microgravity environment, including the influences of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and venting effects. Measurement of the vibratory/transient regime, comprised of vehicle, crew, and equipment disturbances, has been accomplished by the Space Acceleration Measurement System-II. Until the arrival of the Columbus Orbital Facility and the Japanese Experiment Module, the location of these sensors, and therefore, the measurement of the microgravity acceleration environment, has been limited to within the United States Laboratory. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a vibratory acceleration measurement system called the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus which will be deployed within the Japanese Experiment Module to make distributed measurements of the Japanese Experiment Module's vibratory acceleration environment. Two Space Acceleration Measurement System sensors from the United States Laboratory will be re-deployed to support vibratory acceleration data measurement within the Columbus Orbital Facility. The additional measurement opportunities resulting from the arrival of these new laboratories allows Principal Investigators with facilities located in these International Space Station research laboratories to obtain microgravity acceleration data in support of their sensitive experiments. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project, at NASA Glenn Research Center, in Cleveland, Ohio, has supported acceleration measurement systems and the microgravity scientific community through the processing, characterization, distribution, and archival of the microgravity acceleration data obtained from the International Space Station acceleration measurement systems. This paper summarizes the PIMS capabilities available to the International Space Station scientific community, introduces plans for extending microgravity analysis results to the newly arrived scientific laboratories, and provides summary information for known microgravity environment disturbers.

McPherson, Kevin; Kelly, Eric; Keller, Jennifer

2009-01-01

285

Lifetime Prediction for Degradation of Solar Mirrors using Step-Stress Accelerated Testing (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This research is to illustrate the use of statistical inference techniques in order to quantify the uncertainty surrounding reliability estimates in a step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) scenario. SSADT can be used when a researcher is faced with a resource-constrained environment, e.g., limits on chamber time or on the number of units to test. We apply the SSADT methodology to a degradation experiment involving concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors and compare the results to a more traditional multiple accelerated testing paradigm. Specifically, our work includes: (1) designing a durability testing plan for solar mirrors (3M's new improved silvered acrylic "Solar Reflector Film (SFM) 1100") through the ultra-accelerated weathering system (UAWS), (2) defining degradation paths of optical performance based on the SSADT model which is accelerated by high UV-radiant exposure, and (3) developing service lifetime prediction models for solar mirrors using advanced statistical inference. We use the method of least squares to estimate the model parameters and this serves as the basis for the statistical inference in SSADT. Several quantities of interest can be estimated from this procedure, e.g., mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) and warranty time. The methods allow for the estimation of quantities that may be of interest to the domain scientists.

Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Kennedy, C.; Gray, M.; Jones, W.

2011-09-01

286

Nonparaxial Mathieu and Weber accelerating beams.  

PubMed

We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally nonparaxial Mathieu and Weber accelerating beams, generalizing the concept of previously found accelerating beams. We show that such beams bend into large angles along circular, elliptical, or parabolic trajectories but still retain nondiffracting and self-healing capabilities. The circular nonparaxial accelerating beams can be considered as a special case of the Mathieu accelerating beams, while an Airy beam is only a special case of the Weber beams at the paraxial limit. Not only do generalized nonparaxial accelerating beams open up many possibilities of beam engineering for applications, but the fundamental concept developed here can be applied to other linear wave systems in nature, ranging from electromagnetic and elastic waves to matter waves. PMID:23215384

Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yi; Li, Tongcang; Cannan, Drake; Yin, Xiaobo; Morandotti, Roberto; Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiang

2012-11-01

287

Nonparaxial Mathieu and Weber Accelerating Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally nonparaxial Mathieu and Weber accelerating beams, generalizing the concept of previously found accelerating beams. We show that such beams bend into large angles along circular, elliptical, or parabolic trajectories but still retain nondiffracting and self-healing capabilities. The circular nonparaxial accelerating beams can be considered as a special case of the Mathieu accelerating beams, while an Airy beam is only a special case of the Weber beams at the paraxial limit. Not only do generalized nonparaxial accelerating beams open up many possibilities of beam engineering for applications, but the fundamental concept developed here can be applied to other linear wave systems in nature, ranging from electromagnetic and elastic waves to matter waves.

Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yi; Li, Tongcang; Cannan, Drake; Yin, Xiaobo; Morandotti, Roberto; Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiang

2012-11-01

288

Cosmic Ray Acceleration at Relativistic Shocks  

E-print Network

Theoretical studies of cosmic ray particle acceleration in the first-order Fermi process at relativistic shocks are reviewed. At the beginning we discuss the acceleration processes acting at mildly relativistic shock waves. An essential role of oblique field configurations and field perturbations in forming the particle energy spectrum and changing the acceleration time scale is discussed. Then, we report on attempts to consider particle acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks, often yielding an asymptotic spectral index sigma = 2.2 at large shock Lorentz factors. We explain why this result is limited to the cases of highly turbulent conditions near shocks. We conclude that our present knowledge of the acceleration processes acting at relativistic shocks is insufficient to allow for realistic modelling of the real shocks. The present review is a modified, extended and updated version of Ostrowski (1999).

Michal Ostrowski

2003-10-29

289

Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6) is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the "Q-loss" and "f-dot" loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a "harmonic ratcheting" acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details are taken into consideration.

Cook, N.; Brennan, J. M.; Peggs, S.

2014-04-01

290

Improved plasma accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

Cheng, D. Y.

1971-01-01

291

Human Exposure Assessement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans may be exposed to a variety of substances from multiple exposure routes. In Chapter 5 we will distinguish between exposure\\u000a through the environment (Section 5.2), exposure from use of consumer products (Section 5.3), and exposure at the workplace\\u000a (occupational exposure; Section 5.4). In this chapter information is provided on how to perform an exposure assessment for each of these

J. G. M. Van Engelen; P. J. Hakkinen; C. Money; M. G. J. Rikken; T. G. Vermeire

292

Serum laminin, hydrocarbon exposure, and glomerular damage.  

PubMed

It has been postulated that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons may damage the kidney and lead to glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure. As laminin is a ubiquitous basement membrane component that seems to play a central part in the structure and function of basement membranes and as the normal renal filtration process is highly dependent on an intact glomerular basement membrane, the serum laminin concentration was examined in a population of workers exposed to hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon exposure was assessed by exposure surrogates (exposure duration and exposure score). An interaction between occupational exposure to hydrocarbons and hypertension increased the laminin concentration whereas the laminin concentration decreased in workers exposed for a long time probably because of a selection effect. In a subgroup of printers exposed to toluene whose hippuric acid excretion had been recorded for several years this interaction was confirmed when the hippuric acid excretion was substituted for the other exposure indices. In the exposed group, the age-related decline in creatinine clearance was accelerated. These results seem to confirm that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons is a non-specific factor that may promote a deterioration of renal function. PMID:8280641

Hotz, P; Thielemans, N; Bernard, A; Gutzwiller, F; Lauwerys, R

1993-12-01

293

Serum laminin, hydrocarbon exposure, and glomerular damage.  

PubMed Central

It has been postulated that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons may damage the kidney and lead to glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure. As laminin is a ubiquitous basement membrane component that seems to play a central part in the structure and function of basement membranes and as the normal renal filtration process is highly dependent on an intact glomerular basement membrane, the serum laminin concentration was examined in a population of workers exposed to hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon exposure was assessed by exposure surrogates (exposure duration and exposure score). An interaction between occupational exposure to hydrocarbons and hypertension increased the laminin concentration whereas the laminin concentration decreased in workers exposed for a long time probably because of a selection effect. In a subgroup of printers exposed to toluene whose hippuric acid excretion had been recorded for several years this interaction was confirmed when the hippuric acid excretion was substituted for the other exposure indices. In the exposed group, the age-related decline in creatinine clearance was accelerated. These results seem to confirm that occupational exposure to hydrocarbons is a non-specific factor that may promote a deterioration of renal function. PMID:8280641

Hotz, P; Thielemans, N; Bernard, A; Gutzwiller, F; Lauwerys, R

1993-01-01

294

Geldanamycin Analog 17-DMAG Limits Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Inhibition of p53 Activation and its Interaction with Heat-Shock Protein 90 kDa after Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ionizing radiation induces p53, and its inhibition improves mouse survival. We tested the effect of 17-dimethylamino-ethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) on p53 expression and function after radiation exposure. 17-DMAG, a heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, protects human T cells from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent caspase-3 activation. Using ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we found that ionizing radiation increased p53 accumulation, acute p53 phosphorylation, Bax expression and caspase-3/7 activation in a radiation dose- and time postirradiation-dependent manner. 17-DMAG inhibited these increases in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.93 ± 0.01 µM). Using in vitro models, we determined that inhibition of p53 by genetic knockout resulted in lower levels of caspase-3/7 activity 1 day after irradiation and enhanced survival at 10 days. Analysis of p53–Hsp90 interaction in ex vivo cell lysates indicated that the binding between the two molecules occurred after irradiation but 17-DMAG prevented the binding. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of p53 phosphorylation and Hsp90-dependent p53 stabilization after acute irradiation. Hsp90 inhibitors such as 17-DMAG may prove useful with radiation-based cancer therapy as well as for general radioprotection. PMID:21663398

Fukumoto, Risaku; Kiang, Juliann G.

2014-01-01

295

Acceleration: It's Elementary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

Willis, Mariam

2012-01-01

296

Direction of Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this short lab, students observe the movement of an air bubble in a small level, attached to a toy truck, as it is moved from a stop, to a steady speed and back to a stop. This gives a visual to the concepts positive acceleration, zero acceleration and negative acceleration.

Mary Spaulding, Clearbrook-Gonvick Public School, Clearbrook Minnesota, based on an original activity from Physics Principles and Problems (1995) page 75.

297

Force, mass and acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force, mass and acceleration are everyday words but often used inaccurately. Force is a physical influence, which when applied to an object causes it to accelerate in the direction from which it was applied. Mass is the amount of matter in an object and is expressed in kilograms. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object in

Phil Dalrymple; Richard Griffiths

2005-01-01

298

Angular Acceleration without Torque?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

Kaufman, Richard D.

2012-01-01

299

Accelerating Research with  

E-print Network

Accelerating Academic Research with Cloud Computing Published: September 2014 For the latest information, please see www.microsoft.com/education #12;Accelerating Academic Research with Cloud Computing............................................................................................................................................................11 #12;1 Accelerating Academic Research with Cloud Computing Overview Universities today face

Bernstein, Phil

300

ADVANCED ULTRAFINE PARTICLE ACCELERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of an Ultrafine Particle Radio Frequency Quadrupole (UFP-RFQ) accelerator is discussed. The results indicate that it is possible to accelerate 1 pm radius Al particles to velocities around 100 km\\/s in 100 m RFQ length. This accelerator can provide variable output particle velocity, with capability of handling different particle materials with different sizes. There are scientific, industrial

D. A. Swenson; A. E. Dabiri; Z. Mikic; D. B. McCall; M. F. Scharff

301

Maximal Acceleration Effects in Kerr Space  

E-print Network

We consider a model in which accelerated particles experience line--elements with maximal acceleration corrections that are introduced by means of successive approximations. It is shown that approximations higher than the first need not be considered. The method is then applied to the Kerr metric. The effective field experienced by accelerated test particles contains corrections that vanish in the limit $\\hbar\\to 0$, but otherwise affect the behaviour of matter greatly. The corrections generate potential barriers that are external to the horizon and are impervious to classical particles.

V. Bozza; A. Feoli; G. Lambiase; G. Papini; G. Scarpetta

2001-04-18

302

Assessing compliance with 60-hertz magnetic-field exposure guidelines.  

PubMed

Exposure limits for magnetic fields in the extremely low frequency range (3 to 3000 hertz) have been established by a number of organizations. The limits are generally intended to prevent overstimulation of electrically sensitive tissue and are expressed as ceiling values-levels not to be exceeded even momentarily. Exposures near or above the limits occur around high-current equipment and often have large spatial and temporal variability. The combination of variable exposures and ceiling-value exposure limits means that a practical exposure assessment must be statistically based. Practical guidance for assessing compliance for these exposures is limited. To fill this gap, this work develops a statistically based sampling and analysis methodology for evaluating compliance with magnetic-field exposure guidelines, using 60-hertz exposures in the electric utility industry as a model. The resulting methodology relies on (1) defining a scenario that includes tasks with similar high-field exposures for a group of workers, (2) having appropriate protocols for performing magnetic-field personal exposure measurements or having an exposure data set corresponding to that scenario, (3) assuming that the measured peak field is consistent with the exposure limit, (4) assuming that the peak exposure values follow a lognormal distribution, and (5) collecting sufficient measurements to determine the probability of compliance with a desired degree of statistical confidence. As examples, specific compliance probabilities and their confidence intervals are estimated for electric utility scenarios from available personal exposure measurements. This specific application demonstrates the general methodology and indicates that compliance with existing exposure limits may become an issue for certain tasks. PMID:15764528

Patterson, Robert; Bracken, T; Alldredge, J

2005-02-01

303

Entanglement of Accelerating Particles  

E-print Network

We study how the entanglement of a maximally entangled pair of particles is affected when one or both of the pair are uniformly accelerated, while the detector remains in an inertial frame. We find that the entanglement is unchanged if all degrees of freedom are considered. However, particle pairs are produced, and the entanglements of different bipartite systems may change with the acceleration. In particular, the entanglement between accelerating fermions is transferred preferentially to the produced antiparticles when the acceleration is large, and the entanglement transfer is complete when the acceleration approaches infinity. However, for scalar particles, no entanglement transfer to the antiparticles is observed.

W. L. Ku; M. -C. Chu

2007-09-03

304

High temperature experiment for accelerator inertial fusion  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Experiment (HTE) is intended to produce temperatures of 50 to 100 eV in solid density targets driven by heavy ion beams from a multiple beam induction linac. The fundamental variables (particle species, energy, number of beamlets, current and pulse length) must be fixed to achieve the temperature at minimum cost, subject to criteria of technical feasibility and relevance to the development of a Fusion Driver. The conceptual design begins with an assumed (radiation-limited) target temperature and uses limitations due to particle range, beamlet perveance, and target disassembly to bound the allowable values of mass number (A) and energy (E). An accelerator model is then applied to determine the minimum length accelerator, which is a guide to total cost. The accelerator model takes into account limits on transportable charge, maximum gradient, core mass per linear meter, and head-to-tail momentum variation within a pulse.

Lee, E.P.

1985-05-01

305

High brightness electron accelerator  

DOEpatents

A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM); Young, Lloyd M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

306

Turbulent Particle Acceleration in the Diffuse Cluster Plasma  

E-print Network

In situ particle acceleration is probably occuring in cluster radio haloes. This is suggested by the uniformity and extent of the haloes, given that spatial diffusion is slow and that radiative losses limit particle lifetimes. Stochastic acceleration by plasma turbulence is the most likely mechanism. Alfven wave turbulence has been suggested as the means of acceleration, but it is too slow to be important in the cluster environment. We propose, instead, that acceleration occurs via strong lower-hybrid wave turbulence. We find that particle acceleration will be effective in clusters if only a small fraction of the cluster energy density is in this form.

J. A. Eilek; J. C. Weatherall

1999-06-30

307

Combined first and second order Fermi acceleration at comets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional, time-dependent model calculations indicate that an interplay between velocity and spatial diffusion may be responsible for the acceleration of implanted heavy ions in the cometary preshock region. Velocity diffusion (second order Fermi acceleration) accelerates the pickup ions to moderate energies thus creating a seed population for the more efficient diffusive-compressive shock acceleration. Solar wind convection limits the time available for diffusive-compressive acceleration, therefore the resulting energy spectrum above 100 keV is a power law with a spectral index of 5 - 6, a value which is in reasonably good agreement with observations.

Gombosi, T. I.; Lorencz, K.; Jokipii, J. R.

1989-01-01

308

Accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in thiocyanate-containing solutions  

SciTech Connect

It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active corrosion of stainless steel. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the steel were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the steel, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless steels (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless steels, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless steels is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and steels containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide (visible as a black corrosion product) forms during anodic dissolution. The sulfide is electronically conductive, and gives an increase of several orders of magnitude in the electrode capacitance; the sulfide also causes anodic activation to persist after the pure metals and steels were removed from the thiocyanate-containing electrolyte and transferred to a thiocyanate-free electrolyte. The main practical implications of this work are that low concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds strongly affect anodic dissolution of stainless steels, and that selecting steels with elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel or molybdenum would serve to limit the anodic dissolution rate in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds.

Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen

2012-09-19

309

Accelerated leach test development program  

SciTech Connect

In FY 1989, a draft accelerated leach test for solidified waste was written. Combined test conditions that accelerate leaching were validated through experimental and modeling efforts. A computer program was developed that calculates test results and models leaching mechanisms. This program allows the user to determine if diffusion controls leaching and, if this is the case, to make projections of releases. Leaching mechanisms other than diffusion (diffusion plus source term partitioning and solubility limited leaching) are included in the program is indicators of other processes that may control leaching. Leach test data are presented and modeling results are discussed for laboratory scale waste forms composed of portland cement containing sodium sulfate salt, portland cement containing incinerator ash, and vinyl ester-styrene containing sodium sulfate. 16 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

1990-11-01

310

Noise Exposure Estimates of Urban MP3 Player Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the sound level and duration of use of personal listening devices (PLDs) by 189 college students, ages 18-53 years, as they entered a New York City college campus, to determine whether noise exposure from PLDs was in excess of recommended exposure limits and what factors might influence exposure. Method: Free-field equivalent…

Levey, Sandra; Levey, Tania; Fligor, Brian J.

2011-01-01

311

Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.  

PubMed

One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources. PMID:20159912

Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

2010-06-01

312

Occupational exposures and longitudinal lung function decline.  

PubMed

Background Few longitudinal studies have been conducted on occupational exposure and lung function. This study investigated occupational dust exposure effects on lung function and whether genetic variants influence such effects. Methods The study population (1,332 participants) was from the Framingham Heart Study, in which participant lung function measures were available from up to five examinations over nearly 17 years. Occupational dust exposures were classified into "more" and "less" likely dust exposure. We used linear mixed effects models for the analysis. Results Participants with more likely dust exposure had a mean 4.5?mL/year excess loss rate of FEV1 over time. However, occupational dust exposures alone or interactions with age or time had no significant effect on FEV1 /FVC. No statistically significant effects of genetic modifications in the different subgroups were identified for FEV1 loss. Conclusions Occupational dust exposures may accelerate the rate of FEV1 loss but not FEV1 /FVC loss. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:14-20, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25384732

Liao, Shu-Yi; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

2015-01-01

313

Challenges in Linear Accelerator Radiotherapy for Chordomas and Chondrosarcomas of the Skull Base: Focus on Complications  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intracranial chordomas and chondrosarcomas are histologically low-grade, locally invasive tumors that infiltrate the skull base. Currently, consensus therapy includes surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. Radiation delivery is typically limited by the proximity of these tumors to critical skull base structures. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 cases of chordomas and 2 cases of chondroid chondrosarcomas of the skull based treated with linear accelerator stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT, n = 10) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS, n = 5). The average time to the most recent follow-up visit was 4.5 years. The tumor characteristics, treatment details, and outcomes were recorded. Each radiation plan was reviewed, and the dosage received by the brainstem, optic apparatus, and pituitary was calculated. Results: Of the 10 patients treated with SRT, 6 were found to have unchanged or decreased tumor size as determined from radiographic follow-up. Of the 5 patients treated with SRS, 3 were found to have stable or unchanged tumors at follow-up. The complications included 1 SRT patient who developed endocrinopathy, 2 patients (1 treated with SRS and the other with SRT), who developed cranial neuropathy, and 1 SRS patient who developed visual deficits. Additionally, 1 patient who received both SRS and SRT within 2 years for recurrence experienced transient medial temporal lobe radiation changes that resolved. Conclusions: Where proton beam therapy is unavailable, linear accelerator-based SRT or radiosurgery remains a safe option for adjuvant therapy of chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base. The exposure of the optic apparatus, pituitary stalk, and brainstem must be considered during planning to minimize complications. If the optic apparatus is included in the 80% isodose line, it might be best to fractionate therapy. Exposure of the pituitary stalk should be kept to <30 Gy to minimize endocrine dysfunction. Brainstem exposure should be limited to <60 Gy in fractions.

Hauptman, Jason S., E-mail: jhauptman@mednet.ucla.edu [Division of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barkhoudarian, Garni; Safaee, Michael; Gorgulho, Alessandra [Division of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tenn, Steven; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Selch, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); De Salles, Antonio A.F. [Division of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-06-01

314

Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the protection of crew health is a primary focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) is vigilant in setting potable water limits for spaceflight that are health protective. Additional it is important that exposure limits not be set so stringently that water purification systems are unnecessarily over designed. With these considerations in mind, NASA has partnered with the National Research Council on Toxicology (NRCCOT) to develop spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) for application in spaceflight systems. Based on documented guidance (NRC, 2000) NASA has established 28 SWEGs for chemical components that are particularly relevant to water systems on the International Space Station, the Shuttle and looking forward to Constellation.

James, John T.

2008-01-01

315

Arsenic exposure accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between elevated arsenic levels in drinking water and an increased risk of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases. The studies presented here were performed to evaluate the atherogenic potential of arsenic using a well-established and controlled animal model of human atherosclerosis, mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), and in vitro systems including primary human vascular cells. Wild-type and ApoE-deficient mice were exposed to 20 or 100 microg/mL sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks. As assessed morphometrically, the size of grossly discernible lesions covering the intimal area of aorta were increased significantly in arsenic-treated ApoE-deficient mice compared with nontreated transgenic mice. This effect was not associated with increased levels of serum cholesterol but was accompanied by an accumulation of arsenic in the vessel wall. Introduction of cocoa butter into the diet for 2 weeks resulted in higher serum cholesterol levels and only slight increases in the lesion size in control or arsenic-exposed ApoE-deficient mice. There were no lesions observed in the wild-type C57BL6 mice, resistant to atherosclerosis, whether they received arsenic or control drinking water. In vitro studies, including primary aorta endothelial or smooth muscle cells, were conducted to evaluate whether arsenic induces cellular mechanisms relevant to atherogenesis such as endothelial dysfunction, lipid oxidation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Arsenic treatment does not modulate endothelial cell-mediated lipid oxidation or smooth muscle cell proliferation but induced the expression of genes coding inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-8. Induction of endothelial inflammatory activity may play a role in arsenic-related vascular effects. PMID:14594625

Simeonova, Petia P; Hulderman, Tracy; Harki, Dan; Luster, Michael I

2003-01-01

316

Exposure to stallion accelerates the onset of mares' cyclicity.  

PubMed

Horses (Equus caballus) belong to the group of seasonally polyestrous mammals. Estrous cycles typically start with increasing daylight length after winter, but mares can differ greatly in the timing of onset of regular estrus cycles. Here, we test whether spatial proximity to a stallion also plays a role. Twenty-two anestrous mares were either exposed to one of two stallions (without direct physical contact) or not exposed (controls) under experimental conditions during two consecutive springs (February to April). Ovarian activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasound and stallion's direct contact time with each mare was determined three times per week for one hour each. We found that mares exposed to a stallion ovulated earlier and more often during the observational period than mares that were not exposed to stallions. Neither stallion identity nor direct contact time, mare age, body condition, size of her largest follicle at the onset of the experiment, or parasite burden significantly affected the onset of cyclicity. In conclusion, the timing of estrous cycles and cycle frequency, i.e., crucial aspects of female reproductive strategy, strongly depend on how the mares perceive their social environment. Exposing mares to the proximity of a stallion can therefore be an alternative to, for example, light programs or elaborated hormonal therapies to start the breeding season earlier and increase the number of estrous cycles in horses. PMID:24815602

Wespi, B; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C; Burger, D

2014-07-15

317

DATA COLLECTED IN THE EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S FIELD MEASUREMENT STUDIES TO EVALUATE AGGREGATE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires children's risk assessments to be conducted using high quality and high quantity data. Currently, data on children's exposures and exposure factors are limited and insufficient to address risk assessments that do not rely heavil...

318

EXOTIC MAGNETS FOR ACCELERATORS.  

SciTech Connect

Over the last few years, several novel magnet designs have been introduced to meet the requirements of new, high performance accelerators and beam lines. For example, the FAIR project at GSI requires superconducting magnets ramped at high rates ({approx} 4 T/s) in order to achieve the design intensity. Magnets for the RIA and FAIR projects and for the next generation of LHC interaction regions will need to withstand high doses of radiation. Helical magnets are required to maintain and control the polarization of high energy protons at RHIC. In other cases, novel magnets have been designed in response to limited budgets and space. For example, it is planned to use combined function superconducting magnets for the 50 GeV proton transport line at J-PARC to satisfy both budget and performance requirements. Novel coil winding methods have been developed for short, large aperture magnets such as those used in the insertion region upgrade at BEPC. This paper will highlight the novel features of these exotic magnets.

WANDERER, P.

2005-09-18

319

DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

320

THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S E

2009-08-17

321

Two-color-laser-driven direct electron acceleration in infinite vacuum  

E-print Network

We propose a direct electron acceleration scheme that uses a two-color pulsed radially polarized laser beam. The two-color scheme achieves electron acceleration exceeding 90% of the theoretical energy gain limit, over twice ...

Wong, Liang Jie

322

Linear induction accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A linear induction accelerator of charged particles, containing inductors and an acceleration circuit, characterized by the fact that, for the purpose of increasing the power of the accelerator, each inductor is made in the form of a toroidal line with distributed parameters, from one end of which in the gap of the line a ring commutator is included, and from the other end of the ine a resistor is hooked up, is described.

Bosamykin, V.S.; Pavlovskiy, A.I.

1984-03-01

323

Optically pulsed electron accelerator  

DOEpatents

An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

Fraser, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

324

Head Impact Exposure in Collegiate Football Players  

PubMed Central

In American football, impacts to the helmet and the resulting head accelerations are the primary cause of concussion injury and potentially chronic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposures to impacts to the head (frequency, location and magnitude) for individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences in head impact exposure by player position. A total of 314 players were enrolled at three institutions and 286,636 head impacts were recorded over three seasons. The 95th percentile peak linear and rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were 62.7g, 4378 rad/s2, and 32.6, respectively. These exposure measures as well as the frequency of impacts varied significantly by player position and by helmet impact location. Running backs (RB) and quarter backs (QB) received the greatest magnitude head impacts, while defensive line (DL), offensive line (OL) and line backers (LB) received the most frequent head impacts (more than twice as many than any other position). Impacts to the top of the helmet had the lowest peak rotational acceleration (2387 rad/s2), but the greatest peak linear acceleration (72.4 g), and were the least frequent of all locations (13.7%) among all positions. OL and QB had the highest (49.2%) and the lowest (23%.7%) frequency, respectively, of front impacts. QB received the greatest magnitude (70.8g and 5428 rad/s2) and the most frequent (44% and 38.9%) impacts to the back of the helmet. This study quantified head impact exposure in collegiate football, providing data that is critical to advancing the understanding of the biomechanics of concussive injuries and sub-concussive head impacts. PMID:21872862

Crisco, Joseph J.; Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Rowson, Steve; Duma, Stefan M.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Greenwald, Richard M.

2011-01-01

325

Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures  

SciTech Connect

Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

Cowan, Benjamin M.

2007-08-22

326

Rf cavity primer for cyclic proton accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this note is to describe the electrical and mechanical properites of particle accelerator rf cavities in a manner which will be useful to physics and engineering graduates entering the accelerator field. The discussion will be limited to proton (or antiproton) synchrotron accelerators or storage rings operating roughly in the range of 20 to 200 MHz. The very high gradient, fixed frequency UHF or microwave devices appropriate for electron machines and the somewhat lower frequency and broader bandwidth devices required for heavy ion accelerators are discussed extensively in other papers in this series. While it is common pratice to employ field calculation programs such as SUPERFISH, URMEL, or MAFIA as design aids in the development of rf cavities, we attempt here to elucidate various of the design parameters commonly dealt with in proton machines through the use of simple standing wave coaxial resonator expressions. In so doing, we treat only standing wave structures. Although low-impedance, moderately broad pass-band travelling wave accelerating systems are used in the CERN SPS, such systems are more commonly found in linacs, and they have not been used widely in large cyclic accelerators. Two appendices providing useful supporting material regarding relativistic particle dynamics and synchrotron motion in cyclic accelerators are added to supplement the text.

Griffin, J.E.

1988-04-01

327

Accelerators and Nobel Laureates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article written by Sven Kullander at the Nobel e-Museum discusses the importance of particle accelerators to physics in a historical context. After studying their basic operatation, users can then learn about the many accelerator inventions and their assistance in various discoveries such as x-rays and electrons. The website provides links to descriptions of the many Nobel Prize winners who have utilized accelerators in their important work. Users can view images of the large accelerators from all over the world including the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the United State.

Kullander, Sven

328

Charged particle accelerator grating  

DOEpatents

A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

Palmer, Robert B. (Shoreham, NY)

1986-01-01

329

Accelerator-based BNCT.  

PubMed

The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. PMID:24365468

Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

2014-06-01

330

Android Acceleration Application  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first of two sequential lessons, students create mobile apps that collect data from an Android device's accelerometer and then store that data to a database. This lesson provides practice with MIT's App Inventor software and culminates with students writing their own apps for measuring acceleration. In the second lesson, students are given an app for an Android device, which measures acceleration. They investigate acceleration by collecting acceleration vs. time data using the accelerometer of a sliding Android device. Then they use the data to create velocity vs. time graphs and approximate the maximum velocity of the device.

2014-09-18

331

Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

James C. Liu; Jeffrey S. Bull; John Drozdoff; Robert May; Vaclav Vylet

2001-10-01

332

Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

Liu, James C

2001-10-17

333

Head and neck cancer due to heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and professional exposure: A review  

SciTech Connect

Chronic exposures to heavy metals via tobacco smoking and professional exposure may increase the risk of head and neck cancer, although the epidemiologic evidence is limited by problems of low study power and inadequate adjustment for tobacco and professional exposure use. Numerous scientific reviews have examined the association of various heavy metals exposure with respiratory cancer as well as other cancer types, but few have been published on head and neck cancer. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to review the head and neck tract cancer-related data on exposure to heavy metals via smoking and working exposure and to study the major mechanisms underlying some toxic metals carcinogenesis.

Khlifi, Rim, E-mail: rimkhlifi@yahoo.fr; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

2010-10-15

334

Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

1980-09-12

335

Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

2011-10-24

336

Acceleration Worksheet 8/24/2011 ACCELERATION WORKSHEET  

E-print Network

Acceleration Worksheet 8/24/2011 ACCELERATION WORKSHEET College of Arts and Sciences Name _____________ TO _____________ month/year month/year II. I meet the requirements for acceleration under [fill out either a) or b;Acceleration Worksheet 8/24/2011 Acceleration 2011-2012 Courses of Study The faculty of the college desires

Davis, H. Floyd

337

Schooling Increases Risk Exposure for Fish Navigating Past Artificial Barriers  

PubMed Central

Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems. PMID:25268736

Lemasson, Bertrand H.; Haefner, James W.; Bowen, Mark D.

2014-01-01

338

Children's Television Exposure and Behavioral and Social Outcomes at 5.5 Years: Does Timing of Exposure Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children 2 years of age limit daily media exposure to 1 to 2 hours and not have a television set in children's bedrooms. However, there are limited prospective studies to address how timing of media exposure influences children's health. OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to examine relations among children's early, concurrent, and sustained television

Kamila B. Mistry; Cynthia S. Minkovitz; Donna M. Strobino; Dina L. G. Borzekowski

2010-01-01

339

In-Situ Measurements of the Secondary Electron Yield in an Accelerator Environment: Instrumentation and Methods  

E-print Network

The performance of a particle accelerator can be limited by the build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the vacuum chamber. Secondary electron emission from the chamber walls can contribute to EC growth. An apparatus for in-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in connection with EC studies for the CESR Test Accelerator program. The CESR in-situ system, in operation since 2010, allows for SEY measurements as a function of incident electron energy and angle on samples that are exposed to the accelerator environment, typically 5.3 GeV counter-rotating beams of electrons and positrons. The system was designed for periodic measurements to observe beam conditioning of the SEY with discrimination between exposure to direct photons from synchrotron radiation versus scattered photons and cloud electrons. The samples can be exchanged without venting the CESR vacuum chamber. Measurements have been done on metal surfaces and EC-mitigation coatings...

Hartung, W H; Conway, J V; Dennett, C A; Greenwald, S; Kim, J -S; Li, Y; Moore, T P; Omanovic, V; Palmer, M A; Strohman, C R

2014-01-01

340

Biological Response to SPE Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that a single solar particle event (SPE) can produce, over a short period of time, exposures on the order of LD50 for humans under normal physiological conditions. It is further recognized that recovery from injury over the period of exposure would greatly increase the chances of survival (dose rate effects) although such effects were left unquantified. In the present report we use the bioresponse model derived from a broad range of animal and human exposure data for evaluation of troop readiness in tactical nuclear warfare to evaluate the biological risk posed by the solar event of 4 August 1972. The astronaut blood forming organ (BFO) exposure in deep space would have been 2.2 Sv (1.6 Gy) in a space suit, 1.8 Sv (1.3 Gy) in an aluminum pressure vessel, and 0.7 Sv (0.5 Gy) in an equipment room compared to an X-ray mortality threshold of 1.5 Gy (assuming high dose rate). We find BFO dose rate effectiveness factors for this SPE on the order of 3 to 4, greatly reducing the mortality risks for this event. There is an approximate 3 percent chance that an even larger event may occur for which exposures could be 2-4 times higher. Assured survival of the astronaut requires added shelter shielding and a warning system for this event. The required mass of the shelter shield can be greatly reduced by using hydrogenous materials such as polymers, water, food, and other biological materials in its construction. Limitations of the current bioresponse model arise from the exposures taking place in the microgravity environment wherein the immune system is already challenged and the effective mortality threshold may be reduced by a factor of two. Such microgravity effects could greatly affect astronaut risks.

Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Kim, M.; Shinn, J. L.; Jones, T. D.; Chang, C. K.

2004-01-01

341

J-PARC Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is under construction in Tokai site. The linac beam commissioning started last fall, while the beam commissioning of the 3-GeV Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) will start this fall. The status of the J-PARC accelerator is reported with emphasis on the technical development accomplished for the J-PARC.

Yamazaki, Yoshishige [J-PARC Center High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Atomic Energy Organization (JAEA) Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

2008-02-21

342

Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?  

SciTech Connect

Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?.

Lach, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O Box 500, Batavia Illinois (United States)

2010-07-29

343

Acceleration of Gravity 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is between a Level 2 and Level 3 inquiry activity in that it should be assigned after students understand acceleration but before they learn about the acceleration gravity. Because there are many sources of error when using a pendulum, students c

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

344

Particle Acceleration in Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma ray burst (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments.

Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

2005-01-01

345

Microscale acceleration history discriminators  

DOEpatents

A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

346

FERMI ACCELERATION. DMITRY DOLGOPYAT  

E-print Network

by Enrico Fermi in 1949, to explain heating of particles in cosmic rays. Fermi studied charged particles of the first papers on this subject was work of Enrico Fermi on the origin of cosmic radiation [22]. FermiFERMI ACCELERATION. DMITRY DOLGOPYAT Abstract. Fermi acceleration is a mechanism, first suggested

Dolgopyat, Dmitry

347

Diagnostics for induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

Fessenden, T.J.

1996-04-01

348

Flow accelerated corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Flow accelerated corrosion has recently attracted attention in association with heat recovery steam generators. Apparently, the phenomenon is more widespread than is realized and has been misdiagnosed as simple erosion. This paper addresses the principal environmental conditions that have been linked to flow accelerated corrosion and it illustrates the phenomenon with case histories.

Port, R.D. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

349

Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?  

SciTech Connect

Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

2010-07-01

350

ACCELERATOR RESEARCH STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

ACCELERATOR RESEARCH STUDIES Task A: Study of the Physics of Space-Charge Dominated Beams for Advanced Accelerator Applications Task B: Studies of High-Power Gyroklystrons and Application to Linear Colliders Task C: Theory and Simulation of the Physics Space-Charge Dominated Beams Annual Report for the Period June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2004

P.G. O'Shea, M. Reiser, V. L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, I. Haber, R. Kishek

2004-01-23

351

Induction of Selected Lipid Metabolic Enzymes and Differentiation-Linked Structural Proteins by Air Exposure in Fetal Rat Skin Explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal permeability barrier of premature infants matures rapidly following birth. Previous studies suggest that air exposure could contribute to this acceleration, because: (i) development of a structurally and functionally mature barrier accelerates when fetal rat skin explants are incubated at an air–medium interface, and (ii) occlusion with a water-impermeable membrane prevents this acceleration. To investigate further the effects of

László G Kömüves; Karen Hanley; Yan Jiang; Chika Katagiri; Peter M. Elias; Mary L. Williams; Kenneth R. Feingold

1999-01-01

352

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

353

Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring is the coordination of environmental (air, water, land, and crops) monitoring networks to collect systematically pollutant exposure data for a specific receptor, usually man. (Author/BB)

Behar, Joseph V.; And Others

1979-01-01

354

Exposure Analysis Modeling System  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) is an interactive software application for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals including pesticides, industrial materials, and leachates f...

355

CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these ...

356

Scaling FFAG accelerator for muon acceleration  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators have opened new ways for lattice design, with straight sections, and insertions like dispersion suppressors. Such principles and matching issues are detailed in this paper. An application of these new concepts is presented to overcome problems in the PRISM project.

Lagrange, JB.; Planche, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University Katsura, Nishikyo-ku Kyoto, 615-8530 (Japan); Mori, Y. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka, 590-0494 (Japan)

2011-10-06

357

Coupling ReaxFF with Temperature Accelerated  

E-print Network

Coupling ReaxFF with Temperature Accelerated Dynamics CMDF: Summer 2005 Daniel Yi, Caltech `07 #12; ReaxFF Developed by Adri van Duin at Caltech Bond order calculations allow reactivity Coulombic Examples: #12;ReaxFF - Time scale limitations ReaxFF used to simulate scales of a few nanoseconds worth

Goddard III, William A.

358

Symmetry Restoration By Acceleration  

E-print Network

The restoration of spontaneous symmetry breaking for a scalar field theory for an accelerated observer is discussed by the one-loop effective potential calculation and by considering the effective potential for composite operators. Above a critical acceleration, corresponding to the critical restoration temperature,T_c, for a Minkowski observer by Unruh relation, i.e. a_c/2\\pi=T_c, the symmetry is restored. This result confirms other recent calculations in effective field theories that symmetry restoration can occur for an observer with an acceleration larger than some critical value. From the physical point of view, a constant acceleration is locally equivalent to a gravitational field and the critical acceleration to restore the spontaneous symmetry breaking corresponds to a huge gravitational effect which, therefore, prevents boson condensation.

P. Castorina; M. Finocchiaro

2012-07-16

359

The phase of particle acceleration in the flare development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is given that the particle acceleration in flares is confined to the initial phase of the flare development preceding the Ha flare maximum and lasting for less than 10 min. The impulsive acceleration process is confined to a relatively small limited volume of about 5 × 1027 cm3 in the region of highest magnetic gradient in the flare, and

Z. Švestka

1970-01-01

360

Twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebras  

E-print Network

Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrate that their contraction limit $\\tau \\to \\infty$ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces.

Marcin Daszkiewicz

2010-07-27

361

Neck Forces and Moments and Head Accelerations in Side Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Although side-impact sled studies have investigated chest, abdomen, and pelvic injury mechanics, determination of head accelerations and the associated neck forces and moments is very limited. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the temporal forces and moments at the upper neck region and head angular accelerations and angular velocities using postmortem human subjects (PMHS).Methods: Anthropometric

Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Dennis J. Maiman; Mat Philippens; Jac Wismans

2009-01-01

362

Unavailability of wind turbines due to wind-induced accelerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malfunctioning of acceleration-sensitive equipment in wind turbines has the potential to affect their annual failure rates during normal operating conditions. Current protective measures for wind turbines are triggered by wind speed. However, this option neglects the structural response of the wind turbines, and limits the possibility of effectively controlling accelerations at the top of the wind towers. In this

Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio; Biswajit Basu

2008-01-01

363

SHOCK EMERGENCE IN SUPERNOVAE: LIMITING CASES AND ACCURATE APPROXIMATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We examine the dynamics of accelerating normal shocks in stratified planar atmospheres, providing accurate fitting formulae for the scaling index relating shock velocity to the initial density and for the post-shock acceleration factor as functions of the polytropic and adiabatic indices which parameterize the problem. In the limit of a uniform initial atmosphere, there are analytical formulae for these quantities. In the opposite limit of a very steep density gradient, the solutions match the outcome of shock acceleration in exponential atmospheres.

Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2013-08-10

364

GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Guidelines for Exposure Assessment describe the general concepts of exposure assessment including definitions and associated units, and by providing guidance on the planning and conducting of an exposure assessment. Guidance is also provided on presenting the results of the e...

365

DIETARY EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL total human exposure program. The research builds on previous work to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving NERL's ability to evaluat...

366

Swimmer Exposure Assessment Model  

EPA Science Inventory

The SWIMODEL is a screening tool for conducting an exposure assessment of pesticides found in indoor swimming pools and spas. The SWIMODEL uses well-accepted screening exposure assessment equations to calculate the total worst-case exposure for swimmers expressed as a mass-based...

367

HUMAN EXPOSURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

368

Exposure to Nanoparticles and Hormesis  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles are particles with lengths that range from 1 to 100 nm. They are increasingly being manufactured and used for commercial purpose because of their novel and unique physicochemical properties. Although nanotechnology-based products are generally thought to be at a pre-competitive stage, an increasing number of products and materials are becoming commercially available. Human exposure to nanoparticles is therefore inevitable as they become more widely used and, as a result, nanotoxicology research is now gaining attention. However, there are many uncertainties as to whether the unique properties of nanoparticles also pose occupational health risks. These uncertainties arise because of gaps in knowledge about the factors that are essential for predicting health risks such as routes of exposure, distribution, accumulation, excretion and dose-response relationship of the nanoparticles. In particular, uncertainty remains with regard to the nature of the dose-response curve at low level exposures below the toxic threshold. In fact, in the literature, some studies that investigated the biological effects of nanoparticles, observed a hormetic dose-response. However, currently available data regarding this topic are extremely limited and fragmentary. It therefore seems clear that future studies need to focus on this issue by studying the potential adverse health effects caused by low-level exposures to nanoparticles. PMID:21191487

Iavicoli, Ivo; Calabrese, Edward J.; Nascarella, Marc A.

2010-01-01

369

THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility  

E-print Network

THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY 1 The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility for Radiological Research (CRR). Using the mi- crobeam facility, 10% of the cells were irradiated through

370

On Limits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of limits -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some limits that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?

Holzmann, Gerard J.

2008-01-01

371

Hyperbaric Hyperoxia Accelerates Fracture Healing in Mice  

PubMed Central

Increased oxygen tension influences bone metabolism. This study comprised two main experiments: one aimed to determine the bone mineral apposition and bone formation rates in vivo under hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO), and the other aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure to HBO on fracture healing. In experiment 1, male mice were exposed to HBO [90 min/day at 90% O2 at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 5 days]. In experiment 2, an open femur fracture model was created in mice, followed by exposure to HBO 5 times/week (90 min/day at 90% O2 at 2 ATA) for 6 weeks after surgery. In experiment 1, HBO treatment significantly increased the mineral apposition and bone formation rates in the lumbar vertebra and femur and type 1 collagen alpha 1 and alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression in the lumbar vertebra. In experiment 2, at 2 weeks after fracture, the fracture callus was significantly larger in the HBO group than in the non-HBO group. Furthermore, at 4 and 6 weeks after fracture, radiographic findings showed accelerated fracture healing in the HBO group. At 6 weeks after fracture, femur stiffness and maximum load were significantly higher in the HBO group than in the non-HBO group. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine and plasma calcium concentrations were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that exposure to HBO enhances bone anabolism and accelerates fracture healing without causing oxidative DNA damage or disruption of plasma calcium homeostasis. PMID:23967323

Kawada, Shigeo; Wada, Eiji; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Ishii, Naokata

2013-01-01

372

Exposures to lead.  

PubMed

The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities. PMID:21714377

Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

2011-01-01

373

Amps particle accelerator definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

Sellen, J. M., Jr.

1975-01-01

374

Ionospheric plasma acceleration at Mars: ASPERA-3 results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) on-board the Mars Express spacecraft (MEX) measured penetrating solar wind plasma and escaping\\/accelerated ionospheric plasma at very low altitudes (250 km) in the dayside subsolar region. This implies a direct exposure of the martian topside atmosphere to solar wind plasma forcing leading to energization of ionospheric plasma. The ion and electron

R. Lundin; D. Winningham; S. Barabash; R. A. Frahm; H. Andersson; M. Holmström; A. Grigoriev; M. Yamauchi; H. Borg; J. R. Sharber; J.-A. Sauvaud; A. Fedorov; E. Budnik; J.-J. Thocaven; K. Asamura; H. Hayakawa; A. J. Coates; D. R. Linder; D. O. Kataria; C. Curtis; K. C. Hsieh; B. R. Sandel; M. Grande; M. Carter; D. H. Reading; H. Koskinen; E. Kallio; P. Riihelä; W. Schmidt; T. Säles; J. Kozyra; N. Krupp; J. Woch; M. Fränz; J. Luhmann; S. McKenna-Lawler; R. Cerulli-Irelli; S. Orsini; M. Maggi; E. Roelof; D. Williams; S. Livi; P. Wurz; P. Bochsler

2006-01-01

375

The MESA accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The MESA accelerator will operate for particle and nuclear physics experiments in two different modes. A first option is conventional c.w. acceleration yielding 150-200MeV spin-polarized external beam. Second, MESA will be operated as a superconducting multi-turn energy recovery linac (ERL), opening the opportunity to perform experiments with a windowless target with beam current of up to 10 mA. The perspectives for innovative experiments with such a machine are discussed together with a sketch of the accelerator physics issues that have to be solved.

Aulenbacher, Kurt [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannnes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Germany)

2013-11-07

376

Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

1990-01-01

377

Acceleration Measurements Using Smartphone Sensors: Dealing with the Equivalence Principle  

E-print Network

Acceleration sensors built into smartphones, i-pads or tablets can conveniently be used in the Physics laboratory. By virtue of the equivalence principle, a sensor fixed in a non-inertial reference frame cannot discern between a gravitational field and an accelerated system. Accordingly, acceleration values read by these sensors must be corrected for the gravitational component. A physical pendulum was studied by way of example, and absolute acceleration and rotation angle values were derived from the measurements made by the accelerometer and gyroscope. Results were corroborated by comparison with those obtained by video analysis. The limitations of different smartphone sensors are discussed.

Monteiro, Martín; Martí, Arturo C

2014-01-01

378

Design of accelerated corrosion tests for electronic components in automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new accelerated laboratory corrosion tests for electronic components in automotive applications have been developed, based on the use of metallic copper as a meter for corrosivity. The accelerated tests are designed so that they reproduce the same kind of corrosion effects as observed with exposure of copper in real vehicle environments. The test cycle that best simulates the corrosion

Peter Eriksson; Bo Carlsson; I. O. Wallinder

2001-01-01

379

Exposure assessment methods for a study of mortality and cancer morbidity in relation to specific petroleum industry exposures.  

PubMed

In 1987 a Canadian company implemented an exposure tracking and health information system. The exposure tracking method aligned closely with published concepts for describing workplace exposure, with over 1800 similar exposure groups being used to describe occupational exposures. The database has been actively maintained and is subject to a number of quality checks. Recently, the company initiated a cancer morbidity study, with one objective being to examine whether the exposure tracking data could be used to reconstruct exposure estimates for the cohort. Five agents--hydrogen sulfide, petroleum coke/spent catalyst, hydrocarbon solvents and fuels, hydrocarbon lubricants, and an index for exposure to operations derived from noise exposure--were selected for development of occupational exposure estimates for each cohort member. The cohort consisted of workers first employed between January 1964 and December 1994 and who were employed for at least 1 year. Work history records were associated with a similar exposure group, using human resources data and knowledge of local industrial hygienists. Only employees with >90% duration of their work history assigned were kept in the cohort (25,292 people out of a possible 25,617). For each similar exposure group inventory, the substances were identified that contributed to each of the five agents being studied. Exposure estimates before 1987 were modified using historic occupational exposure limits. Rules were created to sum the exposure from multiple substances found in any one similar exposure group. The validity of exposure estimates was tested via comparison with results documented in industrial hygiene survey reports. Industrial hygienists who were unaware of the derived exposure estimates evaluated several hundred industrial hygiene surveys and prepared benchmark information. The two lists were then evaluated for concordance, which was found to be significantly different from that occurring by chance. We conclude that the process described can create valid exposure estimates for use in epidemiology studies. PMID:16908452

Drummond, Ian; Murray, Neil; Armstrong, Thomas; Schnatter, A Robert; Lewis, R Jeffrey

2006-10-01

380

EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

381

Energetic particle acceleration in shear layers  

E-print Network

A plasma velocity shear layer and/or a tangential flow discontinuity provide conditions allowing for energetic particle acceleration. We review such acceleration processes acting both in non-relativistic and in relativistic flows. In heliospheric conditions shear layers can provide particles with energies compatible with the observed values (from several keV up to MeV), while in relativistic extragalactic jets proton energies even in excess of 10^{19} eV can be obtained. Application of the discussed theory to particular astrophysical objects is severely limited by inadequate knowledge of local physical conditions.

M. Ostrowski

1999-11-05

382

Deflation acceleration of lattice QCD simulations  

E-print Network

Close to the chiral limit, many calculations in numerical lattice QCD can potentially be accelerated using low-mode deflation techniques. In this paper it is shown that the recently introduced domain-decomposed deflation subspaces can be propagated along the field trajectories generated by the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm with a modest effort. The quark forces that drive the simulation may then be computed using a deflation-accelerated solver for the lattice Dirac equation. As a consequence, the computer time required for the simulations is significantly reduced and an improved scaling behaviour of the simulation algorithm with respect to the quark mass is achieved.

Martin Lüscher

2007-10-29

383

Acceleration time scale at ultrarelativistic shock waves  

E-print Network

The first-order cosmic ray acceleration at ultrarelativistic shocks is investigated using the Monte Carlo method. We apply a method of discrete particle momentum scattering as a model of particle pitch angle diffusion to reproduce highly anisotropic conditions at the shock wave. Shocks with Lorentz factors $\\gamma$ up to 320 and varying magnetic field inclinations $\\psi$ are considered. Values of diffusion coefficients upstream in the point where energy spectral indices stabilize to the limit 2.2 were calculated. The obtained acceleration time does not depend on shock conditions.

J. Bednarz

1998-08-26

384

Results from non-accelerator experiments  

SciTech Connect

The diversity of non-accelerator experiments is at first look both dazzling and even daunting. However, nearly all of these experiments strive to attain the same goal, to search for new physics, beyond the current Standard Model. These measurements are also unified in the fact that their results are often dominated by systematic uncertainties. This review necessarily covers only a limited subset of non-accelerator experiments, and will concentrate on the experimental areas where there has been significant recent progress. The topics reviewed include neutrino mazes, double beta decay, solar neutrino, and long-baseline neutrino oscillation measurements.

Wilkerson, J.F.

1992-01-01

385

Results from non-accelerator experiments  

SciTech Connect

The diversity of non-accelerator experiments is at first look both dazzling and even daunting. However, nearly all of these experiments strive to attain the same goal, to search for new physics, beyond the current Standard Model. These measurements are also unified in the fact that their results are often dominated by systematic uncertainties. This review necessarily covers only a limited subset of non-accelerator experiments, and will concentrate on the experimental areas where there has been significant recent progress. The topics reviewed include neutrino mazes, double beta decay, solar neutrino, and long-baseline neutrino oscillation measurements.

Wilkerson, J.F.

1992-12-31

386

[Tolerance of +Gz accelerations in chronic compensated cardiac muscle disease].  

PubMed

The functional potentialities of the cardiovascular system were investigated during an exposure of people with compensated chronic diseases of the cardiac muscle to acceleration (+Gz). The test subjects were exposed to acceleration of 3 and 5 g for 30 sec with an interval of 5 min. The parameters of hemodynamics, ECG and visual perception were recorded. The systolic blood volume, cardiac output and specific peripheral resistance were derived from the Bremser-Ranke formula. Seventy one subjects with heart diseases and 23 healthy subjects were examined. The subjects with myocardiodystrophy and myocarditic cardiosclerosis (12+/-16) showed a reduced tolerance to accelerations. During an exposure the subjects with atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis showed a higher pressure in vessels of ear conch than the healthy subjects. The myocardiodystrophic subjects frequently (20%) exhibited an inversion of electrocardiographic T2. The subjects with heart diseases (27-33%) showed extrasystolic disturbances. The results may be used in medical expertise of pilots. PMID:1214489

Suvorov, P M; Bykova, Iu I

1975-01-01

387

Non-accelerator experiments  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay.

Goldhaber, M.

1986-01-01

388

Accelerator on a Chip  

SciTech Connect

SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

England, Joel

2014-06-30

389

Accelerated test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief discussion on the accelerated testing of batteries is given. The statistical analysis and the various aspects of the modeling that was done and the results attained from the model are also briefly discussed.

Ford, F. E.; Harkness, J. M.

1977-01-01

390

Charged particle accelerator grating  

DOEpatents

A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

Palmer, R.B.

1985-09-09

391

ON PARTICLE ACCELERATION RATE IN GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that collisionless shocks are major sites of particle acceleration in the universe, but the details of the acceleration process are still not well understood. The particle acceleration rate, which can shed light on the acceleration process, is rarely measured in astrophysical environments. Here, we use observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, which are weakly magnetized relativistic collisionless shocks in ion-electron plasma, to constrain the rate of particle acceleration in such shocks. We find, based on X-ray and GeV afterglows, an acceleration rate that is most likely very fast, approaching the Bohm limit, when the shock Lorentz factor is in the range of {Gamma} {approx} 10-100. In that case X-ray observations may be consistent with no amplification of the magnetic field in the shock upstream region. We examine the X-ray afterglow of GRB 060729, which is observed for 642 days showing a sharp decay in the flux starting about 400 days after the burst, when the shock Lorentz factor is {approx}5. We find that inability to accelerate X-ray-emitting electrons at late time provides a natural explanation for the sharp decay, and that also in that case acceleration must be rather fast, and cannot be more than a 100 times slower than the Bohm limit. We conclude that particle acceleration is most likely fast in GRB afterglows, at least as long as the blast wave is ultrarelativistic.

Sagi, Eran; Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2012-04-10

392

Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure  

PubMed Central

The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

2011-01-01

393

Accelerator Experiments for Astrophysics  

E-print Network

Many recent discoveries in astrophysics involve phenomena that are highly complex. Carefully designed experiments, together with sophisticated computer simulations, are required to gain insights into the underlying physics. We show that particle accelerators are unique tools in this area of research, by providing precision calibration data and by creating extreme experimental conditions relevant for astrophysics. In this paper we discuss laboratory experiments that can be carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and implications for astrophysics.

Johnny S. T. Ng

2003-10-22

394

Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology  

SciTech Connect

There are more than 30,000 particle accelerators in operation around the world. At Fermilab, scientists are collaborating with other laboratories and industry to optimize the manufacturing processes for a new type of powerful accelerator that uses superconducting niobium cavities. Experimenting with unique polishing materials, a Fermilab team has now developed an efficient and environmentally friendly way of creating cavities that can propel particles with more than 30 million volts per meter.

None

2012-04-23

395

Laser electron accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intense electromagnetic pulse can create weak plasma oscillations through the action of the nonlinear ponderomotive force. Electrons trapped in the wake can be accelerated to high energy. Existing glass lasers of power density 10 to the 18th W\\/sq cm shone on plasmas of densities 10 to the 18th\\/cu cm can yield gigaelectronvolts of electron energy per centimeter of acceleration

T. Tajima; J. M. Dawson

1979-01-01

396

Motion with Constant Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this experiment is to track the motion for an air cart on a sloped track to fall a distance x with constant acceleration a = g sinq. You will verify that the distance and velocity along the incline are given by the parabola x = xo + vo t +1/2at2 and the line v = vo +at. Finally, you will determine the acceleration due to gravity.

Dr. Russell Herman

397

Rolamite acceleration sensor  

DOEpatents

A rolamite acceleration sensor is described which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently. 6 figures.

Abbin, J.P.; Briner, C.F.; Martin, S.B.

1993-12-21

398

Rolamite acceleration sensor  

DOEpatents

A rolamite acceleration sensor which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Briner, Clifton F. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Samuel B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-01-01

399

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF NON-IONISING RADIATION FROM 5 HZ TO 3 GHZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the assessment of the exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic radiation at today's office workplaces. The measured exposure values are compared with the exposure limits defined for the general public. The here presented method, which uses general purpose LF- and RF-test instrumentation, is applied to a limited sample of workplaces. So far, 14 workplaces at 5 different locations have

400

Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Channel  

SciTech Connect

Direct laser acceleration of electrons provides a low power tabletop alternative to laser wakefield accelerators. Until recently, however, direct acceleration has been limited by diffraction, phase matching, and material damage thresholds. The development of the corrugated plasma channel [B. Layer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007)] has removed all of these limitations and promises to allow direct acceleration of electrons over many centimeters at high gradients using femtosecond lasers [A. G. York et al., Phys Rev. Lett 100, 195001 (2008), J. P. Palastro et al., Phys. Rev. E 77, 036405 (2008)]. We present a simple analytic model of laser propagation in a corrugated plasma channel and examine the laser-electron beam interaction. Simulations show accelerating gradients of several hundred MeV/cm for laser powers much lower than required by standard laser wakefield schemes. In addition, the laser provides a transverse force that confines the high energy electrons on axis, while expelling low energy electrons.

Palastro, J. P. [Institute for Research in Electrical and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Antonsen, T. M.; Morshed, S.; York, A. G.; Layer, B.; Aubuchon, M.; Milchberg, H. M. [Institute for Research in Electrical and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Froula, D. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2009-01-22

401

Physics of Laser-driven plasma-based acceleration  

SciTech Connect

The physics of plasma-based accelerators driven by short-pulse lasers is reviewed. This includes the laser wake-field accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator, and plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse direction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, as well as beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and plasmas with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Recent experimental results are summarized.

Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.

2003-06-30

402

Life's Limit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental limits to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh conditions of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.

Mancinelli, Rocco; Magazine, Astrobiology

403

Media Exposure and Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

PRIMACK, BRIAN A.; KRAEMER, KEVIN L.; FINE, MICHAEL J.; DALTON, MADELINE A.

2010-01-01

404

Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

1995-05-01

405

Accelerated cleanup risk reduction  

SciTech Connect

There is no proven technology for remediating contaminant plume source regions in a heterogeneous subsurface. This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop the requisite new technologies so that will be rapidly accepted by the remediation community. Our technology focus is hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) which is a novel in situ thermal technique. We have expanded this core technology to leverage the action of steam injection and place an in situ microbial filter downstream to intercept and destroy the accelerated movement of contaminated groundwater. Most contaminant plume source regions, including the chlorinated solvent plume at LLNL, are in subsurface media characterized by a wide range in hydraulic conductivity. At LLNL, the main conduits for contaminant transport are buried stream channels composed of gravels and sands; these have a hydraulic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -2} cm/s. Clay and silt units with a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} cm/s bound these buried channels; these are barriers to groundwater movement and contain the highest contaminant concentrations in the source region. New remediation technologies are required because the current ones preferentially access the high conductivity units. HPO is an innovative process for the in situ destruction of contaminants in the entire subsurface. It operates by the injection of steam. We have demonstrated in laboratory experiments that many contaminants rapidly oxidize to harmless compounds at temperatures easily achieved by injecting steam, provided sufficient dissolved oxygen is present. One important challenge in a heterogeneous source region is getting heat, contaminants, and an oxidizing agent in the same place at the same time. We have used the NUFT computer program to simulate the cyclic injection of steam into a contaminated aquifer for design of a field demonstration. We used an 8 hour, steam/oxygen injection cycle followed by a 56 hour relaxation period in which the well was `capped`. Our results show the formation of an inclined gas phase during injection and a fast collapse of the steam zone within an hour of terminating steam injection. The majority of destruction occurs during the collapse phase, when contaminant laden water is drawn back towards the well. Little to no noncondensible gasses are created in this process, removing any possibility of sparging processes interfering with contaminant destruction. Our models suggest that the thermal region should be as hot and as large as possible. To have HPO accepted, we need to demonstrate the in situ destruction of contaminants. This requires the ability to inexpensively sample at depth and under high temperatures. We proved the ability to implies monitoring points at depths exceeding 150 feet in highly heterogeneous soils by use of cone penetrometry. In addition, an extractive system has been developed for sampling fluids and measuring their chemistry under the range of extreme conditions expected. We conducted a collaborative field test of HPO at a Superfund site in southern California where the contaminant is mainly creosote and pentachlorophenol. Field results confirm the destruction of contaminants by HPO, validate our field design from simulations, demonstrate that accurate field measurements of the critical fluid parameters can be obtained using existing monitoring wells (and minimal capital cost) and yield reliable cost estimates for future commercial application. We also tested the in situ microbial filter technology as a means to intercept and destroy the accelerated flow of contaminants caused by the injection of steam. A series of laboratory and field tests revealed that the selected bacterial species effectively degrades trichloroethene in LLNL Groundwater and under LLNL site conditions. In addition, it was demonstrated that the bacteria effectively attach to the LLNL subsurface media. An in-well treatability study indicated that the bacteria initially degrade greater than 99% of the contaminant, to concentrations less than regulatory limit

Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.

1998-02-01

406

FCC-ee accelerator parameters, performance and limitations  

E-print Network

CERN has recently launched the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study to deal with all aspects of an ambitious post-LHC possible programme. The emphasis of the study is on a 100 TeV proton collider to be housed in a 80-100 km new ring in the Geneva region. An electron machine will also be considered as a possible intermediate first step (FCC-ee). The study benefits from earlier work done in the context of TLEP and has already published a parameter table, to serve as the basis for the work to be done. The study aims to publish a conceptual design report at around 2018. The recent discovery of a light Higgs boson has opened up considerable interest in circular e+e- Higgs factories around the world. FCC-ee is capable of very high luminosities in a wide centre-of-mass (ECM) spectrum from 90 to 350 GeV. This allows the very precise study of the Z, W and H bosons as well as the top quark, allowing for meaningful precision tests of the closure of the Standard Model.

Koratzinos, M

2014-01-01

407

Linear resonance ion accelerators with a focusing axisymmetric accelerating field  

SciTech Connect

The two-wave approximation is used to analyze the design of linear resonance ion accelerators with a focusing axisymmetric accelerating field in several cases of practical interest. Special features and characteristics are described, such as the length of the region of phase focusing, acceleration rate, maximum current, and type of accelerated ions.

Baev, V.K.; Gavrilov, N.M.; Minaev, S.A.; Shal'nov, A.V.

1983-07-01

408

Direct laser acceleration of electrons in free-space  

E-print Network

Compact laser-driven accelerators are versatile and powerful tools of unarguable relevance on societal grounds for the diverse purposes of science, health, security, and technology because they bring enormous practicality to state-of-the-art achievements of conventional radio-frequency accelerators. Current benchmarking laser-based technologies rely on a medium to assist the light-matter interaction, which impose material limitations or strongly inhomogeneous fields. The advent of few cycle ultra-intense radially polarized lasers has materialized an extensively studied novel accelerator that adopts the simplest form of laser acceleration and is unique in requiring no medium to achieve strong longitudinal energy transfer directly from laser to particle. Here we present the first observation of direct longitudinal laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons that undergo highly-directional multi-GeV/m accelerating gradients. This demonstration opens a new frontier for direct laser-driven particle accelerati...

Carbajo, Sergio; Wong, Liang Jie; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

2015-01-01

409

A faster scaling in acceleration-sensitive atom interferometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atom interferometers have been used to measure acceleration with at best a T2 scaling in sensitivity as the interferometer time T is increased. This limits the sensitivity to acceleration which is theoretically achievable by these configurations for a given frequency of acceleration. We predict and experimentally measure the acceleration-sensitive phase shift of a large-momentum-transfer atom interferometer based upon Bloch oscillations. Using this novel interferometric scheme we demonstrate an improved scaling of sensitivity which will scale as T3. This enhanced scaling will allow an increase in achievable sensitivity for any given frequency of an oscillatory acceleration signal, which will be of particular use for inertial and navigational sensors, and proposed gravitational wave detectors. A straightforward extension should allow a T4 scaling in acceleration sensitivity.

McDonald, G. D.; Kuhn, C. C. N.; Bennetts, S.; Debs, J. E.; Hardman, K. S.; Close, J. D.; Robins, N. P.

2014-03-01

410

Chaotic dynamics induced by space-charge waves in cyclotron resonance accelerators R. Pakter and I. L. Caldas  

E-print Network

Chaotic dynamics induced by space-charge waves in cyclotron resonance accelerators R. Pakter and I in a Hamiltonian model for a cyclotron resonant accelerator. We find that space charges impose limits on acceleration and that these limits appear as bounding curves on the appropriate stroboscopic phase spaces

Caetano, Tiberio

411

Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide A. G. York* and H. M. Milchberg  

E-print Network

Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide A. G. York* and H. M. Milchberg) Historically, direct acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields has been limited- field acceleration of electrons over many centimeters using relatively small femtosecond lasers. We

Milchberg, Howard

412

An Examination of the Impact of Accelerating Community College Students' Progression through Developmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to improve developmental education students' outcomes, community colleges have been experimenting with acceleration strategies. Models of acceleration allow students to complete their developmental requirements in a shorter amount of time. However, there has been limited empirical research on the effects of accelerating

Hodara, Michelle; Jaggars, Shanna Smith

2014-01-01

413

Application of statistical modeling to occupational exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation applies statistical modeling to two problems: (1) describing a single worker's exposure distribution and estimating its associated arithemetic mean; and (2) describing the distribution of inhalation exposure levels among a population of respirator wearers while accounting for variability in ambient exposure and respirator penetration values within and between wearers. A task-based statistical construct for a single worker's exposure levels for a single agent is developed; the model accounts for variability in short-term time weighted average (TWA) exposure values within a task, and for variability in arithmetic mean exposure levels between tasks. Five sample survey designs for estimating a worker's arithmetic mean exposure level are examined. Stratified random sampling designs, in which short-term TWAs are measured for time periods selected on a task basis, can provide a more precise estimate of the arithmetic mean exposure level than the traditional survey design for the same fixed cost. For describing inhalation exposure levels (C{sub i}) among a population of air-purifying respirator wearers, a synthesis of lognormal one-way analysis of variance models for ambient exposure levels (C.) and respirator penetration (P) values provides the most tractable construct. The model is applied to assessing the risk of toxicant overexposure for a respirator wearer population. Overexposure to a chronic toxicant is equated with an arithmetic mean exposure level above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) value, while overexposure to an acute toxicant is equated with a 95th percentile exposure level above the PEL value.

Nicas, M.

1991-01-01

414

Benzene and total hydrocarbons exposures in the downstream petroleum industries.  

PubMed

A review of studies, including both articles published in peer-reviewed journals and reports that were not peer reviewed, regarding occupational exposure to benzene and total hydrocarbons in the downstream petroleum industry operations was performed. The objective was to provide a broad estimate of exposures by compiling exposure data according to the following categories: refinery, pipeline, marine, rail, bulk terminals and trucks, service stations, underground storage tanks, tank cleaning, and site remediations. The data in each category was divided into personal occupational long-term and short-term samples. The summarized data offers valuable assistance to hygienists by providing them with an estimate and range of exposures. The traditional 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure and the 40-hour workweek do not generally coincide with exposure periods applicable to workers in marine, pipeline, railcar, and trucking operations. They are more comparable with short-term exposure or task-based exposure assessments. The marine sector has a large number of high exposures. Although relatively few workers are exposed, their exposures to benzene and total hydrocarbons are sometimes an order of magnitude higher than the respective exposure limits. It is recommended that in the future, it would be preferable to do more task-based exposure assessments and fewer traditional TWA long-term exposure assessments within the various sectors of the downstream petroleum industry. PMID:11331990

Verma, D K; Johnson, D M; Shaw, M L; des Tombe, K

2001-01-01

415

Pesticide exposure assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unintended, accidental, or unavoidable human exposures may result from pesticide use. Risk Characterization provides registrants, regulators, and the public a means to assess relative risks of pesticide use. Exposure Assessments are less standardized. Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE; mg\\/kg) is the amount of contact with the potential for dermal absorption (DA). Mixer\\/loader\\/applicator data developed using passive dosimetry and skin washing forms

Robert I. Krieger

1995-01-01

416

Radiation from charges in the continuum limit  

SciTech Connect

It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

2013-06-15

417

Photon acceleration in laser wakefield accelerators  

SciTech Connect

If the index of a refraction of a dispersive medium, such as a plasma, changes in time, it can be used to change the frequency of light propagating through the medium. This effect is called photon acceleration. It has been predicted in both theory and simulations, and also been demonstrated experimentally for the case of moving ionization fronts in gases (the so-called ionization blueshift) as well as for laser-driven wakefields.Here, we present studies of photon acceleration in laser-driven plasma wakefields. The unique spectral characteristics of this process will be discussed, to distinguish it from e.g. photon acceleration by ionization fronts, frequency domain interferometry or self-phase modulation. The dynamics of the photons in laser-wakefield interaction are studied through both regular particle-in-cell and wave-kinetic simulations. The latter approach provides a powerful, versatile, and easy-to-use method to track the propagation of individual spectral components, providing new insight into the physics of laser-plasma interaction. Theory, simulations and experimental results will be brought together to provide a full understanding of the dynamics of a laser pulse in its own wakefield.Even though the wave-kinetic approach mentioned above has mainly been developed for the description of laser-plasma interaction, it can be applied to a much wider range of fast wave-slow wave interaction processes: Langmuir waves-ion acoustic waves, drift waves-zonal flow, Rossby waves-zonal flow, or even photons-gravitational waves. Several recent results in these areas will be shown, often with surprising results.

Trines, R. M. G. M. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2007-07-11

418

Physically Based Rendering Intersection Acceleration  

E-print Network

Physically Based Rendering (600.657) Intersection Acceleration #12;Intersection Testing Accelerated partitions: Group objects into clusters Cluster volumes may overlap #12;Uniform (Voxel) Grid Acceleration Acceleration · Trace rays through grid cells ­ Fast ­ Incremental A B C D E F Only check primitives

Kazhdan, Michael

419

Acceleration-resistant crystal resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crystal resonator features two crystals mounted such that the acceleration sensitivity vector of one crystal is in an antiparallel relationship to the acceleration sensitivity vector of the other crystal. The composite resonator eliminates acceleration-induced frequency shifts for acceleration in all directions.

Filler, R. L.

1983-10-01

420

Plasma-based accelerator structures  

SciTech Connect

Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

Schroeder, Carl B.

1999-12-01

421

Deuterium accelerator experiments for APT.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories in California initiated an experimental program to determine whether tritium retention in the tube walls and permeation through the tubes into the surrounding coolant water would be a problem for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), and to find ways to mitigate the problem, if it existed. Significant holdup in the tube walls would limit the ability of APT to meet its production goals, and high levels of permeation would require a costly cleanup system for the cooling water. To simulate tritium implantation, a 200 keV accelerator was used to implant deuterium into Al 6061-T and SS3 16L samples at temperatures and particle fluxes appropriate for APT, for times varying between one week and five months. The implanted samples were characterized to determine the deuterium retention and Permeation. During the implantation, the D(d,p)T nuclear reaction was used to monitor the build-up of deuterium in the implant region of the samples. These experiments increased in sophistication, from mono-energetic deuteron implants to multi-energetic deuteron and proton implants, to more accurately reproduce the conditions expected in APT. Micron-thick copper, nickel, and anodized aluminum coatings were applied to the front surface of the samples (inside of the APT walls) in an attempt to lower retention and permeation. The reduction in both retention and permeation produced by the nickel coatings, and the ability to apply them to the inside of the APT tubes, indicate that both nickel-coated Al 6061-T6 and nickel-coated SS3 16L tubes would be effective for use in APT. The results of this work were submitted to the Accelerator Production of Tritium project in document number TPO-E29-Z-TNS-X-00050, APT-MP-01-17.

Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hertz, Kristin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Cowgill, Donald F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2005-08-01

422

Radiation exposure to anaesthetists during endovascular procedures.  

PubMed

Medical radiation exposure increases the likelihood of cataract formation. A personal dosimeter was attached to the left temple of 77 anaesthetists during 45 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and 32 interventional neuroradiology procedures. Compared with interventional neuroradiology, the median (IQR [range]) total radiation dose emitted by fluoroscopic equipment was significantly lower during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (4175 (3127-5091 [644-9761]) mGy than interventional neuroradiology (1420 (613-2424 [165-10 840]) mGy, p < 0.001). However, radiation exposure to the anaesthetist's temple was significantly greater during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (15 (6-41 [1-109]) ?Sv) than interventional neuroradiology (4 (2-8 [0-67]) ?Sv, p < 0.001). These data suggest that anaesthetists at our institution would have to deliver anaesthesia for ~1300 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and ~5000 interventional neuroradiology cases annually to exceed the general occupational limits, and ~10 000 endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs and ~37 500 interventional neuroradiology cases to exceed the ocular exposure limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Nevertheless, anaesthetists should be aware of the risk of ocular radiation exposure, and reduce this by limiting the time of exposure, increasing the distance from the source of radiation, and shielding. PMID:25267714

Arii, T; Uchino, S; Kubo, Y; Kiyama, S; Uezono, S

2015-01-01

423

Fermi acceleration in astrophysical jets  

E-print Network

We consider the acceleration of energetic particles by Fermi processes (i.e., diffusive shock acceleration, second order Fermi acceleration, and gradual shear acceleration) in relativistic astrophysical jets, with particular attention given to recent progress in the field of viscous shear acceleration. We analyze the associated acceleration timescales and the resulting particle distributions, and discuss the relevance of these processes for the acceleration of charged particles in the jets of AGNs, GRBs and microquasars, showing that multi-component powerlaw-type particle distributions are likely to occur.

Frank M. Rieger; Valenti Bosch-Ramon; Peter Duffy

2006-10-05

424

Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-12-12

425

Acceleration of ampere class H(-) ion beam by MeV accelerator.  

PubMed

The H(-) ion accelerator R&D to realize the international thermonuclear experimental reactor neutral beam is ongoing at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The required performance for the prototype MeV accelerator developed at JAEA is 1 MeV, 500 mA (current density of 200 A/m(2)) H(-) ion beam at the beamlet divergence angle of less than 7 mrad. Up to 2005, 836 keV, 146 A/m(2) H(-) ion beam was successfully accelerated as the highest record of the current density at MeV class energy beams. In the present work, high current negative ion beam acceleration test was performed by increasing the beam extraction apertures from 3 x 3 (9 apertures) to 3 x 5 (15 apertures). By fixing the air leak at the source chamber due to backstream ions as well as the improvement of voltage holding capability by a new fiber reinforced plastic insulator ring, the performance of the MeV accelerator was improved. So far, H(-) ion beam of 320 mA was successfully accelerated up to 796 keV with the beam divergence angle of 5.5 mrad. The accelerated drain current including the electron reaches close to the power supply limit for the MeV test facility. The heat flux by the backstream ion during the above beam acceleration was estimated to be 360 W/cm(2). The Cs leakage to the accelerator during the test campaign (Cs total input of 5.0 g) was 0.26 mg (7.0 microg/cm(2)). This is considered to be the allowable level from the viewpoint of voltage holding. PMID:18315236

Taniguchi, M; Inoue, T; Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Watanabe, K; Tobari, H; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K

2008-02-01

426

Respiratory exposures associated with silicon carbide production: estimation of cumulative exposures for an epidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

Silicon carbide is produced by heating a mixture of petroleum coke and silica sand to approximately 2000 degrees C in an electric furnace for 36 hours. During heating, large amounts of carbon monoxide are released, sulphur dioxide is produced from residual sulphur in the coke, and hydrocarbon fume is produced by pyrolysis of the coke. Loading and unloading furnaces causes exposures to respirable dust containing crystalline silica, silicon carbide, and hydrocarbons. In the autumn of 1980 extensive measurements were made of personal exposures to air contaminants. Eight hour time weighted exposures to sulphur dioxide ranged from less than 0.1 ppm to 1.5 ppm and respirable participate exposures ranged from 0.01 mg/m3 to 9.0 mg/m3. Geometric mean particulate exposures for jobs ranged from 0.1 mg/m3 to 1.46 mg/m3. The particulate contained varying amounts of alpha-quartz, ranging from less than 1% to 17%, and most quartz exposures were substantially below the threshold limit value of 100 micrograms/m3. Only traces of cristobalite (less than 1%) were found in the particulate. Median exposures to air contaminants in each job were estimated. Since the operations at the plant had been stable over the past 30 years, it was possible to estimate long term exposures of workers to sulphur dioxide, respirable particulate, quartz, total inorganic material, and extractable organic material. Cumulative exposure (average concentration times exposure duration) for each of the air contaminants was estimated for each worker using his job history. There was sufficient independent variability in the sulphur dioxide and respirable particulate cumulative exposures to make an assessment of their independent effects feasible. The theoretical basis for using the cumulative exposure index and its shortcomings for epidemiological applications were presented. PMID:6691927

Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Laidlaw, F; Fine, S

1984-01-01

427

Semiparametric adjusted exposure-response curves.  

PubMed

Exposure-response curves are central to understanding how continuous exposures relate to health outcomes. Common methods to plot such curves include the use of crude and adjusted regression, with the exposure specified using fractional polynomials or regression splines. These approaches are subject to important limitations. In this article, we illustrate the use of semiparametric marginally adjusted exposure-response curves obtained via inverse probability weighting. We explore the relation between interpregnancy interval and preterm birth in a cohort of over 720,000 live births in Quebec between 1989 and 2008. We include online supplementary material showing how mixed modeling routines in standard software packages can be used to implement the procedure, and how pointwise bootstrap confidence intervals can be obtained. PMID:25137220

Naimi, Ashley I; Moodie, Erica E M; Auger, Nathalie; Kaufman, Jay S

2014-11-01

428

Acoustic particle acceleration sensors  

SciTech Connect

A crossed dipole array provides a directional receiving capability in a relatively small sensor package and is therefore very attractive for many applications in acoustics. Particle velocity measurements on two axes perpendicular to each other are required to provide the dipole signals. These can be obtained directly using particle velocity sensors or via simple transfer functions using acceleration and displacement sensors. Also, the derivative of the acoustic pressure with respect to space provides a signal proportional to the particle acceleration and gives rise to the pressure gradient sensor. Each of these sensors has strengths and drawbacks depending on the frequency regime of interest, the noise background, and whether a point or a line configuration of dipole sensors is desired. In this paper, the performance of acceleration sensors is addressed using a sensor concept developed at DREA. These sensors exploit bending stresses in a cantilever beam of piezoelectric material to obtain wide bandwidth and high sensitivity. Models which predict the acceleration sensitivity, pressure sensitivity, and natural frequency for this type of sensor are described. Experimental results obtained using several different versions of these sensors are presented and compared with theory. The predicted performance of acceleration sensors are compared with that of pressure gradient arrays and particle velocity sensors. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Franklin, J.B. [Franklin Scientific Services (work performed while Mr. Franklin was employed by Defence Research Establishment Atlantic); Barry, P.J. [Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, P.O. Box 1012, Dartmouth, B2Y 3Z7 (CANADA)

1996-04-01

429

Dielectric laser accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

2014-10-01

430

DELAYED REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING CRITICAL DEVELOPMENTAL PERIODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The studies presented in this review indicate that perinatal exposure of the fetal or neonatal rodent to a toxicant can adversely affect reproductive development, reduce fertility.and accelerate reproductive senescence. n rodents and humans exposure to DES, estrogens, androgens a...

431

Combined Toxic Exposures and Human Health: Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect  

PubMed Central

Procedures for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, combined and cumulative exposures are under development, but the scientific database needs considerable expansion. In particular, there is a lack of knowledge on how to monitor effects of complex exposures, and there are few reviews on biomonitoring complex exposures. In this review we summarize articles in which biomonitoring techniques have been developed and used. Most examples describe techniques for biomonitoring effects which may detect early changes induced by many chemical stressors and which have the potential to accelerate data gathering. Some emphasis is put on endocrine disrupters acting via epigenetic mechanisms and on carcinogens. Solid evidence shows that these groups of chemicals can interact and even produce synergistic effects. They may act during sensitive time windows and biomonitoring their effects in epidemiological studies is a challenging task. PMID:21556171

Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan

2011-01-01

432

The evolution of high energy accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Accelerators have been devised and built for two reasons: In the first place, by physicists who needed high energy particles in order to have a means to explore the interactions between particles that probe the fundamental elementary forces of nature. And conversely, sometimes accelerator builders produce new machines for higher energy than ever before just because it can be done, and then challenge potential users to make new discoveries with the new means at hand. These two approaches or motivations have gone hand in hand. This lecture traces how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to the gigantic projects of today. So far all the really high-energy machines built and planned in the world--except the SLC--have been ring accelerators and storage rings using the strong-focusing method. But this method has not removed the energy limit, it has only pushed it higher. It would seem unlikely that one can go beyond the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)--but in fact a workshop was held in Sicily in November 1991, concerned with the question of extrapolating to 100 TeV. Other acceleration and beam-forming methods are now being discussed--collective fields, laser acceleration, wake-field accelerators etc., all aimed primarily at making linear colliders possible and more attractive than with present radiofrequency methods. So far it is not entirely clear which of these schemes will dominate particle physics in the future--maybe something that has not been thought of as yet.

Courant, E.D.

1994-08-01

433

Particle Acceleration at High-$?$ Shock Waves  

E-print Network

First-order Fermi acceleration processes at ultrarelativistic shocks are studied with Monte Carlo simulations. The accelerated particle spectra are obtained by integrating the exact particle trajectories in a turbulent magnetic field near the shock, with a few ``realistic'' features of the field structure included. We show that the main acceleration process at oblique shocks is the particle compression at the shock. Formation of energetic spectral tails is possible in a limited energy range for highly perturbed magnetic fields. Cut-offs in the spectra occur at low energies in the resonance range considered. We relate this feature to the structure of the magnetic field downstream of the shock, where field compression produces effectively 2D turbulence in which cross-field diffusion is very small. Because of the field compression downstream, the acceleration process is inefficient also in parallel high-$\\gamma$ shocks for larger turbulence amplitudes, and features observed in oblique shocks are recovered. For small-amplitude perturbations, particle spectra are formed in a wide energy range and modifications of the acceleration process due to the existence of long-wave perturbations are observed. The critical turbulence amplitude for efficient acceleration at parallel shocks decreases with shock Lorentz factor. We also study the influence of strong short-wave perturbations downstream of the shock on the particle acceleration processes. The spectral indices obtained do not converge to the ``universal'' value . Our results indicate inefficiency of the first-order Fermi process to generate high-energy cosmic rays at ultrarelativistic shocks with the considered perturbed magnetic field structures.

Jacek Niemiec

2005-09-22

434

Occupational exposure to natural radiation.  

PubMed

Natural sources of radiation can make an important contribution to the exposures of people at work. Two areas of interest are work with minerals having elevated concentrations of activity and work in buildings where radon daughter concentrations are elevated. The Euratom Directive on ionising radiation requires that the handling of radioactive substances be reported to national authorities. National authorities may waive this requirement where the activity per unit mass is below 100 Bq g-1, or for solid natural radioactive substances, 500 Bq g-1. An investigation was undertaken in five factories to determine whether work with minerals having levels of natural activity below these might lead to significant doses. Models based on the data collected were used to relate the activity in the minerals to the effective dose equivalent arising from gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and intake of long-lived activity. These assessments show that the activity concentration at which exposures to airborne dust could lead to doses equal to one-tenth of the dose limit for workers are 0.3 Bq g-1 for thorium-232 and 1 Bq g-1 for uranium-238. Above these values, radiological supervision may be necessary. In a separate study, measurements of radon daughter concentrations were made in seventy workplaces. Concentrations in some premises approached or exceeded the derived air concentration for occupational exposure. The highest concentrations were found in premises with low ventilation rates. PMID:4081708

Dixon, D W

1985-10-01

435

Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for hexachlorobenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendation: In the evaluation an acceptable daily intake of 0.3 mg\\/day was calculated for humans. To come to a MAC value for inhalation in the working environment the following asumptions are made: 1) Absorption of HCB by oral administration or inhalation is the same. 2). The qualitative and quantitative effects of HCB intoxication do not differ whether HCB is inhaled

F. O. Dorgelo; M. A. Maclaine Pont

1988-01-01

436

Accelerator Facilities for Radiation Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HSRP Goals in Accelerator Use and Development are: 1.Need for ground-based heavy ion and proton facility to understand space radiation effects discussed most recently by NAS/NRC Report (1996). 2. Strategic Program Goals in facility usage and development: -(1) operation of AGS for approximately 600 beam hours/year; (2) operation of Loma Linda University (LLU) proton facility for approximately 400 beam hours/year; (3) construction of BAF facility; and (4) collaborative research at HIMAC in Japan and with other existing or potential international facilities. 3. MOA with LLU has been established to provide proton beams with energies of 40-250 important for trapped protons and solar proton events. 4. Limited number of beam hours available at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

Cucinotta, Francis A.

1999-01-01

437

EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The planned interagency National Children's Study (NCS) will be studying a number of exposure issues in the context of health and well-being of infants and young children from pre-conception to age 21. Some of the important environmental exposure questions for NCS, include: how c...

438

Environmental Exposures and Development  

PubMed Central

Structured Abstract Purpose of Review Summarize recent studies exploring the relationship between paternal and maternal environmental exposures to chemicals before, at the time of and after conception to adverse developmental outcomes including; preterm birth, death, structural and functional abnormalities and growth restriction. Recent Findings Recent studies have demonstrated that human pregnancy and development is vulnerable to environmental exposures of the father and mother to chemical, biological and physical agents. Exposures associated with adverse developmental outcomes include; air and water pollution, chemicals in foods, occupational exposures, agricultural chemicals, metals, persistent and volatile organics. Developmental endpoints which are linked with these exposures include; growth restriction, functional abnormalities, structural abnormalities, preterm delivery and death. Despite this general understanding we still have incomplete knowledge concerning most exposures and the biological interactions responsible for impaired development and preterm delivery. Summary While single genes and individual chemical exposures are responsible for some instances of adverse pregnancy outcome or developmental disease, gene-environment interactions are responsible for the majority. These gene-environment interactions may occur in the father, mother, placenta or fetus suggesting that critical attention be given to maternal and paternal exposures and gene expression as they relate to the mode of action of the putative developmental toxicant both prior to and during pregnancy. PMID:20216314

Mattison, Donald R.

2010-01-01

439

Avian inhalation exposure chamber  

DOEpatents

An exposure system is designed for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder. 2 figs.

Briant, J.K.; Driver, C.J.

1992-05-05

440

Radiation Exposure Compensation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Justice Department's Radiation Exposure Compensation Program homepage. This site features information about the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, including claimant categories, claim forms, and the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act. This site also provides a table illustrating a summary of all claims received and compensation paid to date.

U.S. Department of Justice Radiation Exposure Compensation Program

441

Test particle acceleration by rotating jet magnetospheres  

E-print Network

Centrifugal acceleration of charged test particles at the base of a rotating jet magnetosphere is considered. Based on an analysis of forces we derive the equation for the radial accelerated motion and present an analytical solution. It is shown that for particles moving outwards along rotating magnetic field lines, the energy gain is in particular limited by the breakdown of the bead-on-the-wire approximation which occurs in the vicinity of the light cylinder $r_{L}$. The corresponding upper limit for the maximum Lorentz factor $\\gamma_{max}$ for electrons scales $\\propto B^{2/3} r_{L}^{2/3}$, with $B$ the magnetic field strength at $r_{L}$, and is at most of the order of a $10^2-10^3$ for the conditions regarded to be typical for BL Lac objects. Such values suggest that this mechanism may provide pre-accelerated seed particles which are required for efficient Fermi-type particle acceleration at larger scales in radio jets.

F. M. Rieger; K. Mannheim

2000-11-01

442

Medical uses of accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A variety of particle accelerators have either potential or already demonstrated uses in connection with medically-related research, diagnosis, and treatment. For cancer radiotherapy, nuclear particles including protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and negative pi mesons have advantages compared to conventional radiations in terms of dose localization and/or biological effectiveness. Clinical evaluations of these particles are underway at a number of institutions. Accelerator-produced radionuclides are in widespread use for research and routine diagnostic purposes. Elemental analysis techniques with charged particles and neutrons are being applied to bone, blood, and other tissues. Finally, low-dose medical imaging can be accomplished with accelerated protons and heavy ions. The status and future of these programs are discussed.

Bradbury, J.N.

1981-01-01

443

Perturbations for transient acceleration  

SciTech Connect

According to the standard ?CDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Super