A Heading and Flight-Path Angle Control of Aircraft Based on Required Acceleration Vector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshitani, Naoharu
This paper describes a control of heading and flight-path angles of aircraft to time-varying command angles. The controller first calculates an acceleration command vector (acV), which is vertical to the velocity vector. acV consists of two components; the one is feedforward acceleration obtained from the rates of command angles, and the other is feedback acceleration obtained from angle deviations by using PID control law. A bank angle command around the velocity vector and commands of pitch and yaw rates are then obtained to generate the required acceleration. A roll rate command is calculated from bank angle deviation. Roll, pitch and yaw rate commands are put into the attitude controller, which can be composed of any suitable control laws such as PID control. The control requires neither aerodynamic coefficients nor online calculation of the inverse dynamics of the aircraft. A numerical simulation illustrates the effects of the control.
GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong
2011-01-01
Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .
Acceleration of convergence of vector sequences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidi, A.; Ford, W. F.; Smith, D. A.
1986-01-01
A general approach to the construction of convergence acceleration methods for vector sequence is proposed. Using this approach, one can generate some known methods, such as the minimal polynomial extrapolation, the reduced rank extrapolation, and the topological epsilon algorithm, and also some new ones. Some of the new methods are easier to implement than the known methods and are observed to have similar numerical properties. The convergence analysis of these new methods is carried out, and it is shown that they are especially suitable for accelerating the convergence of vector sequences that are obtained when one solves linear systems of equations iterative. A stability analysis is also given, and numerical examples are provided. The convergence and stability properties of the topological epsilon algorithm are likewise given.
Acceleration of convergence of vector sequences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidi, A.; Ford, W. F.; Smith, D. A.
1983-01-01
A general approach to the construction of convergence acceleration methods for vector sequence is proposed. Using this approach, one can generate some known methods, such as the minimal polynomial extrapolation, the reduced rank extrapolation, and the topological epsilon algorithm, and also some new ones. Some of the new methods are easier to implement than the known methods and are observed to have similar numerical properties. The convergence analysis of these new methods is carried out, and it is shown that they are especially suitable for accelerating the convergence of vector sequences that are obtained when one solves linear systems of equations iteratively. A stability analysis is also given, and numerical examples are provided. The convergence and stability properties of the topological epsilon algorithm are likewise given.
Controlling Compressor Vane Flow Vectoring Angles at Transonic Speeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munson, Matthew; Rempfer, Dietmar; Williams, David; Acharya, Mukund
2003-11-01
The ability to control flow separation angles from compressor inlet guide vanes with a Coanda-type actuator is demonstrated using both wind tunnel experiments and finite element simulations. Vectoring angles up to 40 degrees from the uncontrolled baseline state were measured with helium schlieren visualization at transonic Mach numbers ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and with airfoil chord Reynolds numbers ranging from 89,000 to 710,000. The magnitude of the vectoring angle is shown to depend upon the geometry of the trailing edge, and actuator slot size, and the momentum flux coefficient. Under certain conditions the blowing has no effect on the vectoring angle indicating that the Coanda effect is not present. DNS simulations with the finite element method investigated the effects of geometry changes and external flow. Continuous control of the vectoring angle is demonstrated, which has important implications for application to rotating machinery. The technique is shown to reduce the stall flow coefficient by 15 percent in an axial flow compressor.
[Correction Multiplicative Effects in Raman Spectra through Vector Angle Transformation].
Yao, Zhi-xiang; Sun, Zeng-qiang; Su, Hui; Yuan, Hong-fu
2016-02-01
The linear relationship between the Raman spectral intensity and the analyte amount is frequently disrupted for a variety of complex reasons, which include these variations in laser source, focusing effect, sample scattering and refracting, so that causes poor quantitative results. As a whole, these disturbing effects can be divided to be additive and multiplicative, and the multiplicative effects are generally more difficult to be eliminated. A spectrum is a series data, also can be treated as a vector. In principle, unstable motions in spectrum intensity/amplitude corresponding to the module shifts for a vector, doesn't impact the vector direction which is the essence of the vector, so it is reasonable to rewrite the data form on module to on space angle for the same measurement. This thesis employed a data transformation to eliminate the multiplicative effects within spectra, i. e. , the spectrum signal on its amplitude has been transformed to be on the vector angles. The first step of the transformation is the selection of a stand vector which is near to the analyte and almost orthogonal to the background within the sample space; and the next step is to define a moving window, then to find out the angle between the sample vector (i. e. the transformed spectrum) and the stand vector within the window; while the window is moved along the spectrum data series, the transformation for vector angle (VA) series has been finished. The thesis has proved that an approximate linear quantitative relationship has been remained in the VA series. Multivariate calibration need full rank matrix which is combined by spectrum from variety samples, and variety VA series also can combine a full rank VA matrix, so the approximate linear VA matrix still perfectly meeting the demand for multivariate calibration. A mixed system consisted by methanol-ethanol-isopropanol has been employed to verify the eliminations to the multiplicative effects. These measuring values of the system are
Color image segmentation using vector angle-based region growing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesolkowski, Slawo; Fieguth, Paul W.
2002-06-01
A new region growing color image segmentation algorithm is presented in this paper. This algorithm is invariant to highlights and shading. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the average pixel intensity is removed from each RGB coordinate. This transformation mitigates the effects of highlights. Next, region seeds are obtained using the Mixture of Principal Components algorithm. Each region is characterized using two parameters. The first is the distance between the region prototype and the candidate pixel. The second is the distance between the candidate pixel and its nearest neighbor in the region. The inner vector product or vector angle is used as the similarity measure which makes both of these measures shading invariant. Results on a real image illustrate the effectiveness of the method.
Multiaxis aircraft control power from thrust vectoring at high angles of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.
1986-01-01
Extensive research programs conducted at the Langley Research Center have shown that thrust vectoring can be provided by multifunction (nonaxisymmetric) nozzles. Most of this research has been conducted on pitch vectoring at both static and forward flight conditions. Recent efforts have been aimed at evaluating yaw vectoring concepts at static (wind off) conditions. This paper summarizes results for three different twin-engine fighter configurations tested over a Mach number range of 0.15 to 2.47 at angles of attack up to 35 deg. The objective of these investigations was to determine the multiaxis control power characteristics provided by thrust vectoring. All three configurations employed two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles which provided pitch vectoring by differential deflection of the upper and lower nozzle divergent flaps. Three different means of yaw vectoring were tested: (1) a translating nozzle sidewall; (2) yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls; and (3) canted nozzles. These investigations were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10x10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. Longitudinal and direction control power from thrust vectoring was greater than that provided by aerodynamic control effectors at low speed or at high angles of attack.
Chui, Siu Lit; Lu, Ya Yan
2004-03-01
Wide-angle full-vector beam propagation methods (BPMs) for three-dimensional wave-guiding structures can be derived on the basis of rational approximants of a square root operator or its exponential (i.e., the one-way propagator). While the less accurate BPM based on the slowly varying envelope approximation can be efficiently solved by the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method, the wide-angle variants involve linear systems that are more difficult to handle. We present an efficient solver for these linear systems that is based on a Krylov subspace method with an ADI preconditioner. The resulting wide-angle full-vector BPM is used to simulate the propagation of wave fields in a Y branch and a taper. PMID:15005407
Geometric phase for collinear conical intersections. I. Geometric phase angle and vector potentials
Li Xuan; Brue, Daniel A.; Blandon, Juan D.; Parker, Gregory A.; Kendrick, Brian K.
2011-02-14
We present a method for properly treating collinear conical intersections in triatomic systems. The general vector potential (gauge theory) approach for including the geometric phase effects associated with collinear conical intersections in hyperspherical coordinates is presented. The current study develops an introductory method in the treatment of collinear conical intersections by using the phase angle method. The geometric phase angle, {eta}, in terms of purely internal coordinates is derived using the example of a spin-aligned quartet lithium triatomic system. A numerical fit and thus an analytical form for the associated vector potentials are explicitly derived for this triatomic A{sub 3} system. The application of this methodology to AB{sub 2} and ABC systems is also discussed.
Optimal Pitch Thrust-Vector Angle and Benefits for all Flight Regimes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilyard, Glenn B.; Bolonkin, Alexander
2000-01-01
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is exploring the optimum thrust-vector angle on aircraft. Simple aerodynamic performance models for various phases of aircraft flight are developed and optimization equations and algorithms are presented in this report. Results of optimal angles of thrust vectors and associated benefits for various flight regimes of aircraft (takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, final approach, and landing) are given. Results for a typical wide-body transport aircraft are also given. The benefits accruable for this class of aircraft are small, but the technique can be applied to other conventionally configured aircraft. The lower L/D aerodynamic characteristics of fighters generally would produce larger benefits than those produced for transport aircraft.
Vector Doppler Method Based on an Automatic Transverse Angle Tracking Procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dallai, A.; Boni, E.; Francalanci, L.; Tortoli, P.
Traditional Doppler methods only measure the axial component of the velocity vector. The lack of information on the beam-to-flow (Doppler) angle creates an ambiguity which can lead to large errors in velocity magnitude estimates. An original approach was recently introduced, in which two ultrasound beams with known relative orientation are directed towards the same vessel, one being committed to perform a Doppler measurement, while the second beam has the specific task of detecting the beam-to-flow angle. In this paper, an angle-tracking procedure allowing the Doppler angle to be automatically determined with high accuracy is presented. The procedure is based on the real-time estimation of suitable Doppler spectrum parameters obtained from an M-line associated to a sub-aperture of a linear array probe. Such parameters are used to steer the M-line towards a direction corresponding to a desired beam-flow angle. Knowledge of this angle is finally exploited to obtain the velocity magnitude through the classic Doppler equation related to the second beam. The implementation of the method on a new ultrasound machine and its validation through in vitro and in vivo tests are reported.
Evaluation of fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle via thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.; Hirota, M.; Ouchi, K.; Saito, T.
2016-03-01
Shock vector control (SVC) in a converging-diverging nozzle with a rectangular cross-section is discussed as a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) method. The interaction between the primary nozzle flow and the secondary jet is examined using experiments and numerical simulations. The relationships between FTV parameters [nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and secondary jet pressure ratio (SPR)] and FTV performance (thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment) are investigated. The experiments are conducted with an NPR of up to 10 and an SPR of up to 2.7. Numerical simulations of the nozzle flow are performed using a Navier-Stokes solver with input parameters set to match the experimental conditions. The thrust pitching angle and moment computed from the force-moment balance are used to evaluate FTV performance. The experiment and numerical results indicate that the FTV parameters (NPR and SPR) directly affect FTV performance. Conventionally, FTV performance evaluated by the common method using thrust pitching angle is highly dependent on the location of evaluation. Hence, in this study, we show that the thrust pitching moment, a parameter which is independent of the location, is the appropriate figure of merit to evaluate the performance of FTV systems.
Critical pitch angle for electron acceleration in a collisionless shock layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narita, Y.; Comişel, H.; Motschmann, U.
2016-07-01
Collisionless shock waves in space and astrophysical plasmas can accelerate electrons along the shock layer by an electrostatic potential, and scatter or reflect electrons back to the upstream region by the amplified magnetic field or turbulent fluctuations. The notion of the critical pitch angle is introduced for non-adiabatic electron acceleration by balancing the two timescales under a quasi-perpendicular shock wave geometry in which the upstream magnetic field is nearly perpendicular to the shock layer normal direction. An analytic expression of the critical pitch angle is obtained as a function of the electron velocity parallel to the magnetic field, the ratio of the electron gyro- to plasma frequency, the cross-shock potential, the width of the shock transition layer, and the shock angle (which is the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal direction). For typical non-relativistic solar system applications, the critical pitch angle is predicted to be about 10°. An efficient acceleration is expected below the critical pitch angle.
Acceleration: Overcoming the Vector Barrier with Simple Practical Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitworth, R.
1988-01-01
Describes five basic concepts, such as displacement, velocity, momentum, force, and moment of force. Discusses an experimental model to improve the intuitive understanding of acceleration in a straight line and a non-linear situation. (YP)
Spin-bowling in cricket re-visited: model trajectories for various spin-vector angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian
2016-08-01
In this paper we investigate, via the calculation of model trajectories appropriate to slow bowling in cricket, the effects on the flight path of the ball before pitching due to changes in the angle of the spin-vector. This was accomplished by allowing the spin-vector to vary in three ways. Firstly, from off-spin, where the spin-vector points horizontally and directly down the pitch, to top-spin where it points horizontally towards the off-side of the pitch. Secondly, from off-spin to side-spin where, for side-spin, the spin-vector points vertically upwards. Thirdly, where the spin-vector points horizontally and at 45° to the pitch (in the general direction of ‘point’, as viewed by the bowler), and is varied towards the vertical, while maintaining the 45° angle in the horizontal plane. It is found that, as is well known, top-spin causes the ball to dip in flight, side-spin causes the ball to move side-ways in flight and, perhaps most importantly, off-spin can cause the ball to drift to the off-side of the pitch late in its flight as it begins to fall. At a more subtle level it is found that, if the total spin is kept constant and a small amount of top-spin is added to the ball at the expense of some off-spin, there is little change in the side-ways drift. However, a considerable reduction in the length at which the ball pitches occurs, ∼25 cm, an amount that batsmen can ignore at their peril. On the other hand, a small amount of side-spin introduced to a top-spin delivery does not alter the point of pitching significantly, but produces a considerable amount of side-ways drift, ∼10 cm or more. For pure side-spin the side-ways drift is up to ∼30 cm. When a side-spin component is added to the spin of a ball bowled with a mixture of off-spin and top-spin in equal proportions, significant movement occurs in both the side-ways direction and in the point of pitching, of the order of a few tens of centimetres.
Inflation and accelerated expansion tensor-vector-scalar cosmological solutions
Diaz-Rivera, Luz Maria; Samushia, Lado; Ratra, Bharat
2006-04-15
We find exact exponentially expanding and contracting de Sitter solutions of the spatially homogeneous TeVeS cosmological equations of motion in the vacuum TeVeS model and a power law accelerated expanding solution in the presence of an additional ideal fluid with equation of state parameter -5/3<{omega}<-1. A preliminary stability analysis shows that the expanding vacuum solution is stable, while in the ideal fluid case stability depends on model parameter values. These solutions might provide a basis for incorporating early-time inflation or late-time accelerated expansion in TeVeS cosmology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Du, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chih-Ming; Chen, Tainsong
2007-06-01
The calibration of the gantry angle indicator is an important and basic quality assurance (QA) item for the radiotherapy linear accelerator. In this study, we propose a new and practical method, which uses only the digital level, V-film, and general solid phantoms. By taking the star shot only, we can accurately calculate the true gantry angle according to the geometry of the film setup. The results on our machine showed that the gantry angle was shifted by -0.11° compared with the digital indicator, and the standard deviation was within 0.05°. This method can also be used for the simulator. In conclusion, this proposed method could be adopted as an annual QA item for mechanical QA of the accelerator.
An improved method for calibrating the gantry angles of linear accelerators.
Higgins, Kyle; Treas, Jared; Jones, Andrew; Fallahian, Naz Afarin; Simpson, David
2013-11-01
Linear particle accelerators (linacs) are widely used in radiotherapy procedures; therefore, accurate calibrations of gantry angles must be performed to prevent the exposure of healthy tissue to excessive radiation. One of the common methods for calibrating these angles is the spirit level method. In this study, a new technique for calibrating the gantry angle of a linear accelerator was examined. A cubic phantom was constructed of Styrofoam with small lead balls, embedded at specific locations in this foam block. Several x-ray images were taken of this phantom at various gantry angles using an electronic portal imaging device on the linac. The deviation of the gantry angles were determined by analyzing the images using a customized computer program written in ImageJ (National Institutes of Health). Gantry angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees were chosen and the results of both calibration methods were compared for each of these angles. The results revealed that the image method was more precise than the spirit level method. For the image method, the average of the measured values for the selected angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees were found to be -0.086 ± 0.011, 90.018 ± 0.011, 180.178 ± 0.015, and 269.972 ± 0.006 degrees, respectively. The corresponding average values using the spirit level method were 0.2 ± 0.03, 90.2 ± 0.04, 180.1 ± 0.01, and 269.9 ± 0.05 degrees, respectively. Based on these findings, the new method was shown to be a reliable technique for calibrating the gantry angle. PMID:24077078
GPU accelerated computing-from hype to mainstream, the rebirth of vector computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuoka, Satoshi; Aoki, Takayuki; Endo, Toshio; Nukada, Akira; Kato, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atushi
2009-07-01
Acceleration technologies, in particular GPUs and Cell, are receiving considerable attention in modern-day HPC. Compared to classic accelerators and traditional CPUs, these devices not only exhibit higher compute density, but also sport significant memory bandwidth and vector-like capabilities to stream data at bandwidth of 100 GB/s or more. The latter qualifies such accelerators as a rebirth of vector computing. With large-scale deployments of GPUs such as Tokyo Tech's TSUBAME 1.2 supercomputer facilitating 680 GPUs in a 100-Teraflops scale supercomputer, we can demonstrate that, even under a massively parallel setting, GPUs can scale both in dense linear algebra codes as well as vector-oriented CFD codes. In both cases, however, careful algorithmic developments, especially latency hiding, are important to maximize their performance.
Support Vector Machine Based on Adaptive Acceleration Particle Swarm Optimization
Abdulameer, Mohammed Hasan; Othman, Zulaiha Ali
2014-01-01
Existing face recognition methods utilize particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and opposition based particle swarm optimizer (OPSO) to optimize the parameters of SVM. However, the utilization of random values in the velocity calculation decreases the performance of these techniques; that is, during the velocity computation, we normally use random values for the acceleration coefficients and this creates randomness in the solution. To address this problem, an adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization (AAPSO) technique is proposed. To evaluate our proposed method, we employ both face and iris recognition based on AAPSO with SVM (AAPSO-SVM). In the face and iris recognition systems, performance is evaluated using two human face databases, YALE and CASIA, and the UBiris dataset. In this method, we initially perform feature extraction and then recognition on the extracted features. In the recognition process, the extracted features are used for SVM training and testing. During the training and testing, the SVM parameters are optimized with the AAPSO technique, and in AAPSO, the acceleration coefficients are computed using the particle fitness values. The parameters in SVM, which are optimized by AAPSO, perform efficiently for both face and iris recognition. A comparative analysis between our proposed AAPSO-SVM and the PSO-SVM technique is presented. PMID:24790584
Support vector machine based on adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization.
Abdulameer, Mohammed Hasan; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda; Othman, Zulaiha Ali
2014-01-01
Existing face recognition methods utilize particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and opposition based particle swarm optimizer (OPSO) to optimize the parameters of SVM. However, the utilization of random values in the velocity calculation decreases the performance of these techniques; that is, during the velocity computation, we normally use random values for the acceleration coefficients and this creates randomness in the solution. To address this problem, an adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization (AAPSO) technique is proposed. To evaluate our proposed method, we employ both face and iris recognition based on AAPSO with SVM (AAPSO-SVM). In the face and iris recognition systems, performance is evaluated using two human face databases, YALE and CASIA, and the UBiris dataset. In this method, we initially perform feature extraction and then recognition on the extracted features. In the recognition process, the extracted features are used for SVM training and testing. During the training and testing, the SVM parameters are optimized with the AAPSO technique, and in AAPSO, the acceleration coefficients are computed using the particle fitness values. The parameters in SVM, which are optimized by AAPSO, perform efficiently for both face and iris recognition. A comparative analysis between our proposed AAPSO-SVM and the PSO-SVM technique is presented. PMID:24790584
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochi, Yoshimasa
Precise normal acceleration control is essential for missile guidance. Missiles with both front and rear control surfaces have a higher ability to control normal acceleration than missiles with front or rear control surfaces only. From the viewpoint of control, however, the control problem becomes a two-input-one-output problem, where generally control input cannot be determined uniquely. This paper proposes controlling angle of attack as well as normal acceleration, which makes the problem a two-input-two-output one and determines the controls uniquely. Normal acceleration command is given by a guidance system, but angle of attack command must be generated in accordance to the acceleration command without affecting the normal acceleration control. This paper also proposes such a command generator for angle of attack. Computer simulation is conducted using a nonlinear missile model to investigate the effectiveness of the control system along with control systems designed using three other methods.
Vector Extrapolation-Based Acceleration of Regularized Richardson Lucy Image Deblurring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Remmele, Steffen; Hesser, Jürgen
Confocal fluorescence microscopy has become an important tool in biological and medical sciences for imaging thin specimen, even living ones. Due to out-of-focus blurring and noise the acquired images are degraded and thus it is necessary to restore them. One of the most popular methods is an iterative Richardson-Lucy algorithm with total variation regularization. This algorithm while improving the image quality is converging slowly whereas with a constantly increasing amount of image data fast methods are required. In this paper, we present an accelerated version of the algorithm and investigate the achieved speed up. The acceleration method is based on a vector extrapolation technique and avoids a computational intensive evaluation of the underlying cost function. To evaluate the acceleration two synthetic test images are used. The accelerated algorithm reaches an acceptable result within 30% to 40% less computational time.
Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.
Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G
2014-09-01
The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced. PMID:24414089
Benson, A. J.; Guedry, F. E.; Jones, G. Melvill
1970-01-01
1. Recent experiments have shown that rotation of a linear acceleration vector round the head can generate involuntary ocular nystagmus in the absence of angular acceleration. The present experiments examine the suggestion that adequate stimulation of the semicircular canals may contribute to this response. 2. Decerebrate cats were located in a stereotaxic device on a platform, slung from four parallel cables, which could be driven smoothly round a circular orbit without inducing significant angular movement of the platform. This Parallel Swing Rotation (PSR) generated a centripetal acceleration of 4·4 m/sec2 which rotated round the head at 0·52 rev/sec. 3. The discharge frequency of specifically lateral canal-dependent neural units in the vestibular nuclei of cats was recorded during PSR to right and left, and in the absence of motion. The dynamic responses to purely angular motion were also examined on a servo-driven turntable. 4. Without exception all proven canal-dependent cells examined (twenty-nine cells in nine cats) were more active during PSR in the direction of endolymph circulation assessed to be excitatory to the unit, than during PSR in the opposite direction. 5. The observed changes in discharge frequency are assessed to have been of a magnitude appropriate for the generation of the involuntary oculomotor response induced by the same stimulus in the intact animal. 6. The findings suggest that a linear acceleration vector which rotates in the plane of the lateral semicircular canals can be an adequate stimulus to ampullary receptors, though an explanation which invokes the modulation of canal cells by a signal dependent upon the sequential activation of macular receptors cannot be positively excluded. PMID:5501270
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Haitao; Pumir, Alain; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2012-11-01
In turbulence study, it is often desirable to know if locally the flow is strain-dominated or vorticity-dominated. This information not only is related to the local flow topology, it also reveals where small particles with weak inertia accumulate. However, to determine whether strain or vorticity is dominating requires access to the velocity gradient tensor, which is difficult to measure experimentally. By using results from direct numerical simulation of fully developed turbulence we show that the angle between the relative velocity and the relative acceleration between two fluid particles can be used as an indicator of strain-dominated versus vorticity-dominated flow structure. This new indicator has the advantage that it is much more easily accessible experimentally than measuring the velocity gradients. We also present further turbulence statistics from both DNS and experiments conditioned on the angle between relative velocity and relative acceleration and compare them with those conditioned on strain and vorticity. We thank financial supports from MPG, DFG, IDRIS, and ANR.
Theeraworn, C; Kongprawechnon, W; Kondo, T; Bunnun, P; Nishihara, A; Manassakorn, A
2013-01-01
At present, Van Herick's method is a standard technique used to screen a Narrow Anterior Chamber Angle (NACA) and Angle-Closure Glaucoma (ACG). It can identify a patient who suffers from NACA and ACG by considering the width of peripheral anterior chamber depth (PACD) and corneal thickness. However, the screening result of this method often varies among ophthalmologists. So, an automatic screening of NACA and ACG based on slit-lamp image analysis by using Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed. SVM can automatically generate the classification model, which is used to classify the result as an angle-closure likely or an angle-closure unlikely. It shows that it can improve the accuracy of the screening result. To develop the classification model, the width of PACD and corneal thickness from many positions are measured and selected to be features. A statistic analysis is also used in the PACD and corneal thickness estimation in order to reduce the error from reflection on the cornea. In this study, it is found that the generated models are evaluated by using 5-fold cross validation and give a better result than the result classified by Van Herick's method. PMID:24111078
Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-Rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging.
Villagomez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt
2016-06-01
This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS and a flow rig before being tested in vivo. An 8-MHz linear array transducer is used with defocused beam emissions. In the simulations of a spinning disk phantom, a 360° uniform behavior on the angle estimation is observed with a median angle bias of 1.01° and a median angle SD of 1.8°. Similar results are obtained on a straight vessel for both simulations and measurements, where the obtained angle biases are below 1.5° with SDs around 1°. Estimated velocity magnitudes are also kept under 10% bias and 5% relative SD in both simulations and measurements. An in vivo measurement is performed on a carotid bifurcation of a healthy individual. A 3-s acquisition during three heart cycles is captured. A consistent and repetitive vortex is observed in the carotid bulb during systoles. PMID:27093598
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asbury, Scott C.; Capone, Francis J.
1995-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the multiaxis thrust-vectoring characteristics of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A wingtip supported, partially metric, 0.10-scale jet-effects model of an F-18 prototype aircraft was modified with hardware to simulate the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV. Testing was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 0.70, at angles of attack from O' to 70', and at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 to approximately 5.0. Results indicate that the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV can successfully generate multiaxis thrust-vectoring forces and moments. During vectoring, resultant thrust vector angles were always less than the corresponding geometric vane deflection angle and were accompanied by large thrust losses. Significant external flow effects that were dependent on Mach number and angle of attack were noted during vectoring operation. Comparisons of the aerodynamic and propulsive control capabilities of the HARV configuration indicate that substantial gains in controllability are provided by the multiaxis thrust-vectoring control system.
Late cosmic acceleration in a vector-Gauss-Bonnet gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveros, A.; Solis, Enzo L.; Acero, Mario A.
2016-12-01
In this work, we study a general vector-tensor model of dark energy (DE) with a Gauss-Bonnet term coupled to a vector field and without explicit potential terms. Considering a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) type universe and a vector field without spatial components, the cosmological evolution is analyzed from the field equations of this model considering two sets of parameters. In this context, we have shown that it is possible to obtain an accelerated expansion phase of the universe since the equation state parameter w satisfies the restriction - 1 < w < -1/3 (for suitable values of model parameters). Further, analytical expressions for the Hubble parameter H, equation state parameter w and the invariant scalar ϕ are obtained. We also find that the square of the speed of sound is negative for all values of redshift, therefore, the model presented here shows a sign of instability under small perturbations. We finally perform an analysis using H(z) observational data and we find that for the free parameter ξ in the interval (-23.9,-3.46) × 10-5, at 99.73% C.L. (and fixing η = -1 and ω = 1/4), the model has a good fit to the data.
Azimuthal angle correlation in vector-boson fusion processes at LHC
Hagiwara, Kaoru; Li Qiang; Mawatari, Kentarou
2008-11-23
Higgs boson and massive-graviton plus two jet productions via vector-boson fusion (VBF) processes at hadron colliders are studied. They include scalar and tensor boson production processes via weak-boson fusion in quark-quark collisions, gluon fusion in quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon collisions. We show that the VBF amplitudes dominate the exact matrix elements not only for the weak-boson fusion processes but also for all the gluon fusion processes when selection cuts to enhance the VBF events are applied, such as a large rapidity separation between two jets.
Multi-cavity complex controller with vector simulator for TESLA technology linear accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czarski, Tomasz; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Szewinski, Jaroslaw
2008-01-01
A digital control, as the main part of the Low Level RF system, for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented. The FPGA based controller, supported by MATLAB system, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The complex control algorithm based on the non-linear system identification is the proposal verified by the preliminary experimental results. The general idea is implemented as the Multi-Cavity Complex Controller (MCC) and is still under development. The FPGA based controller executes procedure according to the prearranged control tables: Feed-Forward, Set-Point and Corrector unit, to fulfill the required cavity performance: driving in the resonance during filling and field stabilization for the flattop range. Adaptive control algorithm is applied for the feed-forward and feedback modes. The vector Simulator table has been introduced for an efficient verification of the FPGA controller structure. Experimental results of the internal simulation, are presented for a cavity representative condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Qiong; Jiang, Zongfu; Liao, Tianhe; Song, Kaiyang
2010-11-01
The vector ɛ and ρ extrapolation methods are applied in accelerating the convergence of the Richardson-Lucy (R-L) algorithm and its damped version. The theory and implementation are discussed in detail, and relevant numerical results are given, including the cases of noise-free images and images corrupted by the Poisson noise. The results show that the vector ɛ and ρ extrapolations of 9 orders can speed the convergence quite efficiently, and the ρ(9) method is more powerful than the ɛ(9) method for noisy degraded images. The extra computation burden due to the extrapolation is limited, and is well paid back by the accelerated convergence. The performances of these two methods are compared with the famous automatic acceleration method. For noise-free degraded images, the vector ɛ(9) and ρ(9) methods are more stable than the automatic method. For noisy degraded images, the damped R-L algorithm accelerated by vector ρ(9) or automatic methods is more powerful, and the instability of the automatic method is restrained by the damping strategy. We explain the instability of the method in accelerating the normal R-L algorithm by the numerical noise due to its frequent applications in the run.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew
2015-06-01
The incidence angle of a detonation wave is often assumed to weakly influence the terminal velocity of an explosively driven flyer. For explosives heavily loaded with dense additives, this may not be true due to differences in momentum and energy transfer between detonation products, additive particles, and the flyer. For tangential incidence the particles are first accelerated against the flyer via an expansion fan, whereas they are first accelerated by the detonation wave in the normal case. In the current study we evaluate the effect of normal versus tangential incidence on the acceleration of flyers by nitromethane heavily loaded with a variety of additives. Normal detonation was initiated via an explosively driven slapper. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser interferometry (PDV). The influence of wave angle is evaluated by comparing the terminal velocity in the two cases (i.e., normal and grazing) for the heavily loaded mixtures. The decrement in flyer velocity correlated primarily with additive volume fraction and had a weak dependence on additive density or particle size. The Gurney energy of the heterogeneous explosive was observed to increase with flyer mass, presumably due to the timescale over which impinging particles could transfer momentum.
Grassi, G.
2006-07-01
We present a non-linear space-angle two-level acceleration scheme for the method of the characteristics (MOC). To the fine level on which the MOC transport calculation is performed, we associate a more coarsely discretized phase space in which a low-order problem is solved as an acceleration step. Cross sections on the coarse level are obtained by a flux-volume homogenisation technique, which entails the non-linearity of the acceleration. Discontinuity factors per surface are introduced as additional degrees of freedom on the coarse level in order to ensure the equivalence of the heterogeneous and the homogenised problem. After each fine transport iteration, a low-order transport problem is iteratively solved on the homogenised grid. The solution of this problem is then used to correct the angular moments of the flux resulting from the previous free transport sweep. Numerical tests for a given benchmark have been performed. Results are discussed. (authors)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benson, A. J.; Barnes, G. R.
1973-01-01
Human subjects were exposed to a linear acceleration vector that rotated in the transverse plane of the skull without angular counterrotation. Lateral eye movements showed a sinusoidal change in slow phase velocity and an asymmetry or bias in the same direction as vector rotation. A model is developed that attributes the oculomotor response to otolithic mechanisms. It is suggested that the bias component is the manifestation of torsion of the statoconial plaque relative to the base of the utricular macula and that the sinusoidal component represents the translational oscillation of the statoconia. The model subsumes a hypothetical neural mechanism which allows x- and y-axis accelerations to be resolved. Derivation of equations of motion for the statoconial plaque in torsion and translation, which take into account forces acting in shear and normal to the macula, yield estimates of bias and sinusoidal components that are in qualitative agreement with the diverse experimental findings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozeki, Takahiro; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Viet Dao, Dzung; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro
2016-06-01
This paper describes a plastic reshaping technique for Si thin membranes by using focused ion beam (FIB) processing. FIB is used to locally pattern and implant Ga ions into the membranes. The combination of Ga ion doping and alkali wet etching enables us to fabricate nanometer-thick Ga-ion-doped amorphous Si membranes, which can be bent upward at arbitrary angle by controlling the FIB beam irradiation condition. The bending mechanism is discussed in the light of Ga ions implanted depth from the membrane surface. By using this technique, a micrometer-sized chute structure with several different angles is produced.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.
1990-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles
1997-01-01
The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.
Ion acceleration dependence on magnetic shear angle in dayside magnetopause reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vines, S. K.; Fuselier, S. A.; Trattner, K. J.; Petrinec, S. M.; Drake, J. F.
2015-09-01
Magnetic reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause plays an important role in magnetospheric dynamics. Understanding the dynamics requires theory and observations. Previous theoretical work suggests that for no guide field, ions in the exhaust region on the magnetosheath side of the boundary counterstream with a velocity separation that is twice the upstream Alfvén speed (vA) and that the counterstreaming velocity decreases with increasing guide field. These theoretical predictions are tested for reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause using observations from the Cluster spacecraft. The difference between the incident and reflected ion velocities (vsep) in the magnetosheath boundary layer ion populations is used to determine the exhaust velocity. The ratio of vsep over twice the Alfvén speed (RV = vsep/2vA,L) is predicted to approach 1 for reconnection with shear angles near 180° (no guide field) but is observed to reach a value of approximately 0.84 for the magnetopause crossings analyzed with shear angles near 180°. This value is consistent with previous observations of ion velocities from reconnection at the magnetopause investigated using the Walén relation. While magnetic shear angle can contribute to the disagreement between observations and the Walén relation, it does not play a large role, given the reduced ratio for the events near 180° in this study.
BCL::SAXS: GPU Accelerated Debye Method for computation of Small Angle X Ray Scattering Profiles
Putnam, Daniel K.; Weiner, Brian E.; Woetzel, Nils; Lowe, Edward W.; Meiler, Jens
2016-01-01
Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is an experimental technique used for structural characterization of macromolecules in solution. Here, we introduce BCL::SAXS – an algorithm designed to replicate SAXS profiles from rigid protein models at different levels of detail. We first show our derivation of BCL::SAXS and compare our results with the experimental scattering profile of Hen Egg White Lysozyme. Using this protein we show how to generate SAXS profiles representing: 1) complete models, 2) models with approximated side chain coordinates, and 3) models with approximated side chain and loop region coordinates. We evaluated the ability of SAXS profiles to identify a correct protein topology from a non-redundant benchmark set of proteins. We find that complete SAXS profiles can be used to identify the correct protein by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with an area under the curve (AUC) > 99%. We show how our approximation of loop coordinates between secondary structure elements improves protein recognition by SAXS for protein models without loop regions and side chains. Agreement with SAXS data is a necessary but not sufficient condition for structure determination. We conclude that experimental SAXS data can be used as a filter to exclude protein models with large structural differences from the native. PMID:26018949
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.
2015-10-01
Van Allen Probes observations in the outer radiation belt have demonstrated an abundance of electrostatic electron-acoustic double layers (DL). DLs are frequently accompanied by field-aligned (bidirectional) pitch angle distributions (PAD) of electrons with energies from hundred eVs up to several keV. We perform numerical simulations of the DL interaction with thermal electrons making use of the test particle approach. DL parameters assumed in the simulations are adopted from observations. We show that DLs accelerate thermal electrons parallel to the magnetic field via the electrostatic Fermi mechanism, i.e., due to reflections from DL potential humps. The electron energy gain is larger for larger DL scalar potential amplitudes and higher propagation velocities. In addition to the Fermi mechanism, electrons can be trapped by DLs in their generation region and accelerated due to transport to higher latitudes. Both mechanisms result in formation of field-aligned PADs for electrons with energies comparable to those found in observations. The Fermi mechanism provides field-aligned PADs for <1 keV electrons, while the trapping mechanism extends field-aligned PADs to higher-energy electrons. It is shown that the Fermi mechanism can result in scattering into the loss cone of up to several tenths of percent of electrons with flux peaking at energies up to several hundred eVs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui
2016-08-01
To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.
Support vector machines for recognition of semi-arid vegetation types using MISR multi-angle imagery
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Mapping accurately community types is one of the main challenges for monitoring arid and semi-arid grasslands with remote sensing. The multi-angle approach has been proven useful for mapping vegetation types in desert grassland. The Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) provides 4 spectral b...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Qing; Peng, Huichun; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhen, Yaxin
2016-06-01
The angular acceleration is taken into the consideration for the modeling of equations of coupling vibration in rotational operation. The effects of angular acceleration on the amplitude of both lateral and torsion vibration of the breathing cracked rotor are studied for the first time. The torsion influence of unbalance orientation angles is especially studied during the modeling of the Breathing behavior model of the crack with the mass eccentricity. Different from the previous study, the effects of unbalance orientation angle on the lateral torsion coupling vibration of the breathing cracked rotor are compared by logarithmic spectrum diagrams. Parametric stability of the breathing cracked rotor associated with both unbalance orientation angle and accelerations in diverse level of mass eccentricity are presented, these works have not been seen before. The numerical parametrically stability results are verified by comparing with the dynamic response of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, M.; Feng, J.; Rivard, B.; Zhao, C.
2016-08-01
This study presents the calculation of spectral angle beyond two endmember vectors to the n-dimensional solid spectral angle (NSSA). The calculation of the NSSA is used to characterize the local spectral shape difference among a set of endmembers, leading to a methodology for band selection based on spectral shape variations of more than two spectra. Equidistributed sequences used in the quasi-Monte Carlo method (ESMC) for numerical simulations are shown to expedite the calculation of the NSSA. We develop a band selection method using the computation of NSSA(ϑn) in the context of a sliding window. By sliding the window over all bands available for varying band intervals, the calculated solid spectral angle values can capture the similarity of the endmembers over all spectral regions available and for spectral features of varying widths. By selecting a subset of spectral bands with largest solid spectral angles, a methodology can be developed to capture the most important spectral information for the separation or mapping of endmembers. We provide an example of the merits of the NSSA-ESMC method for band selection as applied to linear spectral unmixing. Specifically, we examine the endmember abundance errors resulting from the NSSA band selection method as opposed to using the full spectral dimensionality available.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pierce, J.; Diaz-Barrios, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S. L.; Shih, P.; Tournois, S.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Perry, G. L.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This study used Support Vector Machines to classify multiangle POLDER data. Boreal wetland ecosystems cover an estimated 90 x 10(exp 6) ha, about 36% of global wetlands, and are a major source of trace gases emissions to the atmosphere. Four to 20 percent of the global emission of methane to the atmosphere comes from wetlands north of 4 degrees N latitude. Large uncertainties in emissions exist because of large spatial and temporal variation in the production and consumption of methane. Accurate knowledge of the areal extent of open water and inundated vegetation is critical to estimating magnitudes of trace gas emissions. Improvements in land cover mapping have been sought using physical-modeling approaches, neural networks, and active microwave, examples that demonstrate the difficulties of separating open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation. Here we examine the feasibility of using a support vector machine to classify POLDER data representing open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation.
Yeganeh, Mohammad; Rasouli, Saifollah; Dashti, Mohsen; Slussarenko, Sergei; Santamato, Enrico; Karimi, Ebrahim
2013-03-15
An approach based on the two-channel moiré deflectometry has been used to measure both wavefront and transverse component of the Poynting vector of an optical vortex beam. Generated vortex beam by the q-plate, an inhomogeneous liquid crystal cell, has been analyzed with such technique. The measured topological charge of generated beams are in an excellent agreement with theoretical prediction. PMID:23503249
Velez, Mariel M.; Wernet, Mathias F.; Clark, Damon A.
2014-01-01
Understanding the mechanisms that link sensory stimuli to animal behavior is a central challenge in neuroscience. The quantitative description of behavioral responses to defined stimuli has led to a rich understanding of different behavioral strategies in many species. One important navigational cue perceived by many vertebrates and insects is the e-vector orientation of linearly polarized light. Drosophila manifests an innate orientation response to this cue (‘polarotaxis’), aligning its body axis with the e-vector field. We have established a population-based behavioral paradigm for the genetic dissection of neural circuits guiding polarotaxis to both celestial as well as reflected polarized stimuli. However, the behavioral mechanisms by which flies align with a linearly polarized stimulus remain unknown. Here, we present a detailed quantitative description of Drosophila polarotaxis, systematically measuring behavioral parameters that are modulated by the stimulus. We show that angular acceleration is modulated during alignment, and this single parameter may be sufficient for alignment. Furthermore, using monocular deprivation, we show that each eye is necessary for modulating turns in the ipsilateral direction. This analysis lays the foundation for understanding how neural circuits guide these important visual behaviors. PMID:24810784
Directional acceleration vector-driven displacement of fluids (DAVD-DOF)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Feeback, Daniel L. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
Centrifugal analyzer and method for staining biological or non-biological samples in microgravity, wherein the method utilizes an increase in weight of a fluid sample as a function of g-load, to overcome cohesive and frictional forces from preventing its movement in a preselected direction. Apparatus is characterized by plural specimen reservoirs and channels in a slide, each channel being of differing cross-section, wherein respective samples are selectively dispensed, from the reservoirs in response to an imposed g-factor, precedent to sample staining. Within the method, one thus employs microscope slides which define channels, each being of a differing cross-section dimension relative to others. In combination therewith, centrifugal slide mounting apparatus controllably imposes g-vectors of differing magnitudes within a defined structure of the centrifuge such as a chip array.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
West, E. A.; Hagyard, M. J.
1983-01-01
In this paper, the presence of Faraday rotation in measurements of the orientation of a sunspot's transverse magnetic field is investigated. Using observations obtained with the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) vector magnetograph, the derived vector magnetic field of a simple, symmetric sunspot is used to calculate the degree of Faraday rotation in the azimuth of the transverse field as a function of wavelength from analytical expressions for the Stokes parameters. These results are then compared with the observed rotation of the field's azimuth which is derived from observations at different wavelengths within the Fe I 5250 A spectral line. From these comparisons, it is found: the observed rotation of the azimuth is simulated to a reasonable degree by the theoretical formulations if the line-formation parameter is varied over the sunspot; these variations are substantiated by the line-intensity data; for the MSFC system, Faraday rotation can be neglected for field strengths less than 1800 G and field inclinations greater than 45 deg; to minimize the effects of Faraday rotation in sunspot umbrae, MSFC magnetograph measurements must be made in the far wings of the Zeeman-sensitive spectral line.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerrits, Th.; Silva, T. J.; Nibarger, J. P.; Rasing, Th.
2004-12-01
We examine the relationship between nonlinear magnetic responses and the change in the Gilbert damping parameter α for patterned and unpatterned thin Permalloy films when subjected to pulsed magnetic fields. An improved magnetization-vector-resolved technique utilizing magnetization-induced optical second-harmonic generation was used to measure magnetization dynamics after pulsed-field excitation. The magnetization excitations were achieved with pulsed fields aligned parallel to the hard axis of thin permalloy (Ni80Fe20) films while a dc bias field is applied along the easy axis. At low bias fields, α was inversely related to the bias field, but there was no significant reduction in the absolute value of the magnetization, as might be expected if there was significant spin-wave generation during the damping process. We discuss the discrepancies between data obtained by ferromagnetic resonance, whereby spin-wave generation is prevalent, and pulsed-field studies, with the conclusion that fundamental differences between the two techniques for the excitation of the ferromagnetic spin system might explain the different proclivities toward spin-wave generation manifest in these two experimental methods.
Lewin, Mark; Guilhaus, Michael; Wildgoose, Jason; Hoyes, John; Bateman, Bob
2002-01-01
Ions experience small deflections in the vicinity of grids in accelerators and ion mirrors in time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers. Recent experiments with an orthogonal acceleration (oa) TOF instrument have verified that the effect can significantly degrade resolution when ions approach grids at an angle deviating from 90 degrees. The phenomenon becomes significant only when ions have components of velocity at right angles to the wires of the grids. A model is presented in this study to predict this phenomenon for parallel wire grids. The fractional energy spread of ions (calculated in the static TOF-spectrometer frame of reference) scales directly with the approach angle of ions to the grid (as measured from normal approach). The energy spread also scales with the range of angles that is a consequence of the focusing effect in each gap between the wires of the grid. The equations imply that closely spaced parallel wire grids are best for deployment in oa-TOF systems where non-zero approach angles are unavoidable. Such grids are relatively impractical to manufacture and support but rectangular repeat cell grids with relatively few wires at right angles to the source axis are shown experimentally to introduce minimal energy spread. When these grids are rotated by 90 degrees, the resolution measured in a Q-TOF spectrometer is degraded in approximate agreement with the parallel wire model. A practical implication of this work is that grid transmissions in oa-TOF systems may be significantly increased without loss of resolution. Improvements of approximately 200% (V-mode) and approximately 400% (W-mode) in ion transmission were obtained in this study without compromising resolution. This was achieved with approximately 73% transmission grids and greater potential improvements in transmission are being realised since this study with approximately 89% transmission grids having similar geometry. PMID:11870899
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasiev, A.; Battarbee, M.; Vainio, R.
2015-12-01
Context. Solar energetic particles observed in association with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are produced by the CME-driven shock waves. The acceleration of particles is considered to be due to diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Aims: We aim at a better understanding of DSA in the case of quasi-parallel shocks, in which self-generated turbulence in the shock vicinity plays a key role. Methods: We have developed and applied a new Monte Carlo simulation code for acceleration of protons in parallel coronal shocks. The code performs a self-consistent calculation of resonant interactions of particles with Alfvén waves based on the quasi-linear theory. In contrast to the existing Monte Carlo codes of DSA, the new code features the full quasi-linear resonance condition of particle pitch-angle scattering. This allows us to take anisotropy of particle pitch-angle scattering into account, while the older codes implement an approximate resonance condition leading to isotropic scattering. We performed simulations with the new code and with an old code, applying the same initial and boundary conditions, and have compared the results provided by both codes with each other, and with the predictions of the steady-state theory. Results: We have found that anisotropic pitch-angle scattering leads to less efficient acceleration of particles than isotropic. However, extrapolations to particle injection rates higher than those we were able to use suggest the capability of DSA to produce relativistic particles. The particle and wave distributions in the foreshock as well as their time evolution, provided by our new simulation code, are significantly different from the previous results and from the steady-state theory. Specifically, the mean free path in the simulations with the new code is increasing with energy, in contrast to the theoretical result.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasič, Samo; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Eriksson, Stefanie; Nilsson, Markus; Topgaard, Daniel
2014-02-01
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the method of choice for non-invasive investigations of the structure of human brain white matter. The results are conventionally reported as maps of the fractional anisotropy (FA), which is a parameter related to microstructural features such as axon density, diameter, and myelination. The interpretation of FA in terms of microstructure becomes ambiguous when there is a distribution of axon orientations within the image voxel. In this paper, we propose a procedure for resolving this ambiguity by determining a new parameter, the microscopic fractional anisotropy (µFA), which corresponds to the FA without the confounding influence of orientation dispersion. In addition, we suggest a method for measuring the orientational order parameter (OP) for the anisotropic objects. The experimental protocol is capitalizing on a recently developed diffusion NMR pulse sequence based on magic-angle spinning of the q-vector. Proof-of-principle experiments are carried out on microimaging and clinical MRI equipment using lyotropic liquid crystals and plant tissues as model materials with high µFA and low FA on account of orientation dispersion. We expect the presented method to be especially fruitful in combination with DTI and high angular resolution acquisition protocols for neuroimaging studies of grey and white matter.
Ion beamlet vectoring by grid translation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Homa, J. M.; Wilbur, P. J.
1982-01-01
Ion beamlet vectoring is investigated by collecting deflection and divergence angle data for two-grid systems as a function of the relative displacement of these grids. Results show that at large displacements, accelerator grid impingement becomes a limiting factor and this determines the useful range of beamlet deflection. Beamlet deflection was shown to vary linearly with grid offset angle over this range. Values of deflection-to-offset angle ratio and useful range of deflection are presented as functions of grid-hole geometries, perveance levels, and accelerating voltages. It is found that the divergence of the beamlets is unaffected by deflection over the useful range of beamlet deflection. The grids of a typical dished-grid ion thruster are examined to determine where over the grid surface the grid offsets exceed the useful range, which indicates the regions on the surface where high accelerator grid impingment is probably occurring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Enman, A.
2006-12-01
The measurement and identification of high energy ions (> few MeV/n) from events originating on the Sun is of direct interest to the Living With a Star Program. These ions are a major source of Single Event Effects (SEE) in space-based electronics. Measurements of these ions also help in understanding phenomena such as Solar particle events and coronal mass ejections. These disturbances can directly affect the Earth and the near-Earth space environment, and thus human technology. The resource constraints on spacecraft generally mean that instruments that measure cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles must have low mass (a few kg) and power (a few W), be robust and reliable yet highly capable. Such instruments should identify ionic species (at least by element, preferably by isotope) from protons through the iron group. The charge and mass resolution of heavy ion instrument in space depends upon determining ions' angles of incidence. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) system is a highly innovative and uniquely simple detector configuration used to determine the angle of incidence of heavy ions in space instruments. ADIS replaces complex position sensing detectors (PSDs) with a system of simple, reliable and robust Si detectors inclined at an angle to the instrument axis. In August 2004 we tested ADIS prototypes with a 48Ca beam at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF). We demonstrate that our prototype charged particle instrument design with an ADIS system has a charge resolution of better than 0.25 e. An ADIS based system is being incorporated into the Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS), one of the instruments in the Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) System. An ADIS based system was also selected for the High Energy Particle Sensor (HEPS), one of the instruments in the Space Environment Sensor Suite (SESS) on the
Barr, D.S.
1993-11-01
It is desired to design a predictive feedforward transverse jitter control system to control both angle and position jitter in pulsed linear accelerators. Such a system will increase the accuracy and bandwidth of correction over that of currently available feedback correction systems. Intrapulse correction is performed. An offline process actually {open_quotes}learns{close_quotes} the properties of the jitter, and uses these properties to apply correction to the beam. The correction weights calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. Jitter data were taken at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) telescope experiment at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The experiment consisted of the LANL telescope connected to the ANL ZGS proton source and linac. A simulation of the correction system using this data was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by a factor of two over that of a comparable standard feedback correction system. The system also improved the correction bandwidth.
2013-01-01
Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000, and nearly all endemic countries in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean and Asia-Pacific regions have now initiated the WHO recommended mass drug administration (MDA) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control. Nevertheless, the recent scale up in insecticide treated /long lasting nets (ITNs/LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Africa may significantly impact LF transmission because the parasite is transmitted mainly by Anopheles mosquitoes. This study examined the magnitude, geographical extent and potential impact of vector control in the 17 African countries that are yet to or have only recently started MDA. Methods National data on mosquito bed nets, ITNs/LLINs and IRS were obtained from published literature, national reports, surveys and datasets from public sources such as Demographic Health Surveys, Malaria Indicator Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Malaria Report, Roll Back Malaria and President’s Malaria Initiative websites. The type, number and distribution of interventions were summarised and mapped at sub-national level. and compared with known or potential LF distributions, and those which may be co-endemic with Loa loa and MDA is contraindicated. Results Analyses found that vector control activities had increased significantly since 2005, with a three-fold increase in ITN ownership and IRS coverage. However, coverage varied dramatically across the 17 countries; some regions reported >70% ITNs ownership and regular IRS activity, while others had no coverage in remote rural populations where the risk of LF was potentially high and co-endemic with high risk L.loa. Conclusions Despite many African countries being slow to initiate MDA for LF, the continued commitment and
Sayyar-Rodsari, Bijan; Schweiger, Carl; /SLAC /Pavilion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX
2010-08-25
parameters of the beam lifetime model) are physically meaningful. (3) Numerical Efficiency of the Training - We investigated the numerical efficiency of the SVM training. More specifically, for the primal formulation of the training, we have developed a problem formulation that avoids the linear increase in the number of the constraints as a function of the number of data points. (4) Flexibility of Software Architecture - The software framework for the training of the support vector machines was designed to enable experimentation with different solvers. We experimented with two commonly used nonlinear solvers for our simulations. The primary application of interest for this project has been the sustained optimal operation of particle accelerators at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Particle storage rings are used for a variety of applications ranging from 'colliding beam' systems for high-energy physics research to highly collimated x-ray generators for synchrotron radiation science. Linear accelerators are also used for collider research such as International Linear Collider (ILC), as well as for free electron lasers, such as the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. One common theme in the operation of storage rings and linear accelerators is the need to precisely control the particle beams over long periods of time with minimum beam loss and stable, yet challenging, beam parameters. We strongly believe that beyond applications in particle accelerators, the high fidelity and cost benefits of a combined model-based fault estimation/correction system will attract customers from a wide variety of commercial and scientific industries. Even though the acquisition of Pavilion Technologies, Inc. by Rockwell Automation Inc. in 2007 has altered the small business status of the Pavilion and it no longer qualifies for a Phase II funding, our findings in the course of the Phase I research have convinced us that further research will render a workable model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, Robin; Butler, Douglas M.
1990-07-01
A High Speed Buffer Board (HSBB) was developed for the Vector Measuring Current Meter (VMCM) to implement the transmission of data at 9600 baud over an EIA-485 link. The HSBB significantly extends the VMCM communication functionality, which was previously limited to 300 baud transmission via 20mA current loop or FSK telemetry. The increased speed allows rapid sampling of a large number of current meters on a common cable and the EIA-485 circuitry, which was designed for low power operation, provides a useful multipoint communication method for data transmission over long cable lengths. SAIL protocol (IEEE 997) was utilized to coordinate data transfer by the instruments on a common link. An MC68HC11 microcontroller resides in the VMCM, buffering data it receives at 300 baud from the VMCM UART. In response to a jumper selectable SAIL address, the MC68HC11 offloads the data 9600 baud via EIA-485 to the SAIL controller. Synchronous data collection from many instruments is ensured by the SAIL synoptic set command and an embedded resynchronization/reset command. The low power consumption allows deployments of six months or more with a standard VMCM battery stack.
Calvo, Eric; Pham, Van M; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Andersen, John F; Ribeiro, José MC
2009-01-01
Background Mosquito saliva, consisting of a mixture of dozens of proteins affecting vertebrate hemostasis and having sugar digestive and antimicrobial properties, helps both blood and sugar meal feeding. Culicine and anopheline mosquitoes diverged ~150 MYA, and within the anophelines, the New World species diverged from those of the Old World ~95 MYA. While the sialotranscriptome (from the Greek sialo, saliva) of several species of the Cellia subgenus of Anopheles has been described thoroughly, no detailed analysis of any New World anopheline has been done to date. Here we present and analyze data from a comprehensive salivary gland (SG) transcriptome of the neotropical malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (subgenus Nyssorhynchus). Results A total of 2,371 clones randomly selected from an adult female An. darlingi SG cDNA library were sequenced and used to assemble a database that yielded 966 clusters of related sequences, 739 of which were singletons. Primer extension experiments were performed in selected clones to further extend sequence coverage, allowing for the identification of 183 protein sequences, 114 of which code for putative secreted proteins. Conclusion Comparative analysis of sialotranscriptomes of An. darlingi and An. gambiae reveals significant divergence of salivary proteins. On average, salivary proteins are only 53% identical, while housekeeping proteins are 86% identical between the two species. Furthermore, An. darlingi proteins were found that match culicine but not anopheline proteins, indicating loss or rapid evolution of these proteins in the old world Cellia subgenus. On the other hand, several well represented salivary protein families in old world anophelines are not expressed in An. darlingi. PMID:19178717
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles
1999-01-01
The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.
1980-01-01
A user's guide is provided for a computer code which calculates the laminar and turbulent hypersonic flows about blunt axisymmetric bodies, such as spherically blunted cones, hyperboloids, etc., at zero and small angles of attack. The code is written in STAR FORTRAN language for the CDC-STAR-100 computer. Time-dependent, viscous-shock-layer-type equations are used to describe the flow field. These equations are solved by an explicit, two-step, time asymptotic, finite-difference method. For the turbulent flow, a two-layer, eddy-viscosity model is used. The code provides complete flow-field properties including shock location, surface pressure distribution, surface heating rates, and skin-friction coefficients. This report contains descriptions of the input and output, the listing of the program, and a sample flow-field solution.
Dynamical deformed Airy beams with arbitrary angles between two wings.
Liang, Yi; Hu, Yi; Ye, Zhuoyi; Song, Daohong; Lou, Cibo; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun; Morandotti, Roberto; Chen, Zhigang
2014-07-01
We study both numerically and experimentally the acceleration and propagation dynamics of 2D Airy beams with arbitrary initial angles between their "two wings." Our results show that the acceleration of these generalized 2D Airy beams strongly depends on the initial angles and cannot be simply described by the vector superposition principle (except for the normal case of a 90° angle). However, as a result of the "Hyperbolic umbilic" catastrophe (a two-layer caustic), the main lobes of these 2D Airy beams still propagate along parabolic trajectories even though they become highly deformed. Under such conditions, the peak intensity (leading energy flow) of the 2D Airy beams cannot be confined along the main lobe, in contrast to the normal 90° case. Instead, it is found that there are two parabolic trajectories describing the beam propagation: one for the main lobe, and the other for the peak intensity. Both trajectories can be readily controlled by varying the initial wing angle. Due to their self-healing property, these beams tend to evolve into the well-known 1D or 2D Airy patterns after a certain propagation distance. The theoretical analysis corroborates our experimental observations, and explains clearly why the acceleration of deformed Airy beams increases with the opening of the initial wing angle. PMID:25121433
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roche, John
1997-01-01
Suggests an approach to teaching vectors that promotes active learning through challenging questions addressed to the class, as opposed to subtle explanations. Promotes introducing vector graphics with concrete examples, beginning with an explanation of the displacement vector. Also discusses artificial vectors, vector algebra, and unit vectors.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Browning, Christine A.; Garza-Kling, Gina; Sundling, Elizabeth Hill
2007-01-01
Although the nature of the research varies, as do concepts of angle, research in general supports the supposition that angle is a complex idea, best understood from a variety of perspectives. In fact, the concept of angle tends to be threefold, consisting of: (1) the traditional, static notion of two rays meeting at a common vertex; (2) the idea…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, E. F., II; Graybiel, A.
1973-01-01
Motion sickness susceptibility of four normal subjects was measured in terms of duration of exposure necessary to evoke moderate malaise (MIIA) as a function of velocity in a chair rotated about a central axis tilted 10 deg with respect to gravitational upright. The subjects had little or no susceptibility to this type of rotation at 2.5 and 5.0 rpm, but with further increases in rate, the MIIA endpoint was always reached and with ever shorter test durations. Minimal provocative periods for all subjects were found at 15 or 20 rpm. Higher rotational rates dramatically reversed the vestibular stressor effect, and the subjects as a group tended to reach a plateau of relatively low susceptibility at 40 and 45 rpm. At these higher velocities, furthermore, the subjects essentially lost their sensation of being tilted off vertical. In the second half of the study, the effect of tilt angle was varied while the rotation rate was maintained at a constant 17.5 rpm. Two subjects were completely resistant to symptoms of motion sickness when rotated at 2.5 deg off vertical; with greater off-vertical angles, the susceptibility of all subjects increased sharply at first, then tapered off in a manner reflecting a Fechnerian function.
Ion acceleration in impulsive solar flares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinacker, Jurgen; Jaekel, Uwe; Schlickeiser, Reinhard
1993-01-01
Nonrelativistic spectra of protons and ions accelerated in impulsive solar flares are derived using more realistic turbulence power spectra. The calculation is based on a particle transport equation extracted from a second step acceleration model containing stochastic acceleration. The turbulence model is generalized to waves with a small angle to the magnetic field vector and to turbulence power spectra with spectral indices s smaller than 2. Due to the occurrence of impulsive flares at low coronal heights, Coulomb losses at the dense coronal plasma and diffusive particle escape are taken into account. The ion spectra show deviations from long-duration spectra near the Coulomb barrier, where the losses become maximal. The Z-squared/A-dependence of the Coulomb losses leads to spectral variations for different ions. We present a method to estimate the turbulence parameters and injection conditions of the flare particles using ion ratios like Fe/O of impulsive flares.
Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2016-01-01
Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5–12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the
Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2016-01-01
Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5-12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the promotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpenter, Robert; Silvia, Manuel; Cray, Benjamin A.
2006-05-01
Acoustic vector sensors measure the acoustic pressure and three orthogonal components of the acoustic particle acceleration at a single point in space. These sensors, and arrays composed of them, have a number of advantages over traditional hydrophone arrays. This includes full azimuth/elevation angle estimation, even with a single sensor. It is of interest to see how in-water vector sensor performance matches theoretical bounds. A series of experiments designed to characterize the performance of vector sensors operating in shallow water was conducted to assess sensor mounting techniques, and evaluate the sensor's ability to measure bearing and elevation angles to a source as a function of waveform characteristics and signal-to-noise ratio.
Preloadable vector sensitive latch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acres, William R. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A preloadable vector-sensitive latch which automatically releases when the force vector from a latch memebr reaches a specified release angle is presented. In addition, it contains means to remove clearance between the latched members and to preload the latch to prevent separation at angles less than the specified release angle. The latch comprises a triangular main link, a free link connected between a first corner of the main link and a yoke member, a housing, and an actuator connected between the yoke member and the housing. A return spring bias means connects the main link to a portion of the housing. A second corner of the main link is slidably and pivotally connected to the housing via a slot in a web portion of the housing. The latch housing has a rigid docking ring alignable with a mating locking ring which is engageable by a locking roller journalled on the third corner of the triangular main link.
Sine Rotation Vector Method for Attitude Estimation of an Underwater Robot.
Ko, Nak Yong; Jeong, Seokki; Bae, Youngchul
2016-01-01
This paper describes a method for estimating the attitude of an underwater robot. The method employs a new concept of sine rotation vector and uses both an attitude heading and reference system (AHRS) and a Doppler velocity log (DVL) for the purpose of measurement. First, the acceleration and magnetic-field measurements are transformed into sine rotation vectors and combined. The combined sine rotation vector is then transformed into the differences between the Euler angles of the measured attitude and the predicted attitude; the differences are used to correct the predicted attitude. The method was evaluated according to field-test data and simulation data and compared to existing methods that calculate angular differences directly without a preceding sine rotation vector transformation. The comparison verifies that the proposed method improves the attitude estimation performance. PMID:27490549
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parra, G. T. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The X-31 aircraft, on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircraft's unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The X-31 aircraft, on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircrafts unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The X-31 aircraft on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircrafts unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 X-31 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal
Pope, K.E.
1958-01-01
This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.
Quasi-linear heating and acceleration in bi-Maxwellian plasmas
Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2013-12-15
Quasi-linear acceleration and heating rates are derived for drifting bi-Maxwellian distribution functions in a general nonrelativistic case for arbitrary wave vectors, propagation angles, and growth/damping rates. The heating rates in a proton-electron plasma due to ion-cyclotron/kinetic Alfvén and mirror waves for a wide range of wavelengths, directions of propagation, and growth or damping rates are explicitly computed.
Xu, Danfeng; Gu, Bing; Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen; Cui, Yiping
2016-02-22
We present an arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization based on the combination of a pair of orthogonal elliptically polarized base vectors on the Poincaré sphere. It is shown that the created vector field is only dependent on the latitude angle 2χ but is independent on the longitude angle 2ψ on the Poincaré sphere. By adjusting the latitude angle 2χ, which is related to two identical waveplates in a common path interferometric arrangement, one could obtain arbitrary type of vector fields. Experimentally, we demonstrate the generation of such kind of vector fields and confirm the distribution of state of polarization by the measurement of Stokes parameters. Besides, we investigate the tight focusing properties of these vector fields. It is found that the additional degree of freedom 2χ provided by arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization allows one to control the spatial structure of polarization and to engineer the focusing field. PMID:26907066
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Liang; Pan, Deng; Cao, Chengmao; Song, Jian
2014-03-01
The current research of real-time observation for vehicle roll steer angle and compliance steer angle(both of them comprehensively referred as the additional steer angle in this paper) mainly employs the linear vehicle dynamic model, in which only the lateral acceleration of vehicle body is considered. The observation accuracy resorting to this method cannot meet the requirements of vehicle real-time stability control, especially under extreme driving conditions. The paper explores the solution resorting to experimental method. Firstly, a multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car is built based on the ADAMS/Car software, whose dynamic accuracy is verified by the same vehicle's roadway test data of steady static circular test. Based on this simulation platform, several influencing factors of additional steer angle under different driving conditions are quantitatively analyzed. Then ɛ-SVR algorithm is employed to build the additional steer angle prediction model, whose input vectors mainly include the sensor information of standard electronic stability control system(ESC). The method of typical slalom tests and FMVSS 126 tests are adopted to make simulation, train model and test model's generalization performance. The test result shows that the influence of lateral acceleration on additional steer angle is maximal (the magnitude up to 1°), followed by the longitudinal acceleration-deceleration and the road wave amplitude (the magnitude up to 0.3°). Moreover, both the prediction accuracy and the calculation real-time of the model can meet the control requirements of ESC. This research expands the accurate observation methods of the additional steer angle under extreme driving conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, David P.
2001-01-01
Vector addition is an important skill for introductory physics students to master. For years, I have used a fun example to introduce vector addition in my introductory physics classes based on one with which my high school physics teacher piqued my interest many years ago.
Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L.
2009-01-01
An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach < 0.3). The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r - θ directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets.
Kinematics and aerodynamics of the velocity vector roll
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durham, Wayne C.; Lutze, Frederick H.; Mason, W.
1993-01-01
The velocity vector roll is an angular rotation of an aircraft about its instantaneous velocity vector, constrained to be performed at constant angle-of-attack (AOA), no sideslip, and constant velocity. Consideration of the aerodynamic force equations leads to requirements for body-axis yawing and pitching rotations that satisfy these constraints. Here, the body axis rotations, and the constraints, are used in the moment equations to determine the aerodynamic moments required to perform the velocity vector roll. For representative tactical aircraft, the conditions for maximum pitching moment are a function of orientation, occurring at about 90 deg of bank in a level trajectory. Maximum required pitching moment occurs at peak roll rate, and is achieved at AOA above 45 deg. The conditions for maximum rolling moment depend on the value of the roll mode time constant. For a small time constant (fast response) the maximum rolling moment occurs at maximum roll acceleration and zero AOA, largely independent of aircraft orientation; for a large time constant, maximum required rolling moment occurs at maximum roll rate, at maximum AOA, and at 180 deg of bank in level flight. Maximum yawing moment occurs at maximum roll acceleration, maximum AOA, and is largely independent of airplane orientation.
Salguero, Gustavo; Sundarasetty, Bala Sai; Borchers, Sylvia; Wedekind, Dirk; Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Velaga, Sarvari; Jirmo, Adan C.; Behrens, Georg; Warnecke, Gregor; Knöfel, Ann-Kathrin; Blasczyk, Rainer; Mischak-Weissinger, Eva; Ganser, Arnold
2011-01-01
Abstract Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunization is a potent strategy to direct prompt and durable immune responses against viral reactivations after transplantations. Here, we show that overnight lentiviral vector (LV) gene transfer into human monocytes co-expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)-4 induced self-differentiated DCs (SMART-DCs) with stable DC immunophenotype over weeks in culture and secreted several inflammatory cytokines. SMART-DCs injected subcutaneously in immunodeficient NOD.Rag1−/−.IL2rγ−/− (NRG) mice 1 day after LV transduction were stable for a month in vivo. “Conventional” DCs (cDCs) and SMART-DCs were compared with regard to their potency to accelerate the expansion, biodistribution, and antigenic stimulation of autologous human T cells. Peripheral blood cells obtained from human cytomegalovirus (hCMV)-reactive donors and full-length hCMV pp65 antigenic protein or peptides were used. DCs loaded with pp65 were administered subcutaneously into NRG mice as a preconditioning treatment a week prior to intravenous infusion with T cells. Optical imaging analyses demonstrated that in mice preconditioned with SMART-DC-pp65, T cells were directly recruited to the immunization site and subsequently spread to the spleen and other organs. A dramatic expansion of both human CD8+ and CD4+ T cells could be observed within a few days after infusion, and this was associated with consistent measurable CD8+ effector memory T-cell responses against different pp65 epitopes. Thus, this mouse model demonstrates the proof-of-principle for SMART-DCs to accelerate expansion of human lymphocytes, resulting in poly-functional and antigen-specific immune responses against hCMV-pp65. PMID:21574869
Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.
1994-12-27
A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.
Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.
1994-01-01
A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levine, Robert
2004-01-01
The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, Robert M.
1989-01-01
During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.
Charged particle accelerator grating
Palmer, Robert B.
1986-09-02
A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.
Angular Distribution of Solar Wind Magnetic Field Vector at 1 AU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, F.; Li, G.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, Y.; Khabarova, O.; Miao, B.; le Roux, J.
2015-03-01
We study the angular distribution of the solar wind magnetic field vector at 1 AU and its solar cycle dependence using ACE observations. A total of twelve 27.27 day (the duration of a solar rotation) intervals during the solar maximum, the solar minimum, as well as the ascending and descending phases of solar cycle 23 are examined. For all selected intervals, we obtain the angular distribution function {{f}τ }(α ), where α is the angle between the instantaneous solar wind magnetic field vector and the average background magnetic field vector, and τ is the period length for the averaging. Our results show that in all periods {{f}τ }(α ) has two populations, one at small angles and one at large angles. We suggest that the second population is due to the presence of current sheets in the solar wind. The solar-cycle dependence of {{f}τ }(α ) and a τ-scaling property of the second population of {{f}τ }(α ) are discussed. The τ scaling shows a clear dependence on the solar wind type. The implication of {{f}τ }(α ) for particle acceleration at interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections, such as those in solar energetic particle events, is also discussed.
Optimization of lateral-directional dynamics for an aircraft operating at high angle of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snell, S. A.; Garrard, William L., Jr.; Enns, Dale F.
1991-01-01
In this paper, the control laws for the lateral-directional dynamics of a supermaneuverable aircraft is analyzed with a view to reducing the levels of lateral acceleration and sideslip, which are encountered during aggressive rolling maneuvers at high angles of attack. The analysis uses a linearized model of the lateral-directional dynamics and thus H-free-flow techniques can be applied. It is shown that trade-offs exist between simultaneously minimizing lateral acceleration measured at the pilot's station, ny(p), minimizing sideslip and minimizing tracking errors between the roll-rate about the velocity vector and its command. The paper concludes that a significant reduction in ny(p) is only attainable by compromising the roll-rate performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-01
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-05
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.
2009-03-01
The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.
Teng, L.C.
1960-01-19
ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.
Particle acceleration in pulsar magnetospheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, K. B.
1978-01-01
The structure of pulsar magnetospheres and the acceleration mechanism for charged particles in the magnetosphere was studied using a pulsar model which required large acceleration of the particles near the surface of the star. A theorem was developed which showed that particle acceleration cannot be expected when the angle between the magnetic field lines and the rotation axis is constant (e.g. radial field lines). If this angle is not constant, however, acceleration must occur. The more realistic model of an axisymmetric neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis was investigated. In this case, acceleration occurred at large distances from the surface of the star. The magnitude of the current can be determined using the model presented. In the case of nonaxisymmetric systems, the acceleration is expected to occur nearer to the surface of the star.
Extrapolation methods for vector sequences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David A.; Ford, William F.; Sidi, Avram
1987-01-01
This paper derives, describes, and compares five extrapolation methods for accelerating convergence of vector sequences or transforming divergent vector sequences to convergent ones. These methods are the scalar epsilon algorithm (SEA), vector epsilon algorithm (VEA), topological epsilon algorithm (TEA), minimal polynomial extrapolation (MPE), and reduced rank extrapolation (RRE). MPE and RRE are first derived and proven to give the exact solution for the right 'essential degree' k. Then, Brezinski's (1975) generalization of the Shanks-Schmidt transform is presented; the generalized form leads from systems of equations to TEA. The necessary connections are then made with SEA and VEA. The algorithms are extended to the nonlinear case by cycling, the error analysis for MPE and VEA is sketched, and the theoretical support for quadratic convergence is discussed. Strategies for practical implementation of the methods are considered.
X-31 Demonstrating High Angle of Attack - Herbst Maneuver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The X-31 aircraft on a research mission from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, is flying nearly perpendicular to the flight path while performing the Herbst maneuver. Effectively using the entire airframe as a speed brake and using the aircraft's unique thrust vectoring system to maintain control, the pilot rapidly rolls the aircraft to reverse the direction of flight, completing the maneuver with acceleration back to high speed in the opposite direction. This type of turning capability could reduce the turning time of a fighter aircraft by 30 percent. The Herbst maneuver was first conducted in an X-31 on April 29, 1993, in the No. 2 aircraft by German test pilot Karl-Heinz Lang. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.
1998-01-01
A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.
Perception of Perspective Angles.
Erkelens, Casper J
2015-06-01
We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312
Perception of Perspective Angles
2015-01-01
We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312
Scapula behavior associates with fast sprinting in first accelerated running.
Otsuka, Mitsuo; Ito, Taisuke; Honjo, Toyoyuki; Isaka, Tadao
2016-01-01
The arm-swing motion is important for coordinated lower limb movement during a fast sprint and is composed of three-dimensional scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joint motion. Here, we aimed to clarify the role of the scapula during the initiation of a sprint running when sprinter run with high horizontal acceleration. Ten sports-active students participated in four 5-m dashes, with scapular constraint using non-elastic therapy tape (constraint condition) and without scapular constraint (free condition). The sprinting kinematics was assessed by a 16-camera motion capture system. In the constraint condition, the 2-m sprint time was significantly longer than that in the free condition. At the instants of foot-contact and take-off during the first step, no significant difference in the humerothoracic flexion angle was seen between these two conditions. In contrast, at the instants of foot-contact and take-off during the first step, the humerothoracic extension angle in the constraint condition was significantly smaller than that in the free condition. The forward leaning vector angle of center of mass during the first step was significantly greater than that in the constraint condition. Although no significant difference in hip extension and foot forward leaning angles was seen at the instant of foot contact during the first step between the two conditions, at the instant of take-off, the hip extension and foot forward leaning angles in the constraint condition were significantly smaller than those in the free condition. Therefore, scapular behavior in first accelerated running contributes to larger upper- and lower-limb motions and facilitates coordinating whole-body balance for a fast sprint. PMID:27350917
Charged particle accelerator grating
Palmer, R.B.
1985-09-09
A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.
Lin, Psang Dain; Tsai, Chung-Yu
2012-02-01
Snell's law describes the relationship between the incidence angle and reflection (or refraction) angle of a light ray impinging on the interface between two different isotropic media. In this paper, Snell's law is used to derive the unit normal vectors of an aspherical surface given a knowledge of the unit directional vectors of the incoming and outgoing rays. The proposed method has important applications in the design and fabrication of aspherical surfaces since the surface normal vectors determine not only the optical performance of the surface but also the cutting tool angles required to machine the surfaces. PMID:22330362
Circuitry for Angle Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Currie, J. R.; Kissel, R. R.
1983-01-01
Angle resolver pulsed and read under microprocessor control. Pulse generator excites resolver windings with dual slope pulse. System sequentially reads sine and cosine windings. Microprocessor determines angle through which resolver shaft turned from reference angle. Suitable applications include rate tables, antenna direction controllers, and machine tools.
Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.
1986-03-01
In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.
WIDE-ANGLE, NARROW-ANGLE, AND IMAGING BASELINES OF OPTICAL LONG-BASELINE INTERFEROMETERS
Woillez, J.; Lacour, S. E-mail: sylvestre.lacour@obspm.fr
2013-02-10
For optical interferometers, the baseline is typically defined as the vector joining two perfectly identical telescopes. However, when the telescopes are naturally different or when the requirements on the baseline vector challenge the telescope perfection, the baseline definition depends on how the interferometer is used. This is where the notions of wide-angle, narrow-angle, and imaging baselines come into play. This article explores this variety of baselines, with the purpose of presenting a coherent set of definitions, describing how they relate to each other, and suggesting baseline metrology requirements. Ultimately, this work aims at supporting upcoming long-baseline optical interferometers with narrow-angle astrometry and phase-referenced imaging capabilities at the microarcsecond level.
Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik
2016-01-01
We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet's principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet's principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies. PMID:26740335
Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik
2016-01-01
We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet’s principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet’s principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies. PMID:26740335
Hard Exclusive Vector Meson Leptoproduction At HERMES
Golembiovskaya, M.
2011-07-15
The HERMES experiment at DESY, Hamburg collected a set of data on hard exclusive vector meson ({rho}{sup 0}{phi},{omega}) leptoproduction using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized lepton beam of HERA accelerator and longitudinally or transversely polarized or unpolarized gas targets. Measurements of exclusive vector meson production provide access to the structure of the nucleon since the process can be described in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). An overview of the HERMES results on exclusive vector mesons production is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asbury, Scott C.
1993-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric convergent divergent nozzle designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap deflection for thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and flow-turning deflectors installed within the divergent flaps for yaw thrust vectoring. Modifications consisting of reducing the sidewall length and deflecting the sidewall outboard were investigated as means to increase yaw-vectoring performance. This investigation studied the effects of multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring on nozzle internal performance characteristics. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 13.0. The results indicate that this nozzle concept can successfully generate multiaxis thrust vectoring. Deflection of the divergent flaps produced resultant pitch vector angles that, although dependent on nozzle pressure ratio, were nearly equal to the geometric pitch vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust due to pitch vectoring were small or negligible. The yaw deflectors produced resultant yaw vector angles up to 21 degrees that were controllable by varying yaw deflector rotation. However, yaw deflector rotation resulted in significant losses in thrust ratios and, in some cases, nozzle discharge coefficient. Either of the sidewall modifications generally reduced these losses and increased maximum resultant yaw vector angle. During multiaxis (simultaneous pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring, little or no cross coupling between the thrust vectoring processes was observed.
OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS
Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito
2013-11-10
We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.
Application of the Nonlinear Vector Product to Lorentz Transformations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farach, Horacio A.; And Others
1979-01-01
Shows that the nonlinear vector product developed by the author in a previous paper to treat successive space rotations can be employed to treat the space time rotations of special relativity in which the angle of rotation is imaginary. (HM)
Rutherford's Scattering Formula via the Runge-Lenz Vector.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basano, L.; Bianchi, A.
1980-01-01
Discusses how the Runge-Lenz vector provides a way to derive the relation between deflection angle and impact parameter for Coulomb- and Kepler-fields in a very simple and a straightforward way. (Author/HM)
Combined dispersive/interference spectroscopy for producing a vector spectrum
Erskine, David J.
2002-01-01
A method of measuring the spectral properties of broadband waves that combines interferometry with a wavelength disperser having many spectral channels to produce a fringing spectrum. Spectral mapping, Doppler shifts, metrology of angles, distances and secondary effects such as temperature, pressure, and acceleration which change an interferometer cavity length can be measured accurately by a compact instrument using broadband illumination. Broadband illumination avoids the fringe skip ambiguities of monochromatic waves. The interferometer provides arbitrarily high spectral resolution, simple instrument response, compactness, low cost, high field of view and high efficiency. The inclusion of a disperser increases fringe visibility and signal to noise ratio over an interferometer used alone for broadband waves. The fringing spectrum is represented as a wavelength dependent 2-d vector, which describes the fringe amplitude and phase. Vector mathematics such as generalized dot products rapidly computes average broadband phase shifts to high accuracy. A Moire effect between the interferometer's sinusoidal transmission and the illumination heterodynes high resolution spectral detail to low spectral detail, allowing the use of a low resolution disperser. Multiple parallel interferometer cavities of fixed delay allow the instantaneous mapping of a spectrum, with an instrument more compact for the same spectral resolution than a conventional dispersive spectrometer, and not requiring a scanning delay.
Manifold angles, the concept of self-similarity, and angle-enhanced bifurcation diagrams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beims, Marcus W.; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2016-01-01
Chaos and regularity are routinely discriminated by using Lyapunov exponents distilled from the norm of orthogonalized Lyapunov vectors, propagated during the temporal evolution of the dynamics. Such exponents are mean-field-like averages that, for each degree of freedom, squeeze the whole temporal evolution complexity into just a single number. However, Lyapunov vectors also contain a step-by-step record of what exactly happens with the angles between stable and unstable manifolds during the whole evolution, a big-data information permanently erased by repeated orthogonalizations. Here, we study changes of angles between invariant subspaces as observed during temporal evolution of Hénon’s system. Such angles are calculated numerically and analytically and used to characterize self-similarity of a chaotic attractor. In addition, we show how standard tools of dynamical systems may be angle-enhanced by dressing them with informations not difficult to extract. Such angle-enhanced tools reveal unexpected and practical facts that are described in detail. For instance, we present a video showing an angle-enhanced bifurcation diagram that exposes from several perspectives the complex geometrical features underlying the attractors. We believe such findings to be generic for extended classes of systems.
Manifold angles, the concept of self-similarity, and angle-enhanced bifurcation diagrams
Beims, Marcus W.; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2016-01-01
Chaos and regularity are routinely discriminated by using Lyapunov exponents distilled from the norm of orthogonalized Lyapunov vectors, propagated during the temporal evolution of the dynamics. Such exponents are mean-field-like averages that, for each degree of freedom, squeeze the whole temporal evolution complexity into just a single number. However, Lyapunov vectors also contain a step-by-step record of what exactly happens with the angles between stable and unstable manifolds during the whole evolution, a big-data information permanently erased by repeated orthogonalizations. Here, we study changes of angles between invariant subspaces as observed during temporal evolution of Hénon’s system. Such angles are calculated numerically and analytically and used to characterize self-similarity of a chaotic attractor. In addition, we show how standard tools of dynamical systems may be angle-enhanced by dressing them with informations not difficult to extract. Such angle-enhanced tools reveal unexpected and practical facts that are described in detail. For instance, we present a video showing an angle-enhanced bifurcation diagram that exposes from several perspectives the complex geometrical features underlying the attractors. We believe such findings to be generic for extended classes of systems. PMID:26732416
He I VECTOR MAGNETOMETRY OF FIELD-ALIGNED SUPERPENUMBRAL FIBRILS
Schad, T. A.; Penn, M. J.; Lin, H.
2013-05-10
Atomic-level polarization and Zeeman effect diagnostics in the neutral helium triplet at 10830 A in principle allow full vector magnetometry of fine-scaled chromospheric fibrils. We present high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of superpenumbral fibrils in the He I triplet with sufficient polarimetric sensitivity to infer their full magnetic field geometry. He I observations from the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter are paired with high-resolution observations of the H{alpha} 6563 A and Ca II 8542 A spectral lines from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer from the Dunn Solar Telescope in New Mexico. Linear and circular polarization signatures in the He I triplet are measured and described, as well as analyzed with the advanced inversion capability of the ''Hanle and Zeeman Light'' modeling code. Our analysis provides direct evidence for the often assumed field alignment of fibril structures. The projected angle of the fibrils and the inferred magnetic field geometry align within an error of {+-}10 Degree-Sign . We describe changes in the inclination angle of these features that reflect their connectivity with the photospheric magnetic field. Evidence for an accelerated flow ({approx}40 m s{sup -2}) along an individual fibril anchored at its endpoints in the strong sunspot and weaker plage in part supports the magnetic siphon flow mechanism's role in the inverse Evershed effect. However, the connectivity of the outer endpoint of many of the fibrils cannot be established.
Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pina, E.
2011-01-01
The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…
Russell, D W; Miller, A D
1996-01-01
Human foamy virus (HFV) is a retrovirus of the spumavirus family. We have constructed vectors based on HFV that encode neomycin phosphotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. These vectors are able to transduce a wide variety of vertebrate cells by integration of the vector genome. Unlike vectors based on murine leukemia virus, HFV vectors are not inactivated by human serum, and they transduce stationary-phase cultures more efficiently than murine leukemia virus vectors. These properties, as well as their large packaging capacity, make HFV vectors promising gene transfer vehicles. PMID:8523528
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budak, V. P.; Korkin, S. V.
2006-11-01
We offer the generalization of the vectorial small angle modification of the spherical harmonics method (VMSH) for an arbitrary angle and polarization sate of irradiance of a slab. Non diagonal elements of an aerosol scattering matrix were admitted. The smooth addition part for the VMSH is given. Thus we obtain a complete and accelerated solution of the vectorial radiative transfer equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaee, Mohammad Javad; Katoh, Yuto
2016-05-01
In the beaming angle theory, the magnetic field direction is assumed perpendicular to the normal boundary, and the prediction of this theory, from beaming angle is base on the Jones' formula. We investigate the effect of deviation the magnetic field direction respect to normal boundary direction. In this study, we present new conditions that under these conditions two modes, extraordinary and ordinary modes waves can match. Also, we show for these cases the beaming angle does not correspond to Jones' formula. This effect leads to the angles larger and smaller than the angle estimated by Jones' formula. This effect on the mode conversion process becomes important in a case where local fluctuations in the direction of the density gradient vector or the magnetic field direction are observed. By comparing the beaming angle from observations with the beaming angles resulting from different ∆ Φ , we showed a ∆ Φ about 3 to 5° are necessary in consistence with observation.
Teaching Universal Gravitation with Vector Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lowry, Matthew
2008-01-01
Like many high school and college physics teachers, I have found playing vector games to be a useful way of illustrating the concepts of inertia, velocity, and acceleration. Like many, I have also had difficulty in trying to get students to understand Newton's law of universal gravitation, specifically the inverse-square law and its application to…
Sibson, R.
1983-01-01
The introduction is the only text in the volume; the rest of the book contains easy-to-use graphical methods for building design and construction using solar energy. Isogonic charts and solar angle diagrams are included. Isogonic charts. Solar angle diagrams.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
2014-01-01
Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…
Shock drift acceleration in the presence of waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.
1985-01-01
Attention is given to the initial results of a model designed to study the modification of the scatter-free, shock drift acceleration of energetic test particles by wave activity in the vicinity of a quasi-perpendicular, fast-mode MHD shock. It is emphasized that the concept of magnetic moment conservation is a valid approximation only in the perpendicular and nearly perpendicular regimes, when the angle theta-Bn between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field vector is in the range from 70 deg to 90 deg. The present investigation is concerned with one step in a program which is being developed to combine the shock drift and diffusive processes at a shock of arbitrary theta-Bn.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bush, G. A.; Perachio, A. A.; Angelaki, D. E.
1993-01-01
1. Extracellular recordings were made in and around the medial vestibular nuclei in decerebrated rats. Neurons were functionally identified according to their semicircular canal input on the basis of their responses to angular head rotations around the yaw, pitch, and roll head axes. Those cells responding to angular acceleration were classified as either horizontal semicircular canal-related (HC) or vertical semicircular canal-related (VC) neurons. The HC neurons were further characterized as either type I or type II, depending on the direction of rotation producing excitation. Cells that lacked a response to angular head acceleration, but exhibited sensitivity to a change in head position, were classified as purely otolith organ-related (OTO) neurons. All vestibular neurons were then tested for their response to sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. 2. Convergence of macular and canal inputs onto central vestibular nuclei neurons occurred in 73% of the type I HC, 79% of the type II HC, and 86% of the VC neurons. Out of the 223 neurons identified as receiving macular input, 94 neurons were further studied, and their spatiotemporal response properties to sinusoidal stimulation with pure linear acceleration were quantified. Data were obtained from 33 type I HC, 22 type II HC, 22 VC, and 17 OTO neurons. 3. For each neuron the angle of the translational stimulus vector was varied by 15, 30, or 45 degrees increments in the horizontal head plane. In all tested neurons, a direction of maximum sensitivity was identified. An interesting difference among neurons was their response to translation along the direction perpendicular to that that produced the maximum response ("null" direction). For the majority of neurons tested, it was possible to evoke a nonzero response during stimulation along the null direction always had response phases that varied as a function of stimulus direction. 4. These spatiotemporal response properties were quantified in two
Relativistic electron acceleration by oblique whistler waves
Yoon, Peter H.; Pandey, Vinay S.; Lee, Dong-Hun
2013-11-15
Test-particle simulations of electrons interacting with finite-amplitude, obliquely propagating whistler waves are carried out in order to investigate the acceleration of relativistic electrons by these waves. According to the present findings, an efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons requires a narrow range of oblique propagation angles, close to the whistler resonance cone angle, when the wave amplitude is held constant at relatively low value. For a constant wave propagation angle, it is found that a range of oblique whistler wave amplitudes permits the acceleration of relativistic electrons to O(MeV) energies. An initial distribution of test electrons is shown to form a power-law distribution when plotted in energy space. It is also found that the acceleration is largely uniform in electron pitch-angle space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.
2001-06-01
The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.
Slip band propagation and slip vector transition in B2 FeAl single crystals
Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.
1998-10-09
At the peak temperature, 823 K, of the yield strength anomaly of B2 FeAl, slip band propagation and slip vector transition were investigated using Fe-39 mol% Al single crystals. The single crystal oriented along a compression axis close to the [{bar 1}23] direction showed serrated flow during work-hardening at small strains (< 2%). Coarse slip bands propagate in the single crystal specimens, like Lueders band propagation in polycrystals, in the initial strain range. The slip vector was identified by TEM to be parallel to {l_angle}111{r_angle} in the early stage of strain corresponding to yielding. Beyond plastic strains of about 3%, serrations disappeared and significant work-softening occurred. The slip vector responsible for the later stage of deformation was observed to be {l_angle}100{r_angle}. That is, the slip vector changes from {l_angle}111{r_angle} to {l_angle}100{r_angle} as the plastic strain increases. Because the density of {l_angle}111{r_angle} superdislocations is found to be very low after the slip transition, glide decomposition of {l_angle}111{r_angle} superdislocations is believed to be the primary source mechanism for {l_angle}100{r_angle} dislocations. The slip band propagation in B2 single crystals is discussed in comparison with that of other intermetallic single-crystalline materials.
Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
2013-01-01
Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15–53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections appeared without any relevant length or distance information. Children were able to read these map fragments and compare 2D to 3D angles. However, this ability appeared both variable and fragile among the youngest children of the sample. These findings suggest that 4-year-old children begin to form an abstract concept of angle that applies both to 2D and 3D displays and that serves to interpret novel spatial symbols. PMID:23647223
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pagni, David L.
2005-01-01
This article describes an investigation making connections between the time on an analog clock and the angle between the minute hand and the hour hand. It was posed by a middle school mathematics teacher. (Contains 8 tables and 6 figures.)
Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S
2014-01-01
Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections appeared without any relevant length or distance information. Children were able to read these map fragments and compare two-dimensional to three-dimensional angles. However, this ability appeared both variable and fragile among the youngest children of the sample. These findings suggest that 4-year-old children begin to form an abstract concept of angle that applies both to two-dimensional and three-dimensional displays and that serves to interpret novel spatial symbols. PMID:23647223
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, Francis J.; Schirmer, Alberto W.
1993-01-01
An investigation was conducted at static conditions in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle. Yaw vectoring was achieved by deflecting yaw flaps in the nozzle sidewall into the nozzle exhaust flow. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the variable angle yaw flap deflected into the exhaust flow and the nozzle upper ramp and lower flap which were deflected for pitch vectoring, the downstream corners of both the nozzle ramp and lower flap were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw vectoring. The effects of nozzle upper ramp and lower flap cutout, yaw flap hinge line location and hinge inclination angle, sidewall containment, geometric pitch vector angle, and geometric yaw vector angle were studied. This investigation was conducted in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.
Binder, Bernd
2008-01-21
An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.
Understanding Singular Vectors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
James, David; Botteron, Cynthia
2013-01-01
matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahm, A F
1924-01-01
The theory, structure and working of a vector slide rule is presented in this report. This instrument is used for determining a vector in magnitude and position when given its components and its moment about a point in their plane.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…
A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eder, W. E.
1982-01-01
Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.
Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors
Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.
2003-01-01
With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to
Restart 68000 vector remapping
Gustin, J.
1984-05-03
The circuit described allows power-on-reset (POR) vector fetch from ROM for a 68000 microprocessor. It offers programmability of exception vectors, including the restart vector. This method eliminates the need for high-resolution, address-decoder peripheral circuitry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aminu, Abdulhadi
2010-01-01
By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-10-18
PETRA V2 provides matrix and vector services and the ability construct, query, and use matrix and vector objects that are used and computed by TRILINOS solvers. It provides all basic matr5ix and vector operations for solvers in TRILINOS.
Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.
Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D
2016-03-01
Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244
Aircraft attitude measurement using a vector magnetometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peitila, R.; Dunn, W. R., Jr.
1977-01-01
The feasibility of a vector magnetometer system was investigated by developing a technique to determine attitude given magnetic field components. Sample calculations are then made using the earth's magnetic field data acquired during actual flight conditions. Results of these calculations are compared graphically with measured attitude data acquired simultaneously with the magnetic data. The role and possible implementation of various reference angles are discussed along with other pertinent considerations. Finally, it is concluded that the earth's magnetic field as measured by modern vector magnetometers can play a significant role in attitude control systems.
The Interplay of Acceleration and Vorticity Fields in the Tip Region of Massively-Separated Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rival, David; Kriegseis, Jochen
2013-11-01
The influence of seemingly analogous plate kinematics (plunge vs. tow) on instantaneous forces has been investigated. Simultaneous measurements by means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) and a six-component force/moment sensor have been performed. Despite identical effective shear-layer velocities and effective angles of attack, the force histories vary between the two cases (plunge and tow). To uncover this discrepancy, a combined analysis of vorticity, Lagrangian (total) fluid acceleration and vortex-force contribution (Lamb vector) has been performed. It is found that leading-edge vortex (LEV) and tip vortex (TV) formation are nearly identical during the acceleration phase for both cases. However, at the end of acceleration the tow LEV rolls off the plate. As such, the development of vortex force also ceases once this roll-off process begins. Also TV strength as well as its relative positioning to the plate surface influences the instantaneous force. Based on a Lamb-vector analysis of the TV, the present work provides insight into the underlying cause-effect relation. Particularly, it is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the resulting vortex-force formation is dependent on the interplay between streamwise vorticity and spanwise (inboard) velocity.
Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieberherr, Martin
2011-12-01
The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time.1,2 The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal.3 But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position" beside the picture of a swing on a circular arc can still be found in textbooks, as e.g. in Ref. 4. Vectors have been invented by Grassmann (1844)5 and are conveniently used to describe the acceleration in curved orbits, but acceleration is more often treated as a scalar with or without sign, as the words acceleration/deceleration suggest. The component tangential to the orbit is enough to deduce the period of the simple pendulum, but it is not enough to discuss the forces on the pendulum, as has been pointed out by Santos-Benito and A. Gras-Marti.6 A suitable way to address this problem is a nice figure with a catch for classroom discussions or homework. When I plotted the acceleration vectors of the simple pendulum in their proper positions, pictures as in Fig. 1 appeared on the screen. The endpoints of the acceleration vectors, if properly scaled, seemed to lie on a curve with a familiar shape: a cardioid. Is this true or just an illusion?
Colgate, S.A.
1958-05-27
An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.
Covariantized vector Galileons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hull, Matthew; Koyama, Kazuya; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2016-03-01
Vector Galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector Galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a "beyond Horndeski" theory involving vector degrees of freedom that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyze a Higgs mechanism for generating vector Galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantization.
Teaching Universal Gravitation with Vector Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowry, Matthew
2008-12-01
Like many high school and college physics teachers, I have found playing vector games to be a useful way of illustrating the concepts of inertia, velocity, and acceleration. Like many, I have also had difficulty in trying to get students to understand Newton's law of universal gravitation, specifically the inverse-square law and its application to motion. In this paper, I'll outline a way to address this problem through use of a vector game. The inspiration for this idea came from a January 1998 article in The Physics Teacher by Michael Vinson entitled "Space Race: A Game of Physics Adventure."
Fiber laser vector hydrophone: theory and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wentao; Zhang, Faxiang; Ma, Rui; He, Jun; Li, Fang; Liu, Yuliang
2011-05-01
A novel fiber laser vector hydrophone (FLVH) based on accelerometers is presented. Three fiber laser accelerometers (FLA), perpendicular to each other, are used to detect the acoustic induced particle acceleration. Theoretical analyses of the acoustic sensitivity and the natural frequency are given. Experiment shows a sensitivity of 0.1 pm/Pa@100 Hz is achieved, which results in a minimum detectable acoustic signal of 100 μPa/@Hz@100 Hz. Field demonstration shows that the proposed vector hydrophone has good directivity.
Measurement of Charmless B to Vector-Vector decays at BaBar
Olaiya, Emmanuel; /Rutherford
2011-11-14
The authors present results of B {yields} vector-vector (VV) and B {yields} vector-axial vector (VA) decays B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}X(X = {phi},{rho}{sup +} or {rho}{sup 0}), B{sup +} {yields} {phi}K{sup (*)+}, B{sup 0} {yields} K*K*, B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup +}b{sub 1}{sup -} and B{sup +} {yields} K*{sup 0}{alpha}{sub 1}{sup +}. The largest dataset used for these results is based on 465 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B meson factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using larger datasets, the BABAR experiment has provided more precise B {yields} VV measurements, further supporting the smaller than expected longitudinal polarization fraction of B {yields} {phi}K*. Additional B meson to vector-vector and vector-axial vector decays have also been studied with a view to shedding light on the polarization anomaly. Taking into account the available errors, we find no disagreement between theory and experiment for these additional decays.
An Algorithm for Converting Static Earth Sensor Measurements into Earth Observation Vectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harman, R.; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph
2004-01-01
An algorithm has been developed that converts penetration angles reported by Static Earth Sensors (SESs) into Earth observation vectors. This algorithm allows compensation for variation in the horizon height including that caused by Earth oblateness. It also allows pitch and roll to be computed using any number (greater than 1) of simultaneous sensor penetration angles simplifying processing during periods of Sun and Moon interference. The algorithm computes body frame unit vectors through each SES cluster. It also computes GCI vectors from the spacecraft to the position on the Earth's limb where each cluster detects the Earth's limb. These body frame vectors are used as sensor observation vectors and the GCI vectors are used as reference vectors in an attitude solution. The attitude, with the unobservable yaw discarded, is iteratively refined to provide the Earth observation vector solution.
Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.
1979-08-29
The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.
Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.
1982-08-17
The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.
Bell, J.S.
1959-09-15
An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.
Bounded-Angle Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolinar, Samuel; Andrews, Kenneth; Pollara, Fabrizio; Divsalar, Dariush
2009-01-01
Bounded-angle iterative decoding is a modified version of conventional iterative decoding, conceived as a means of reducing undetected-error rates for short low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. For a given code, bounded-angle iterative decoding can be implemented by means of a simple modification of the decoder algorithm, without redesigning the code. Bounded-angle iterative decoding is based on a representation of received words and code words as vectors in an n-dimensional Euclidean space (where n is an integer).
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Vector description of electric and hydrophobic interactions in protein homodimers.
Mozo-Villarías, Angel; Cedano, Juan; Querol, Enrique
2016-05-01
This article describes the formation of homodimers from their constituting monomers, based on the rules set by a simple model of electric and hydrophobic interactions. These interactions are described in terms of the electric dipole moment (D) and hydrophobic moment vectors (H) of proteins. The distribution of angles formed by the two dipole moments of monomers constituting dimers were analysed, as well as the distribution of angles formed by the two hydrophobic moments. When these distributions were fitted to Gaussian curves, it was found that for biological dimers, the D vectors tend mostly to adopt a perpendicular arrangement with respect to each other, in which the constituting dipoles have the least interaction. A minor population tends towards an antiparallel arrangement implying maximum electric attraction. Also in biological dimers, the H vectors of most monomers tend to interact in such a way that the total hydrophobic moment of the dimer increases with respect to those of the monomers. This shows that hydrophobic moments have a tendency to align. In dimers originating in the crystallisation process, the distribution of angles formed by both hydrophobic and electric dipole moments appeared rather featureless, probably because of unspecific interactions in the crystallisation processes. The model does not describe direct interactions between H and D vectors although the distribution of angles formed by both vectors in dimers was analysed. It was found that in most cases these angles tended to be either small (both moments aligned parallel to each other) or large (antiparallel disposition). PMID:26658743
Multiple reflectors based autocollimator for three-dimensional angle measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Ang; Liu, Haibo; Yu, Qifeng
2015-03-01
This paper designs a multiple reflectors based autocollimator, and proposes a direct linear solution for three-dimensional (3D) angle measurement with the observation vectors of the reflected lights from the reflectors. In the measuring apparatus, the multiple reflectors is fixed with the object to be measured and the reflected lights are received by a CCD camera, then the light spots in the image are extracted to obtain the vectors of the reflected lights in space. Any rotation of the object will induce a change in the observation vectors of the reflected lights, which is used to solve the rotation matrix of the object by finding a linear solution of Wahba problem with the quaternion method, and then the 3D angle is obtained by decomposing the rotation matrix. This measuring apparatus can be implemented easily as the light path is simple, and the computation of 3D angle with observation vectors is efficient as there is no need to iterate. The proposed 3D angle measurement method is verified by a set of simulation experiments.
Issues in acoustic vector-sensor processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawkes, Malcolm Alistair
This dissertation examines the ability of acoustic vector sensors to solve the passive direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and 3-D localization problems. These sensors measure the three-dimensional acoustic particle velocity vector, as well as the acoustic pressure, at one location. By preserving directional information that is present in the structure of the velocity field, they gain a number of advantages over traditional arrays of scalar sensors, such as hydrophones and microphones. We compute and examine, through the Cramér-Rao bound and beam-forming based methods, the ability of arrays of acoustic vector sensors to estimate direction. We first consider the case of an array in free space then extend these results to account for the presence of a reflecting boundary, such as the seabed or a vessel's hull, located near the array. Next, we derive expressions for the noise correlation structure induced by various ambient noise fields, isotropic and anisotropic, at an acoustic vector sensor array, and use them to examine its localization performance. We then propose a decentralized processing scheme to rapidly locate a wideband target in three dimensions. Finally, we present a general framework for the analysis of errors associated with the estimation of a vector, or system of vectors, that has geometrical interpretations in terms of length, angle, etc. The framework is employed throughout the thesis.
Keasler, J A
2012-03-27
Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille
The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sims, B.
1978-01-01
Two articles in the "Scientific American" form the background of this note. The rainbow angle for the primary bow of a monochromatic Cartesian rainbow is calculated. Special projects for senior high school students could be patterned after this quantitative study. (MP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muench, Donald L.
2007-01-01
The problem of angle trisection continues to fascinate people even though it has long been known that it can't be done with straightedge and compass alone. However, for practical purposes, a good iterative procedure can get you as close as you want. In this note, we present such a procedure. Using only straightedge and compass, our procedure…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) is a 5 degree-of -freedom repulsive force magnetic suspension system designed to study the control of objects over large magnetic gaps. A digital control algorithm uses 6 sets of laser-sheet sensors and 5 control coils to position a cylinder 3' above the plane of electromagnetics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Julian W.
As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…
Note: A new angle-resolved proton energy spectrometer
Zheng, Y.; Su, L. N.; Liu, M.; Liu, B. C.; Shen, Z. W.; Fan, H. T.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Lu, X.; Ma, J. L.; Wang, W. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, J.
2013-09-15
In typical laser-driven proton acceleration experiments Thomson parabola proton spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectra with very small acceptance angle in specific directions. Stacks composed of CR-39 nuclear track detectors, imaging plates, or radiochromic films are used to measure the angular distributions of the proton beams, respectively. In this paper, a new proton spectrometer, which can measure the spectra and angular distributions simultaneously, has been designed. Proton acceleration experiments performed on the Xtreme light III laser system demonstrates that the spectrometer can give angle-resolved spectra with a large acceptance angle. This will be conductive to revealing the acceleration mechanisms, optimization, and applications of laser-driven proton beams.
Laser-driven electron acceleration in an inhomogeneous plasma channel
Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Li-Hong; Xue, Ju-Kui
2015-12-15
We study the laser-driven electron acceleration in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma channel. We find that, in inhomogeneous plasma channel, the developing of instability for electron acceleration and the electron energy gain can be controlled by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of plasma channel. That is, we can short the accelerating length and enhance the energy gain in inhomogeneous plasma channel by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of the plasma channel.
Accelerated Profile HMM Searches
Eddy, Sean R.
2011-01-01
Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs) and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the “multiple segment Viterbi” (MSV) algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call “sparse rescaling”. These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches. PMID:22039361
Robust angle-independent blood velocity estimation based on dual-angle plane wave imaging.
Fadnes, Solveig; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Nyrnes, Siri Ann; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional blood velocity estimation has shown potential to solve the angle-dependency of conventional ultrasound flow imaging. Clutter filtering, however, remains a major challenge for large beam-to-flow angles, leading to signal drop-outs and corrupted velocity estimates. This work presents and evaluates a compounding speckle tracking (ST) algorithm to obtain robust angle-independent 2-D blood velocity estimates for all beam-to-flow angles. A dual-angle plane wave imaging setup with full parallel receive beamforming is utilized to achieve high-frame-rate speckle tracking estimates from two scan angles, which may be compounded to obtain velocity estimates of increased robustness. The acquisition also allows direct comparison with vector Doppler (VD) imaging. Absolute velocity bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of the compounding ST estimations were investigated using simulations of a rotating flow phantom with low velocities ranging from 0 to 20 cm/s. In a challenging region where the estimates were influenced by clutter filtering, the bias and RMS error for the compounding ST estimates were 11% and 2 cm/s, a significant reduction compared with conventional single-angle ST (22% and 4 cm/s) and VD (36% and 6 cm/s). The method was also tested in vivo for vascular and neonatal cardiac imaging. In a carotid artery bifurcation, the obtained blood velocity estimates showed that the compounded ST method was less influenced by clutter filtering than conventional ST and VD methods. In the cardiac case, it was observed that ST velocity estimation is more affected by low signal-to-noise (SNR) than VD. However, with sufficient SNR the in vivo results indicated that a more robust angle-independent blood velocity estimator is obtained using compounded speckle tracking compared with conventional ST and VD methods. PMID:26470038
A Different Angle on Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frantz, Marc
2012-01-01
When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…
Internal performance of two nozzles utilizing gimbal concepts for thrust vectoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berrier, Bobby L.; Taylor, John G.
1990-01-01
The internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle and a nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle, both of which utilized a gimbal type mechanism for thrust vectoring was evaluated in the Static Test Facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The nonaxisymmetric nozzle used the gimbal concept for yaw thrust vectoring only; pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by simultaneous deflection of the upper and lower divergent flaps. The model geometric parameters investigated were pitch vector angle for the axisymmetric nozzle and pitch vector angle, yaw vector angle, nozzle throat aspect ratio, and nozzle expansion ratio for the nonaxisymmetric nozzle. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 12.0.
Bai,M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.
2008-10-01
To keep the spin tune in the spin depolarizing resonance free region is required for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. In RHIC, two snakes are located at the opposite side of each accelerator. They are configured to yield a spin tune of 1/2. Two pairs of spin rotators are located at either side of two detectors in each ring in RHIC to provide longitudinal polarization for the experiments. Since the spin rotation from vertical to longitudinal is localized between the two rotators, the spin rotators do not change the spin tune. However, due to the imperfection of the orbits around the snakes and rotators, the spin tune can be shifted. This note presents the impact of the horizontal orbital angle between the two snakes on the spin tune, as well as the effect of the vertical orbital angle between two rotators at either side of the collision point on the spin tune.
Closed-form integrator for the quaternion (euler angle) kinematics equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitmore, Stephen A. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
The invention is embodied in a method of integrating kinematics equations for updating a set of vehicle attitude angles of a vehicle using 3-dimensional angular velocities of the vehicle, which includes computing an integrating factor matrix from quantities corresponding to the 3-dimensional angular velocities, computing a total integrated angular rate from the quantities corresponding to a 3-dimensional angular velocities, computing a state transition matrix as a sum of (a) a first complementary function of the total integrated angular rate and (b) the integrating factor matrix multiplied by a second complementary function of the total integrated angular rate, and updating the set of vehicle attitude angles using the state transition matrix. Preferably, the method further includes computing a quanternion vector from the quantities corresponding to the 3-dimensional angular velocities, in which case the updating of the set of vehicle attitude angles using the state transition matrix is carried out by (a) updating the quanternion vector by multiplying the quanternion vector by the state transition matrix to produce an updated quanternion vector and (b) computing an updated set of vehicle attitude angles from the updated quanternion vector. The first and second trigonometric functions are complementary, such as a sine and a cosine. The quantities corresponding to the 3-dimensional angular velocities include respective averages of the 3-dimensional angular velocities over plural time frames. The updating of the quanternion vector preserves the norm of the vector, whereby the updated set of vehicle attitude angles are virtually error-free.
Symbolic computer vector analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoutemyer, D. R.
1977-01-01
A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behr, Bradford
2005-09-01
Tycho Brahe lived and worked in the late 1500s before the telescope was invented. He made highly accurate observations of the positions of planets, stars, and comets using large angle-measuring devices of his own design. You can use his techniques to observe the sky as well. For example, the degree, a common unit of measurement in astronomy, can be measured by holding your fist at arm's length up to the sky. Open your fist and observe the distance across the sky covered by the width of your pinky fingernail. That is, roughly, a degree! After some practice, and knowing that one degree equals four minutes, you can measure elapsed time by measuring the angle of the distance that the Moon appears to have moved and multiplying that number by four. You can also figure distances and sizes of things. These are not precise measurements, but rough estimates that can give you a "close-enough" answer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.
1985-01-01
A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Melissa J. B.
1993-01-01
Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.
Angle states in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Torre, A. C.; Iguain, J. L.
1998-12-01
Angle states and angle operators are defined for a system with arbitrary angular momentum. They provide a reasonable formalization of the concept of angle provided that we accept that the angular orientation is quantized. The angle operator is the generator of boosts in angular momentum and is, almost everywhere, linearly related to the logarithm of the shift operator. Angle states for fermions and bosons behave differently under parity transformation.
Small Angle Neutron Scattering
Urban, Volker S
2012-01-01
Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.
Static performance of nonaxisymmetric nozzles with yaw thrust-vectoring vanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.
1988-01-01
A static test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16 ft Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the effects of post exit vane vectoring on nonaxisymmetric nozzles. Three baseline nozzles were tested: an unvectored two dimensional convergent nozzle, an unvectored two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle, and a pitch vectored two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. Each nozzle geometry was tested with 3 exit aspect ratios (exit width divided by exit height) of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.0. Two post exit yaw vanes were externally mounted on the nozzle sidewalls at the nozzle exit to generate yaw thrust vectoring. Vane deflection angle (0, -20 and -30 deg), vane planform and vane curvature were varied during the test. Results indicate that the post exit vane concept produced resultant yaw vector angles which were always smaller than the geometric yaw vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust ratio increased with the magnitude of resultant yaw vector angle. The widest post exit vane produced the largest degree of flow turning, but vane curvature had little effect on thrust vectoring. Pitch vectoring was independent of yaw vectoring, indicating that multiaxis thrust vectoring is feasible for the nozzle concepts tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dandavino, S.; Ataman, C.; Ryan, C. N.; Chakraborty, S.; Courtney, D.; Stark, J. P. W.; Shea, H.
2014-07-01
Microfabricated electrospray thrusters could revolutionize the spacecraft industry by providing efficient propulsion capabilities to micro and nano satellites (1-100 kg). We present the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new generation of devices, for the first time integrating in the fabrication process individual accelerator electrodes capable of focusing and accelerating the emitted sprays. Integrating these electrodes is a key milestone in the development of this technology; in addition to increasing the critical performance metrics of thrust, specific impulse and propulsive efficiency, the accelerators enable a number of new system features such as power tuning and thrust vectoring and balancing. Through microfabrication, we produced high density arrays (213 emitters cm-2) of capillary emitters, assembling them at wafer-level with an extractor/accelerator electrode pair separated by micro-sandblasted glass. Through IV measurements, we could confirm that acceleration could be decoupled from the extraction of the spray—an important element towards the flexibility of this technology. We present the largest reported internally fed microfabricated arrays operation, with 127 emitters spraying in parallel, for a total beam of 10-30 µA composed by 95% of ions. Effective beam focusing was also demonstrated, with plume half-angles being reduced from approximately 30° to 15° with 2000 V acceleration. Based on these results, we predict, with 3000 V acceleration, thrust per emitter of 38.4 nN, specific impulse of 1103 s and a propulsive efficiency of 22% with <1 mW/emitter power consumption.
Proton Acceleration at Oblique Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.
2011-06-01
Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.
PROTON ACCELERATION AT OBLIQUE SHOCKS
Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.
2011-06-20
Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.
Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.
2002-01-01
There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ford, William J.
2010-01-01
This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.
1986-01-01
Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.
Esposito-Farese, Gilles; Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe
2010-03-15
This article provides a general study of the Hamiltonian stability and the hyperbolicity of vector field models involving both a general function of the Faraday tensor and its dual, f(F{sup 2},FF-tilde), as well as a Proca potential for the vector field, V(A{sup 2}). In particular it is demonstrated that theories involving only f(F{sup 2}) do not satisfy the hyperbolicity conditions. It is then shown that in this class of models, the cosmological dynamics always dilutes the vector field. In the case of a nonminimal coupling to gravity, it is established that theories involving Rf(A{sup 2}) or Rf(F{sup 2}) are generically pathologic. To finish, we exhibit a model where the vector field is not diluted during the cosmological evolution, because of a nonminimal vector field-curvature coupling which maintains second-order field equations. The relevance of such models for cosmology is discussed.
Vector generator scan converter
Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.
1988-02-05
High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.
Vector generator scan converter
Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.
1990-01-01
High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.
Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamb, Milton
1995-01-01
A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritykin, F.; Gordeev, O.
2016-04-01
The paper provides an algorithm of defining a service angle for planar mechanisms of manipulators having different structures of kinematic chains. The algorithm is based on the motion synthesis in the vector of velocities. The functions defining specified angle determination accuracy by the developed method are obtained.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Balabanian, Norman
This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.
Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona
Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
Laser angle measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.
1980-01-01
The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.
Energy dependent pitch angle distributions of auroral primary electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, N.
1988-01-01
Double-layer/parallel-electric field accelerations and the subsequent electron-beam plasma interactions involving Cerenkov and anomalous cyclotron resonances are considered. It is found that these phenomena yield pitch angle distributions as noted from rocket and satellite studies. Although the electron acceleration by weak parallel electric fields forming a runaway electron tail is limited to a critical parallel energy determined by the anomalous cyclotron resonance, such a limitation does not occur with acceleration by a localized parallel electric field such as that in a double layer.
Okamoto, Kenichi W.; Gould, Fred; Lloyd, Alun L.
2016-01-01
Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication) can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted). We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences—consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even modest
Okamoto, Kenichi W; Gould, Fred; Lloyd, Alun L
2016-03-01
Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication) can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted). We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences-consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even modest
Variable angle correlation spectroscopy
Lee, Y K
1994-05-01
In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.
Gibbons, Gary W.; Gielen, Steffen; Pope, C. N.; Turok, Neil
2009-01-01
We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1){sup 2}/SU(3)/U(1){sup 2}. We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of the measure, and compute expectation values for powers of J for these measures. We find that different choices of the measure generically make the observed magnitude of CP violation appear finely tuned. Since the quark masses and the mixing angles are determined by the same set of Yukawa couplings, we then do a second calculation in which we take the known quark mass hierarchy into account. We construct the simplest measure on the space of 3x3 Hermitian matrices which reproduces this known hierarchy. Calculating expectation values for powers of J in this second approach, we find that values of J close to the observed value are now rather likely, and there does not seem to be any fine-tuning. Our results suggest that the choice of Kobayashi-Maskawa angles is closely linked to the observed mass hierarchy. We close by discussing the corresponding case of neutrinos.
Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.
2007-02-06
A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deere, Karen A.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.
2007-01-01
A computational investigation of an axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept has been conducted. This fluidic thrust-vectoring nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting technique for improved thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver PAB3D was used to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. Nozzle design variables included extent of circumferential injection, cavity divergence angle, cavity length, and cavity convergence angle. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.89 to 10, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to zero and up to 4 percent of the primary flow rate. The effect of a variable expansion ratio on nozzle performance over a range of freestream Mach numbers up to 2 was investigated. Results indicated that a 60 circumferential injection was a good compromise between large thrust vector angles and efficient internal nozzle performance. A cavity divergence angle greater than 10 was detrimental to thrust vector angle. Shortening the cavity length improved internal nozzle performance with a small penalty to thrust vector angle. Contrary to expectations, a variable expansion ratio did not improve thrust efficiency at the flight conditions investigated.
Contaldi, Carlo R.
2014-10-01
The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Francis, Richard L.
1978-01-01
The author investigates the construction of angles (using Euclidean tools) through a numerical approach. He calls attention to the surprising impossibility of constructing the conventional units of angle measure--the degree, minute, second, radian, and mil. (MN)
Fractal vector optical fields.
Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2016-07-15
We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field. PMID:27420485
Interpolation of vector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, F.; Zhu, Y. M.; Rapacchi, S.; Luo, J. H.; Robini, M.; Croisille, P.
2011-03-01
There has recently been increased interest in developing tensor data processing methods for the new medical imaging modality referred to as diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). This paper proposes a method for interpolating the primary vector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI, with the particularity of achieving interpolation and denoising simultaneously. The method consists of localizing the noise-corrupted vectors using the local statistical properties of vector fields, removing the noise-corrupted vectors and reconstructing them by using the thin plate spline (TPS) model, and finally applying global TPS interpolation to increase the resolution in the spatial domain. Experiments on 17 human hearts show that the proposed method allows us to obtain higher resolution while reducing noise, preserving details and improving direction coherence (DC) of vector fields as well as fiber tracking. Moreover, the proposed method perfectly reconstructs azimuth and elevation angle maps.
Tilt Angles of Quiescent Filaments and Filaments of Active Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tlatov, A. G.; Kuzanyan, K. M.; Vasil'yeva, V. V.
2016-04-01
We carry out study of tilt angles of solar filaments using the data from the two observatories: Meudon Observatory and Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station for the century-long period 1919-2014. We developed special software for digitization of the filaments structures on Hα synoptic maps. The filaments were vectorized in semi-automatic mode. The tilt angles of filaments with respect to the equator (τ) were analyzed. Approximately 2/3 of the filaments have positive angles τ >0, which is defined as when the eastern end of the filaments are closer to the poles than the western ones. We have separated tilts for the filaments which are close to the active region structures and those of quiescent filaments. We found that long quiescent filaments mainly have negative tilts. The filaments which are close to active regions mainly have positive tilt angles.
Angle performance on optima MDxt
David, Jonathan; Kamenitsa, Dennis
2012-11-06
Angle control on medium current implanters is important due to the high angle-sensitivity of typical medium current implants, such as halo implants. On the Optima MDxt, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through six narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by electrostatically steering the beam, while cross-wafer beam parallelism is adjusted by changing the focus of the electrostatic parallelizing lens (P-lens). In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen prior to implant. A variety of tests were run to measure the accuracy and repeatability of Optima MDxt's angle control. SIMS profiles of a high energy, channeling sensitive condition show both the cross-wafer angle uniformity, along with the small-angle resolution of the system. Angle repeatability was quantified by running a channeling sensitive implant as a regular monitor over a seven month period and measuring the sheet resistance-to-angle sensitivity. Even though crystal cut error was not controlled for in this case, when attributing all Rs variation to angle changes, the overall angle repeatability was measured as 0.16 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}). A separate angle repeatability test involved running a series of V-curves tests over a four month period using low crystal cut wafers selected from the same boule. The results of this test showed the angle repeatability to be <0.1 Degree-Sign (1{sigma}).
Advanced concepts for acceleration
Keefe, D.
1986-07-01
Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)
Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud
2010-01-01
A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flippin, A.; Schmitt, A. L. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
A circular computer and system is disclosed for determining the sun angle relative to the horizon from any given place and at any time. The computer includes transparent, rotatably mounted discs on both sides of the circular disc member. Printed on one side of the circular disc member are outer and inner circular sets of indicia respectively representative of site longitude and Greenwich Mean Time. Printed on an associated one of the rotatable discs is a set of indicia representative of Solar Time. Printed on the other side of the circular disc member are parallel lines representative of latitude between diametral representations of North and South poles. Elliptical lines extending between the North and South poles are proportionally disposed on the surface to scale Solar Time in hours.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curjel, C. R.
1990-01-01
Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.
Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona
Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
Accelerators and the Accelerator Community
Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew
2008-06-01
In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.
1994-01-01
In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.
Carrigan, Charles R.
2011-08-02
A determination is made of frequency components associated with a particular bearing or location resulting from sources emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. The broadband frequency components associated with a specific direction or location of interest are isolated from other components in the power spectrum that are not associated with the direction or location of interest. The collection of pointing vectors can be used to characterize the source.
Computational Study of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring using Separation Control in a Nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deere, Karen; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.
2003-01-01
A computational investigation of a two- dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D was used to guide the design and analyze over 60 configurations. Nozzle design variables included cavity convergence angle, cavity length, fluidic injection angle, upstream minimum height, aft deck angle, and aft deck shape. All simulations were computed with a static freestream Mach number of 0.05. a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.858, and a fluidic injection flow rate equal to 6 percent of the primary flow rate. Results indicate that the recessed cavity enhances the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring and allows for greater thrust-vector angles without compromising thrust efficiency.
Lectures in accelerator theory
Month, M
1980-01-01
Lecture I deals with the behavior of particles in the nonlinear field arising from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding beams. The case treated, that of counter-rotating proton beams crossing each other at a non-zero angle, has the simple feature that the force between the beam is one dimensional. In lecture II, an analysis of the development of traveling waves on particle beams is presented. The situation studied is that of a uniform beam current in a circular accelerator and the excitation for the coherent motion is induced by the resistivity of the vacuum chamber wall. Finally, in lecture III, a description of the current accumulation process used at the proton storage rings at CERN (The ISR) is given. Particle pulses of rather low average current are injected and stored along the length and width of the vacuum chamber. The efficiency is very high and large currents (over 40 amperes) have been achieved.
Pulsed electromagnetic acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.
1973-01-01
Direct measurements of the power deposited in the anode of a multimegawatt MPD accelerator using thermocouples attached to a thin shell anode reveal a dramatic decrease in the fractional anode power from 50% at 200 KW input power to less than 10% at 20 MW power. The corresponding local power flux peak at a value of 10,000 W/sq cm at the lip of the anode exhaust orifice, a distribution traced to a corresponding peak in the local current density at the anode. A comparison of voltage-current characteristics and spectral photographs of the MPD discharge using quartz, boron nitride and plexiglas insulators with various mass injection configurations led to the identification of different voltage modes and regions of ablation free operation. The technique of piezoelectric impact pressure measurement in the MPD exhaust flow was refined to account for the effects due to probe yaw angle.
Nondiffracting accelerating wave packets of Maxwell's equations.
Kaminer, Ido; Bekenstein, Rivka; Nemirovsky, Jonathan; Segev, Mordechai
2012-04-20
We present the nondiffracting spatially accelerating solutions of the Maxwell equations. Such beams accelerate in a circular trajectory, thus generalizing the concept of Airy beams to the full domain of the wave equation. For both TE and TM polarizations, the beams exhibit shape-preserving bending which can have subwavelength features, and the Poynting vector of the main lobe displays a turn of more than 90°. We show that these accelerating beams are self-healing, analyze their properties, and find the new class of accelerating breathers: self-bending beams of periodically oscillating shapes. Finally, we emphasize that in their scalar form, these beams are the exact solutions for nondispersive accelerating wave packets of the most common wave equation describing time-harmonic waves. As such, this work has profound implications to many linear wave systems in nature, ranging from acoustic and elastic waves to surface waves in fluids and membranes. PMID:22680719
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norton, F H; Allen, E T
1921-01-01
This report deals with the accelerations obtained in flight on various airplanes at Langley Field for the purpose of obtaining the magnitude of the load factors in flight and to procure information on the behavior of an airplane in various maneuvers. The instrument used in these tests was a recording accelerometer of a new type designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists of a flat steel spring supported rigidly at one end so that the free end may be deflected by its own weight from its neutral position by any acceleration acting at right angles to the plane of the spring. This deflection is measured by a very light tilting mirror caused to rotate by the deflection of the spring, which reflected the beam of light onto a moving film. The motion of the spring is damped by a thin aluminum vane which rotates with the spring between the poles of an electric magnet. Records were taken on landings and takeoffs, in loops, spins, spirals, and rolls.
Thrust Vector Control using movable probes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cavalleri, Robert; Tiarn, Weihnurng; Readey, Harvey
1990-01-01
A study was undertaken to determine if movable probes or struts positioned in the nozzle can be used to provide Thrust Vector Control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The study employed CFD to determine estimates of the shock standoff distance from the probe. An empirical correlation was used to construct the shock shape and the pressure distribution generated by the probe. The TVC performance for a single and multiple number of probes was then used to determine requirements for a maximum thrust angle offset of 7.5 degrees. Consideration was given to what materials would be suitable for the probe and if active cooling is required. Based on the performance analysis and thermal requirements, a Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) system was sized. Indications are that a PTVC system weight is in the 1500 1bm weight range, compared to the existing weight of 7500 1bm for the SRB nozzle gimble system.
Analytical study of diffusive relativistic shock acceleration.
Keshet, Uri
2006-12-01
Particle acceleration in relativistic shocks is studied analytically in the test-particle, small-angle scattering limit, for an arbitrary velocity-angle diffusion function D. The particle spectral index s is found to be sensitive to D, particularly downstream and at certain angles. The analysis, confirmed numerically, justifies and generalizes previous results for isotropic diffusion. It can be used to test collisionless shock models and to observationally constrain D. For example, strongly forward- or backward-enhanced diffusion downstream is ruled out by gamma-ray burst afterglow observations. PMID:17155790
Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.
Reinhart, Robert M G; McClenahan, Laura J; Woodman, Geoffrey F
2016-06-01
How do people get attention to operate at peak efficiency in high-pressure situations? We tested the hypothesis that the general mechanism that allows this is the maintenance of multiple target representations in working and long-term memory. We recorded subjects' event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing the working memory and long-term memory representations used to control attention while performing visual search. We found that subjects used both types of memories to control attention when they performed the visual search task with a large reward at stake, or when they were cued to respond as fast as possible. However, under normal circumstances, one type of target memory was sufficient for slower task performance. The use of multiple types of memory representations appears to provide converging top-down control of attention, allowing people to step on the attentional accelerator in a variety of high-pressure situations. PMID:27056975
Generalization of the Euler Angles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis
2002-01-01
It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.
Small angle neutron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cousin, Fabrice
2015-10-01
Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ˜ 1 nm up to ˜ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ˜ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area…) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer
New magic angle bumps and magic translation bumps
Seeman, J.
1983-10-28
SLC beams of opposite charge can be transversely deflected in the same direction by RF fields in the accelerating cavities caused by girder tilts, coupler-asymmetries, or manufacturing errors. A symmetric deflection can be corrected by a magic angle bump if the deflection is located adjacent to one of the linac quadrupoles. However, if the deflection is located between quadrupoles, two magic angle bumps or a magic angle bump and a magic translation bump are needed for the correction. Several examples of translation bumps are included. A new magic angle bump is also presented which is longitudinally compressed and has significantly reduced particle excursions. Finally, if new correctors are added midway along the girders so that the number of correctors are doubled, then the longitudinal extent and the maximum particle excursion of these new magic bumps can be further reduced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu
2012-07-01
Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin-one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the Higgs mass is often predicted to be 120-125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of Higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this Letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhenya
2011-11-01
The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.
Appel, A.W.; Bendiksen, A.
1988-01-01
Garbage collection can be done in vector mode on supercomputers like the Cray-2 and the Cyber 205. Both copying collection and mark-and-sweep can be expressed as breadth-first searches in which the queue can be processed in parallel. The authors have designed a copying garbage collector whose inner loop works entirely in vector mode. The only significant limitation of the algorithm is that if the size of the records is not constant, the implementation becomes much more complicated. The authors give performance measurements of the algorithm as implemented for Lisp CONS cells on the Cyber 205. Vector-mode garbage collection performs up to 9 times faster than scalar-mode collection.
A variable acceleration calibration system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Thomas H.
2011-12-01
A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.
[Angle-closure chronic glaucoma].
Lachkar, Y
2003-10-01
The incidence of chronic angle closure glaucoma is considerably greater than the incidence of the acute type. This type of glaucoma may mimic primary open angle glaucoma with visual field deterioration, optic nerve alteration and intraocular pressure elevation with a quiet painless eye. Its diagnosis is based on indentation gonioscopy showing peripheral anterior synechiae. The mechanisms of angle closure are the pupillary block, the plateau iris configuration and the creeping form. The treatment of chronic angle closure glaucoma is based on laser peripheral iridotomy. PMID:14646832
Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions
Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.
2014-01-01
The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel
2016-01-01
We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.
The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Froehle, Peter H.
2009-01-01
As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.
Sparagano, O A E; De Luna, C J
2008-07-01
Epidemiological studies on vectors and the pathogens they can carry (such as Borrelia burgdorferi) are showing some correlations between infection rates and biodiversity highlighting the "dilution" effects on potential vectors. Meanwhile other studies comparing sympatric small rodent species demonstrated that rodent species transmitting more pathogens are parasitized by more ectoparasite species. Studies on population structure and size have also proven a difference on the intensity of the parasitic infection. Furthermore, preliminary results in genetic improvement in mosquitoes (genetic markers, sexing, and genetic sterilization) will also increase performance as it has already been shown in field applications in developing countries. Recent results have greatly improved the fitness of genetically-modified insects compared to wild type populations with new approaches such as the post-integration elimination of transposon sequences, stabilising any insertion in genetically-modified insects. Encouraging results using the Sterile Insect Technique highlighted some metabolism manipulation to avoid the viability of offspring from released parent insect in the wild. Recent studies on vector symbionts would also bring a new angle in vector control capabilities, while complete DNA sequencing of some arthropods could point out ways to block the deadly impact on animal and human populations. These new potential approaches will improve the levels of control or even in some cases would eradicate vector species and consequently the vector-borne diseases they can transmit. In this paper we review some of the population biology theories, biological control methods, and the genetic techniques that have been published in the last years that are recommended to control for vector-borne diseases. PMID:17560836
Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wing, David J.
1994-01-01
The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated
Efficient Execution of Recursive Programs on Commodity Vector Hardware
Ren, Bin; Jo, Youngjoon; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Kulkarni, Milind
2015-06-13
The pursuit of computational efficiency has led to the proliferation of throughput-oriented hardware, from GPUs to increasingly-wide vector units on commodity processors and accelerators. This hardware is designed to efficiently execute data-parallel computations in a vectorized manner. However, many algorithms are more naturally expressed as divide-and-conquer, recursive, task-parallel computations; in the absence of data parallelism, it seems that such algorithms are not well-suited to throughput-oriented architectures. This paper presents a set of novel code transformations that expose the data-parallelism latent in recursive, task-parallel programs. These transformations facilitate straightforward vectorization of task-parallel programs on commodity hardware. We also present scheduling policies that maintain high utilization of vector resources while limiting space usage. Across several task-parallel benchmarks, we demonstrate both efficient vector resource utilization and substantial speedup on chips using Intel's SSE4.2 vector units as well as accelerators using Intel's AVX512 units.
Ultra thin fiber laser vector hydrophone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Rui; Zhang, Wentao; He, Jun; Li, Fang; Liu, Yuliang
2011-05-01
This paper presents a two-axis fiber laser vector hydrophone which uses a V-shaped flexed beam to enhance the sensitivity and reduce the dimensions. Theoretical analyses of the sensitivity and frequent response are given. The key parameters that determine the sensitivity and resonant frequency are discussed. The experimental results show an acceleration sensitivity of 39.2 pm/g and 53.2 pm/g at the x, y axis respectively, a resonant frequency of about 310 Hz, and a directivity resolution larger than 20 dB.
Photon acceleration in plasma wake wave
Bu, Zhigang; Shen, Baifei Yi, Longqing; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Shan; Li, Shun
2015-04-15
The photon acceleration effect in a laser wake field is investigated based on photon Hamiltonian dynamics. A test laser pulse is injected into a plasma wave at an incident angle θ{sub i}, which could slow down the photon velocity along the propagating direction of the wake wave so as to increase the acceleration distance for the photons. The photon trapping condition is analyzed in detail, and the maximum frequency shift of the trapped photon is obtained. The acceleration gradient and dephasing length are emphatically studied. The compression of the test laser pulse is examined and used to interpret the acceleration process. The limit of finite transverse width of the wake wave on photon acceleration is also discussed.
X-31 high angle of attack control system performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huber, Peter; Seamount, Patricia
1994-01-01
The design goals for the X-31 flight control system were: (1) level 1 handling qualities during post-stall maneuvering (30 to 70 degrees angle-of-attack); (2) thrust vectoring to enhance performance across the flight envelope; and (3) adequate pitch-down authority at high angle-of-attack. Additional performance goals are discussed. A description of the flight control system is presented, highlighting flight control system features in the pitch and roll axes and X-31 thrust vectoring characteristics. The high angle-of-attack envelope clearance approach will be described, including a brief explanation of analysis techniques and tools. Also, problems encountered during envelope expansion will be discussed. This presentation emphasizes control system solutions to problems encountered in envelope expansion. An essentially 'care free' envelope was cleared for the close-in-combat demonstrator phase. High angle-of-attack flying qualities maneuvers are currently being flown and evaluated. These results are compared with pilot opinions expressed during the close-in-combat program and with results obtained from the F-18 HARV for identical maneuvers. The status and preliminary results of these tests are discussed.
Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun
2014-05-01
The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.
Going round the bend: Persistent personal biases in walked angles.
Jetzschke, Simon; Ernst, Marc O; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Boeddeker, Norbert
2016-03-23
For navigation through our environment, we can rely on information from various modalities, such as vision and audition. This information enables us for example to estimate our position relative to the starting position, or to integrate velocity and acceleration signals from the vestibular organ and proprioception to estimate the displacement due to self-motion. To better understand the mechanisms that underlie human navigation we analysed the performance of participants in an angle-walking task in the absence of visual and auditory signals. To this end, we guided them along paths of different lengths and asked them to turn by an angle of ±90°. We found significant biases in turn angles, i.e. systematic deviations from the correct angle and that these were characteristic for individual participants. Varying path length, however, had little effect on turn accuracy and precision. To check whether this idiosyncrasy was persistent over time and present in another type of walking task, we performed a second experiment several weeks later. Here, the same participants were guided to walk angles with varying amplitude. We then asked them to judge whether they had walked an angle larger or smaller than 90° in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The personal bias was highly correlated between the two experiments even though they were conducted weeks apart. The presence of a persistent bias in walked angles in the absence of external directional cues indicates a possible error component for navigation, which is surprisingly time stable and idiosyncratic. PMID:26854843
Application of Bred Vectors To Data Assimilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corazza, M.; Kalnay, E.; Patil, Dj
,0,0]=1.8, less than 2 because one direction is more dominant than the other in representing the original data. The results (Patil et al, 2001) show that there are large regions where the bred vectors span a subspace of substantially lower dimension than that of the full space. These low dimensionality regions are dominant in the baroclinic extratropics, typically have a lifetime of 3-7 days, have a well-defined horizontal and vertical structure that spans 1 most of the atmosphere, and tend to move eastward. New results with a large number of ensemble members confirm these results and indicate that the low dimensionality regions are quite robust, and depend only on the verification time (i.e., the underlying flow). Corazza et al (2001) have performed experiments with a data assimilation system based on a quasi-geostrophic model and simulated observations (Morss, 1999, Hamill et al, 2000). A 3D-variational data assimilation scheme for a quasi-geostrophic chan- nel model is used to study the structure of the background error and its relationship to the corresponding bred vectors. The "true" evolution of the model atmosphere is defined by an integration of the model and "rawinsonde observations" are simulated by randomly perturbing the true state at fixed locations. It is found that after 3-5 days the bred vectors develop well organized structures which are very similar for the two different norms considered in this paper (potential vorticity norm and streamfunction norm). The results show that the bred vectors do indeed represent well the characteristics of the data assimilation forecast errors, and that the subspace of bred vectors contains most of the forecast error, except in areas where the forecast errors are small. For example, the angle between the 6hr forecast error and the subspace spanned by 10 bred vectors is less than 10o over 90% of the domain, indicating a pattern correlation of more than 98.5% between the forecast error and its projection onto the bred vector