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Sample records for accelerator-based bnct facility

  1. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. PMID:24365468

  2. Radiation shielding and patient organ dose study for an accelerator- based BNCT Facility at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, S.V.; Vujic, J.; Donahue, R.J.

    1996-10-24

    This study considers the radiation safety aspects of several designs discussed in a previous report of an accelerator-based source of neutrons, based on the [sup 7]Li(p,n) reaction, for a Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). determines the optimal radiation shield thicknesses for the patient treatment room. Since this is an experimental facility no moderator or reflector is considered in the bulk wall shield design. This will allow the flexibility of using any postulated moderator/reflector design and assumes sufficient shielding even in the absence of a moderator/reflector. In addition the accelerator is assumed to be capable of producing 100 mA of 2.5 MeV proton beam current. The addition of 1% and 2% [sup 10]B (by weight) to the concrete is also investigated. The second part of this paper determines the radiation dose to the major organs of a patient during a treatment. Simulations use the MIRD 5 anthropomorphic phantom to calculate organ doses from a 20 mA proton beam assuming various envisioned moderator/reflector in place. Doses are tabulated by component and for a given uniform [sup 10]B loading in all organs. These are presented in for a BeO moderator and for an Al/AlF[sub 3] moderator. Dose estimates for different [sup 10]B loadings may be scaled.

  3. Neutronics analysis of three beam-filter assemblies for an accelerator-based BNCT facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, D.L.; Costes, S.V.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    Three moderator materials, AlF{sub 3}/Al, D{sub 2}O and LiF, have been analyzed for clinical usefulness using the reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n) as an accelerator driven neutron source. Proton energies between 2.1 MeV and 2.6 MeV have been investigated. Radiation transport in the reflector/moderator assembly is simulated using the MCNP program. Depth-dose distributions in a head phanton are calculated with the BNCT-RTPE patient treatment planning program from INEEL using the MCNP generated neutron and photon spectra as the subsequent source. Clinical efficacy is compared using the current BMRR protocol for all designs. Depth-dose distributions are compared for a fixed normal tissue tolerance dose of 12.5 Gy-Eq. Radiation analyses also include a complete anthropomorphic phantom. Results of organ and whole body dose components are presented for several designs. Results indicate that high quality accelerator beams may produce clinically favorable treatments to deep-seated tumors when compared to the BMRR beam. Also discussed are problems identified in comparing accelerator and reactor based designs using in-air figures of merit as well as some results of spectrum-averaged RBE`s.

  4. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  5. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  6. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Evans, J F; Blue, T E

    1996-11-01

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions "How much?" and "What kind?" of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room , patient "scatterer," and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. PMID:8887513

  7. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.F.; Blue, T.E.

    1996-11-01

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions {open_quotes}How much?{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}What kind?{close_quotes} of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room, patient {open_quotes}scatterer,{close_quotes} and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h{sup {minus}1} was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.F.; Blue, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    For several years, research has been ongoing in the Ohio State University (OSU) Nuclear Engineering Program toward the development of an accelerator-based irradiation facility (ANIF) neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ANIF, which is planned to be built in a hospital, has been conceptually designed and analyzed. After Qu, an OSU researcher, determined that the shielding design of a 6-MV X-ray treatment room was inadequate to protect personnel from an accelerator neutron source operating at 30 mA, we decided to analyze and determine the shielding requirements of a treatment room for an ANIF. We determined the amount of shielding that would be sufficient to protect facility personnel from excessive radiation exposure caused by operation of the accelerator at 30 mA.

  9. Hybrid photoneutron source optimization for electron accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, F.; Shahriari, M.

    2010-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is being studied as a possible radiotherapic treatment for some cancer types. Neutron energy for penetrating into tissue should be in the epithermal range. Different methods are used for neutron production. Electron accelerators are an alternative way for producing neutrons in electron-photon-neutron processes. Optimization of electron/photon and photoneutron targets calculations with respect to electron energy, dimension (radius and thickness) and neutron yield were done by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. According to the results, a hybrid photoneutron source including BeD 2 and Tungsten has been introduced.

  10. Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

  11. Tandem-ESQ for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A. J.; Kwan, J. W.; Henestroza, E.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Minsky, D.; Debray, M.; Valda, A.; Somacal, H. R.

    2007-02-12

    A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ElectroStatic Quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed as a machine for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT). The machine is shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep seated tumors in less than an hour.

  12. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1999-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase 1/2 clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra, alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  13. ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATOR BASED NEUTRON SPECTRA FOR BNCT USING PROTON RECOIL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    WIELOPOLSKI,L.; LUDEWIG,H.; POWELL,J.R.; RAPARIA,D.; ALESSI,J.G.; LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    1998-11-06

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  14. Beam shaping assembly optimization for (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be accelerator based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-06-01

    Within the framework of accelerator-based BNCT, a project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator is under way at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The proposed accelerator is conceived to deliver a proton beam of 30mA at about 2.5MeV. In this work we explore a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be neutron production reaction to obtain neutron beams to treat deep seated tumors. PMID:24345525

  15. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Curzio, G.; d'Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in 10B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  16. Experimental dosimetry and beam evaluation in a phantom for near lithium threshold accelerator based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudchadker, R. J.; Lee, C. L.; Harker, Y. D.; Harmon, F.

    1999-06-01

    Current accelerator-based neutron source concepts for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are centered on the lithium (p,n) reaction. The near lithium threshold source concept uses proton energies ≲100 keV above the reaction threshold energy (1.88 MeV). For deeply seated brain tumors, epithermal (1 eV to 10 keV) neutrons are needed to penetrate the skull cap and subsequently thermalize at the tumor location. All BNCT neutron sources inherently have thermal, fast neutron and gamma-ray contamination. In order to quantify the thermal neutron component, a cylindrical acrylic head phantom has been constructed to simulate the patient's head and neck. BF3 proportional counters have been used to determine the thermal neutron flux (boron dose). The thermal neutron flux component has been compared with Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code calculations. Our results indicate a good comparison between the MCNP code calculations and the benchmark experiments performed. The results also indicate that the near threshold neutron concept is competitive with other BNCT neutron sources.

  17. Experimental dosimetry and beam evaluation in a phantom for near lithium threshold accelerator based BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, R. J.; Harmon, F.; Lee, C. L.; Harker, Y. D.

    1999-06-10

    Current accelerator-based neutron source concepts for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are centered on the lithium (p,n) reaction. The near lithium threshold source concept uses proton energies < or approx. 100 keV above the reaction threshold energy (1.88 MeV). For deeply seated brain tumors, epithermal (1 eV to 10 keV) neutrons are needed to penetrate the skull cap and subsequently thermalize at the tumor location. All BNCT neutron sources inherently have thermal, fast neutron and gamma-ray contamination. In order to quantify the thermal neutron component, a cylindrical acrylic head phantom has been constructed to simulate the patient's head and neck. BF{sub 3} proportional counters have been used to determine the thermal neutron flux (boron dose). The thermal neutron flux component has been compared with Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code calculations. Our results indicate a good comparison between the MCNP code calculations and the benchmark experiments performed. The results also indicate that the near threshold neutron concept is competitive with other BNCT neutron sources.

  18. Progress on the accelerator based SPES-BNCT project at INFN Legnaro

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, J.; Colautti, P.; Pisent, A.; Conte, V.; Moro, D.; De Nardo, L.; Agosteo, S.; Rosi, G.

    2007-02-12

    In the framework of an advanced Exotic Ion Beam facility, named SPES (Study and Production of Exotic Species), that will allow a frontier program both in nuclear and interdisciplinary physics, an intense thermal neutron beam facility, devoted to perform Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experimental treatments on skin melanoma tumor, is currently under construction based on the SPES proton driver. A vast radiobiological investigation in vitro and in vivo has started with the new 10B carriers developed. Special microdosimetric detectors have been constructed to properly measure all the BNCT dose components and their qualities. Both microdosimetric and radiobiological measurements are being performed at the new HYTHOR beam shaping assembly at the Enea-Casaccia TAPIRO reactor.

  19. High neutronic efficiency, low current targets for accelerator-based BNCT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1998-08-01

    The neutronic efficiency of target/filters for accelerator-based BNCT applications is measured by the proton current required to achieve a desirable neutron current at the treatment port (10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}/s). In this paper the authors describe two possible targeyt/filter concepts wihch minimize the required current. Both concepts are based on the Li-7 (p,n)Be-7 reaction. Targets that operate near the threshold energy generate neutrons that are close tothe desired energy for BNCT treatment. Thus, the filter can be extremely thin ({approximately} 5 cm iron). However, this approach has an extremely low neutron yield (n/p {approximately} 1.0({minus}6)), thus requiring a high proton current. The proposed solutino is to design a target consisting of multiple extremely thin targets (proton energy loss per target {approximately} 10 keV), and re-accelerate the protons between each target. Targets operating at ihgher proton energies ({approximately} 2.5 MeV) have a much higher yield (n/p {approximately} 1.0({minus}4)). However, at these energies the maximum neutron energy is approximately 800 keV, and thus a neutron filter is required to degrade the average neutron energy to the range of interest for BNCT (10--20 keV). A neutron filter consisting of fluorine compounds and iron has been investigated for this case. Typically a proton current of approximately 5 mA is required to generate the desired neutron current at the treatment port. The efficiency of these filter designs can be further increased by incorporating neutron reflectors that are co-axial with the neutron source. These reflectors are made of materials which have high scattering cross sections in the range 0.1--1.0 MeV.

  20. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of accelerator based epithermal neutron yields for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J. R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J. G.; Alburger, D. E.; Zucker, M. S.; Lowenstein, D. I.

    1999-06-01

    At BNL, we have evaluated the beam current required to produce a clinical neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) with an epithermal neutron flux of 1012n/cm2/hr. Experiments were carried out on a Van de Graaff accelerator at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) at Columbia University. A thick Li target was irradiated by protons with energies from 1.8 to 2.5 MeV. The neutron spectra resulting from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, followed by various filter configurations, were determined by measuring pulse height distributions with a gas filled proton recoil spectrometer. These distributions were unfolded into neutron energy spectra using the PSNS code, from which the required beam currents were estimated to be about 5 mA. Results are in good agreement with calculations using the MCNP-4A transport code. In addition comparison was also made between the neutron flux obtained at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (where clinical trials of BNCT are ongoing), and measurements at RARAF, using a 10BF3 detector in a phantom. These results also support the requirement for about 5 mA beam current.

  1. Design of photon converter and photoneutron target for High power electron accelerator based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Faezeh; Seifi, Samaneh; Anbaran, Hossein Tavakoli; Ghasemi, Farshad

    2015-12-01

    An electron accelerator, ILU-14, with current of 10 mA and 100 kW in power has been considered as one of the options for neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The final design of neutron target has been obtained using MCNPX to optimize the neutron production. Tungsten in strip shape and D2O in cylindrical form have been proposed as the photon converter and the photoneutron target, respectively. In addition calculation of heat deposition in the photon target design has been considered to ensure mechanical stability of target. The results show that about 8.37×10(12) photoneutron/s with average energy of 615 keV can be produced by this neutron source design. In addition, using an appropriate beam shaping assembly an epithermal neutron flux of the order of 1.24×10(8) cm(-2) s(-1) can be obtained for BNCT applications. PMID:26278347

  2. BNL ACCELERATOR-BASED RADIOBIOLOGY FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    2000-05-28

    For the past several years, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) has provided ions of iron, silicon and gold, at energies from 600 MeV/nucleon to 10 GeV/nucleon, for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) radiobiology research program. NASA has recently funded the construction of a new dedicated ion facility, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The Booster synchrotron will supply ion beams ranging from protons to gold, in an energy range from 40--3,000 MeV/nucleon with maximum beam intensities of 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 11} ions per pulse. The BAF Project is described and the future AGS and BAF operation plans are presented.

  3. Accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and method

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, Woo Y.; Jones, James L.; Nigg, David W.; Harker, Yale D.

    1999-01-01

    A source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) comprises a body of photoneutron emitter that includes heavy water and is closely surrounded in heat-imparting relationship by target material; one or more electron linear accelerators for supplying electron radiation having energy of substantially 2 to 10 MeV and for impinging such radiation on the target material, whereby photoneutrons are produced and heat is absorbed from the target material by the body of photoneutron emitter. The heavy water is circulated through a cooling arrangement to remove heat. A tank, desirably cylindrical or spherical, contains the heavy water, and a desired number of the electron accelerators circumferentially surround the tank and the target material as preferably made up of thin plates of metallic tungsten. Neutrons generated within the tank are passed through a surrounding region containing neutron filtering and moderating materials and through neutron delimiting structure to produce a beam or beams of epithermal neutrons normally having a minimum flux intensity level of 1.0.times.10.sup.9 neutrons per square centimeter per second. Such beam or beams of epithermal neutrons are passed through gamma ray attenuating material to provide the required epithermal neutrons for BNCT use.

  4. Accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and method

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, W.Y.; Jones, J.L.; Nigg, D.W.; Harker, Y.D.

    1999-05-11

    A source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) comprises a body of photoneutron emitter that includes heavy water and is closely surrounded in heat-imparting relationship by target material; one or more electron linear accelerators for supplying electron radiation having energy of substantially 2 to 10 MeV and for impinging such radiation on the target material, whereby photoneutrons are produced and heat is absorbed from the target material by the body of photoneutron emitter. The heavy water is circulated through a cooling arrangement to remove heat. A tank, desirably cylindrical or spherical, contains the heavy water, and a desired number of the electron accelerators circumferentially surround the tank and the target material as preferably made up of thin plates of metallic tungsten. Neutrons generated within the tank are passed through a surrounding region containing neutron filtering and moderating materials and through neutron delimiting structure to produce a beam or beams of epithermal neutrons normally having a minimum flux intensity level of 1.0{times}10{sup 9} neutrons per square centimeter per second. Such beam or beams of epithermal neutrons are passed through gamma ray attenuating material to provide the required epithermal neutrons for BNCT use. 3 figs.

  5. Characterisation of the TAPIRO BNCT epithermal facility.

    PubMed

    Burn, K W; Colli, V; Curzio, G; d'Errico, F; Gambarini, G; Rosi, G; Scolari, L

    2004-01-01

    A collimated epithermal beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) research has been designed and built at the TAPIRO fast research reactor. A complete experimental characterisation of the radiation field in the irradiation chamber has been performed, to verify agreement with IAEA requirements. Slow neutron fluxes have been measured by means of an activation technique and with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). The fast neutron dose has been determined with gel dosemeters, while the fast neutron spectrum has been acquired by means of a neutron spectrometer based on superheated drop detectors. The gamma-dose has been measured with gel dosemeters and TLDs. For an independent verification of the experimental results, fluxes, doses and neutron spectra have been calculated with Monte Carlo simulations using the codes MCNP4B and MCNPX_2.1.5 with the direct statistical approach (DSA). The results obtained confirm that the epithermal beams achievable at TAPIRO are of suitable quality for BNCT purposes. PMID:15353724

  6. BNCT filter design studies for the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Slater, C.O.; Williams, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the United States has entered into a new phase with the initiation of clinical trials using neutron sources at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. If these trials are successful at demonstrating the efficacy of BNCT as a viable treatment for glioblastoma multiforme, then there will be an immediate demand for several additional neutron sources in order to treat the several thousand patients currently diagnosed with glioblastomas in the U.S. each year. However, the requirements for an acceptable neutron source for BNCT are rather severe in terms of the need to provide a sufficient number of epithermal neutrons to a patient-accessible location in a reasonable time with minimal thermal-neutron, fast- neutron, and gamma-ray background. A recent study of potential neutron sources at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been completed, which concludes that the Tower Shielding Facility (TSF), also appears very well suited for BNCT. The light-water-cooled reactor is contained in an aluminum pressure vessel and located in a large concrete `bunker` referred to as the Big Beam Shield (BBS). The BBS contains a 77-cm-diameter beam collimator, which permits access to a broad beam neutron flux exceeding 4 x 10[sup ll] Cm[sup -2]s[sup- 1] at the operational power of 1 MW. The collimated beam emerges horizontally onto an unenclosed test pad area on which shield mockups were assembled. The appropriate beam filter and collimator system can be easily constructed in the expansive area previously used for the large shield mockups. Additional engineering of the beam shutter mechanism and the construction of treatment support facilities will be needed but can be easily accommodated on the remote dedicated site. The filter design analysis is provided.

  7. PBF/BNCT (Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) Program for Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-03-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT (Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) during March 1990 include progress within the areas of: gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine, analytical methodologies development for BSH (Borocaptate Sodium) purity determination, dosimetry, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support, PBF operations.

  8. Experimental and Simulated Characterization of a Beam Shaping Assembly for Accelerator- Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, Alejandro A.; Girola, Santiago; Valda, Alejandro A.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    In the frame of the construction of a Tandem Electrostatic Quadrupole Accelerator facility devoted to the Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a Beam Shaping Assembly has been characterized by means of Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements. The neutrons were generated via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction by irradiating a thick LiF target with a 2.3 MeV proton beam delivered by the TANDAR accelerator at CNEA. The emerging neutron flux was measured by means of activation foils while the beam quality and directionality was evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The parameters show compliance with those suggested by IAEA. Finally, an improvement adding a beam collimator has been evaluated.

  9. Experimental and Simulated Characterization of a Beam Shaping Assembly for Accelerator- Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Burlon, Alejandro A.; Valda, Alejandro A.; Girola, Santiago; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andres J.

    2010-08-04

    In the frame of the construction of a Tandem Electrostatic Quadrupole Accelerator facility devoted to the Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a Beam Shaping Assembly has been characterized by means of Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements. The neutrons were generated via the {sup 7}Li(p, n){sup 7}Be reaction by irradiating a thick LiF target with a 2.3 MeV proton beam delivered by the TANDAR accelerator at CNEA. The emerging neutron flux was measured by means of activation foils while the beam quality and directionality was evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The parameters show compliance with those suggested by IAEA. Finally, an improvement adding a beam collimator has been evaluated.

  10. Demonstration of the importance of a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system for BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Chao, Der-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutron beam monitoring system is indispensable to BNCT facility in order to achieve an accurate patient dose delivery. The neutron beam monitoring of a reactor-based BNCT (RB-BNCT) facility can be implemented through the instrumentation and control system of a reactor provided that the reactor power level remains constant during reactor operation. However, since the neutron flux in reactor core is highly correlative to complicated reactor kinetics resulting from such as fuel depletion, poison production, and control blade movement, some extent of variation may occur in the spatial distribution of neutron flux in reactor core. Therefore, a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system is needed to be installed in the vicinity of the beam path close to the beam exit of the RB-BNCT facility, where it can measure the BNCT beam intensity as closely as possible and be free from the influence of the objects present around the beam exit. In this study, in order to demonstrate the importance of a dedicated BNCT neutron beam monitoring system, the signals originating from the two in-core neutron detectors installed at THOR were extracted and compared with the three dedicated neutron beam monitors of the THOR BNCT facility. The correlation of the readings between the in-core neutron detectors and the BNCT neutron beam monitors was established to evaluate the improvable quality of the beam intensity measurement inferred by the in-core neutron detectors. In 29 sampled intervals within 16 days of measurement, the fluctuations in the mean value of the normalized ratios between readings of the three BNCT neutron beam monitors lay within 0.2%. However, the normalized ratios of readings of the two in-core neutron detectors to one of the BNCT neutron beam monitors show great fluctuations of 5.9% and 17.5%, respectively. PMID:26595774

  11. The design of an intense accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam prototype for BNCT using near-threshold reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles L.

    Near-threshold boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) uses proton energies only tens of rev above the (pan) reaction threshold in lithium in order to reduce the moderation requirements of the neutron source. The goals of this research were to prove the feasibility of this near-threshold concept for BNCT applications, using both calculation and experiment, and design a compact neutron source prototype from these results. This required a multidisciplinary development of methods for calculation of neutron yields, head phantom dosimetry, and accelerator target heat removal. First, a method was developed to accurately calculate thick target neutron yields for both near-threshold and higher energy proton beams, in lithium metal as well as lithium compounds. After these yields were experimentally verified, they were used as neutron sources for Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of neutron and photon transport in head phantoms. The theoretical and experimental determination of heat removal from a target backing with multiple fins, as well as numerical calculations of heat deposition profiles based on proton energy loss in target and backing materials, demonstrated that lithium integrity can be maintained for proton beam currents up to 2.5 mA. The final design uses a proton beam energy of 1.95 MeV and has a centerline epithermal neutron flux of 2.2 × 108 n/cm2- sec/mA, an advantage depth of 5.7 cm, an advantage ratio of 4.3, and an advantage depth dose rate of 6.7 RBE- cGy/min/mA, corresponding to an irradiation time of 38 minutes with a 5 mA beam. Moderator, reflector, and shielding weigh substantially less than other accelerator BNCT designs based on higher proton energies, e.g. 2.5 MeV. The near-threshold concept is useful as a portable neutron source for hospital settings, with applications ranging from glioblastomas to melanomas and synovectomy. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  12. Feasibility of BNCT radiobiological experiments at the HYTHOR facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, J.; Ceballos, C.; Soncin, M.; Fabris, C.; Friso, E.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Jori, G.; Rosi, G.; Nava, E.

    2008-06-01

    HYTHOR (HYbrid Thermal spectrum sHifter tapirO Reactor) is a new thermal-neutron irradiation facility, which was installed and became operative in mid 2005 at the TAPIRO (TAratura PIla Rapida potenza 0) fast reactor, in the Casaccia research centre (near Rome) of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie Energia ed Ambiente). The facility has been designed for in vivo radiobiological studies. In HYTHOR irradiation cavity, 1-6 mice can be simultaneously irradiated to study skin melanoma treatments with the BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy). The therapeutic effects of HYTHOR radiation field on mouse melanoma has been studied as a preliminary investigation before studying the tumour local control due to boron neutron capture effect after boronated molecule injection. The method to properly irradiate small animals has been precisely defined. Results show that HYTHOR radiation field is by itself effective in reducing the tumour-growth rate. This finding has to be taken into account in studying the effectiveness of new 10B carriers. A method to properly measure the reduction of the tumour-growth rate is reported and discussed.

  13. Future directions of accelerator-based NP and HEP facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, T.

    2011-07-24

    Progress in particle and nuclear physics has been closely connected to the progress in accelerator technologies - a connection that is highly beneficial to both fields. This paper presents a review of the present and future facilities and accelerator technologies that will push the frontiers of high-energy particle interactions and high intensity secondary particle beams.

  14. Future directions of accelerator-based NP and HEP facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roser, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Progress in particle and nuclear physics has been closely connected to the progress in accelerator technologies - a connection that is highly beneficial to both fields. This paper presents a review of the present and future facilities and accelerator technologies that will push the frontiers of high-energy particle interactions and high intensity secondary particle beams.

  15. Evaluation of the effective dose during BNCT at TRR thermal column epithermal facility.

    PubMed

    Jarahi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Saleh-Koutahi, Seyed Mohsen

    2016-04-01

    An epithermal neutron beam has been designed for Boron neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the thermal column of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) recently. In this paper the whole body effective dose, as well as the equivalent doses of several organs have been calculated in this facility using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The effective dose has been calculated by using the absorbed doses determined for each individual organ, taking into account the radiation and tissue weighting factors. The ICRP 110 whole body male phantom has been used as a patient model. It was found that the effective dose during BNCT of a brain tumor is equal to 0.90Sv. This effective dose may induce a 4% secondary cancer risk. PMID:26774391

  16. Quality control and quality assurance procedures at the THOR BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Tsai, Pi-En; Lin, Yi-Chun; Huang, Chun-Kai; Liu, Hong-Ming; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2011-12-01

    Various quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) procedures of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) beam at the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) are established to ensure beam availability and quality. The QC/QA methods mainly employ foil activation and paired ionization chambers, respectively, for beam intensity check and dose assessment. Beam intensity is monitored on-line by using three dead-time corrected fission chambers. In addition to the periodic QC/QA activities regarding beam quality and the monitoring system, the quick QC/QA performed in an all-in-one phantom will be executed less than 70 min before the clinical treatment to guarantee beam quality. The QC/QA procedures have been gradually established and the actual performance satisfied the preset criteria defined for the BNCT facility at THOR. PMID:21605978

  17. The new hybrid thermal neutron facility at TAPIRO reactor for BNCT radiobiological experiments.

    PubMed

    Esposito, J; Rosi, G; Agosteo, S

    2007-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, devoted to carry out both dosimetric and radiobiological studies on boron carriers, which are being developed in the framework of INFN BNCT project, has been installed at the ENEA Casaccia TAPIRO research fast reactor. The thermal column, based on an original, hybrid, neutron spectrum shifter configuration, has been recently become operative. In spite of its low power (5 kW), the new facility is able to provide a high thermal neutron flux level, uniformly distributed inside the irradiation cavity, with a quite low gamma background. The main features and preliminary benchmark measurements of the Beam-shaping assembly are here presented and discussed. PMID:17504745

  18. Characteristics of BDE dependent on 10B concentration for accelerator-based BNCT using near-threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, T; Bengua, G; Nakagawa, Y; Endo, S; Hoshi, M

    2004-11-01

    The characteristics boron-dose enhancer (BDE) was evaluated as to the dependence on the (10)B concentration for BNCT using near-threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be direct neutrons. The treatable protocol depth (TPD) was utilized as an evaluation index. MCNP-4B calculations were performed for near-threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be at a proton energy of 1.900MeV and for a polyethylene BDE. Consequently, the TPD was increased by increasing T/N ratio, i.e., the ratio of the (10)B concentration in the tumor ((10)B(Tumor)) to that in the normal tissue ((10)B(Normal)), and by increasing (10)B(Tumor) and (10)B(Normal) for constant T/N ratio. It has been found that the BDE becomes unnecessary from the viewpoint of increasing the TPD, when (10)B(Tumor) is over a certain level. PMID:15308161

  19. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C; Marino, Stephen A; Geard, Charles R; Brenner, David J; Garty, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields. PMID:26414507

  20. On-line neutron beam monitoring of the Finnish BNCT facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Vesa; Auterinen, Iiro; Helin, Jori; Kosunen, Antti; Savolainen, Sauli

    1999-02-01

    A Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) facility has been built at the FiR 1 research reactor of VTT Chemical Technology in Espoo, Finland. The facility is currently undergoing dosimetry characterisation and neutron beam operation research for clinical trials. The healthy tissue tolerance study, which was carried out in the new facility during spring 1998, demonstrated the reliability and user-friendliness of the new on-line beam monitoring system designed and constructed for BNCT by VTT Chemical Technology. The epithermal neutron beam is monitored at a bismuth gamma shield after an aluminiumfluoride-aluminium moderator. The detectors are three pulse mode U 235-fission chambers for epithermal neutron fluence rate and one current mode ionisation chamber for gamma dose rate. By using different detector sensitivities the beam intensity can be measured over a wide range of reactor power levels (0.001-250 kW). The detector signals are monitored on-line with a virtual instrumentation (LabView) based PC-program, which records and displays the actual count rates and total counts of the detectors in the beam. Also reactor in-core power instrumentation and control rod positions can be monitored via another LabView application. The main purpose of the monitoring system is to provide a dosimetric link to the dose in a patient during the treatment, as the fission chamber count rates have been calibrated to the induced thermal neutron fluence rate and to the absorbed dose rate at reference conditions in a tissue substitute phantom.

  1. Gamma dose measurement in a water phantom irradiated with the BNCT facility at THOR.

    PubMed

    Liu, H M; Hsu, P C; Liaw, T F

    2001-01-01

    It has been proposed that a LiF thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) is used as a gamma dosemeter in a water phantom irradiated with the BNCT facility at THOR. Based on the TLD neutron sensitivity and neutron fluxes in the water phantom, which were simulated by the MCNP code, TLD-700 was chosen as a gamma dosemeter in this report. For the correction of the neutron influence on TLD-700, the thermal neutron sensitivity to TLD-700 was investigated with MCNP simulation and the thermal neutron flux was measured with gold foils using the cadmium difference technique. The correction to the neutron influence on the TLD was established on the TLD thermal neutron sensitivity. the thermal neutron flux, and the conversion factor from energy deposition in the TLD to the TLD response. By comparing the experimental data with the thermal neutron influence correction, these data are in very good agreement with the MCNP predictions. PMID:11707034

  2. PBF/BNCT (power burst facility/boron neutron capture therapy) program for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III.

    1989-06-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during June include progress within the areas of gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine; analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination; boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development; noninvasive boron quantification determination; dosimetry; and analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT.

  3. PBF/BNCT (Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) Program for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III.

    1989-05-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during May include progress within the areas of: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine; analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination; boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development; noninvasive boron quantification determination; dosimetry; and analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT.

  4. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, E; Nigg, D W; Miller, M; Thorp, S I; Heber, E M; Zarza, L; Estryk, G; Monti Hughes, A; Molinari, A J; Garabalino, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Quintana, J; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2009-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1 x 10(9) n cm(-2)s(-1) and the fast neutron flux was 2.5 x 10(6) n cm(-2)s(-1), indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in (6)Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:19380233

  5. Monte Carlo and deterministic analysis of a University of Virginia BNCT facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Thomas D.; Hubbard, Thomas R.; Rydin, R. A.; Reynolds, A. B.

    1997-02-01

    A comprehensive effort is underway to design a high- performance BNCT facility at the 2 MW University of Virginia research reactor. This endeavor includes detailed core criticality and leakage calculations, coupled neutron/photon transport analyses, and dosimetry computations. Detailed geometries are modeled with MCNP for both the core and filter, as well as for phantom dosimetry studies, whereas the symmetric and deep-penetration problem of the filter/collimeter design is solved with the DORT code. Final filter configurations are evaluated with both stochastic and deterministic methods, and the results are compared and synthesized. The complementary use of these two computational methods yields a broader insight into the problem than can be achieved by using either method alone. Calculations show that certain adjustments to the core configuration increase the leakage to the filter thereby improving beam performance. Increased performance is also achieved by strategic shaping, placement, and optimization of neutral reflectors and filtering materials in the beam tube. Results of numerous optimization studies, which led to the final beam design, are presented. Ongoing work includes integration of recently developed treatment planning codes from INEL into the dosimetry analyses. New methods of coupling discrete ordinates and adjoint Monte Carlo calculations for medical applications are also under development.

  6. Clinical requirements and accelerator concepts for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Bleuel, D.L.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Kwan, J.; Leung, K.N.; Reginato, L.L.; Wells, R.P.

    1997-05-01

    Accelerator-based neutron sources are an attractive alternative to nuclear reactors for providing epithermal neutron beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Based on clinical requirements and neutronics modeling the use of proton and deuteron induced reactions in {sup 7}Li and {sup 9}Be targets has been compared. Excellent epithermal neutron beams can be produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction at proton energies of {approximately}2.5 MeV. An electrostatic quadrupole accelerator and a lithium target, which can deliver and handle 2.5 MeV protons at beam currents up to 50 mA, are under development for an accelerator-based BNCT facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  7. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, J; Chkillou, B; Jehouani, A

    2009-04-01

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from (252)Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom. PMID:19168369

  8. MCNP study for epithermal neutron irradiation of an isolated liver at the Finnish BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Kotiluoto, P; Auterinen, I

    2004-11-01

    A successful boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT) of a patient with multiple liver metastases has been first given in Italy, by placing the removed organ into the thermal neutron column of the Triga research reactor of the University of Pavia. In Finland, FiR 1 Triga reactor with an epithermal neutron beam well suited for BNCT has been extensively used to irradiate patients with brain tumors such as glioblastoma and recently also head and neck tumors. In this work we have studied by MCNP Monte Carlo simulations, whether it would be beneficial to treat an isolated liver with epithermal neutrons instead of thermal ones. The results show, that the epithermal field penetrates deeper into the liver and creates a build-up distribution of the boron dose. Our results strongly encourage further studying of irradiation arrangement of an isolated liver with epithermal neutron fields. PMID:15308144

  9. In-phantom characterisation studies at the Birmingham Accelerator-Generated epIthermal Neutron Source (BAGINS) BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Christopher N; Green, Stuart; Mason, Anna J; Picton, David; Baugh, Gareth; Hugtenburg, Richard P; Yin, Zaizhe; Scott, Malcolm C; Nelson, John M

    2004-11-01

    A broad experimental campaign to validate the final epithermal neutron beam design for the BNCT facility constructed at the University of Birmingham concluded in November 2003. The final moderator and facility designs are overviewed briefly, followed by a summary of the dosimetric methods and presentation of a small subset of the results from this campaign. The dual ionisation chamber technique was used together with foil activation to quantify the fast neutron, photon, and thermal neutron beam dose components in a large rectangular phantom exposed to the beam with a 12 cm diameter beam delimiter in place. After application of a normalisation factor, dose measurements agree with in-phantom MCNP4C predictions within 10% for the photon dose, within 10% for thermal neutron dose, and within 25% for the proton recoil dose along the main beam axis. PMID:15308136

  10. INEL BNCT Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1991-03-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for March 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, a milestone summary, and animal data charts.

  11. INEL BNCT Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1991-04-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for April 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, a milestone summary, and animal data charts. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. INEL BNCT Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  13. PBF/BNCT (Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) program for cancer treatment: Volume 3, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1989-03-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during March include: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine; analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination; boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development; noninvasive boron quantification determination; dosimetry; and analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT.

  14. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Peng; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Li, Yi-Guo; Peng, Dan; Lu, Jin; Zhang, Gao-Long; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Li, Chun-Yang; Liu, Wan-Jin; Hu, Tao; Lü, Jun-Guang

    2014-02-01

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of the neutron collimator is greater than 1.0×106 n/cm2/s, the maximum collimation ratio (L/D) is 58, the Cd-ratio(Mn) is 160 and the diameter of collimator end is 10 cm. This neutron collimator is considered to be applicable for neutron radiography.

  15. PBF/BNCT (Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) Program for Cancer Treatment bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1989-12-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during November include progress in several areas. Included are: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine (165 samples were analyzed during the month with 107 additional samples received); Analytical Methodologies Development for BSH Purity Determination (A Phenomonex HPLC column is currently being studied. This column has a higher carbon loading factor (30%) than other reverse-phase columns and allows a higher methanol:water ratio (57:43), which is apparently resulting in a significantly longer column lifetime without degradation); Noninvasive Boron Quantification Determination (A summary report documenting MR properties of BSH, progress to date, and future plans is in preparation); and Dosimetry (Analysis of the August and October 1989 BMRR neutron filter spectrum measurement in the 40-1200 keV energy range has been completed).

  16. Conceptual design of an RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron-capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Stovall, J.E.; Bhatia, T.S.; Wang, C.K.; Blue, T.E.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a low-energy neutron generator for treatment of brain tumors by boron neutron capture theory (BNCT). The concept is based on a 2.5-MeV proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, and the neutrons are produced by the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be reaction. A liquid lithium target and modulator assembly are designed to provide a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The patient is administered a tumor-specific /sup 10/Be-enriched compound and is irradiated by the neutrons to create a highly localized dose from the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li. An RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT is compact, which makes it practical to site the facility within a hospital. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Initial Experimental Verification of the Neutron Beam Modeling for the LBNL BNCT Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, D.L.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.; McDonald, R.J.; Smith, A.R.; Stone, N.A.; Vuji, J.

    1999-01-19

    In preparation for future clinical BNCT trials, neutron production via the 7Li(p,n) reaction as well as subsequent moderation to produce epithermal neutrons have been studied. Proper design of a moderator and filter assembly is crucial in producing an optimal epithermal neutron spectrum for brain tumor treatments. Based on in-phantom figures-of-merit,desirable assemblies have been identified. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-inch cyclotron to characterize epithermal neutron beams created using several microampere of 2.5 MeV protons on a lithium target. The neutron moderating assembly consisted of Al/AlF3 and Teflon, with a lead reflector to produce an epithermal spectrum strongly peaked at 10-20 keV. The thermal neutron fluence was measured as a function of depth in a cubic lucite head phantom by neutron activation in gold foils. Portions of the neutron spectrum were measured by in-air activation of six cadmium-covered materials (Au, Mn, In, Cu, Co, W) with high epithermal neutron absorption resonances. The results are reasonably reproduced in Monte Carlo computational models, confirming their validity.

  18. Progress In The Development Of A Tomographic SPECT System For Online Dosimetry In BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsky, D. M.; Valda, A.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A. A.; Green, S.; Wojnecki, C.; Ghani, Z.

    2010-08-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) the delivered dose to the patient depends both on the neutron beam characteristics and on the 10B body distribution which, in turn, is governed by the tumor specificity of the 10B drug-carrier. BNCT dosimetry is a complex matter due to the several interactions that neutrons can undergo with the different nuclei present in tissue. However the boron capture reaction 10B(n,α)7Li accounts for about 80 % of the total dose in a tumor with 40 ppm in 10B concentration. Present dosimetric methods are indirect, based on drug biodistribution statistical data and subjected to inter and intra-patient variability. In order to overcome the consequences of the concomitant high dosimetric uncertainties, we propose a SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) approach based on the detection of the prompt gamma-ray (478 keV) emitted in 94 % of the cases from 7Li. For this purpose we designed, built and tested a prototype based on LaBr3(Ce) scintillators. Measurements on a head and tumor phantom were performed in the accelerator-based BNCT facility of the University of Birmingham (UK). They result in the first tomographic image of the 10B capture distribution obtained in a BNCT facility.

  19. Progress In The Development Of A Tomographic SPECT System For Online Dosimetry In BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Minsky, D. M.; Kreiner, A. J.; Valda, A.; Burlon, A. A.; Green, S.; Wojnecki, C.; Ghani, Z.

    2010-08-04

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) the delivered dose to the patient depends both on the neutron beam characteristics and on the {sup 10}B body distribution which, in turn, is governed by the tumor specificity of the {sup 10}B drug-carrier. BNCT dosimetry is a complex matter due to the several interactions that neutrons can undergo with the different nuclei present in tissue. However the boron capture reaction {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li accounts for about 80 % of the total dose in a tumor with 40 ppm in {sup 10}B concentration. Present dosimetric methods are indirect, based on drug biodistribution statistical data and subjected to inter and intra-patient variability. In order to overcome the consequences of the concomitant high dosimetric uncertainties, we propose a SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) approach based on the detection of the prompt gamma-ray (478 keV) emitted in 94 % of the cases from {sup 7}Li. For this purpose we designed, built and tested a prototype based on LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators. Measurements on a head and tumor phantom were performed in the accelerator-based BNCT facility of the University of Birmingham (UK). They result in the first tomographic image of the 10B capture distribution obtained in a BNCT facility.

  20. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT. PMID:26300076

  1. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  2. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  3. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Maria S.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andres J.

    2010-08-04

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  4. A neutron producing target for BINP accelerator-based neutron source.

    PubMed

    Bayanov, B; Kashaeva, E; Makarov, A; Malyshkin, G; Samarin, S; Taskaev, S

    2009-07-01

    An innovative accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT has just started operation at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. One of the main elements of the facility is a lithium target producing neutrons via the threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at 25 kW proton beam with energies of 1.915 MeV or 2.5 MeV. The design of an optimal target and results of the investigation of radiation blistering of the lithium layer were presented at previous NCT Congresses. During the last two years the neutron target has been manufactured, assembled and placed in the facility. Optimization of the target is carried out with the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP. In this article, the design of the target is discussed, results of all previous investigations are summarized, results of target testing and neutron generation are described, and results of simulation of neutron spectra are presented. PMID:19376729

  5. Characteristics and application of spherical-type activation detectors in neutron spectrum measurements at a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Heng-Xiao; Chen, Wei-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-03-01

    A set of spherical-type activation detectors was developed aiming to provide better determination of the neutron spectrum at the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) BNCT facility. An activation foil embedded in a specially designed spherical holder exhibits three advantages: (1) minimizing the effect of neutron angular dependence, (2) creating response functions with broadened coverage of neutron energies by introducing additional moderators or absorbers to the central activation foil, and (3) reducing irradiation time because of improved detection efficiencies to epithermal neutron beam. This paper presents the design concept and the calculated response functions of new detectors. Theoretical and experimental demonstrations of the performance of the detectors are provided through comparisons of the unfolded neutron spectra determined using this method and conventional multiple-foil activation techniques.

  6. An epithermal neutron source for BNCT based on an ESQ-accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Kwan, J.; Phillips, T.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Wells, R.P.

    1997-07-01

    An accelerator-based BNCT facility is under development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Neutrons will be produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction at proton energies of about 2.5 MeV with subsequent moderation and filtering for shaping epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. Moderator, filter, and shielding assemblies have been modeled using MCNP. Head-phantom dose distributions have been calculated using the treatment planning software BNCT{_}RTPE. The simulation studies have shown that a proton beam current of {approximately} 20 mA is required to deliver high quality brain treatments in about 40 minutes. The results also indicate that significantly higher doses can be delivered to deep-seated tumors in comparison to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor beam. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator is ideally suited to provide the high beam currents desired. A novel power supply utilizing the air-coupled transformer concept is under development. It will enable the ESQ-accelerator to deliver proton beam currents exceeding 50 mA. A lithium target has been designed which consists of a thin layer of lithium on an aluminum backing. Closely spaced, narrow coolant passages cut into the aluminum allow the removal of a 50kW heat-load by convective water cooling. The system under development is suitable for hospital installation and has the potential for providing neutron beams superior to reactor sources.

  7. Preliminary energy-filtering neutron imaging with time-of-flight method on PKUNIFTY: A compact accelerator based neutron imaging facility at Peking University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hu; Zou, Yubin; Wen, Weiwei; Lu, Yuanrong; Guo, Zhiyu

    2016-07-01

    Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility (PKUNIFTY) works on an accelerator-based neutron source with a repetition period of 10 ms and pulse duration of 0.4 ms, which has a rather low Cd ratio. To improve the effective Cd ratio and thus improve the detection capability of the facility, energy-filtering neutron imaging was realized with the intensified CCD camera and time-of-flight (TOF) method. Time structure of the pulsed neutron source was firstly simulated with Geant4, and the simulation result was evaluated with experiment. Both simulation and experiment results indicated that fast neutrons and epithermal neutrons were concentrated in the first 0.8 ms of each pulse period; meanwhile in the period of 0.8-2.0 ms only thermal neutrons existed. Based on this result, neutron images with and without energy filtering were acquired respectively, and it showed that detection capability of PKUNIFTY was improved with setting the exposure interval as 0.8-2.0 ms, especially for materials with strong moderating capability.

  8. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment: Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III; Ackermann, A.L.

    1989-04-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during March include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue Blood and Urine, Analytical Methodologies Development for BSH (Sodium Borocaptate) Purity Determination, Boron Microscopic (Subcellular) Analytical Development, Noninvasive Boron Quantification Determination, Dosimetry, Analytical Radiation Transport and Interaction Modeling for BNCT, Large Animal Model Studies, and Neutron Source and Facility Preparation.

  9. Tandem-ESQ for Accelerator-Based BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A.J.; Kwan, J.W.; Burlon, A.A.; Di Paolo, H.; Henestroza, E.; Minsky, D.M.; Valda, A.A.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.

    2006-06-01

    A new ultrahigh-resolution photoemission electron microscope called PEEM3 is being developed and built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). An electron mirror combined with a much-simplified magnetic dipole separator is to be used to provide simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. It is installed on an elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) beamline, and will be operated with very high spatial resolution and high flux to study the composition, structure, electric and magnetic properties of complex materials. The instrument has been designed and is described. The instrumental hardware is being deployed in 2 phases. The first phase is the deployment of a standard PEEM type microscope consisting of the standard linear array of electrostatic electron lenses. The second phase will be the installation of the aberration corrected upgrade to improve resolution and throughput. This paper describes progress as the instrument enters the commissioning part of the first phase.

  10. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas, E

    2006-03-14

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

  11. Production of Epithermal Neutron Beams for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, P.; Colonna, N.; Santorelli, P.; Variale, V.; Paticchio, V.; Maggipinto, G.

    1999-12-31

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a promising modality for the treatment of malignant tumors, relies on the use of neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. For deep-seated tumors, simulations indicate that the optimal neutron energy is in the epithermal region, and in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams of high spectral purity could be produced with low-energy accelerators, through a suitable neutron producing reaction. In this talk we present an overview of some recently investigated reactions for the production of intense epithermal neutron beams for BNCT, and their potential use towards the setup of an hospital-based BNCT facility.

  12. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  13. An in-phantom comparison of neutron fields for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Woollard, J.E.; Blue, T.E.; Capala, J.

    1998-01-01

    Previously, the authors have developed the in-phantom neutron field assessment parameters T and D (Tumor) for the evaluation of epithermal neutron fields for use in BNCT. These parameters are based on an energy-spectrum-dependent neutron normal-tissue RBE and the treatment planning methodology of Gahbauer and his co-workers, which includes the effects of dose fractionation. In this paper, these neutron field assessment parameters were applied to The Ohio State University (OSU) design of an Accelerator Based Neutron Source (ABNS) (hereafter called the OSU-ABNS) and the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) epithermal neutron beam (hereafter called the BMRR-ENB), in order to judge the suitability of the OSU-ABNS for BNCT. The BMRR-ENB was chosen as the basis for comparison because it is presently being used in human clinical trials of BNCT and because it is the standard to which other neutron beams are most often compared.

  14. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. PBF/BNCT program for cancer treatment: Monthly bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III; Ackermann, A.L.

    1988-11-01

    This PBF/BNCT Program Monthly Bulletin is the primary vehicle for prompt national and international dissemination of research progress and the development status of tools essential for optimum BNCT clinical application. Accordingly, beginning with this issue, PBF neutron-filter design progress and PBF standby task summaries will be added to the subjects previously reported. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during November include progress within several areas. Topics include: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine, analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantification determination, dosimetry, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, and neutron source and facility preparation.

  16. BNCT-RTPE: BNCT radiation treatment planning environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J.; Babcock, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    Several improvements have been developed for the BNCT radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) during 1994. These improvements have been incorporated into Version 1.0 of BNCT-Rtpe which is currently installed at the INEL, BNL, Japanese Research Center (JRC), and Finland`s Technical Research Center. Platforms supported by this software include Hewlett-Packard (HP), SUN, International Business Machines (IBM), and Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI). A draft version of the BNCT-Rtpe user manual is available. Version 1.1 of BNCT-Rtpe is scheduled for release in March 1995. It is anticipated that Version 2.x of BNCT-Rtpe, which includes the nonproprietary NURBS library and data structures, will be released in September 1995.

  17. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment bulletin: Volume 2, No. 12

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III

    1988-12-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during December include progress in several areas. Topics included: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine; analytical methodologies development for BSH (Sodium Borocaptate) purity determination; boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development; noninvasive boron quantification determination; dosimetry; analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT; large animal model studies; and neutron source and facility preparation.

  18. A Comparison of Neutron Beams for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas E.; Woollard, Jeffrey E.

    2001-06-17

    The potential of the Ohio State University Research Reactor (OSURR) with a fission converter plate (FCP) for clinical boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is evaluated. The evaluation used design methods that were developed for the analysis of the OSU design of an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for BNCT. The paper compares an FCP epithermal neutron beam, which is based on the OSURR, with the ABNS. Neutron and gamma-ray absorbed dose rates and the boron-10 specific absorbed dose rate were calculated. A major goal of the analysis was to determine if a 500-kW reactor with an FCP can produce a neutron field with sufficient intensity to allow a patient to be treated in an acceptable treatment time with adequate beam quality. The answer obtained was positive, provided that the patient is treated with at least four fractions. Although the quality of the neutron field for the FCP is slightly inferior to that of the ABNS, it was judged to be acceptable.

  19. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. PMID:21459008

  20. A preliminary study on using the radiochromic film for 2D beam profile QC/QA at the THOR BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ming-Chen; Chen, Wei-Lin; Tsai, Pi-En; Huang, Chun-Kai; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Liu, Hong-Ming; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2011-12-01

    The GAFCHROMIC(®) EBT2 dosimetry film has been studied as a rapid QC/QA tool for 2D dose profile mapping in the BNCT beam at THOR. The pixel values of the EBT2 film image were converted to the 2D dose profile using a dose calibration curve obtained by 6-MV X-ray. The reproducibility of the 2D dose profile measured using the EBT2 film in the PMMA phantom was preliminarily found to be acceptable with uncertainties within about ±2 to ±3.5%. It is found that the EBT2 measured dose profile consisted of both gamma-ray components and neutron contributions. Therefore, the dose profile measured using the EBT2 film is significantly different from the neutron flux profile measured using the indirect neutron radiography method. Further study of the influence of neutrons to the response of the EBT2 film is indispensible for the absolute dose profile determination in a BNCT beam. PMID:21570854

  1. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector will be useful for phantom experiments with BNCT neutron fields from low-current accelerator-based neutron sources. PMID:25589504

  2. Accelerator based epithermal neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskaev, S. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    We review the current status of the development of accelerator sources of epithermal neutrons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a promising method of malignant tumor treatment. Particular attention is given to the source of epithermal neutrons on the basis of a new type of charged particle accelerator: tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation and lithium neutron-producing target. It is also shown that the accelerator with specialized targets makes it possible to generate fast and monoenergetic neutrons, resonance and monoenergetic gamma-rays, alpha-particles, and positrons.

  3. Summary of recent BNCT Polish programme and future plans.

    PubMed

    Gryziński, M A; Maciak, M; Wielgosz, M

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Polish achievements on the ground of BNCT research. Starting from preliminary built therapeutic stand at MARIA reactor going through designing of unique detectors for in-phantom and in-beam measurements for mixed radiation fields and finally coming to boron carriers synthesizing and examination in cellular and animal models. Now it is planned to restart research on boron compounds in specially designed BIMA line, to set up epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT research and education and to improve recombination detectors for neutron beams characterisation. PMID:26293009

  4. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  5. Optimization of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) proton beam energy for BNCT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, D.L.; Donahue, R.J.

    1996-02-01

    The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7} Be has been proposed as an accelerator-based source of neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). This reaction has a large steep resonance for proton energies of about 2.3 MeV which ends at about 2.5 MeV. It has generally been accepted that one should use 2.5 MeV protons to get the highest yield of neutrons for BNCT. This paper suggests that for BNCT the optimum proton energy may be about 2.3 MeV and that a proton energy of about 2.2 MeV will provide the same useful neutron fluence outside a thinner moderator as the neutron fluence from a 2.5 MeV proton beam with a thicker moderator.

  6. Project for the development of the linac based NCT facility in University of Tsukuba.

    PubMed

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Sakurai, H; Sakae, T; Yoshioka, M; Kobayashi, H; Matsumoto, H; Kiyanagi, Y; Shibata, T; Nakashima, H

    2014-06-01

    A project team headed by University of Tsukuba launched the development of a new accelerator based BNCT facility. In the project, we have adopted Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ)+Drift Tube Linac (DTL) type linac as proton accelerators. Proton energy generated from the linac was set to 8MeV and average current was 10mA. The linac tube has been constructed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co. For neutron generator device, beryllium is selected as neutron target material; high intensity neutrons are generated by the reaction with beryllium and the 80kW proton beam. Our team chose beryllium as the neutron target material. At present beryllium target system is being designed with Monte-Carlo estimations and heat analysis with ANSYS. The neutron generator consists of moderator, collimator and shielding. It is being designed together with the beryllium target system. We also acquired a building in Tokai village; the building has been renovated for use as BNCT treatment facility. It is noteworthy that the linac tube had been installed in the facility in September 2012. In BNCT procedure, several medical devices are required for BNCT treatment such as treatment planning system, patient positioning device and radiation monitors. Thus these are being developed together with the linac based neutron source. For treatment planning system, we are now developing a new multi-modal Monte-Carlo treatment planning system based on JCDS. The system allows us to perform dose estimation for BNCT as well as particle radiotherapy and X-ray therapy. And the patient positioning device can navigate a patient to irradiation position quickly and properly. Furthermore the device is able to monitor movement of the patient׳s position during irradiation. PMID:24637084

  7. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  8. A New Simplified System for the Evaluation of BNCT Pharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, T.E.; Kabalka, G.W.; Martin, R.C.; Miller, L.F.

    1998-09-13

    A system for testing potential BNCT pharmaceuticals in cell cultures has been developed with the cooperation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the University of Tennessee Chemistry Department and the University of Tennessee Nuclear Engineering Department. A BNCT test model has been established with the use of the human lung cancer cell line A 549. These cells were maintained in standard laboratory facilities and subjected to boronated chemicals. Following toxicity studies the human luug cancer cells were exposed to {sup 252}Cf neutron sources provided by the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL The isotope {sup 252}Cf performs effectively for BNCT applications. The neutron spectrum is similar to that of a reactor fission source with an average energy of 2.1 MeV. A 50 mg source of {sup 252}Cf moderated by water provides a source on the order of 1 x 10{sup 9} thermal neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at a distance of 3 cm. The half-life of {sup 252}Cf is 2.65 years, and thus may provide a simple and reliable source of neutrons for BNCT in locations without suitable nuclear reactors. The REDC of ORNL stores and processes the U.S. stockpile of {sup 252}Cf.

  9. Additive effect of BPA and Gd-DTPA for application in accelerator-based neutron source.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, F; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Zaboronok, A; Matsumura, A

    2015-12-01

    Because of its fast metabolism gadolinium as a commercial drug was not considered to be suitable for neutron capture therapy. We studied additive effect of gadolinium and boron co-administration using colony forming assay. As a result, the survival of tumor cells with additional 5 ppm of Gd-DTPA decreased to 1/10 compared to the cells with boron only. Using gadolinium to increase the effect of BNCT instead of additional X-ray irradiation might be beneficial, as such combination complies with the short-time irradiation regimen at the accelerator-based neutron source. PMID:26242560

  10. Increase of the beam intensity for BNCT by changing the core configuration at THOR.

    PubMed

    Liu, H M; Peir, J J; Liu, Y H; Tsai, P E; Jiang, S H

    2009-07-01

    In this article, we will consider several core configurations and run the core calculation with MCNP to obtain the neutrons distribution at THOR. The thermal neutron flux inside the vertical tubes (VT-B-VT-E) and the fast neutron flux in the first row facing to the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility (I3-I5) were tallied for indication. Based on these simulation results, the fuel elements were rearranged during the annual repair period in 2007. The epithermal neutron flux at the center of BNCT beam exit in air was measured again, and the results showed that the beam intensity increased by 50%. Comparing the neutron intensities both in reactor core and at the BNCT beam exit for several core configurations, the results show that the BNCT beam intensity can be increased without decreasing the neutron intensity in core. PMID:19394237

  11. The refinement of dose assessment of the THOR BNCT beam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Liu, Hong-Ming; Chou, Wen-Tsae

    2011-12-01

    A refined dose assessment method has been used now in the THOR BNCT facility, which takes into account more delicate corrections, carefully handled calibration factors, and the spectrum- and kerma-weighted k(t) value. The refined method solved the previous problem of negative derived neutron dose in phantom at deeper positions. With the improved dose assessment, the calculated and measured gamma-ray dose rates match perfectly in a 15×15×15 cm(3) PMMA phantom. PMID:21377883

  12. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  13. On optimizing the {sup 7}Li(p,n) proton beam energy and moderator material for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, D.L.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be has been proposed as an accelerator-based source of neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). This reaction has a large steep resonance for proton energies around 2.3 MeV which ends at approximately 2.5 MeV. It is generally accepted that the use of 2.5 MeV protons produces the highest yield of neutrons for BNCT. This paper suggests that for BNCT the optimum proton energy may be as low as 2.2-2.3 MeV. The evaluation of the clinical usefulness of the epithermal neutron beams investigated here has been based on depth-dose distributions in a head phantom.

  14. Simulation study of accelerator based quasi-mono-energetic epithermal neutron beams for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Adib, M; Habib, N; Bashter, I I; El-Mesiry, M S; Mansy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Filtered neutron techniques were applied to produce quasi-mono-energetic neutron beams in the energy range of 1.5-7.5 keV at the accelerator port using the generated neutron spectrum from a Li (p, n) Be reaction. A simulation study was performed to characterize the filter components and transmitted beam lines. The feature of the filtered beams is detailed in terms of optimal thickness of the primary and additive components. A computer code named "QMNB-AS" was developed to carry out the required calculations. The filtered neutron beams had high purity and intensity with low contamination from the accompanying thermal, fast neutrons and γ-rays. PMID:26474209

  15. PBF/BNCT Program, February 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the PBF/BNCT Program for February 1991. The report includes information on the BNCT brain tumor and melanoma research programs, technical support and modifications, PBF operations, a milestone summary, and animal data charts.

  16. A feasibility study of the Tehran research reactor as a neutron source for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Monshizadeh, Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    Investigation on the use of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) as a neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been performed by calculating and measuring energy spectrum and the spatial distribution of neutrons in all external irradiation facilities, including six beam tubes, thermal column, and the medical room. Activation methods with multiple foils and a copper wire have been used for the mentioned measurements. The results show that (1) the small diameter and long length beam tubes cannot provide sufficient neutron flux for BNCT; (2) in order to use the medical room, the TRR core should be placed in the open pool position, in this situation the distance between the core and patient position is about 400 cm, so neutron flux cannot be sufficient for BNCT; and (3) the best facility which can be adapted for BNCT application is the thermal column, if all graphite blocks can be removed. The epithermal and fast neutron flux at the beginning of this empty column are 4.12×10(9) and 1.21×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, respectively, which can provide an appropriate neutron beam for BNCT by designing and constructing a proper Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) structure. PMID:24742535

  17. Experimental study on the performance of an epithermal neutron flux monitor for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xingcai; Manabe, Masanobu; Tamaki, Shingo; Liu, Shuangtong; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-07-01

    The performance of an epithermal neutron (0.5eVBNCT) was experimentally studied by using a prototype monitor in an appropriate neutron field at the intense deuterium-tritium neutron source facility OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan. It was convinced from the experimental results that the developed monitor worked well and the epithermal neutron fluxes in BNCT neutron sources can be measured within 5% by the monitor. PMID:27110926

  18. Quality management in BNCT at a nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Moss, Raymond; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Rassow, Jürgen; Wittig, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Each medical intervention must be performed respecting Health Protection directives, with special attention to Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC). This is the basis of safe and reliable treatments. BNCT must apply QA programs as required for performance and safety in (conventional) radiotherapy facilities, including regular testing of performance characteristics (QC). Furthermore, the well-established Quality Management (QM) system of the nuclear reactor used has to be followed. Organization of these complex QM procedures is offered by the international standard ISO 9001:2008. PMID:21459586

  19. ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPIRO,S.M.; RUGGIERO,A.G.; LUDEWIG,H.

    2003-03-25

    Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate protons impinging on a heavy metal target. There do not appear to be any major technical challenges to the building of such a facility since a continuous spallation source has been operating in Switzerland for several years.

  20. Designing accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, D.L.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Vujic, J.

    1998-09-01

    The {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction has been investigated as an accelerator-driven neutron source for proton energies between 2.1 and 2.6 MeV. Epithermal neutron beams shaped by three moderator materials, Al/AlF{sub 3}, {sup 7}LiF, and D{sub 2}O, have been analyzed and their usefulness for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatments evaluated. Radiation transport through the moderator assembly has been simulated with the Monte Carlo {ital N}-particle code (MCNP). Fluence and dose distributions in a head phantom were calculated using BNCT treatment planning software. Depth-dose distributions and treatment times were studied as a function of proton beam energy and moderator thickness. It was found that an accelerator-based neutron source with Al/AlF{sub 3} or {sup 7}LiF as moderator material can produce depth-dose distributions superior to those calculated for a previously published neutron beam design for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, achieving up to {approximately}50{percent} higher doses near the midline of the brain. For a single beam treatment, a proton beam current of 20 mA, and a {sup 7}LiF moderator, the treatment time was estimated to be about 40 min. The tumor dose deposited at a depth of 8 cm was calculated to be about 21 Gy-Eq. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.}

  1. Optimization of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) proton beam energy for BNCT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuel, B.L.; Donahue, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7} Be has been proposed as an accelerator-based source of neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). This reaction has a large steep resonance for proton energies of about 2.3 MeV which ends at about 2.5 MeV. It has generally been accepted that one should use 2.5 MeV protons to get the highest yield of neutrons for BNCT. This paper suggests that for BNCT the optimum proton energy may be about 2.3 MeV and that a proton energy of about 2.2 MeV will provide the same useful neutron flux outside a thinner moderator as the neutron flux from a 2.5 MeV proton beam with a, thicker moderator. These results are based on optimization of the useful neutron spectrum in air at the point of irradiation, not on depth-dose profiles in tissue/tumor.

  2. Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and the Development of a Dedicated Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A. J.; Di Paolo, H.; Burlon, A. A.; Valda, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Kesque, J. M.; Giboudot, Y.; Levinas, P.; Fraiman, M.; Romeo, V.

    2007-10-26

    There is a generalized perception that the availability of suitable particle accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Progress on an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT is described here. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ESQ chain is being designed and constructed. A 30 mA proton beam of 2.5 MeV are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The first design and construction of an ESQ module is discussed and its electrostatic fields are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Also new beam transport calculations through the accelerator are presented.

  3. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. PMID:24387907

  4. Bnct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, F.; Ono, K.; Suzuki, M.; Tanaka, H.; Morigi, M. P.

    The purpose of this work is to analyze dose distribution inside tissues. To do this, we performed some MCNP simulations using the neutron flux obtained from the Kyoto University Reactor. We have tried to analyze the behavior of neutrons in different types of tissues in relation to their depth. We have found that the value of dose from neutron interaction with 10B depends not only on 10B concentration inside the tissues (a higher concentration produces a higher dose), but also on the tissue density. In fact, tissues with a density considerably different from that of water receive a lower dose. Another dose contribution is given by the presence of 14N inside tissues: this dose contribution is lower compared with the previous one; it is influenced both by the tissue density and the percentage of nitrogen inside the tissue. Finally, the delivered dose decreases very quickly after a depth of about 4 cm, which implies that boron neutron capture therapy is not an effective therapy for the deepest tumors. However, there are some factors that can be taken into account to reach the deepest zone.

  5. Fifty years of accelerator based physics at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, John W.

    1999-04-26

    The Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. was a major centre for Accelerator based physics for the last fifty years. As early as 1946, nuclear structure studies were started on Cockroft-Walton accelerators. A series of accelerators followed, including the world's first Tandem, and the MP Tandem, Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility that was opened in 1986. The nuclear physics program was shut down in 1996. This paper will describe some of the highlights of the accelerators and the research of the laboratory.

  6. Development of beryllium-based neutron target system with three-layer structure for accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugano, Tomei; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The iBNCT project team with University of Tsukuba is developing an accelerator-based neutron source. Regarding neutron target material, our project has applied beryllium. To deal with large heat load and blistering of the target system, we developed a three-layer structure for the target system that includes a blistering mitigation material between the beryllium used as the neutron generator and the copper heat sink. The three materials were bonded through diffusion bonding using a hot isostatic pressing method. Based on several verifications, our project chose palladium as the intermediate layer. A prototype of the neutron target system was produced. We will verify that sufficient neutrons for BNCT treatment are generated by the device in the near future. PMID:26260448

  7. Computational study of room scattering influence in the THOR BNCT treatment room.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ming-Chen; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    BNCT dosimetry has often employed heavy Monte Carlo calculations for the beam characterization and the dose determination. However, these calculations commonly ignored the scattering influence between the radiations and the room structure materials in order to facilitate the calculation speed. The aim of this article attempts to explore how the room scattering affects the physical quantities such as the capture reaction rate and the gamma-ray dose rate under in-phantom and free-air conditions in the THOR BNCT treatment room. The geometry and structure materials of the treatment room were simulated in detail. The capture reaction rates per atom, as well as the gamma-ray dose rate were calculated in various sizes of phantoms and in the free-air condition. Results of this study showed that the room scattering has significant influence on the physical quantities, whether in small phantoms or in the free-air condition. This paper may be of importance in explaining the discrepancies between measurements and calculations in the BNCT dosimetry using small phantoms, in addition to provide a useful consideration with a better understanding of how the room scattering influence acts in a BNCT facility. PMID:24365466

  8. Characteristics of the new THOR epithermal neutron beam for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Tung, C J; Wang, Y L; Hsu, F Y; Chang, S L; Liu, Y-W H

    2004-11-01

    A characterization of the new Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) epithermal neutron beam designed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been performed. The facility is currently under construction and expected in completion in March 2004. The designed epithermal neutron flux for 1 MW power is 1.7x10(9)n cm(-2)s(-1) in air at the beam exit, accompanied by photon and fast neutron absorbed dose rates of 0.21 and 0.47 mGys(-1), respectively. With (10)B concentrations in normal tissue and tumor of 11.4 and 40 ppm, the calculated advantage depth dose rate to the modified Snyder head phantom is 0.53RBE-Gymin(-1) at the advantage depth of 85 mm, giving an advantage ratio of 4.8. The dose patterns determined by the NCTPlan treatment planning system using the new THOR beam for a patient treated in the Harvard-MIT clinical trial were compared with results of the MITR-II M67 beam. The present study confirms the suitability of the new THOR beam for possible BNCT clinical trials. PMID:15308158

  9. Target studies for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1996-03-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron ``filter``, which has a deep ``window`` in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is reaccelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator -- target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production -- resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons -- while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current.

  10. The SPARC linear accelerator based terahertz source

    SciTech Connect

    Chiadroni, E.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Filippetto, D.; Gatti, G.; Pace, E.; Rossi, A. R.; Vaccarezza, C.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; and others

    2013-03-04

    Ultra-short electron beams, produced through the velocity bunching compression technique, are used to drive the SPARC linear accelerator based source, which relies on the emission of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range. This paper reports on the main features of this radiation, as terahertz source, with spectral coverage up to 5 THz and pulse duration down to 200 fs, with an energy per pulse of the order of several micro-joule, and as electron beam longitudinal diagnostics.

  11. Using the TREAT reactor in support of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) experiments: A feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grasseschi, G.L.; Schaefer, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    The technical feasibility of using the TREAT reactor facility for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) research was assessed. Using one-dimensional neutronics calculations, it was shown that the TREAT core neutron spectrum can be filtered to reduce the undesired radiation (contamination) dose per desired neutron more effectively than can the core spectra from two prominent candidate reactors. Using two-dimensional calculations, it was demonstrated that a non-optimized filter replacing the TREAT thermal column can yield a fluence of desired-energy neutrons more than twice as large as the fluence believed to be required and, at the same time, have a contamination dose per desired neutron almost as low as that from any other candidate facility. The time, effort and cost required to adapt TREAT for a mission supporting BNCT research would be modest.

  12. PBF/BNCT program for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III )

    1989-07-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during July include progress within the areas of gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine, analytical methodologies development of BSH (Sodium Borocaptate) purity determination, boron microscopic (Subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantification determination, dosimetry.

  13. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  14. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations were first discovered by experiments looking at neutrinos coming from extra-terrestrial sources, namely the sun and the atmosphere, but we will be depending on earth-based sources to take many of the next steps in this field. This article describes what has been learned so far from accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, and then describe very generally what the next accelerator-based steps are. In section 2 the article discusses how one uses an accelerator to make a neutrino beam, in particular, one made from decays in flight of charged pions. There are several different neutrino detection methods currently in use, or under development. In section 3 these are presented, with a description of the general concept, an example of such a detector, and then a brief discussion of the outstanding issues associated with this detection technique. Finally, section 4 describes how the measurements of oscillation probabilities are made. This includes a description of the near detector technique and how it can be used to make the most precise measurements of neutrino oscillations.

  15. A comparison between a TESQ accelerator and a reactor as a neutron sources for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.

    2008-03-01

    In this work, the performance of an accelerator-based neutron source design has been compared with that of a modern fluoride-filtered reactor-based epithermal beam having near-optimal quality for treatment of deep seated tumors in relation to its applicability for BNCT. The accelerator is a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator which is a design under development at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Buenos Aires, Argentina based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, relatively close to its energy threshold. The reactor is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reactor upgraded with a Fission Converter Beam (MIT-FCB) and improved with an 8 mm thick 6Li filter. The comparison has been done by means of data reported on the MIT-FCB + 6Li filter performance and MCNP simulations on our TESQ design considering the neutron fluxes provided by the two sources and the doses delivered in a human phantom by both devices. The results show a deeper advantage depth (AD) for the TESQ which turns out to be a promising alternative to a reactor-based BNCT treatment.

  16. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1989-09-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August included: gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine (biological samples for boron analysis were received from WSU, including samples from five p-BPA/melanoma dogs and seven BSH plasmapheresis dogs); analytical methodologies development for BSH (borocaptate sodium) purity determination (much effort this month focussed on the effort to develop a procedure for the separation of the optical isomeric forms of p-BPA for future application in melanoma BNCT); boron microscopic analytical development (analysis of SIMS images of boron-treated U-87 cells is complete and results will show cellular concentrations of B, K, Na, and Ca under different drug dosages); noninvasive boron quantification determination (optimization of pulse sequences for {sup 10}BSH MRI may result from the dissolving of double quantum coherence differences between {sup 10}BSH and {sup 11}BSH); and additional measurements have greatly narrowed the previously observed differences between calculated and measured total radiation doses in phantoms.

  17. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  18. Neutron beam optimization based on a 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for treatment of deep-seated brain tumors by BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra Ahmadi, Ganjeh; S. Farhad, Masoudi

    2014-10-01

    Neutron beam optimization for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is investigated using a 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. Design and optimization have been carried out for the target, cooling system, moderator, filter, reflector, and collimator to achieve a high flux of epithermal neutron and satisfy the IAEA criteria. Also, the performance of the designed beam in tissue is assessed by using a simulated Snyder head phantom. The results show that the optimization of the collimator and reflector is critical to finding the best neutron beam based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. Our designed beam has 2.49×109n/cm2s epithermal neutron flux and is suitable for BNCT of deep-seated brain tumors.

  19. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  20. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 {mu}g B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses.

  1. Secondary Contribution Effects on BNCT Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, E.; Goncalves, M.; Pereira, W.

    2004-10-03

    The aimed of this work consists of evaluating the influence of the dose secondary components (thermal neutrons dose, epithermal neutrons dose, fast neutrons dose and photon dose) in treatment planning with BNCT. MCNP4B Code was used to calculate RBE-Gy doses through the irradiation of the modified Snyder head phantom. A reduction of the therapeutical gain of monoenergetic neutron beans was observed in non invasive treatments, provoked for the predominance of the fast neutron dose component in the skin, showing that the secondary components of dose can to contribute more for to raise the healthy-tissue dose of that in the tumor, reducing the treatment efficiency.

  2. BINP accelerator based epithermal neutron source.

    PubMed

    Aleynik, V; Burdakov, A; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Kanygin, V; Kuznetsov, A; Makarov, A; Sorokin, I; Taskaev, S

    2011-12-01

    Innovative facility for neutron capture therapy has been built at BINP. This facility is based on compact vacuum insulation tandem accelerator designed to produce proton current up to 10 mA. Epithermal neutrons are proposed to be generated by 1.915-2.5 MeV protons bombarding a lithium target using (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be threshold reaction. In the article, diagnostic techniques for proton beam and neutrons developed are described, results of experiments on proton beam transport and neutron generation are shown, discussed, and plans are presented. PMID:21439836

  3. Small Accelerators for the Next Generation of BNCT Irradiation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Tanaka, K.; Bengua, G.; Hoshi, M.; Nakagawa, Y.

    2005-01-15

    The neutron irradiation system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using compact accelerators installed at hospitals was mainly investigated for the usage of direct neutrons from near-threshold {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be, and moderated neutrons from 2.5 MeV {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reactions and other reactions. This kind of system can supply the medical doctors and patients with convenience to carry out BNCT in hospitals. The accelerator system would be regarded as the next-generation of BNCT in the near future.

  4. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.

  5. Spatial characterization of BNCT beams.

    PubMed

    Marek, M; Viererbl, L

    2004-11-01

    The space distribution of the epithermal neutron flux was determined for the epithermal neutron beams of several NCT facilities in USA (FCB at MIT), Europe (HFR at JRC, Petten; FiR at VTT, Espoo; LVR-15 at NRI, Rez) and Japan (JRR-4 at JAERI, Tokai). Using p-n diodes with (6)Li radiator and the set of Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS) the beams were quantified in-air. Axial beam profiles along the beam axes and the radial distributions at two distances from the beam aperture were measured. Except for the well-collimated HFR beam, the spatial characteristics of the other studied beams were found generally similar, which results from their similar designs. PMID:15308191

  6. A plastic scintillator-based 2D thermal neutron mapping system for use in BNCT studies.

    PubMed

    Ghal-Eh, N; Green, S

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a scintillator-based measurement instrument is proposed which is capable of measuring a two-dimensional map of thermal neutrons within a phantom based on the detection of 2.22MeV gamma rays generated via nth+H→D+γ reaction. The proposed instrument locates around a small rectangular water phantom (14cm×15cm×20cm) used in Birmingham BNCT facility. The whole system has been simulated using MCNPX 2.6. The results confirm that the thermal flux peaks somewhere between 2cm and 4cm distance from the system entrance which is in agreement with previous studies. PMID:26986813

  7. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during January 1990 include progress within the areas of: gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine; analytical methodologies development for BSH purity determination; noninvasive boron quantitative determination; dosimetry; analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT; large animal model studies; neutron source and facility preparation; administration and common support; and PBF operations.

  8. PBF/BNCT program for cancer treatment: Monthly bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III; Ackermann, A.L.

    1988-10-01

    Highlights of the BNCT Research Programs during October include the progress within several areas. Topics include: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine, analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantification determination, dosimetry, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, and large animal model studies. Activities in the PBF technical support and operations areas are detailed.

  9. INEL BNCT Program: Bulletin, Volume 5, No. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1991-07-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for June, 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and animal data charts. Specific highlights include: final-dosage-form BSH samples were analyzed for purity, with the sample from Centronic Ltd the most free from contamination and oxidation products; MRI spectroscopy will be upgraded to provide a potential for boron resolution of 0.75 cm/pixel; neutron and gamma measurements were made for the HFR epithermal neutron beam; the current status of six spontaneous brain-tumor dogs; production of MoAbs against the pituitary CRF receptor; growth of BL6 in low Phe/Tyr medium; an altered synthetic pathway for carboranyl alanine; and encapsulation of {ital i}-B{sub 20}H{sub 18}{sup 2-} into liposomes for baseline murine studies. 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  10. Nuclear reactions induced by deuterons and their applicability to skin tumor treatment through BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, A. A.; Roldán, T. del V.; Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Valda, A. A.

    2008-11-01

    In this work the D(d,n) 3He and 9Be(d,n) 10B reactions have been studied in a low-energy regime as neutron sources for skin tumor treatment in the frame of accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT). The total neutron production and the energy and angular distributions for each reaction at different bombarding energies and for the thick targets considered (TiD 2, Be) have been determined using the available data in the literature. From this information, a feasibility study has been performed by means of MCNP simulations. The thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes and doses at skin tumor positions (loaded with 40 ppm 10B) which are located on a whole-body human phantom have been simulated for different D 2O moderator depths. The best-case performance shows that a high tumor control probability (TCP) of 99% corresponding to a weighted dose in tumor of 40 Gy can be reached at the tumor position keeping the weighted dose in healthy tissue below 12.5 Gy, by means of the 9Be(d,n) 10B reaction at 1.1 MeV for a deuteron current of 20 mA and a 30 cm D 2O moderator in 52 min. The availability of low-energy neutrons in the 9Be(d,n) 10B reaction from the population of excited levels between 5.1 to 5.2 MeV in 10B and the convenience of a thin beryllium target are discussed. As a complement concerning alternatives to the Li(metal) + p reaction, the neutron yield of refractory lithium compounds (LiH, Li 3N and Li 2O) were calculated and compared with a Li metal target.

  11. Intense coherent terahertz generation from accelerator-based sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Mafuyu; Kawai, Masayuki; Hinode, Fujio; Nanbu, Kenichi; Miyahara, Fusashi

    2011-05-01

    The development of terahertz (THz) technology and science relevant to accelerator-based sources has been rapid, based on laser and semiconductor physics. To assure further progress of this scientific field, extremely intense radiation, involving gigawatt-class peak power, is needed. In addition to discussing the prospects for typical accelerator-based THz sources, such as coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and free electron lasers (FELs), novel, advanced THz sources employing isochronous-ring and bunched-FEL approaches are proposed.

  12. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1989-11-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during November include progress in several areas. Included are Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine (All samples currently available from the dog studies have been prepared for analysis); Analytical Methodologies Development for BSH Purity Determination (Further investigations of the 2-mm microbore C18 column continued looking at higher carbon loading and its effect on column lifetime); Boron Microscopic Analytical Development (Six samples of canine oral melanoma were evaluated); Noninvasive Boron Quantification Determination (A new dog-head positioning device is under design to permit more precise alignment of boron concentrations); and Dosimetry (The weak BMRR neutron source strength has not allowed collimation of the filtered beam for the dog irradiations).

  13. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1989-10-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during October include progress in several areas. Included are Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine (Large numbers of samples from Project 2 continue to be processed every month); Analytical Methodologies Development for BSH (Borocaptate Sodium) Purity Determination (Early results from evaluation of 30-cm Nucleosil C-18 columns indicate resistance to degradation by the mobile phase); Boron Microscopic Analytical Development (Analysis of data from boron-treated, U-87 human glioblastoma cells showed expected increased uptake with increased dosage); Noninvasive Boron Quantification Determination (Successful three-dimensional chemical shift imaging of boron in a canine pituitary-tumor patient has been carried out at EIRMC); and Dosimetry (Additional neutron spectrometry measurements using 2.6 atm. hydrogen, proton recoil chamber were taken at the BMRR to supplement foil activation measurements in an effort to more precisely identify overall characteristics of the fast-neutron contamination and streaming).

  14. Organisation and management of the first clinical trial of BNCT in Europe (EORTC protocol 11961).EORTC BNCT study group.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, W; Moss, R; Rassow, J; Stecher-Rasmussen, F; Hideghéty, K; Wolbers, J G; Sack, H

    1999-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is based on the ability of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons and to disintegrate instantaneously producing high LET particles. The only neutron beam available in Europe for such a treatment is based at the European High Flux Reactor HFR at Petten (The Netherlands). The European Commission, owners of the reactor, decided that the potential benefit of the facility should be opened to all European citizens and therefore insisted on a multinational approach to perform the first clinical trial in Europe on BNCT. This precondition had to be respected as well as the national laws and regulations. Together with the Dutch authorities actions were undertaken to overcome the obvious legal problems. Furthermore, the clinical trial at Petten takes place in a nuclear research reactor, which apart from being conducted in a non-hospital environment, is per se known to be dangerous. It was therefore of the utmost importance that special attention is given to safety, beyond normal rules, and to the training of staff. In itself, the trial is an unusual Phase I study, introducing a new drug with a new irradiation modality, with really an unknown dose-effect relationship. This trial must follow optimal procedures, which underscore the quality and qualified manner of performance. PMID:10394415

  15. Neutron intensity monitor with activation foil for p-Li neutron source for BNCT--Feasibility test of the concept.

    PubMed

    Murata, Isao; Otani, Yuki; Sato, Fuminobu

    2015-12-01

    Proton-lithium (p-Li) reaction is being examined worldwide as a candidate nuclear production reaction for accelerator based neutron source (ABNS) for BNCT. In this reaction, the emitted neutron energy is not so high, below 1 MeV, and especially in backward angles the energy is as low as about 100 keV. The intensity measurement was thus known to be difficult so far. In the present study, a simple method was investigated to monitor the absolute neutron intensity of the p-Li neutron source by employing the foil activation method based on isomer production reactions in order to cover around several hundreds keV. As a result of numerical examination, it was found that (107)Ag, (115)In and (189)Os would be feasible. Their features found out are summarized as follows: (107)Ag: The most convenient foil, since the half life is short. (115)In: The accuracy is the best at 0°, though it cannot be used for backward angles. And (189)Os: Suitable nuclide which can be used in backward angles, though the gamma-ray energy is a little too low. These would be used for p-Li source monitoring depending on measuring purposes in real BNCT scenes. PMID:26242557

  16. Dosimetric performance evaluation regarding proton beam incident angles of a lithium-based AB-BNCT design.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Yi; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-10-01

    The (7)Li(p,xn)(7)Be nuclear reaction, based on the low-energy protons, could produce soft neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT). Based on the fact that the induced neutron field is relatively divergent, the relationship between the incident angle of proton beam and the neutron beam quality was evaluated in this study. To provide an intense epithermal neutron beam, a beam-shaping assembly (BSA) was designed. And a modified Snyder head phantom was used in the calculations for evaluating the dosimetric performance. From the calculated results, the intensity of epithermal neutrons increased with the increase in proton incident angle. Hence, either the irradiation time or the required proton current can be reduced. When the incident angle of 2.5-MeV proton beam is 120°, the required proton current is ∼13.3 mA for an irradiation time of half an hour. PMID:24493784

  17. Comparisons of TORT and MCNP dose calculations for BNCT treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersol, D.T.; Slater, C.O.; Williams, L.R.; Redmond, E.L., II; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    The relative merit of using a deterministic code to calculate dose distributions for BNCT applications were examined. The TORT discrete deterministic ordinated code was used in comparison to MCNP4A to calculate dose distributions for BNCT applications

  18. Design and construction of a thermal neutron beam for BNCT at Tehran Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Amini, Sepideh

    2014-12-01

    An irradiation facility has been designed and constructed at Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) for the treatment of shallow tumors using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). TRR has a thermal column which is about 3m in length with a wide square cross section of 1.2×1.2m(2). This facility is filled with removable graphite blocks. The aim of this work is to perform the necessary modifications in the thermal column structure to meet thermal BNCT beam criteria recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency. The main modifications consist of rearranging graphite blocks and reducing the gamma dose rate at the beam exit. Activation foils and TLD700 dosimeter have been used to measure in-air characteristics of the neutron beam. According to the measurements, a thermal flux is 5.6×10(8) (ncm(-2)s(-1)), a cadmium ratio is 186 for gold foils and a gamma dose rate is 0.57Gy h(-1). PMID:25195172

  19. Accelerator-based validation of shielding codes

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, Cary; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Miller, Jack; Wilson, John W.

    2002-08-12

    The space radiation environment poses risks to astronaut health from a diverse set of sources, ranging from low-energy protons and electrons to highly-charged, high-energy atomic nuclei and their associated fragmentation products, including neutrons. The low-energy protons and electrons are the source of most of the radiation dose to Shuttle and ISS crews, while the more energetic particles that comprise the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (protons, He, and heavier nuclei up to Fe) will be the dominant source for crews on long-duration missions outside the earth's magnetic field. Because of this diversity of sources, a broad ground-based experimental effort is required to validate the transport and shielding calculations used to predict doses and dose-equivalents under various mission scenarios. The experimental program of the LBNL group, described here, focuses principally on measurements of charged particle and neutron production in high-energy heavy-ion fragmentation. Other aspects of the program include measurements of the shielding provided by candidate spacesuit materials against low-energy protons (particularly relevant to extra-vehicular activities in low-earth orbit), and the depth-dose relations in tissue for higher-energy protons. The heavy-ion experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron and the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba in Japan. Proton experiments are performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88'' Cyclotron with a 55 MeV beam, and at the Loma Linda University Proton Facility with 100 to 250 MeV beam energies. The experimental results are an important component of the overall shielding program, as they allow for simple, well-controlled tests of the models developed to handle the more complex radiation environment in space.

  20. A virtual model of the patient's head for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyminska, Katarzyna; Jezierski, Karol; Osko, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was creating a virtual phantom of a human head for BNCT, as a part of the BNCT programme project. This model is an amplification of the simple model described in earlier publications. It takes into account the major head organs as well as the scalp and skull. The chemical composition of all tissues was modelled according to the recommendations of the ICRP. The organs were parameterized using mathematical formulas based on the human head magnetic resonance images. The model was used for calculating the thermal neutron flux and the injuring (fast neutron, nitrogen and gamma) dose components for the head irradiated using the therapeutic neutron beam, whose parameters were obtained as the result of the modelling of the filter/moderator system for the BNCT therapeutic beam from the MARIA reactor.

  1. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  2. Protocols for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme at Brookhaven: Practical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    In this report we discuss some issues considered in selecting initial protocols for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of human glioblastoma multiforme. First the tolerance of normal tissues, especially the brain, to the radiation field. Radiation doses limits were based on results with human and animal exposures. Estimates of tumor control doses were based on the results of single-fraction photon therapy and single fraction BNCT both in humans and experimental animals. Of the two boron compounds (BSH and BPA), BPA was chosen since a FDA-sanctioned protocol for distribution in humans was in effect at the time the first BNCT protocols were written and therapy studies in experimental animals had shown it to be more effective than BSH.

  3. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  4. Dose masking feature for BNCT radiotherapy planning

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Jeremy L.; Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.

    2000-01-01

    A system for displaying an accurate model of isodoses to be used in radiotherapy so that appropriate planning can be performed prior to actual treatment on a patient. The nature of the simulation of the radiotherapy planning for BNCT and Fast Neutron Therapy, etc., requires that the doses be computed in the entire volume. The "entire volume" includes the patient and beam geometries as well as the air spaces in between. Isodoses derived from the computed doses will therefore extend into the air regions between the patient and beam geometries and thus depict the unrealistic possibility that radiation deposition occurs in regions containing no physical media. This problem is solved by computing the doses for the entire geometry and then masking the physical and air regions along with the isodose contours superimposed over the patient image at the corresponding plane. The user is thus able to mask out (remove) the contour lines from the unwanted areas of the image by selecting the appropriate contour masking region from the raster image.

  5. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2013-04-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation & treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8×109 neutrons/cm2/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with 10B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  6. Feasibility of the utilization of BNCT in the fast neutron therapy beam at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, Katja; Lennox, Arlene J.; Kroc, Thomas K.; DeLuca, Jr., Paul M.

    2000-06-23

    The Neutron Therapy Facility at Fermilab has treated cancer patients since 1976. Since then more than 2,300 patients have been treated and a wealth of clinical information accumulated. The therapeutic neutron beam at Fermilab is produced by bombarding a beryllium target with 66 MeV protons. The resulting continuous neutron spectrum ranges from thermal to 66 MeV in neutron energy. It is clear that this spectrum is not well suited for the treatment of tumors with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) only However, since this spectrum contains thermal and epithermal components the authors are investigating whether BNCT can be used in this beam to boost the tumor dose. There are clinical scenarios in which a selective tumor dose boost of 10 - 15% could be clinically significant. For these cases the principal treatment would still be fast neutron therapy but a tumor boost could be used either to deliver a higher dose to the tumor tissue or to reduce the dose to the normal healthy tissue while maintaining the absorbed dose level in the tumor tissue.

  7. Dose-rate scaling factor estimation of THOR BNCT test beam.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F Y; Tung, C J; Chen, J C; Wang, Y L; Huang, H C; Zamenhof, R G

    2004-11-01

    In 1998, an epithermal neutron test beam was designed and constructed at the Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor (THOR) for the purpose of preliminary dosimetric experiments in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A new epithermal neutron beam was designed at this facility, and is currently under construction, with clinical trials targeted in late 2004. Depth dose-rate distributions for the THOR BNCT test beam have been measured by means of activation foil and dual ion chamber techniques. Neutron and structure-induced gamma spectra measured at the test beam exit were configured into a source function for the Monte Carlo-based treatment planning code NCTPlan. Dose-rate scaling factors (DRSFs) were determined to normalize computationally derived dose-rate distributions with experimental measurements in corresponding mathematical and physical phantoms, and to thus enable accurate treatment planning using the NCTPlan code. A similar approach will be implemented in characterizing the new THOR epithermal beam in preparation for clinical studies. This paper reports the in-phantom calculated and experimental dosimetry comparisons and derived DRSFs obtained with the THOR test beam. PMID:15308162

  8. Resumption of JRR-4 and characteristics of neutron beam for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Horiguchi, H; Kishi, T; Motohashi, J; Sasajima, F; Kumada, H

    2011-12-01

    The clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) have been conducted using Japan Research Reactor No. 4 (JRR-4) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). On December 28th, 2007, a crack of a graphite reflector in the reactor core was found on the weld of the aluminum cladding. For this reason, specifications of graphite reflectors were renewed; dimensions of the graphite were reduced and gaps of water were increased. All existing graphite reflectors of JRR-4 were replaced by new graphite reflectors. In February 2010 the resumption of JRR-4 was carried out with new graphite reflectors. We measured the characteristics of neutron beam at the JRR-4 Neutron Beam Facility. A cylindrical water phantom of 18.6 cm diameter and 24 cm depth was set in front of the beam port with 1cm gap. TLDs and gold wires were inserted within the phantom when the phantom was irradiated. The results of the measured thermal neutron flux and the gamma dose in water were compared with that of MCNP calculation. The neutron energy spectrum of the calculation model with new reflector had little variation compared to that with old reflector, but intensities of the neutron flux and gamma dose with new reflector were rather smaller than those with old reflector. The calculated results showed the same tendency as that of the experimental results. Therefore, the clinical trials of BNCT in JRR-4 could be restarted. PMID:21621416

  9. Feasibility of the Utilization of BNCT in the Fast Neutron Therapy Beam at Fermilab

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Langen, Katja; Lennox, Arlene J.; Kroc, Thomas K.; DeLuca, Jr., Paul M.

    2000-06-01

    The Neutron Therapy Facility at Fermilab has treated cancer patients since 1976. Since then more than 2,300 patients have been treated and a wealth of clinical information accumulated. The therapeutic neutron beam at Fermilab is produced by bombarding a beryllium target with 66 MeV protons. The resulting continuous neutron spectrum ranges from thermal to 66 MeV in neutron energy. It is clear that this spectrum is not well suited for the treatment of tumors with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) only However, since this spectrum contains thermal and epithermal components the authors are investigating whether BNCT can be used in this beam to boost the tumor dose. There are clinical scenarios in which a selective tumor dose boost of 10 - 15% could be clinically significant. For these cases the principal treatment would still be fast neutron therapy but a tumor boost could be used either to deliver a higher dose to the tumor tissue or to reduce the dose to the normal healthy tissue while maintaining the absorbed dose level in the tumor tissue.

  10. IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube optimization study.

    PubMed

    Belousov, S; Mitev, M; Ilieva, K; Riley, K; Harling, O

    2011-12-01

    An optimization study of IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube is presented. In the study we used the MIT/FCB experience. The enlarging of filter/moderator cross section dimensions and the decreasing of collimator length within the limits of the IRT-Sofia reactor design were analyzed. The influence of beam and reactor core axes non-coincidence on the beam properties was also evaluated. The irradiation resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon(®)) was also evaluated. The results provide information for making decisions on the IRT-Sofia BNCT beam construction. PMID:21439839

  11. Accelerator-based Experiments For Introductory-level Undergraduates

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Justin M.

    2009-03-10

    Although accelerator based experiments for undergraduates are often considered only for junior or senior physics majors, introductory students can also benefit from them. Rutherford backscattering and a {sup 12}C(p,p){sup 12}C elastic scattering resonance can be presented in ways that are well-suited for students who have taken only an introductory physics course.

  12. LASER-PLASMA-ACCELERATOR-BASED GAMMA GAMMA COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-05-04

    Design considerations for a next-generation linear collider based on laser-plasma-accelerators are discussed, and a laser-plasma-accelerator-based gamma-gamma collider is considered. An example of the parameters for a 0.5 TeV laser-plasma-accelerator gamma gamma collider is presented.

  13. Boron Neutron Capture Therapty (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea Monti Hughes; Emiliano C.C. Pozzi; Elisa M. Heber; Silvia Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; Ana J. Molinari; Marcela A. Garabalino; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-11-01

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA [(GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT] or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  14. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for Cancer Treatment: Volume 4, No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-05-01

    Highlights of the Power Burst Facility Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program during April 1990 include progress within areas of: gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine; analytical methodologies development for BSH (Borocaptate Sodium) purity determination; noninvasive boron quantitative determination; analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT; large animal model studies; neutron source and facility preparation; administration and common support; and PBF operations -- routine operations continue. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy program for cancer treatment, Volume 4, No. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses the monthly progress of the Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNLT) program for cancer treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during July 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine; noninvasive boron quantitative determination; analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT; large animal model studies; neutron source and facility preparation; administration and common support and PBF operations.

  16. An update on the clinical trial of BNCT at the BMRR

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, R.; Capala, J.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Diaz, A.Z.

    1999-09-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed more than six decades ago. It is a binary treatment modality that requires selective delivery of a {sup 10}B-labeled compound to a tumor and slow neutron irradiation of the tumor-bearing tissues. In order to improve the penetration of the neutron beam, an epithermal neutron beam was developed at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This epithermal neutron beam can deliver relatively high thermal neutron fluence at depth without severe skin damage. Boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F), a nontoxic boron carrier, was found to preferentially accumulate in tumor cells following intravenous infusion in patients with GBM. In preclinical BNCT studies in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma, BPA-mediated BNCT was shown to be more efficacious than photon irradiation. In 1994, improvements in the neutron beam and in the understanding of the radiobiology of BPA-mediated BNCT led to the initiation of BNCT trials for human GBM at BMRR using BPA-F and epithermal neutrons. The primary objective of the phase I/II clinical trial of BPA-mediated BNCT at BMRR is to evaluate the safety of the BPA-F-mediated BNCT using epithermal neutrons in patients with GBM at a series of escalating BNCT doses. An incidental objective is to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of BNCT at each dose level. For each dose escalation group, the average brain dose (ABD) is escalated, as well as the minimum tumor dose. In summary, the BNCT procedure employed in the phase I/II clinical trial of BPA-F-mediated BNCT for GBM at BNL was found to be safe in all patients. The palliation afforded by a single session of BNCT compares favorably with palliation provided by fractionated photon therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. If no evidence of radiation-induced brain toxicity is found in the current protocol, BNCT radiation dose will be further escalated.

  17. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment: Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III; Ackermann, A.L.

    1989-02-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during January include progress within the areas of: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine (large numbers of biological samples continue to be analyzed), analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantification determination, and dosimetry.

  18. Use of the CT images for BNCT calculation: development of BNCT treatment planning system and its applications to dose calculation for voxel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Ho; Han, Chi Young; Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2004-01-01

    A BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) treatment planning system (BTPS) was developed for BNCT study and treatment planning. Three kinds of CT images, VHP, PINNACLE and DICOM images, were employed to make voxel phantoms for BNCT patient treatment using the BTPS. The thermal neutron, fast neutron, gamma and boron doses are calculated and background, tissue, and tumour doses for idealised standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF) neutron beam were calculated by using BTPS and MCNP code. It was noted that the total computing times needed for BNCT analysis could be greatly reduced since the BTPS system provides a dose analysis tool and a lengthy MCNP input in a short time. It is, thus, expected that the BTPS can significantly contribute the BNCT study for the treatment of patients. PMID:15353727

  19. Elemental analysis of concrete samples using an accelerator-based PGNAA setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Baghabra Al-Amoudi, Omar S.

    2004-09-01

    Elemental analysis of concrete samples was carried out using an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The gamma rays were produced via the capture of thermal neutron in the concrete sample. The prompt gamma ray yield was measured for 12 cm long concrete samples as a function of sample radius over a range of 6-11.5 cm radii. The optimum yield of the prompt gamma rays from the concrete sample was measured from a sample with 11.5 cm radius. The gamma ray yield was also calculated for 12 cm long concrete samples with 6-11.5 cm radius using Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with the calculated yield of the prompt gamma rays from the samples. Result of this study has shown the useful application of an accelerator-based PGNAA setup in elemental analysis of concrete sample. The facility can be further used to determine the chloride and sulfate concentrations in concrete samples for corrosion studies of reinforcement steel in concrete structures.

  20. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper.

  1. Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.; Cook, Jeremy L.

    1999-01-01

    A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

  2. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  3. Neutron/photon physics investigation of brain tumor treatments with BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Sung-Joon

    As basis for a preclinical neutron beam evaluation for BNCT of brain tumors, a computational method is developed to calculate the tumor-cell survival probability vs. treatment conditions. Here, a treatment condition is characterized by the spectrum and lateral size of neutron beams, single or bilateral exposure, and the choice of boron drugs. The radiation transport from the neutron source to tumors is carried out by the Monte Carlo method: (1) reactor-based BNCT facility modeling to yield the neutron spectra at an irradiation port; (2) dosimetry to limit the neutron fluence below a tolerance dose; (3) calculation of the 10B(n,/alpha)7Li density in tumors using neutron beams grouped by energy and angle. Finally, from a cell-killing chance by the (n,α) reaction the tumor-cell survival probability is calculated for various treatment conditions. The 10 cm beam penetrates deeper and delivers a higher thermal neutron flux at depth than the 4 cm beam. A near surface tumor could be effectively treated by single exposure with the maximum survival probability of 10-2-10-4 at the most likely range of the cell-killing chance per (n,α) reaction, while a deep tumor should rely upon bilateral exposure to avoid a high cell survival at depth. By reducing either the low or the fast energy wing of the spectrum, the tumor-cell survival can be somewhat decreased, compared to the original spectrum. However, with the both energy wings reduced, the survival probability can be furthermore decreased by factors of 2-10, depending on the treatment conditions.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis: therapeutic efficacy in an experimental model

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg

    2012-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. The present study evaluates tumor control and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in an experimental model of liver metastasis. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA–BNCT, boronophenylalanine (BPA) ? neutron irradiation; Beam only, neutron irradiation; Sham, matched manipulation. The total absorbed dose administered with BPA–BNCT was 13 ± 3 Gy in tumor and 9 ± 2 Gy in healthy liver. Three weeks posttreatment, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 0.46 ± 0.20 for BPA–BNCT, 2.7 ± 1.8 for Beam only and 4.5 ± 3.1 for Sham. The pre-treatment tumor nodule mass of 48 ± 19 mgfell significantly to 19 ± 16 mg for BPA–BNCT, but rose significantly to 140 ± 106 mg for Beam only and to 346 ± 302 mg for Sham. For both end points, the differences between the BPA–BNCT group and each of the other groups were statistically significant (ANOVA). No clinical, macroscopic or histological normal liver radiotoxicity was observed. It is concluded that BPA– BNCT induced a significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in liver with no contributory liver toxicity.

  5. Conceptual Design of a Clinical BNCT Beam in an Adjacent Dry Cell of the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Maucec, Marko

    2000-11-15

    The MCNP4B Monte Carlo transport code is used in a feasibility study of the epithermal neutron boron neutron capture therapy facility in the thermalizing column of the 250-kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI). To boost the epithermal neutron flux at the reference irradiation point, the efficiency of a fission plate with almost 1.5 kg of 20% enriched uranium and 2.3 kW of thermal power is investigated. With the same purpose in mind, the TRIGA reactor core setup is optimized, and standard fresh fuel elements are concentrated partly in the outermost ring of the core. Further, a detailed parametric study of the materials and dimensions for all the relevant parts of the irradiation facility is carried out. Some of the standard epithermal neutron filter/moderator materials, as well as 'pressed-only' low-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlF{sub 3}, are considered. The proposed version of the BNCT facility, with PbF{sub 2} as the epithermal neutron filter/moderator, provides an epithermal neutron flux of {approx}1.1 x 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}.s, thus enabling patient irradiation times of <60 min. With reasonably low fast neutron and photon contamination ([overdot]D{sub nfast}/{phi}{sub epi} < 5 x 10{sup -13} Gy.cm{sup 2}/n and [overdot]D{sub {gamma}} /{phi}{sub epi} < 3 x 10{sup -13} Gy.cm{sup 2}/n), the in-air performances of the proposed beam are comparable to all existing epithermal BNCT facilities. The design presents an equally efficient alternative to the BNCT beams in TRIGA reactor thermal columns that are more commonly applied. The cavity of the dry cell, a former JSI TRIGA reactor spent-fuel storage facility, adjacent to the thermalizing column, could rather easily be rearranged into a suitable patient treatment room, which would substantially decrease the overall developmental costs.

  6. The EORTC Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Group: achievements and future projects.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, W; Zurlo, A

    2002-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an experimental treatment modality that takes place in a nuclear research reactor. To progress from preclinical studies to patient treatment is a challenge requiring strict quality management and special solutions to licensing, liability, insurance, responsibility and logistics. The European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) BNCT group has started the first European clinical trial of BNCT for glioblastoma patients at the European High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, The Netherlands, conducted by the Department of Radiotherapy of the University of Essen, Germany. A very strict quality management had to be installed following the European rules on safety and quality assurance for nuclear research reactors, for radioprotection, for radiotherapy and for clinical trials. The EORTC BNCT Group has created a virtual European-wide hospital to handle the complex management of patients treated with BNCT. New clinical trials are currently under development. PMID:11858961

  7. A method for fast evaluation of neutron spectra for BNCT based on in-phantom figure-of-merit calculation.

    PubMed

    Martín, Guido

    2003-03-01

    In this paper a fast method to evaluate neutron spectra for brain BNCT is developed. The method is based on an algorithm to calculate dose distribution in the brain, for which a data matrix has been taken into account, containing weighted biological doses per position per incident energy and the incident neutron spectrum to be evaluated. To build the matrix, using the MCNP 4C code, nearly monoenergetic neutrons were transported into a head model. The doses were scored and an energy-dependent function to biologically weight the doses was used. To find the beam quality, dose distribution along the beam centerline was calculated. A neutron importance function for this therapy to bilaterally treat deep-seated tumors was constructed in terms of neutron energy. Neutrons in the energy range of a few tens of kilo-electron-volts were found to produce the best dose gain, defined as dose to tumor divided by maximum dose to healthy tissue. Various neutron spectra were evaluated through this method. An accelerator-based neutron source was found to be more reliable for this therapy in terms of therapeutic gain than reactors. PMID:12674238

  8. Potential of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST).

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Andoh, Tooru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Hirose, Tkanori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Kawamoto, Teruya; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Satomi; Atagi, Shinji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are relatively rare neoplasms with poor prognosis. At present there is no effective treatment for MPNST other than surgical resection. Nonetheless, the anti-tumor effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was recently demonstrated in two patients with MPNST. Subsequently, tumor-bearing nude mice subcutaneously transplanted with a human MPNST cell line were injected with p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA) and subjected to BNCT. Pathological studies then revealed that the MPNST cells were selectively destroyed by BNCT. PMID:26278348

  9. Radiation-induced meningiomas after BNCT in patients with malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Kageji, T; Sogabe, S; Mizobichi, Y; Nakajima, K; Shinji, N; Nakagawa, Y

    2015-12-01

    Of the 180 patients with malignant brain tumors whom we treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) since 1968, only one (0.56%) developed multiple radiation-induced meningiomas. The parasagittal meningioma that had received 42 Gy (w) for BNCT showed more rapid growth on Gd-enhanced MRI scans and more atypical features on histopathologic studies than the temporal convexity tumor that had received 20 Gy (w). Long-term follow up MRI studies are necessary in long-survivors of malignant brain tumors treated by BNCT. PMID:26122975

  10. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Chadha, M.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  11. Boron dose determination for BNCT using Fricke and EPR dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Ciesielski, B.

    1995-02-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) the dominant dose delivered to the tumor is due to {alpha} and {sup 7}Li charged particles resulting from a neutron capture by {sup 10}B and is referred to herein as the boron dose. Boron dose is directly attributable to the following two independent factors, one boron concentration and the neutron capture energy dependent cross section of boron, and two the energy spectrum of the neutrons that interact with boron. The neutron energy distribution at a given point is dictated by the incident neutron energy distribution, the depth in tissue, geometrical factors such as beam size and patient`s dimensions. To account for these factors can be accommodated by using Monte Carlo theoretical simulations. However, in conventional experimental BNCT dosimetry, e.g., using TLDs or ionization chambers, it is only possible to estimate the boron dose. To overcome some of the limitations in the conventional dosimetry, modifications in ferrous sulfate dosimetry (Fricke) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry in alanine, enable to measure specifically boron dose in a mixed gamma neutron radiation fields. The boron dose, in either of the dosimeters, is obtained as a difference between measurements with boronated and unboronated dosimeters. Since boron participates directly in the measurements, the boron dosimetry reflects the true contribution, integral of the neutron energy spectrum with boron cross section, of the boron dose to the total dose. Both methods are well established and used extensively in dosimetry, they are presented briefly here.

  12. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  13. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 [ae-B20H17NH3], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 {+-} 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 {+-} 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  14. First neutron generation in the BINP accelerator based neutron source.

    PubMed

    Bayanov, B; Burdakov, A; Chudaev, V; Ivanov, A; Konstantinov, S; Kuznetsov, A; Makarov, A; Malyshkin, G; Mekler, K; Sorokin, I; Sulyaev, Yu; Taskaev, S

    2009-07-01

    Pilot innovative facility for neutron capture therapy was built at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. This facility is based on a compact vacuum insulation tandem accelerator designed to produce proton current up to 10 mA. Epithermal neutrons are proposed to be generated by 1.915 MeV protons bombarding a lithium target using (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be threshold reaction. The results of the first experiments on neutron generation are reported and discussed. PMID:19375928

  15. Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. D.; Kumar, Sudhir; Dagaonkar, S. S.; Bisht, Geetika; Dayanand, S.; Devi, Reena; Deshpande, S. S.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Kannan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC), are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems (X-Knife). Output factor (St), tissue maximum ratio (TMR) and off axis ratio (OAR) of these three SRS systems were measured using CC01 (Scanditronix/ Welhofer) and Pinpoint (PTW) cylindrical and Markus plane parallel ionization chambers as well as TLD and radiochromic film. Measurement results of CC01 and Pinpoint chambers were very close to each other which indicate that further reduction in volume and physical dimensions of cylindrical ionization chamber is not necessary for SRS/SRT dosimetry. Output factors of BrainLab and Radionics SRS cones were very close to each other while output factors of equivalent diameter mMLC field were different from SRS circular cones. TMR of the three SRS systems compared were very close to one another. OAR of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC were very close to each other, within 2%. However, OARs of BrainLab cone were found comparable to OARs of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC within maximum variation of 4%. In addition, user-measured similar data of other three mMLC X-Knives were compared with the mMLC X-Knife data measured in this work and found comparable. The concept of switching over to mMLC-based SRS/SRT is thus validated from dosimetric characteristics as well. PMID:21217914

  16. Subpanel on accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Neutrinos are among nature`s fundamental constituents, and they are also the ones about which we know least. Their role in the universe is widespread, ranging from the radioactive decay of a single atom to the explosions of supernovae and the formation of ordinary matter. Neutrinos might exhibit a striking property that has not yet been observed. Like the back-and-forth swing of a pendulum, neutrinos can oscillate to-and-from among their three types (or flavors) if nature provides certain conditions. These conditions include neutrinos having mass and a property called {open_quotes}mixing.{close_quotes} The phenomenon is referred to as neutrino oscillations. The questions of the origin of neutrino mass and mixing among the neutrino flavors are unsolved problems for which the Standard Model of particle physics holds few clues. It is likely that the next critical step in answering these questions will result from the experimental observation of neutrino oscillations. The High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) Subpanel on Accelerator-Based Neutrino Oscillation Experiments was charged to review the status and discovery potential of ongoing and proposed accelerator experiments on neutrino oscillations, to evaluate the opportunities for the U.S. in this area of physics, and to recommend a cost-effective plan for pursuing this physics, as appropriate. The complete charge is provided in Appendix A. The Subpanel studied these issues over several months and reviewed all the relevant and available information on the subject. In particular, the Subpanel reviewed the two proposed neutrino oscillation programs at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The conclusions of this review are enumerated in detail in Chapter 7 of this report. The recommendations given in Chapter 7 are also reproduced in this summary.

  17. Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklyn, C. B.

    2011-12-01

    A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >1011 nṡs-1. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

  18. Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Franklyn, C. B.

    2011-12-13

    A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >10{sup 11} n{center_dot}s{sup -1}. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

  19. Feasibility study on the use of uranium in photoneutron target and BSA optimization for Linac based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Faezeh; Shahriari, Majid; Minoochehr, Abdolhamid; Nedaie, Hasan

    2011-06-01

    A hybrid photoneutron target including natural uranium has been studied for a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator (Linac) based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) facility. In this study the possibility of using uranium to increase the neutron intensity has been investigated by focusing on the time dependence behavior of the build-up and decay of the delayed gamma rays from fission fragments and activation products through photo-fission reactions in the BSA (Beam Shaping Assembly) configuration design. Delayed components of neutrons and photons were calculated. The obtained BSA parameters are in agreement with the IAEA recommendation and compared to the hybrid photoneutron target without U. The epithermal flux in the suggested design is 2.67E9 (n/cm 2s/mA).

  20. Fatal carotid blowout syndrome after BNCT for head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Aihara, T; Hiratsuka, J; Ishikawa, H; Kumada, H; Ohnishi, K; Kamitani, N; Suzuki, M; Sakurai, H; Harada, T

    2015-12-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and tumor-selective radiation that does not cause serious damage to the surrounding normal tissues. BNCT might be effective and safe in patients with inoperable, locally advanced head and neck cancers, even those that recur at previously irradiated sites. However, carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is a lethal complication resulting from malignant invasion of the carotid artery (CA); thus, the risk of CBS should be carefully assessed in patients with risk factors for CBS after BNCT. Thirty-three patients in our institution who underwent BNCT were analyzed. Two patients developed CBS and experienced widespread skin invasion and recurrence close to the carotid artery after irradiation. Careful attention should be paid to the occurrence of CBS if the tumor is located adjacent to the carotid artery. The presence of skin invasion from recurrent lesions after irradiation is an ominous sign of CBS onset and lethal consequences. PMID:26282568

  1. Dosimetric feasibility study for an extracorporeal BNCT application on liver metastases at the TRIGA Mainz.

    PubMed

    Blaickner, M; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B; Hampel, G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of explanted livers in the thermal column of the research reactor in Mainz. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to calculate the biologically weighted dose for different ratios of the (10)B-concentration in tumour to normal liver tissue. The simulation results show that dosimetric goals are only partially met. To guarantee effective BNCT treatment the organ has to be better shielded from all gamma radiation. PMID:21872481

  2. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of {sup 10}B enriched decaborane.

  3. Application of different TL detectors for the photon dosimetry in mixed radiation fields used for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Burgkhardt, B; Bilski, P; Budzanowski, M; Böttger, R; Eberhardt, K; Hampel, G; Olko, P; Straubing, A

    2006-01-01

    Different approaches for the measurement of a relatively small gamma dose in strong fields of thermal and epithermal neutrons as used for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) have been studied with various thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs). CaF(2):Tm detectors are insensitive to thermal neutrons but not tissue-equivalent. A disadvantage of applying tissue-equivalent (7)LiF detectors is a strong neutron signal resulting from the unavoidable presence of (6)Li traces. To overcome this problem it is usual to apply pairs of LiF detectors with different (6)Li content. The experimental determination of the thermal neutron response ratio of such a pair at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF) operated by PTB enables measurement of the photon dose. In the experimental mixed field of thermal neutrons and photons of the TRIGA reactor at Mainz the photon dose measured with different types of (7)LiF/(nat)LiF TLD pairs agree within a standard uncertainty of 6% whereas the CaF(2):Tm detectors exhibit a photon dose by more than a factor of 2 higher. It is proposed to determine suitable photon energy correction factors for CaF(2):Tm detectors with the help of the (7)LiF/(nat)LiF TLD pairs in the radiation field of interest. PMID:16644976

  4. Error prediction of LiF-TLD used for gamma dose measurement for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Liu, H M; Liu, Y H

    2011-12-01

    To predict the neutron influence on various (6)LiF concentration in the LiF-TLD, the Monte Carlo code MCNP was adopted to simulate the energy deposition on a TLD chip with dimensions of 3.2×3.2×0.9 mm. By assuming that the TL response is proportional to the energy deposition on it, the percentage error of LiF-TLD used for gamma dose measurement in mixed (n, γ) fields can be written as: %Error=R(n)/R(g)×100%. Where R(n) and R(g) are the TL responses resulted from neutron and gamma, respectively. Taking the water phantom irradiated with the BNCT facility at the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) as an example, the (6)LiF concentration for TLD-700 is 0.007%, the magnitude of the neutron flux is ~1×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, the neutron energy is ~4×10(-7) MeV (cadmium cut-off energy), the gamma dose rate is ~3 Gy/h, thus the percentage error can be predicted as 38%. PMID:21489808

  5. Synthesis and in-vivo detection of boronated compounds for use in BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    The primary objectives of the DOE Program at the University of Tennessee Biomedical Imaging Center are the development of new boron-neutron-capture agents as well as the technology to detect boron compounds in-vivo. The detection technology focuses on the development of effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) techniques for verifying and measuring BNCT agents in-vivo. A significant portion of the effort is directed toward the design of boron-containing neutron-capture-therapy agents. The UT -- DOE program is unique in that it has access to two state-of-the-art multinuclear magnetic resonance imaging units housed in the Biomedical Imaging Center at the University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville. In addition the UT -- DOE researchers actively collaborate with colleagues at other DOE facilities (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities). An important goal of the DOE program at UT is to provide training for students (predoctoral and postdoctoral). The University of Tennessee is one of the very few institutions in the world where students have hands-on'' access to both modern scientific equipment and medical imaging modalities such as the clinical MRI units. The academic nature of the program facilitates collaborative interactions with other DOE programs and helps to insure the continued availability of skilled scientists dedicated to the advancement of diagnostic medical procedures. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Monte Carlo based protocol for cell survival and tumour control probability in BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Sung-Joon

    1999-02-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the theoretical cell survival probability (nominally, the cell survival fraction) is developed to evaluate preclinical treatment conditions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A treatment condition is characterized by the neutron beam spectra, single or bilateral exposure, and the choice of boron carrier drug (boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boron sulfhydryl hydride (BSH)). The cell survival probability defined from Poisson statistics is expressed with the cell-killing yield, the (n, ) reaction density, and the tolerable neutron fluence. The radiation transport calculation from the neutron source to tumours is carried out using Monte Carlo methods: (i) reactor-based BNCT facility modelling to yield the neutron beam library at an irradiation port; (ii) dosimetry to limit the neutron fluence below a tolerance dose (10.5 Gy-Eq); (iii) calculation of the (n, ) reaction density in tumours. A shallow surface tumour could be effectively treated by single exposure producing an average cell survival probability of - for probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs, while a deep tumour will require bilateral exposure to achieve comparable cell kills at depth. With very pure epithermal beams eliminating thermal, low epithermal and fast neutrons, the cell survival can be decreased by factors of 2-10 compared with

  7. Voxel model in BNCT treatment planning: performance analysis and improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Sara J.; Carando, Daniel G.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made to study the performance of treatment planning systems in deriving an accurate dosimetry of the complex radiation fields involved in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of the patient's anatomy is one of the main factors involved in this subject. This work presents a detailed analysis of the performance of the 1 cm based voxel reconstruction approach. First, a new and improved material assignment algorithm implemented in NCTPlan treatment planning system for BNCT is described. Based on previous works, the performances of the 1 cm based voxel methods used in the MacNCTPlan and NCTPlan treatment planning systems are compared by standard simulation tests. In addition, the NCTPlan voxel model is benchmarked against in-phantom physical dosimetry of the RA-6 reactor of Argentina. This investigation shows the 1 cm resolution to be accurate enough for all reported tests, even in the extreme cases such as a parallelepiped phantom irradiated through one of its sharp edges. This accuracy can be degraded at very shallow depths in which, to improve the estimates, the anatomy images need to be positioned in a suitable way. Rules for this positioning are presented. The skin is considered one of the organs at risk in all BNCT treatments and, in the particular case of cutaneous melanoma of extremities, limits the delivered dose to the patient. Therefore, the performance of the voxel technique is deeply analysed in these shallow regions. A theoretical analysis is carried out to assess the distortion caused by homogenization and material percentage rounding processes. Then, a new strategy for the treatment of surface voxels is proposed and tested using two different irradiation problems. For a parallelepiped phantom perpendicularly irradiated with a 5 keV neutron source, the large thermal neutron fluence deviation present at shallow depths (from 54% at 0 mm depth to 5% at 4 mm depth) is reduced to 2% on average

  8. Microdosimetry study of THOR BNCT beam using tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F Y; Hsiao, H W; Tung, C-J; Liu, H M; Chou, F I

    2009-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cancer treatment modality using a nuclear reactor and a boron compound drug. In Taiwan, Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) has been modulated for the basic research of BNCT for years. A new BNCT beam port was built in 2004 and used to prepare the first clinical trial in the near future. This work reports the microdosimetry study of the THOR BNCT beam by means of the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Two self-fabricated TEPCs (the boron-doped versus the boron-free counter wall) were introduced. These dual TEPCs were applied to measure the lineal energy distributions in air and water phantom irradiated by the THOR BNCT mixed radiation field. Dose contributions from component radiations of different linear energy transfers (LETs) were analyzed. Applying a lineal energy dependent biological weighting function, r(y), to the total and individual lineal energy distributions, the effective relative biological effectiveness (RBE), neutron RBE, photon RBE, and boron capture RBE (BNC RBE) were all determined at various depths of the water phantom. Minimum and maximum values of the effective RBE were 1.68 and 2.93, respectively. The maximum effective RBE occurred at 2cm depth in the phantom. The average neutron RBE, photon RBE, and BNC RBE values were 3.160+/-0.020, 1.018+/-0.001, and 1.570+/-0.270, respectively, for the THOR BNCT beam. PMID:19447042

  9. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  10. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  11. Verification of the accuracy of BNCT treatment planning system THORplan.

    PubMed

    Li, H S; Liu, Y-W H; Lee, C Y; Lin, T Y; Hsu, F Y

    2009-07-01

    THORplan is a treatment planning system developed at Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) purpose. It is recently developed with user-friendly interface using Interactive Data Language. In this article the accuracy of THORplan is verified by comparing results of Snyder phantom calculation with the analytical model results of MCNP. Neutron source from THOR epithermal neutron beam is used as the source for the calculation. The thermal neutron flux calculated by THORplan is very close to the reference results. SERA overestimates thermal neutron flux by 2-5%. NCTPlan underestimates thermal neutron flux by 4-9% in most locations. The total weighted dose calculated by THORplan is accurate to within 3% except at the tissue interface. SERA overestimates the total weighted dose at depth >1.5 cm by 2-5%. NCTPlan underestimates the total weighted dose by approximately 10% at depth >1cm. PMID:19386507

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): A radiation oncology perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID )

    1994-03-30

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) offers considerable promise in the search for the ideal cancer therapy, a therapy which selectively and maximally damages malignant cells while sparing normal tissue. This bimodal treatment modality selectivity concentrates a boron compound in malignant cells, and then [open quotes]activates[close quotes] this compound with slow neutrons resulting in a highly lethal event within the cancer cell. This article reviews this treatment modality from a radiation oncology, biology, and physics perspective. The remainder of the articles in this special issue provide a survey of the current [open quotes]state-of-the-art[close quotes] in this rapidly expanding field, including information with regard to boron compounds and their localization. 118 refs., 3 figs.

  13. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  14. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  15. TIDBIT - the INEL database of BNCT information and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    The INEL Database of BNCT Information and Treatment (TIDBIT) has been under development for several years. Late in 1993, a new software development team took over the project and did and assessment of the current implementation status, and determined that the user interface was unsatisfactory for the expected users and that the data structures were out of step with the current state of reality. The team evaluated several tools that would improve the user interface to make the system easier to use. Uniface turned out to be the product of choice. During 1994, TIDBIT got its name, underwent a complete change of appearance, had a major overhaul to the data structures that support the application, and system documentation was begun. A prototype of the system was demonstrated in September 1994.

  16. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  17. Optimization of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kononov, O.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Bokhovko, M.V.; Korobeynikov, V.V.; Soloviev, A.N.; Chu, W.T.

    2004-02-20

    A modeling investigation was performed to choose moderator material and size for creating optimal epithermal neutron beams for BNCT based on a proton accelerator and the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction as a neutrons source. An optimal configuration is suggested for the beam shaping assembly made from polytetrafluoroethylene and magnesium fluorine. Results of calculation were experimentally tested and are in good agreement with measurements.

  18. Monte Carlo model of the Studsvik BNCT clinical beam: description and validation.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Valerio; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per M; Sköld, Kurt; Montagnini, Bruno; Capala, Jacek

    2003-12-01

    The neutron beam at the Studsvik facility for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the validation of the related computational model developed for the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code are presented. Several measurements performed at the epithermal neutron port used for clinical trials have been made in order to validate the Monte Carlo computational model. The good general agreement between the MCNP calculations and the experimental results has provided an adequate check of the calculation procedure. In particular, at the nominal reactor power of 1 MW, the calculated in-air epithermal neutron flux in the energy interval between 0.4 eV-10 keV is 3.24 x 10(9) n cm(-2) s(-1) (+/- 1.2% 1 std. dev.) while the measured value is 3.30 x 10(9) n cm(-20 s(-1) (+/- 5.0% 1 std. dev.). Furthermore, the calculated in-phantom thermal neutron flux, equal to 6.43 x 10(9) n cm(-2) s(-1) (+/- 1.0% 1 std. dev.), and the corresponding measured value of 6.33 X 10(9) n cm(-2) s(-1) (+/- 5.3% 1 std. dev.) agree within their respective uncertainties. The only statistically significant disagreement is a discrepancy of 39% between the MCNP calculations of the in-air photon kerma and the corresponding experimental value. Despite this, a quite acceptable overall in-phantom beam performance was obtained, with a maximum value of the therapeutic ratio (the ratio between the local tumor dose and the maximum healthy tissue dose) equal to 6.7. The described MCNP model of the Studsvik facility has been deemed adequate to evaluate further improvements in the beam design as well as to plan experimental work. PMID:14713077

  19. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, γ) and (γ, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and

  20. Feasibility study of using laser-generated neutron beam for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kasesaz, Y; Rahmani, F; Khalafi, H

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using a laser-accelerated proton beam to produce a neutron source, via (p,n) reaction, for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications has been studied by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. After optimization of the target material and its thickness, a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been designed and optimized to provide appropriate neutron beam according to the recommended criteria by International Atomic Energy Agency. It was found that the considered laser-accelerated proton beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ∼2×10(6) n/cm(2) shot. To achieve an appropriate epithermal neutron flux for BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz, which is rather ambitious at this moment. But it can be used in some BNCT researches field such as biological research. PMID:26115204

  1. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, α) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

  2. Radiation shielding design of BNCT treatment room for D-T neutron source.

    PubMed

    Pouryavi, Mehdi; Farhad Masoudi, S; Rahmani, Faezeh

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that D-T neutron generator can be used as a proper neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of deep-seated brain tumors. In this paper, radiation shielding calculations have been conducted based on the computational method for designing a BNCT treatment room for a recent proposed D-T neutron source. By using the MCNP-4C code, the geometry of the treatment room has been designed and optimized in such a way that the equivalent dose rate out of the treatment room to be less than 0.5μSv/h for uncontrolled areas. The treatment room contains walls, monitoring window, maze and entrance door. According to the radiation protection viewpoint, dose rate results of out of the proposed room showed that using D-T neutron source for BNCT is safe. PMID:25732097

  3. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  4. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  5. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses. PMID:19175101

  6. Maximizing the Efficacy of Accelerator-Produced Neutrons for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Jay F. Kunze; J. Frank Harmon; Rajat Kudchadker; Chad L. Lee

    2000-06-04

    Production of neutrons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatment of malignant brain tumors will best be served if the neutrons can be produced by accelerators rather than nuclear reactors. The neutron production reaction that has been most thoroughly examined using accelerators is {sup 7}Li(n, p){sup 7}Be, generally on a thick lithium target. The threshold for this reactor is 1.88 MeV, and the yield curve for neutron production rises quite rapidly up to 2.3 MeV, where the positive slope is reduced significantly. In considering the design of a neutron production device, it has been traditional to use proton energies in the 2.4- to 2.5-MeV range. Over the last several years, our group has been working with lower-energy protons, just above the threshold for neutron production. The advantage is that the neutrons produced would have much lower energy and hence need much less moderator. The principal disadvantage of operating at these near-threshold energies is that the yield from the target is substantially reduced from that at or near 2.5-MeV proton energy. Table I shows the results of calculations to find an optimum energy for 3-mA proton beam on target. In general, we have concluded that 1.96 to 1.98 MeV is probably optimum for a tumor 5 cm below the skull.

  7. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  8. A treatment planning comparison of BPA- or BSH-based BNCT of malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate delivery of the prescribed dose during clinical BNCT requires knowledge (or reasonably valid assumptions) about the boron concentrations in tumor and normal tissues. For conversion of physical dose (Gy) into photon-equivalent dose (Gy-Eq), relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and/or compound-adjusted biological effectiveness (CBE) factors are required for each tissue. The BNCT treatment planning software requires input of the following values: the boron concentration in blood and tumor, RBEs in brain, tumor and skin for the high-LET beam components, the CBE factors for brain, tumor, and skin, and the RBE for the gamma component.

  9. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  10. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  11. "Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ana J. Molinari; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Silvia I. Thorp; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam. The minor abundance stable isotope of boron, 10B, interacts with low energy (thermal) neutrons to produce high linear energy transfer (LET) a-particles and 7Li ions. These disintegration products are known to have a high relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Their short range (<10 {micro}m) would limit the damage to cells containing 10B (1,2). Thus, BNCT would target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Clinical trials of BNCT for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and/or melanoma and, more recently, head and neck tumors and liver metastases, using boronophenylalanine (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborane (BSH) as the 10B carriers, have been performed or are underway in Argentina, Japan, the US and Europe (e.g. 3-8). To date, the clinical results have shown a potential, albeit inconclusive, therapeutic advantage for this technique. Contributory translational studies have been carried out employing a variety of experimental models based on the implantation of tumor cells in normal tissue (e.g. 5).

  12. Irradiation characteristics of BNCT using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons: application to intra-operative BNCT for malignant brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Tooru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Masayori; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2002-08-21

    A calculation method for the dosage of neutrons by near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be and gamma rays by 7Li(p, p'gamma)7Li was validated through experiments with variable distance between the Li target and the phantom, focusing on large angular dependence. The production of neutrons and gamma rays in the Li target was calculated by Lee's method and their transport in the phantom was calculated using the MCNP-4B code. The dosage in intra-operative boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons was evaluated using the validated calculation method. The effectiveness of the usage of the direct neutrons was confirmed from the existence of the region satisfying the requirements of the protocol utilized in intra-operative BNCT for brain tumours in Japan. The boron-dose enhancer (BDE) introduced in this paper to increase the contribution of the 10B(n, alpha)7Li dose in the living body was effective. The void utilized to increase the dose in deep regions was also effective with BDE. For the investigation of 1.900 MeV proton beams, for example, it was found that intraoperative BNCT using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons is feasible. PMID:12222863

  13. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  14. PREFACE: 6th Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Stefano; Perucchi, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to a subset of papers related to the work presented at the 6th edition of the international Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS), held in Trieste, Italy, September 4-8 2011. Previous editions of the conference were held in Porquerolles (France), Lake Tahoe (USA), Rathen (Germany), Awaji (Japan), and Banff (Canada). This edition was organized and chaired by Stefano Lupi (Roma La Sapienza) and co-chaired by Andrea Perucchi (Elettra), with the support of the Italian Synchrotron Light Laboratory ELETTRA, which was honored to host the WIRMS workshop in its tenth anniversary. The 6th WIRMS edition addressed several different topics, ranging from biochemistry to strongly correlated materials, from geology to conservation science, and from forensics to the study of cometary dusts. Representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities. This edition was attended by 88 participants, including representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities, who enjoyed the stimulating scientific presentations, several detailed discussions, and the beautiful weather and scenery of the Trieste gulf. Participants came from 16 different nations and four continents, including many young scientists, six of which were supported by the organizers. There were 45 scientific talks divided in 11 sessions: Facilities, Microspectroscopy (I, II, III), Time-Resolved Spectroscopies, Extreme Conditions, Condensed Matter, Near-Field, Imaging, THz Techniques and High-Resolution Spectroscopy. 37 posters were also presented at two very lively evening poster sessions. We would like to use the opportunity of writing this preface to thank all the participants of the workshop for the very high level of their scientific contribution and for the very friendly atmosphere

  15. First experiments on neutron detection on the accelerator-based source for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. S.; Malyshkin, G. N.; Makarov, A. N.; Sorokin, I. N.; Sulyaev, Yu. S.; Taskaev, S. Yu.

    2009-04-01

    A pilot accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons, which is intended for wide application in clinics for boron neutron capture therapy, has been constructed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). A stationary proton beam has been obtained and near-threshold neutron generation regime has been realized. Results of the first experiments on neutron generation using the proposed source are described.

  16. Effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on Normal Liver Regeneration: Towards a Novel Therapy for Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge E. Cardoso; Elisa M. Heber; David W. Nigg; Osvaldo Calzetta; Herman Blaumann; Juan Longhino; Maria E. Itoiz; Eduardo Bumaschny; Emiliano Pozzi; Amanda E.Schwint; Verónica A. Trivillin

    2007-10-01

    The “TAORMINA project” developed a new method for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of human multifocal unresectable liver metastases based on whole liver ex-situ BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), followed by whole liver autograft. This technique involved a high risk, prolonged anhepatic phase. The Roffo Institute liver surgeons (JEC) herein propose a novel technique to pursue ex-situ liver BNCT studies with a drastically lower surgical risk for the patient. The technique would involve, sequentially, ex-situ BNCT of left liver segments II and III, partial liver autograft, and induction of partial atrophy of the untreated right liver. The working hypothesis is that the atrophy of the right, untreated, diseased liver would stimulate regeneration of the left, treated, “cured” liver to yield a healthy liver mass, allowing for the resection of the remaining portion of diseased liver. This technique does not involve an anhepatic phase and would thus pose a drastically lower surgical risk to the patient but requires sine qua non that BNCT should not impair the regenerative capacity of normal hepatocytes. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of therapeutic doses of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 (Na2 10B10H10) or (GB- 10 + BPA) on normal liver regeneration in the Wistar rat employing partial hepatectomy as a regenerative stimulus. BNCT did not cause alterations in the outcome of normal liver regeneration, regenerated liver function or histology. We provide proof of principle to support the development of a novel, promising BNCT technique for the treatment of liver metastases.

  17. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint; John K. Hartwell; Elisa M. Heber; Veronica Trivillin; Jorge Castillo; Luis Wentzeis; Patrick Sloan; Charles A. Wemple

    2004-10-01

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  18. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Hartwell, J.K.; Heber, E.M.; Trivillin, V.; Castillo, J.; Wentzeis, L.; Sloan, P.; Wemple, C.A.

    2004-10-04

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  19. High-Current Experiments for Accelerator-Based Neutron Capture Therapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gierga, D.P.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Hughey, B.H.; Shefer, R.E.; Yanch, J.C.; Blackburn, B.W.

    1999-06-06

    Several accelerator-based neutron capture therapy applications are under development. These applications include boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiform and boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) for rheumatoid arthritis. These modalities use accelerator-based charged-particle reactions to create a suitable neutron source. Neutrons are produced using a high-current, 2-MV terminal tandem accelerator. For these applications to be feasible, high accelerator beam currents must be routinely achievable. An effort was undertaken to explore the operating regime of the accelerator in the milliampere range. In preparation for high-current operation of the accelerator, computer simulations of charged-particle beam optics were performed to establish high-current operating conditions. Herein we describe high beam current simulations and high beam current operation of the accelerator.

  20. Neutron medical treatment of tumours — a survey of facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F. M.; Loeper-Kabasakal, B.; Breitkreutz, H.

    2012-03-01

    Neutron therapy has two branches: Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The mean neutron energies used for FNT range from 2 MeV to 25 MeV whereas the maximum energy for BNCT is about 10 keV. Neutron generators for FNT have been cyclotrons, accelerators and reactors, whereas BNCT is so far bound to reactors. Both therapies use the effects of high-LET radiation (secondary recoil protons and alpha particles, respectively) and can attack otherwise radioresistant tumours, however, with the hazard of adverse effects for irradiated healthy tissue. FNT has been administered to about 30,000 patients world-wide. From formerly 40 facilities, only eight are operational or stand-by today. The reasons for this development have been, on the one hand, related to technical and economical conditions; on the other hand, strong side effects and insufficient proof of clinical results in the early years as well as increasing competition with new clinical methods have reduced patient numbers. In fact, strict observations of indications, appropriate therapy-planning including low-LET radiation, and consequent treatment of side effects have lead to remarkable results in the meantime. BNCT initially was developed for the treatment of extremely aggressive forms of brain tumour, taking advantage of the action of the blood-brain-barrier which allows for a boronated compound to be selectively enriched in tumour cells. Meanwhile, also malignant melanoma (MM) and Head-and-Neck (H&T) tumours are treated because of their relative radioresistance. At present, epithermal beams with sufficient flux are available only at two facilities. Existing research reactors were indispensable in the development of BNCT, but are to be replaced by hospital-based epithermal neutron sources. Clinical results indicate significantly increased survival times, but the number of patients ever treated is still below 1,000. 3D-dose calculation systems have been developed at several facilities

  1. Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).

    PubMed

    Wittig, Andrea; Michel, Jean; Moss, Raymond L; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bendel, Peter; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Hilger, Ralf; Salvadori, Piero A; Menichetti, Luca; Zamenhof, Robert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang A G

    2008-10-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having a high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, being limited to approximately one cell diameter. This opens the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy. BNCT strongly depends on the selective uptake of 10B in tumor cells and on its distribution inside the cells. The chemical properties of boron and the need to discriminate different isotopes make the investigation of the concentration and distribution of 10B a challenging task. The most advanced techniques to measure and image boron are described, both invasive and non-invasive. The most promising approach for further investigation will be the complementary use of the different techniques to obtain the information that is mandatory for the future of this innovative treatment modality. PMID:18439836

  2. Hyaluronic acid as a potential boron carrier for BNCT: Preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zaboronok, A; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Yoshida, F; Uspenskii, S; Selyanin, M; Zelenetskii, A; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer found in different biological tissues, has the potential to attach to CD44 receptors on the surface of certain cancer cells, where the receptor is overexpressed compared with normal cells. Boron-hyaluronic acid (BHA) was tested for its feasibility as a potential agent for BNCT. BHA with low-viscosity 30 kDa HA could be administered by intravenous injection. The compound showed a certain degree of cytotoxicity and accumulation in C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Instability of the chelate bonds between boron and HA and/or insufficient specificity of CD44 receptors on C6 cells to BHA could account for the insufficient in vitro accumulation. To ensure the future eligibility of BHA for BNCT experiments, using alternative tumor cell lines and chemically securing the chelate bonds or synthesizing BHA with boron covalently attached to HA might be required. PMID:26302663

  3. Designing of the 14 MeV neutron moderator for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dao-Wen; Lu, Jing-Bin; Yang, Dong; Liu, Yu-Min; Wang, Hui-Dong; Ma, Ke-Yan

    2012-09-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the ratio of the fast neutron flux to the neutron flux in the tumor (RFNT) must be less than 3%. If a D-T neutron generator is used in BNCT, the 14 MeV neutron moderator must be optimized to reduce the RFNT. Based on the neutron moderation theory and the simulation results, tungsten, lead and diamond were used to moderate the 14 MeV neutrons. Satisfying RFNT of less than 3%, the maximum neutron flux in the tumor was achieved with a three-layer moderator comprised of a 3 cm thick tungsten layer, a 14 cm thick lead layer and a 21 cm thick diamond layer.

  4. Near threshold ⁷Li(p,n) ⁷Be reaction as neutron source for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2015-12-01

    (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be is an endothermic reaction and working near its threshold (1.88 MeV) has the advantage of neutron spectra with maximum energies of about 100 keV, considerably lower than at higher beam energies, or than using other neutron-producing reactions or as for the uranium fission spectrum, relevant for BNCT based on nuclear reactors. With this primary energy it is much easier to obtain the energies needed for treating deep seated tumors by BNCT (about 10 keV). This work studies bombarding energies up to 2.05 MeV, different beam incidence angles and the effect of the undesirable gamma production via the (7)Li(p,γp') (7)Li reaction. PMID:26235187

  5. Comparison of different MC techniques to evaluate BNCT dose profiles in phantom exposed tovarious neutron fields.

    PubMed

    Durisi, E; Koivunoro, H; Visca, L; Borla, O; Zanini, A

    2010-03-01

    The absorbed dose in BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) consists of several radiation components with different physical properties and biological effectiveness. In order to assess the clinical efficacy of the beams, determining the dose profiles in tissues, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are used. This paper presents a comparison between dose profiles calculated in different phantoms using two techniques: MC radiation transport code, MCNP-4C2 and BNCT MC treatment planning program, SERA (simulation environment for radiotherapy application). In this study MCNP is used as a reference tool. A preliminary test of SERA is performed using six monodirectional and monoenergetic beams directed onto a simple water phantom. In order to deeply investigate the effect of the different cross-section libraries and of the dose calculation methodology, monoenergetic and monodirectional beams directed toward a standard Snyder phantom are simulated. Neutron attenuation curves and dose profiles are calculated with both codes and the results are compared. PMID:19939825

  6. Combined TL and 10B-alanine ESR dosimetry for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Bartolotta, A; D'Oca, M C; Lo Giudice, B; Brai, M; Borio, R; Forini, N; Salvadori, P; Manera, S

    2004-01-01

    The dosimetric technique described in this paper is based on electron spin resonance (ESR) detectors using an alanine-boric compound acid enriched with (10)B, and beryllium oxide thermoluminescent (TL) detectors; with this combined dosimetry, it is possible to discriminate the doses due to thermal neutrons and gamma radiation in a mixed field. Irradiations were carried out inside the thermal column of a TRIGA MARK II water-pool-type research nuclear reactor, also used for Boron Neutron Capture therapy (BNCT) applications, with thermal neutron fluence from 10(9) to 10(14) nth cm(-2). The ESR dosemeters using the alanine-boron compound indicated ESR signals about 30-fold stronger than those using only alanine. Moreover, a negligible correction for the gamma contribution, measured with TL detectors, almost insensitive to thermal neutrons, was necessary. Therefore, a simultaneous analysis of our TL and ESR detectors allows discrimination between thermal neutron and gamma doses, as required in BNCT. PMID:15353720

  7. Ensemble Manifold Rank Preserving for Acceleration-Based Human Activity Recognition.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dapeng; Jin, Lianwen; Yuan, Yuan; Xue, Yang

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of mobile devices and pervasive computing technologies, acceleration-based human activity recognition, a difficult yet essential problem in mobile apps, has received intensive attention recently. Different acceleration signals for representing different activities or even a same activity have different attributes, which causes troubles in normalizing the signals. We thus cannot directly compare these signals with each other, because they are embedded in a nonmetric space. Therefore, we present a nonmetric scheme that retains discriminative and robust frequency domain information by developing a novel ensemble manifold rank preserving (EMRP) algorithm. EMRP simultaneously considers three aspects: 1) it encodes the local geometry using the ranking order information of intraclass samples distributed on local patches; 2) it keeps the discriminative information by maximizing the margin between samples of different classes; and 3) it finds the optimal linear combination of the alignment matrices to approximate the intrinsic manifold lied in the data. Experiments are conducted on the South China University of Technology naturalistic 3-D acceleration-based activity dataset and the naturalistic mobile-devices based human activity dataset to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the new nonmetric scheme for acceleration-based human activity recognition. PMID:25265635

  8. Application of the new MultiTrans SP3 radiation transport code in BNCT dose planning.

    PubMed

    Kotiluoto, P; Hiisamäki, P; Savolainen, S

    2001-09-01

    Dose planning in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a complex problem and requires sophisticated numerical methods. In the framework of the Finnish BNCT project, new deterministic three-dimensional radiation transport code MultiTrans SP3 has been developed at VTT Chemical Technology, based on a novel application of the tree multigrid technique. To test the applicability of this new code in a realistic BNCT dose planning problem, cylindrical PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate) phantom was chosen as a benchmark case. It is a convenient benchmark, as it has been modeled by several different codes, including well-known DORT and MCNP. Extensive measured data also exist. In this paper, a comparison of the new MultiTrans SP3 code with other methods is presented for the PMMA phantom case. Results show that the total neutron dose rate to ICRU adult brain calculated by the MultiTrans SP3 code differs less than 4% in 2 cm depth in phantom (in thermal maximum) from the DORT calculation. Results also show that the calculated 197Au(n,gamma) and 55Mn(n,gamma) reaction rates in 2 cm depth in phantom differ less than 4% and 1% from the measured values, respectively. However, the photon dose calculated by the MultiTrans SP3 code seems to be incorrect in this PMMA phantom case, which requires further studying. As expected, the deterministic MultiTrans SP3 code is over an order of magnitude faster than stochastic Monte Carlo codes (with similar resolution), thus providing a very efficient tool for BNCT dose planning. PMID:11585221

  9. PBF/BNCT Program for cancer treatment: Volume 3, No. 1: Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during January include progress in: gross boron analysis in tissue blood and urine (approximately 400 biological samples were analyzed, including samples from the first dog with melanoma and the first two dogs from the acute radiation response study at BNL); analytical methodologies development for (Sodium Borocaptate) purity determination (arrival of a new HPLC column allowed good separation of the various boronated species in the BSSB compound), and in several related areas.

  10. An economic model to assess the cost-benefit of BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kulvik, Martti; Hermans, Raine; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Shalowitz, Joel

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a formal model on cost-benefit of new technology in health care, and apply it on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We assume that the patient health benefit from getting cured in acute treatment is always higher than the patient utility resulting from any long term treatment or death. This assumption makes it possible to evaluate the monetary cost impacts of a new technology and relate these measures to the patient health benefit. PMID:26365901

  11. Assessment of dose rate scaling factors used in NCTPlan treatment planning code for the BNCT beam of THOR.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F Y; Liu, M T; Tung, C J; Hsueh Liu, Y W; Chang, C C; Liu, H M; Chou, F I

    2009-07-01

    Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) at Tsing Hua University in Taiwan has been used to investigate the feasibility and to enhance the technology of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for years. A rebuilt epithermal beam port for BNCT at THOR was finished in the summer of 2004, and then researches and experiments were performed to hasten the first clinical treatment case of BNCT in Taiwan in the near future. NCTPlan, a Monte Carlo-based clinical treatment planning code, was used to calculate the dose-rate distributions of BNCT in this work. A self-made Snyder head phantom with a servo-motor control system was irradiated in front of the THOR BNCT beam exit. The phantom was made from a 3mm shell of quartz wool impregnated with acrylic casting resin mounted on an acrylic base, and was filled with water. Gold foils (bare and cadmium-covered) and paired ion chambers (one with graphite wall and filled with CO(2) gas, another with A-150 plastic tissue equivalent wall and filled with tissue equivalent gas) were placed inside the Snyder phantom to measure and estimate the depth-dose distributions in the central axis of the beam. Dose components include the contribution of thermal neutrons, fast neutrons, photons and emitted alpha particles from (10)B(n,alpha)(7)Li reaction. Comparison and analysis between computed and measured results of depth-dose distributions were made in this work. Dose rate scaling factors (DRSFs) were defined as normalization factors derived individually for each dose component in the BNCT in-phantom radiation field that provide the best agreement between measured and computed data. This paper reports the in-phantom calculated and experimental dosimetry and the determined DRSFs used in NCTPlan code for the BNCT beam of THOR. PMID:19375926

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of spontaneous nasal planum squamous cell carcinoma in felines.

    PubMed

    Trivillin, Verónica A; Heber, Elisa M; Rao, Monica; Cantarelli, María A; Itoiz, Maria E; Nigg, David W; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E

    2008-02-01

    Recently, Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was successfully applied to treat experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa, with no damage to normal tissue. It was also shown that treating spontaneous nasal planum SCC in terminal feline patients with low dose BNCT is safe and feasible. In an extension of this work, the present study aimed at evaluation of the response of tumor and dose-limiting normal tissues to potentially therapeutic BNCT doses. Biodistribution studies with (10)B-boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in (10)B) as a (10)B carrier were performed on three felines that showed advanced nasal planum SCC without any standard therapeutic option. Following the biodistribution studies, BNCT mediated by (10)BPA was done using the thermalized epithermal neutron beam at the RA-6 Nuclear Reactor. Follow-up included clinical evaluation, assessment of macroscopic tumor and normal tissue response and biopsies for histopathological analysis. The treated animals did not show any apparent radiation-induced toxicity. All three animals exhibited partial tumor control and an improvement in clinical condition. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy was associated with a high (10)B content of the tumor and a small tumor size. BNCT is therefore believed to be potentially effective in the treatment of spontaneous SCC. However, improvement in targeting (10)B into all tumor cells and delivering a sufficient dose at a greater depth are still required for the treatment of deep-seated, large tumors. Future studies are needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of the dual mode cellular (e.g. BPA-BNCT) and vascular (e.g. GB-10-BNCT) targeting protocol in a preclinical scenario, employing combinations of (10)B compounds with different properties and complementary uptake mechanisms. PMID:17955256

  13. Some Recent Developments in Treatment Planning Software and Methodology for BNCT

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nigg, D. W.; Wheeler, F. J.; Wessol, D. E.; et al.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has led the development of a unique, internationally-recognized set of software modules (BNCT-rtpe) for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The computational capability represented by this software is essential to the proper administration of all forms of radiotherapy for cancer. Such software addresses the need to perform pretreatment computation and optimization of the radiation dose distribution in the target volume. This permits the achievement of the optimal therapeutic ratio (tumor dose relative to critical normal tissue dose) for each individual patient via a systematic procedure for specifying the appropriate irradiation parameters to be employed for a given treatment. These parameters include angle of therapy beam incidence, beam aperture and shape, and beam intensity as a function of position across the beam front. The INEL software is used for treatment planning in the current series of human glioma trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and has also been licensed for research and developmental purposes to several other BNCT research centers in the US and in Europe.

  14. Boron-10 quantification and microdosimetric studies in a clinical trial of BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Kiger, W.S. III; Solares, G.R.; Yam, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Five boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatments have been delivered as part of the New England Deaconess Hospital-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) phase-I BNCT dose-escalation protocol for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The first four irradiations, in which the boron agent boronophenylalanine (L-BPA) was administered orally in a fruit juice suspension, were done using epithermal neutrons from the MIT research reactor employing four fractions. The fifth irradiation, in which the subject received the fructose form of BPA (BPA-f) via intravenous infusion, was delivered in a single fraction. This paper presents the results from the measurements of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor, normal tissue, and blood for the subjects who underwent this protocol because, to ascribe potential efficacy to BNCT, it is necessary to show that there is an adequate differential uptake of boron by tumor cells relative to normal cells, These measurements used high-resolution quantitative autoradiography, prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emissions spectroscopy.

  15. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT brain tumor treatment based on voxel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeng-Ning; Lee, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    For BNCT treatments, in addition to tumor target doses, non-negligible doses will result in all the remaining organs of the body. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as the average absorbed doses of each of organs of patients with brain tumor treated in the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The effective doses were evaluated according to the definitions of ICRP Publications 60 and 103 for the reference male and female computational phantoms developed in ICRP Publication 110 by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code with the THOR-Y09 beam source. The effective dose acquired in this work was compared with the results of our previous work calculated for an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. It was found that the effective dose for the female voxel phantom is larger than that for the male voxel phantom by a factor of 1.2-1.5 and the effective dose for the voxel phantom is larger than that for the mathematical phantom by a factor of 1.3-1.6. For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51Sv and the average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07Gy. PMID:24411557

  16. RADIOSYNTHESIS AND CHIRAL SEPARATION OF C-11 LABELED BORONOPHENYLALANINE FOR BNCT STUDIES WITH PET.

    SciTech Connect

    STUDENOV,A.; DING,Y.S.; FERRIERI,R.; MIURA,M.; CODERRE,J.; FOWLER,J.S.

    2001-06-10

    The overall goal of this research is to combine two powerful methodologies, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and positron emission tomography (PET), to advance the treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors. BNCT is a method to selectively deliver lethal alpha radiation to a tumor through the administration of a boron-10 containing drug, and irradiation of the tumor area with neutrons [1]. L-Boronophenylalanine (L-{sup 10}BPA) is a boron-10 containing amino acid currently used for BNCT [4]. In order to perform neutron dosimetry, it is essential to determine tumor boron-10 levels in the course of the therapy. PET has the ability to measure the concentration of drugs labeled with positron-emitting isotopes in the human body [2]. 2-Fluoro-4-borono-phenylalanine ([{sup 18}F]FBPA) has been labeled as a surrogate marker for L-BPA for pharmacokinetic studies in brain tumor patients [3]. However, [{sup 18}F]FBPA is a different drug than L-BPA because it contains a fluorine atom. We report here the labeling of L-BPA with C-11, which has the advantage of being chemically identical to L-BPA. Carbon-11 is also well suited to repeated studies within the same PET scanning session.

  17. In-phantom dosimetry for BNCT with Fricke and normoxic-polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambarini, G.; Agosteo, S.; Carrara, M.; Gay, S.; Mariani, M.; Pirola, L.; Vanossi, E.

    2006-05-01

    Measurements of in-phantom dose distributions and images are important for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy treatment planning. The method for spatial determination of absorbed doses in thermal or epithermal neutron fields, based on Fricke-xylenol-orange-infused gel dosimeters in form of layers, has revealed to be very reliable, as gel layer dosimeters give the possibility of obtaining spatial dose distributions and measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields, by means of a properly studied procedure. Quite recently, BNCT has been applied to treat liver metastases; in this work the results of in-phantom dosimetry for explanted liver in BNCT treatments are described. Moreover, polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeters in which a polymerization process appears as a consequence of absorbed dose, have been recently tested, because of their characteristic absence of diffusion. In fact, due to the diffusion of ferric ions, Fricke-gel dosimeters require prompt analysis after exposure to avoid spatial information loss. In this work the preliminary results of a study about the reliability of polymer gel in BNCT dosimetry are also discussed. Gel layers have been irradiated in a phantom exposed in the thermal column of the TRIGA MARK II reactor (Pavia). The results obtained with the two kinds of gel dosimeter have been compared.

  18. Some recent developments in treatment planning software and methodology for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past several years the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has led the development of a unique, internationally-recognized set of software modules (BNCT-rtpe) for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The computational capability represented by this software is essential to the proper administration of all forms of radiotherapy for cancer. Such software addresses the need to perform pretreatment computation and optimization of the radiation dose distribution in the target volume. This permits the achievement of the optimal therapeutic ratio (tumor dose relative to critical normal tissue dose) for each individual patient via a systematic procedure for specifying the appropriate irradiation parameters to be employed for a given treatment. These parameters include angle of therapy beam incidence, beam aperture and shape, and beam intensity as a function of position across the beam front. The INEL software is used for treatment planning in the current series of human glioma trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and has also been licensed for research and developmental purposes to several other BNCT research centers in the US and in Europe.

  19. Some recent developments in treatment planning software and methodology for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Wemple, C.A.; Babcock, R.; Capala, J.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past several years/the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has led the development of a unique, internationally-recognized set of software modules (BNCT rtpe) for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The computational capability represented by this software is essential to the proper administration of all forms of radiotherapy for cancer. Such software addresses the need to perform pretreatment computation and optimization of the radiation dose distribution in the target volume. This permits the achievement of the optimal therapeutic ratio (tumor dose relative to critical normal tissue dose) for each individual patient via a systematic procedure for specifying the appropriate irradiation parameters to be employed for a given treatment. These parameters include angle of therapy beam incidence, beam aperture and shape,and beam intensity as a function of position across the beam front. The INEL software is used for treatment planning in the current series of human glioma trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and has also been licensed for research and developmental purposes to several other BNCT research centers in the US and in Europe.

  20. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Blood vessel normalization was induced by two doses of thalidomide in tumor-bearing hamsters on 2 consecutive days. All studies in thalidomide-treated animals were performed 48 h after the first dose of thalidomide, previously established as the window of normalization. Biodistribution studies were performed with BPA at a dose of 15.5 mg (10)B/kg in thalidomide-treated (Th+) and untreated (Th-) tumor-bearing hamsters. The effect of blood vessel normalization prior to BPA administration on the efficacy of BNCT was assessed in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in tumor-bearing hamsters. Group I was treated with BPA-BNCT after treatment with thalidomide (Th+ BPA-BNCT). Group II was treated with BPA-BNCT alone (Th- BPA-BNCT). Group III was treated with the beam only after treatment with thalidomide (Th+ BO), and Group IV was treated with the beam only (Th- BO). Groups I and II were given the same dose of BPA (15.5 mg (10)B/kg), and all groups (I-IV) were exposed to the same neutron fluence. Two additional groups were treated with the beam only at a higher dose to exacerbate mucositis in precancerous tissue and to explore the potential direct protective effect of thalidomide on radiation-induced mucositis in a scenario of more severe toxicity, i.e. Group V (Th+ hdBO) and Group

  1. Panorama of new generation of accelerator based short wavelength coherent light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The newly developed intense short wavelength light sources (from Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) to X-rays) have open the path to the exploration of matter for revealing structures and electronic processes and for following their evolution in time. After drawing the panorama of existing accelerator based short wavelength light sources, the new trends of evolution of short wavelengths FEL are described, with some illustrations with the example of the LUNEX5 (free electron Laser a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) demonstrator project of advanced compact Free Electron Laser.

  2. Comparison of accelerator-based with reactor-based waste transmutation schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, W.C.; Beard, C.A.; Venneri, F.; Davidson, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation of waste (ATW) systems for the destruction of commercial LWR spent fuel are compared with systems based on thermal reactors accomplish the same objectives. When the same technology is assumed for the actinide-burning aspect of the two systems, it is seen that the size of the accelerator is determined only by the choice of how many of the long-lived fission products to burn. if none are transmuted, then the accelerator is not necessary. This result is independent of the choice of fluid carrier, and whether the actinides are destroyed in an ATW system or in a separate reactor.

  3. Studies of industrial emissions by accelerator-based techniques: A review of applications at CEDAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.

    2012-04-01

    Different research activities are in progress at the Centre for Dating and Diagnostics (CEDAD), University of Salento, in the field of environmental monitoring by exploiting the potentialities given by the different experimental beam lines implemented on the 3 MV Tande-tron accelerator and dedicated to AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrome-try) radiocarbon dating and IB A (Ion Beam Analysis). An overview of these activities is presented by showing how accelerator-based analytical techniques can be a powerful tool for monitoring the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources and for the assessment of the biogenic content in SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) burned in WTE (Waste to Energy) plants.

  4. A co-design method for parallel image processing accelerator based on DSP and FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze; Weng, Kaijian; Cheng, Zhao; Yan, Luxin; Guan, Jing

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we present a co-design method for parallel image processing accelerator based on DSP and FPGA. DSP is used as application and operation subsystem to execute the complex operations, and in which the algorithms are resolving into commands. FPGA is used as co-processing subsystem for regular data-parallel processing, and operation commands and image data are transmitted to FPGA for processing acceleration. A series of experiments have been carried out, and up to a half or three quarter time is saved which supports that the proposed accelerator will consume less time and get better performance than the traditional systems.

  5. JAERI R and D on accelerator-based transmutation under OMEGA program

    SciTech Connect

    Takizuka, T.; Nishida, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1995-09-15

    The overview of the Japanese long-term research and development program on nuclide partitioning and transmutation, called ''OMEGA,'' is presented. Under this national program, major R and D activities are being carried out at JAERI, PNC, and CRIEPI. Accelerator-based transmutation study at JAERI is focused on a dedicated transmutor with a subcritical actinide-fueled subcritical core coupled with a spallation target driven by a high intensity proton accelerator. Two types of system concept, solid system and molten-salt system, are discussed. The solid system consists of sodium-cooled tungsten target and metallic actinide fuel. The molten-salt system is fueled with molten actinide chloride that acts also as a target material. The proposed plant transmutes about 250 kg of minor actinide per year, and generates enough electricity to power its own accelerator. JAERI is proposing the development of an intense proton linear accelerator ETA with 1.5 GeV-10 mA beam for engineering tests of accelerator-based transmutation. Recent achievements in the accelerator development are described.

  6. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  7. Distribution of BPA and metabolic assessment in glioblastoma patients during BNCT treatment: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Bergenheim, A Tommy; Capala, Jacek; Roslin, Michael; Henriksson, Roger

    2005-02-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is dependent on the selective accumulation of boron-10 in tumour cells. To maximise the radiation effect, the neutrons should be delivered when the ratio between the boron concentration in tumour cells to that in normal tissues reaches maximum. However, the pharmacokinetics of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and other boron delivery agents are only partly known. We used microdialysis to investigate the extracellular in vivo kinetics of boron in three intracerebral compartments -- solid tumour, brain adjacent to tumour (BAT), and the normal brain, as well as the subcutaneous tissue before, during, and after BNCT treatment. The findings were compared to the pharmacokinetics of BPA in the blood. We also measured the glucose metabolism and the levels of glutamate and glycerol in those compartments. Four patients were studied, two patients underwent surgical tumour resection and in two a stereotactic biopsy was performed. The patients were given BPA (900 mg/kg body weight) by a 6-h infusion. The infusion was completed approximately 2-3 h before neutron irradiation. In tumour tissue the extracellular concentration of BPA followed that of blood with a maximal concentration of 31.2 ppm and a maximal ratio vs. blood of 1.07. In BAT, the maximal concentration of BPA was 18.0 ppm with the peak level delayed for 4-6 h compared to the peak in blood with a maximal ratio of 1.2. Maximal blood concentration found was 41.0 ppm. The uptake of BPA in the normal brain was considerably lower than that in the blood and tumour tissue. No change in glucose metabolism was observed. The extracellular level of glycerol was increased after treatment in tumour tissue but not in normal brain suggesting a selective acute cytotoxic effect of BNCT on tumour cells. PMID:15735919

  8. Unifying dose specification between clinical BNCT centers in the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Harling, O. K.; Kiger, W. S. III; Gonzalez, S. J.; Casal, M. R.; Longhino, J.; Larrieu, O. A. Calzetta; Blaumann, H. R.

    2008-04-15

    A dosimetry intercomparison between the boron neutron capture therapy groups of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Argentina was performed to enable combined analyses of NCT patient data between the different centers. In-air and dose versus depth measurements in a rectangular water phantom were performed at the hyperthermal neutron beam facility of the RA-6 reactor, Bariloche. Calculated dose profiles from the CNEA treatment planning system NCTPlan that were calibrated against in-house measurements required normalizations of 1.0 (thermal neutrons), 1.13 (photons), and 0.74 (fast neutrons) to match the dosimetry of MIT.

  9. Determination of the irradiation field at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Nagels, S; Hampel, G; Kratz, J V; Aguilar, A L; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B

    2009-07-01

    For the application of the BNCT for the excorporal treatment of organs at the TRIGA Mainz, the basic characteristics of the radiation field in the thermal column as beam geometry, neutron and gamma ray energies, angular distributions, neutron flux, as well as absorbed gamma and neutron doses must be determined in a reproducible way. To determine the mixed irradiation field thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) made of CaF(2):Tm with a newly developed energy-compensation filter system and LiF:Mg,Ti materials with different (6)Li concentrations and different thicknesses as well as thin gold foils were used. PMID:19380234

  10. Filter/moderator system for a BNCT beam of epithermal neutrons at nuclear reactor MARIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyminska, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a very promising form of cancer therapy, consisting in irradiating a stable isotope of boron (10B) concentrated in tumor cells with a low energy neutron beam. This technique makes it possible to destroy tumor cells, leaving healthy tissues practically unaffected. In order to carry out the therapy in the proper way, the proper range of the neutron beam energy has to be chosen. In this paper we present a filter/moderator system modeled with MCNP code in order to obtain an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT post at MARIA reactor in Swierk.