Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Evans, Steven W.; Schamberg, Terah
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e.,…
Fillos, Rita M.; Magoon, A. Jon
The meaning of standardized achievement testing to 50 third-grade teachers was investigated through a construct validation procedure using questionnaires and structured open-ended interviews. Subjects were from 18 schools performing distinctly above or below prediction on the Delaware Educational Assessment Program Longitudinal Study.…
Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.
In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...
...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in service... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...
Haig, Brian D.
Lee Cronbach once expressed the view that all roads lead to construct validity. In looking to clarify the consensus definition of validity, and its place in assessment, Newton is also led to the troublesome idea of construct validity. To be sure, he addresses other validity issues, but in this commentary, I will restrict my attention to construct…
Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel
Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…
Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip
This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.
Strauss, Milton E.; Smith, Gregory T.
Measures of psychological constructs are validated by testing whether they relate to measures of other constructs as specified by theory. Each test of relations between measures reflects on the validity of both the measures and the theory driving the test. Construct validation concerns the simultaneous process of measure and theory validation. In this chapter, we review the recent history of validation efforts in clinical psychological science that has led to this perspective, and we review five recent advances in validation theory and methodology of importance for clinical researchers. These are: the emergence of nonjustificationist philosophy of science; an increasing appreciation for theory and the need for informative tests of construct validity; valid construct representation in experimental psychopathology; the need to avoid representing multidimensional constructs with a single score; and the emergence of effective new statistical tools for the evaluation of convergent and discriminant validity. PMID:19086835
Background The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live a worthwhile life despite it. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is the questionnaire most often used to measure pain acceptance in chronic pain populations. Methods A total of 205 Spanish patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome who attended our pain clinic were asked to complete a battery of psychometric instruments: the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) for pain intensity, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Results Analysis of results showed that the Spanish CPAQ had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.83) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.83). The Spanish CPAQ score significantly correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophising, health status and physical and psychosocial disability. The Scree plot and a Principal Components Factor analysis confirmed the same two-factor construct as the original English CPAQ. Conclusion The Spanish CPAQ is a reliable clinical assessment tool with valid construct validity for the acceptance measurement among a sample of Spanish fibromyalgia patients. This study will make it easier to assess pain acceptance in Spanish populations with fibromyalgia. PMID:20385016
Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen
The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…
Sun, Hua-long; Dai, Nan
For pharmaceutical industries, clinical data is one of the most valuable deliverables. It is also the basis of analysis, submission, approval, labeling and marketing of a drug product. To ensure the integrity and reliability of clinical data, a scientific standardized quality control (QC) has to be established at each step of a clinical trial. Data validation is conducted to ensure the reasonability and compliance of clinical data by checking data quality before the data is statistically analyzed. This paper focuses on purpose of data validation, creation of data validation plan, rationale of data validation, types of data validation and performance of user acceptance testing on clinical database. PMID:26911047
Jackson, Douglas N.
Concern for enhancing construct validity of vocational interest measures provides a focus for scale construction quite distinct from that derived from a criterion-referenced strategy: Construct-oriented measurement implies: (1) substantive definitions of dimensions; (2) concern for internal consistency reliability, as well as generalizability; (3)…
Petrides, K. V.
This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773
Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V
This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773
Andrulis, Richard S.
The purpose of the investigation was to determine the construct validity of a standardized achievement test. The test, administered to over 5800 subjects, is one examination in a diploma program for students pursuing the Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) designation. Results of factor and multiple discriminant analysis indicated the presence of…
Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.
This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…
Lee, Ming; Wimmers, Paul F.
This study examined construct validity of three commonly used clerkship performance assessments: preceptors' evaluations, OSCE-type clinical performance measures, and the NBME [National Board of Medical Examiners] medicine subject examination. Six hundred and eighty-six students taking the inpatient medicine clerkship from 2003 to 2007…
van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.
Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…
Gerger, Heike; Kley, Hanna; Bohner, Gerd; Siebler, Frank
Scales of rape myth acceptance (RMA) often yield low means and skewed distributions. This is proposed to be because of a change in rape-related beliefs toward more subtle content. Incorporating insights from racism and sexism research, a 30-item self-report scale measuring the acceptance of modern myths about sexual aggression (AMMSA) is presented. Across four studies (total N=1,279), the reliability and validity of parallel German and English versions of the AMMSA scale were examined. The results show that both language versions are highly reliable; compared with a traditional RMA scale, means of AMMSA scores are higher and their distributions more closely approximate normality. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses provide evidence for the AMMSA scale's concurrent and predictive construct validity. PMID:17683102
Dishion, Thomas J.; Kim, Hanjoe; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Maya
Objective Conduct a multiagent–multimethod analysis of the validity of a brief measure of deviant peer affiliations and social acceptance (PASA) in young adolescents. Peer relationships are critical to child and adolescent social and emotional development, but currently available measures are tedious and time consuming. The PASA consists of a youth, parent, and teacher report that can be collected longitudinally to study development and intervention effectiveness. Method This longitudinal study included 998 middle school students and their families. We collected the PASA and peer sociometrics data in Grade 7 and a multiagent–multimethod construct of deviant peer clustering in Grade 8. Results Confirmatory factor analyses of the multiagent–multimethod data revealed that the constructs of deviant peer affiliations and social acceptance and rejection were distinguishable as unique but correlated constructs within the PASA. Convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the PASA was satisfactory, although the acceptance and rejection constructs were highly correlated and showed similar patterns of concurrent validity. Factor invariance was established for mother and for father reports. Conclusions Results suggest that the PASA is a valid and reliable measure of peer affiliation and of social acceptance among peers during the middle school years and provides a comprehensive yet brief assessment of peer affiliations and social acceptance. PMID:24611623
Schlier, Björn; Scheunemann, Jakob; Lincoln, Tania M
Growing evidence supports a continuum model of psychosis, with mild psychotic symptoms being frequently experienced by the general population. Moreover, believing in the continuum model correlates with less stigmatization of schizophrenia. This study explores whether continuum beliefs are a valid construct and develops a continuum beliefs scale. First, expert-generated items were reduced to a candidate scale (study 1, n=95). One-dimensionality was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2, n=363). Convergent validity was tested with a previous continuum beliefs scale, essentialist beliefs, and stigmatization (study 2), while self-reported psychotic experiences (i.e. frequency and conviction) served to test discriminant validity (study 3, n=229). A nine item questionnaire that assesses continuum beliefs about schizophrenia symptoms showed acceptable to good psychometric values, high correlations with a previous continuum beliefs scale and small correlations with essentialist beliefs, stereotypes, and desired social distance. No correlations with psychotic experiences were found. Thus, continuum beliefs can be considered a valid construct. The construed CBQ-R asks about symptoms rather than the abstract category "schizophrenia", which may increase understandability of the scale. Validation confirms previous studies and highlights the difference between continuum beliefs and personal psychotic experiences. PMID:27175910
Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V
Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations. PMID:23270979
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
The 24-item Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader components: knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. An exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including: knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. Although women and men differed on the components, they had equivalent overall metacognition for problem solving. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Westen, Drew; Rosenthal, Robert
Smith's article "On Construct Validity: Issues of Method and Measurement" is a fine tribute to L. J. Cronbach and P. E. Meehl (1955) that clarifies the current state and future directions in the understanding of construct validity. Construct validity is a dynamic process, and fit indices need to be used at the service of understanding, not in…
Rock, Donald A.
The primary purpose of this study was to provide evidence for or against the construct validity of the Career Skills Assessment Program (CSAP) instrument. A secondary purpose was to present a systematic procedure for carrying out internal construct validity studies in any testing instrument. Construct validation using confirmatory factor analysis…
Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep
This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk < 1.0 as "incapable" (1). A C pk > 1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%. PMID:26024723
Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Sauteraud, Alain; Olive, Jérôme; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre
Despite the increasing use of E-health systems for mental-health organizations, there is a lack of psychometric tools to evaluate their acceptability by patients with mental disorders. Thus, this study aimed to translate and validate a French version of the Acceptability E-scale (AES), a 6-item self-reported questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which patients find E-health systems acceptable. A forward-backward translation of the AES was performed. The psychometric properties of the French AES version, with construct validity, internal structural validity and external validity (Pearson's coefficient between AES scores and depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory II) were analyzed. In a sample of 178 patients (mean age=46.51 years, SD=12.91 years), the validation process revealed satisfactory psychometric properties: factor analysis revealed two factors: "Satisfaction" (3 items) and "Usability" (3 items) and Cronbach's alpha was 0.7. No significant relation was found between AES scores and depression symptoms. The French version of the AES revealed a two-factor scale that differs from the original version. In line with the importance of acceptability in mental health and with a view to E-health systems for patients with mental disorders, the use of the AES in psychiatry may provide important information on acceptability (i.e., satisfaction and usability). PMID:26809367
Katz, Idit; Buzukashvili, Tamara; Feingold, Liat
This article presents 2 studies aimed at validating a measure of stress experienced by children and parents around the issue of homework, applying Benson's program of validation (Benson, 1998). Study 1 provides external validity of the measure by supporting hypothesized relations between stress around homework and students' and parents' positive…
Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad
Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112
... will be financed by RUS. These requirements are set forth in other RUS regulations, especially in 7 CFR..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All...
Hoyt, William T.; Warbasse, Rosalia E.; Chu, Erica Y.
Counseling psychology researchers devote little attention to theory-based measurement validation, as evidenced by cursory mention of validity issues in the method and discussion sections of published research reports. Especially, many researchers appear unaware of the limitations of correlations between pairs of self-report measures as evidence of…
Engel-Yeger, Batya; Rosenblum, Sara; Josman, Naomi
The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) is one of the most accepted tools, both in clinical practice and in research, for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCDs) in children. The present study aimed to: (1) establish the construct validity of M-ABC in Israel by comparing the motor performance of typically…
Fujita-Starck, Pamela J.
Data from 1,142 adult students confirmed the seven-factor typology of the Educational Participation Scale. Reliability of scales was acceptable. Construct validity was tested by predicting membership in three curricular groups: arts/leisure, personal development, and professional development. Results revealed distinctive characteristics and…
Constructing, Quantifying, and Validating an Adverse Outcome Pathway for Vascular Developmental Toxicity The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for embryonic vascular disruption1 leading to a range of adverse prenatal outcomes was recently entered into the AOP wiki and accepted as par...
This paper examines the utilization of construct validity in formative assessment for classroom-based purposes. Construct validity pertains to the notion that interpretations are made by educators who analyze test scores during formative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to note the challenges that educators face when interpreting these…
Orton, Robert E.
Though construct validity is widely employed in educational research, it is a difficult and confusing topic in methodology, and it is not clear whether all researchers share the same understanding. This essay describes origins of construct validity and suggests a plan for updating its foundations. (MT)
Paul E. Newton's article on the consensus definition of validity tackles a number of big issues and makes a number of strong claims. I agreed with much of what he said, and I disagreed with a number of his claims, but I found his article to be consistently interesting and thought provoking (whether I agreed or not). I will focus on three general…
Hartung, Paul J.; Taber, Brian J.; Richard, George V.
Measures of values typically appraise the construct globally, across life domains or relative to a broad life domain such as work. We conducted two studies to construct and initially validate an occupation- and context-specific values measure. Study 1, based on a sample of 192 medical students, describes the initial construction and item analysis…
Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall
The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.
... Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and... Construction Area for Replacements These guidelines shall be followed to determine what area may be used to... physical evidence in the area. Areas obviously not cleared during the original construction, as...
Wong, Kung-Teck; Osman, Rosma bt; Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Rahmat, Mohd Khairezan
This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of Malaysian student teachers' integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation…
Cutler, B L; Wolfe, R N
Construct validity of the Concern For Appropriateness scale (CFA; Lennox & Wolfe, 1984), a measure of the tendency to adopt protective self-presentation styles, is examined using a multitrait-multimethod approach. Self-ratings on the CFA and ratings by suitemates constitute the two methods, and concern for appropriateness, interpersonal trust, and boredom susceptibility are assessed with each. Multitrait-multimethod analysis shows that the CFA scale exhibits convergent validity against peer ratings and discriminant validity against boredom susceptibility, the only other variable demonstrating convergence. Results indicate that the CFA exhibits construct validity and might therefore prove useful as an operationalization for self-presentation tendencies. PMID:16367476
Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Moshabela, Mosa
Achieving equitable access to health care is an important policy goal, with access influenced by affordability, availability, and acceptability of specific services. We explore patient narratives from a 5-year program of research on health care access to examine relationships between social constructions of illness and the acceptability of health services in the context of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Acceptability of services seems particularly important to the meanings patients attach to illness and care, whereas—conversely—these constructions appear to influence what constitutes acceptability and hence affect access to care. We highlight the underestimated role of individually, socially, and politically constructed healthworlds; traditional and biomedical beliefs; and social support networks. Suggested policy implications for improving acceptability and hence overall health care access include abandoning patronizing approaches to care and refocusing from treating “disease” to responding to “illness” by acknowledging and incorporating patients’ healthworlds in patient–provider interactions. PMID:25829509
Forer, Barry; Zumbo, Bruno D.
The purposes of this paper are to highlight the foundations of multilevel construct validation, describe two methodological approaches and associated analytic techniques, and then apply these approaches and techniques to the multilevel construct validation of a widely-used school readiness measure called the Early Development Instrument (EDI;…
Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.
The authors review theory validation and construct validation principles as related to the study of personality dysfunction. Historically, personality disorders have been understood to be syndromes of heterogeneous symptoms. The authors argue that the syndrome approach to description results in diagnoses of unclear meaning and constrained validity. The alternative approach of describing personality dysfunction in terms of homogeneous dimensions of functioning avoids the problems of the syndromal approach and has been shown to provide more valid description and diagnosis. The authors further argue that description based on homogeneous dimensions of personality function/dysfunction is more useful, because it provides direct connections to validated treatments. PMID:22321263
Laes, E.; Bombaerts, G.
Public participation in a complex technological issue such as the management of radioactive waste needs to be based on a simultaneous construction of scientific, ethical and socio-political foundations. Confronting this challenge is in no way straightforward. The problem is not only that the 'hard' technocrats downplay the importance of socio-political and ethical factors; also, our 'soft' ethical vocabularies (e.g. Habermasian 'discourse ethics') seem to be ill-equipped for tackling such complex questions (in terms of finding concrete solutions). On the other hand, professionals in the field, confronted with a (sometimes urgent) need for finding workable solutions, cannot wait for armchair philosophers to formulate the correct academic answers to their questions. Different public participation and communication models have been developed and tested in real-world conditions, for instance in the Belgian 'partnership approach' to the siting of a low-level waste management facility. Starting from the confrontation of theoretical outlooks and pragmatic solutions, this paper identifies a number of 'dilemmas of participation' that can only be resolved by inherently political choices. Successfully negotiating these dilemmas is of course difficult and conditional on many contextual factors, but nevertheless at the end of the paper an attempt is made to sketch the contours of three possible future scenarios (each with their own limits and possibilities). (authors)
Brodeur, Pascale; Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Feng, Bei; Forget-Dubois, Nadine
Researchers suggest that certain supportive behaviors of mentors could increase the benefits of school-based mentoring for youth. However, the literature contains few validated instruments to measure these behaviors. In our present study, we aimed to construct and validate a tool to measure the supportive behaviors of mentors participating in…
Osadebe, P. U.
The study was carried out to construct a valid and reliable test in Economics for secondary school students. Two research questions were drawn to guide the establishment of validity and reliability for the Economics Achievement Test (EAT). It is a multiple choice objective test of five options with 100 items. A sample of 1000 students was randomly…
Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.
Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…
Sichani, Elham Fallahian; Tabatabaei, Omid
Many researchers were interested in validity of the language proficiency tests in the previous decades. The present study aims to study the construct validity of the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology Reading Comprehension module (MSRT) in the Iranian context. After administering a standard language proficiency test (OPT) 65…
Edmundson, Elizabeth W.; Koch, William R.
A study involving 234 Texas college students was undertaken to develop and test the validity and reliability of an instrument designed to measure college students' attitudes toward alcohol. Special attention was given to the content and construct validity of the instrument. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 24 years. The mapping sentence served as…
Admiraal, Wilfried; Hoeksma, Mark; van de Kamp, Marie-Therese; van Duin, Gee
The richness and complexity of video portfolios endanger both the reliability and validity of the assessment of teacher competencies. In a post-graduate teacher education program, the assessment of video portfolios was evaluated for its reliability, construct validity, and consequential validity. Although video portfolio facilitated a reliable and…
Gogus, Aytac; Nistor, Nicolae; Riley, Richard W.; Lerche, Thomas
The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh et al., 2003, 2012) proposes a major model of educational technology acceptance (ETA) which has been yet validated only in few languages and cultures. Therefore, this study aims at extending the applicability of UTAUT to Turkish culture. Based on acceptance and cultural data…
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; Pinto, Anthony; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.
Although Passive Aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) plays an important role in many theories of personality pathology, it was consigned to the appendix of the fourth edition of the DSM. The scientific basis of this decision has been questioned, but several controversies persist regarding PAPD, including its structure, content validity, overlap with other PDs, and relations to validating variables such as personality traits, childhood experiences, and clinically relevant correlates. This study examined these facets of PAPD’s construct validity in a large clinical sample. Results suggest that the construct is unidimensional, internally consistent, and reasonably stable. Furthermore, PAPD appears systematically related to borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, sets of personality traits, and childhood experiences consistent with several theoretical formulations, dysfunction, substance abuse disorders, and history of hospitalizations. Overall, results support the construct validity of PAPD. PMID:19821648
Bondurant, Helen; Greenfield, Brian; Tse, Sze Man
Introduction Although the term borderline personality disorder (BPD) is used to describe adolescents in clinical settings, there is confusion as to what it comprises. To further elucidate that diagnosis, this article reviews its construct validity. Method Relevant publications appearing in PsychInfo (1872 to present) were reviewed for the purposes of this article. Results Thirty-six of the approximately sixty-five publications selected for consideration were included in this review. Conclusion The construct validity of adolescent BPD is supported by internal consistency (comparable to that of adults), group differences (ie this diagnosis segregates BPD from non-BPD adolescents), convergent validity (ie multiple measures of this disorder measure the same pathology) and concurrent validity, whereby these youth manifest functional impairment and distress. By contrast, the adolescent BPD criteria manifest less construct validity than the adult diagnosis in that its criteria did not uniformly predict the overall diagnosis, and showed more criterion overlap with other personality disorders and a broader pattern of axis II comorbidity. Further diminishing its construct validity, factor analysis suggested that adolescent BPD was not a single entity, and its low predictive validity was demonstrated by little diagnostic stability through adolescence into adulthood. PMID:19030500
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and... temporary and permanent rights-of-way and associated work space that was used to construct the...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guidance for Determining the Acceptable Construction Area for Replacements A Appendix A to Part 2 Conservation of Power and... temporary and permanent rights-of-way and associated work space that was used to construct the...
Liu, Yaqun; Wang, Lei; Wei, Yibo; Wang, Xiaolin; Xu, Tianming; Sun, Jinhai
Acceptance of chronic pain has increasingly become a significant issue in the field of pain management. Many researchers have suggested that patients with better acceptance of pain are more likely to have better functioning both in physical and psychological status. In many countries, the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) and CPAQ-8 have been validated and utilized frequently to measure the pain acceptance of patients with chronic pain. However, the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 yet have not been introduced and validated in Mainland China.In this study, we aimed to translate the English version of the CPAQ into simplified Chinese, make proper cross-cultural adaptations, and validate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8.The English version of the CPAQ was first linguistically translated and cross-culturally adapted to formulate a Chinese version. Then, we recruited 224 patients from a pain clinic and every participant was asked to finish a series of questionnaires. Finally, statistical analysis was performed to test the psychometric properties of the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8.Both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed a 2-factor structure for the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8. Nine out of 10 of the hypotheses were validated for construct validity. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value for the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 were 0.92 and 0.89, respectively. In addition, the Cronbach α values for both the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8 showed excellent test-retest reliability.In conclusion, the original CPAQ was successfully developed into the Chinese version of the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 with excellent validity and reliability. The scores of the CPAQ or CPAQ-8 might be a strong predictor for the physical and psychological function of chronic pain patients. In addition, to improve the satisfaction of surgery patients, we recommend measuring patients' pain acceptance using the CPAQ or CPAQ-8 before and after the
Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…
Ferencz, Beata; Scholtissen, Bart; Bogorodskaya, Milana; Okun, Michael S.; Bowers, Dawn
Apathy is one of the primary neuropsychiatric signatures in Parkinson’s disease, yet little research has addressed the construct validity of two commonly used apathy measures, the Apathy Scale and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale. The authors tested the hypothesis that apathy is associated with reduced initiative/engaged behaviors on a laboratory-based measure of apathy. Support was found for the hypothesis that apathy, as indexed by the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, is associated with reduced initiative/engagement on an experimental measure of apathy in Parkinson patients. These findings provide independent evidence for the construct validity of self-report apathy scales, beyond clinician judgment. PMID:23224453
Tarrant, Carolyn; Baker, Richard; Colman, Andrew M; Sinfield, Paul; Agarwal, Shona; Mellon, John K; Steward, William; Kockelbergh, Roger
Background In England, prostate cancer patients report worse experience of care than patients with other cancers. However, no standard measure of patient experience of prostate cancer care is currently available. This paper describes an evaluation of the reliability, validity and acceptability of the PCQ-P, a newly developed instrument designed to measure patient experience of prostate cancer care. Methods The reliability, acceptability and validity of the PCQ-P were tested through a postal survey and interviews with patients. The PCQ-P was posted to 1087 prostate cancer patients varying in age, occupation, and overall health status, sampled from five hospitals in England. Nonresponders received one reminder. To assess criterion validity, 935 patients were also sent sections of the National Centre for Social Research Shortened Questionnaire; and to assess test-retest reliability, 296 patients who responded to the questionnaire were resent it a second time three weeks later. A subsample of 20 prostate cancer patients from one hospital took part in qualitative interviews to assess validity and acceptability of the PCQ-P. Acceptability to service providers was evaluated based on four hospitals' experiences of running a survey using the PCQ-P. Results Questionnaires were returned by 865 patients (69.2%). Missing data was low across the sections, with the proportion of patients completing less than 50% of each section ranging from 4.5% to 6.9%. Across the sections of the questionnaire, internal consistency was moderate to high (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.63 to 0.80), and test-retest stability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.57 to 0.73). Findings on criterion validity were significant. Patient interviews indicated that the PCQ-P had high face validity and acceptability. Feedback from hospitals indicated that they found the questionnaire useful, and highlighted important considerations for its future use as part of quality
Zhang, Mingzong; Sparer, Emily H.; Murphy, Lauren A.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Fang, Dongping; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.
Objective To develop a fatigue assessment scale and test its reliability and validity for commercial construction workers. Methods Using a two-phased approach, we first identified items for the development of a Fatigue Assessment Scale for Construction Workers (FASCW) through review of existing scales in the scientific literature, key informant interviews (n=11) and focus groups (3 groups with 6 workers each) with construction workers. The second phase included assessment for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the new scale using a repeated-measures study design with a convenience sample of construction workers (n=144). Results Phase one resulted in a 16-item preliminary scale that after factor analysis yielded a final 10-item scale with two sub-scales (“Lethargy” and “Bodily Ailment”).. During phase two, the FASCW and its subscales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficients were FASCW (0.91), Lethargy (0.86) and Bodily Ailment (0.84)) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Pearson Correlations Coefficients: 0.59–0.68; Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.74–0.80). Correlation analysis substantiated concurrent and convergent validity. A discriminant analysis demonstrated that the FASCW differentiated between groups with arthritis status and different work hours. Conclusions The 10-item FASCW with good reliability and validity is an effective tool for assessing the severity of fatigue among construction workers. PMID:25603944
Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph
Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method's validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization. PMID:23084050
Barthlow, Deanna L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L
The construct validity of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale was examined using 376 student clients at a university psychological clinic. A principal components analysis and correlations of Mt scale scores with clients' and therapists' ratings of symptoms and functioning showed that the Mt…
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of scores from the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS)(R. Eisenberger and others, 1986) using responses of 205 college faculty and staff members. Consistent with previous research, the SPOS was found to be unidimensional and distinguishable from two similarly…
Mouw, John T.; Perkins, Kyle
The purpose for which a test is used and the examinees' stage of learning are two anchor points that are incorporated into a suggested framework for conducting construct validation studies for tests of students with English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL). The framework includes the use of generalizability theory,…
Valerio, Wendy H.; Reynolds, Alison M.; Morgan, Grant B.; McNair, Anne A.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the construct validity of the Children's Music-Related Behavior Questionnaire (CMRBQ), an instrument designed for parents to document music-related behaviors about their children and themselves. The research problem was to examine the hypothesized factorial structure of the questionnaire. From a…
Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Lynam, Donald R.; Widiger, Thomas A.
Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as…
Tracey, Monica W.; Richey, Rita C.
This is a report of a developmental research study that aimed to construct and validate an instructional design (ID) model that incorporates the theory and practice of multiple intelligences (MI). The study consisted of three phases. In phase one, the theoretical foundations of multiple Intelligences and ID were examined to guide the development…
Hirt, Michael; And Others
This study examined the relationship between cognitive style and body boundary perception use of defenses, and sense of separate identity. The Rod and Frame Test results were consistent with previous reports. The other variables were not significantly related to RFT performance, casting doubt on the construct validity of psychological…
Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.
Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…
France, Megan K.; Finney, Sara J.
The purpose of this study was to gather validity evidence for the University Mattering Scale. Theoretically based factor structures were tested, resulting in the four-factor conceptualization of mattering being championed. As predicted, university mattering related positively to academic motivational and relatedness constructs and negatively to…
Megías, Jesús L; Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Durán, Mercedes; Moya, Miguel; Bohner, Gerd
Two studies were conducted with college students to validate the Spanish-language version of the "Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression" scale (AMMSA) (Gerger, Kley, Bohner & Siebler, 2007). This scale assesses modern myths about sexual aggression in a subtle way. In Study 1, 305 students completed the Spanish AMMSA and other scales with related content. In Study 2, 263 participants completed the Spanish AMMSA and answered questions about a hypothetical sexual assault perpetrated by a young man against a female acquaintance. The Spanish AMMSA showed high internal consistency and adequate evidence of validity in both studies. Compared to traditional scales of rape myth acceptance, mean scores on the AMMSA were higher and their distributions more closely approximated normality. These findings suggest that the Spanish version of the AMMSA scale is a useful instrument to study the social perception of sexual aggression. PMID:22059335
Williamson, Julie A
Training students to perform emergency procedures is a critical but challenging component of veterinary education. Thoracocentesis is traditionally taught in the classroom, with students progressing to "see one, do one, teach one" during the clinical phase of their education. This method of teaching does not permit students to gain proficiency before performing thoracocentesis on a live animal in a high-stakes, high-stress environment and is dependent on the availability of animals requiring the procedure. A veterinary thoracocentesis simulator has been created to allow students an opportunity for repetitive practice in a low-stakes environment. This study evaluated the face, content, and construct validity of the thoracocentesis simulator. Face and content validation were confirmed by survey results, and construct validity was assessed through comparison of student and veterinarian performance on the simulator. Students' median checklist and global rating scores were significantly lower than those of the veterinarians, and students took significantly longer to perform the procedure, indicating that the simulator was able to differentiate the relative expertise of the user and establishing construct validity. This study supported the use of the thoracocentesis simulator for educators to demonstrate proper technique, for students to practice the steps needed to perform the procedure and experience an approximation of the tactile aspects of the task, and for formative assessment before performing the procedure on client-owned animals. PMID:25148881
This article describes the development, validation, and measurement invariance of scores from a survey designed to measure preservice teachers' reported acceptance of technology. Drawing from conceptual models in the areas of information systems and technology acceptance, a five-factor Technology Acceptance Measure for Preservice Teachers (TAMPST)…
Price, Gary E.
Construct validity of the Personal Orientation Inventory was investigated. A sample of graduate students were administered the inventory immediately after a stressful experience and again two weeks later after the stressful experience had been resolved. Two of the twelve inventory subscales, Self Regard and Self Acceptance showed significant…
Background Patient experience is commonly monitored in evaluating and improving health care, but the experience of carers (partners/relatives/friends) is rarely monitored even though the role of carers can often be substantial. For carers to fulfil their role it is necessary to address their needs. This paper describes an evaluation of the reliability, validity and acceptability of the PCQ-C, a newly developed instrument designed to measure the experiences of carers of men with prostate cancer. Methods The reliability, acceptability and validity of the PCQ-C were tested through a postal survey and interviews with carers. The PCQ-C was posted to 1087 prostate cancer patients and patients were asked to pass the questionnaire on to their carer. Non-responders received one reminder. To assess test-retest reliability, 210 carers who had responded to the questionnaire were resent it a second time three weeks later. A subsample of nine carers from patients attending one hospital took part in qualitative interviews to assess validity and acceptability of the PCQ-C. Acceptability to service providers was evaluated based on four hospitals' experiences of running a survey using the PCQ-C. Results Questionnaires were returned by 514 carers (47.3%), and the majority of questions showed less than 10% missing data. Across the sections of the questionnaire internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.80 to 0.89), and test-retest stability showed moderate to high stability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.52 to 0.83). Interviews of carers indicated that the PCQ-C was valid and acceptable. Feedback from hospitals indicated that they found the questionnaire useful, and highlighted important considerations for its future use as part of quality improvement initiatives. Conclusions The PCQ-C has been found to be acceptable to carers and service providers having been used successfully in hospitals in England. It is ready for use to measure the aspects
Söderhamn, Olle; Bjørnestad, John Olav; Skisland, Anne; Cliffordson, Christina
The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP) using structural equation modeling. The instrument is a 12-item self-report instrument, developed in the Scandinavian cultural context and based on Kohlberg’s theory. A hypothesized simplex structure model underlying the MDSP was tested through structural equation modeling. Validity was also tested as the proportion of respondents older than 20 years that reached the highest moral level, which according to the theory should be small. A convenience sample of 339 nursing students with a mean age of 25.3 years participated. Results confirmed the simplex model structure, indicating that MDSP reflects a moral construct empirically organized from low to high. A minority of respondents >20 years of age (13.5%) scored more than 80% on the highest moral level. The findings support the construct validity of the MDSP and the stages and levels in Kohlberg’s theory. PMID:21655343
Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Platania-Phung, Chris
The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of the WOrk-reLated Flow inventory (WOLF; Bakker, 2008). This instrument was administered to 711 men and women who were working in Queensland, Australia. The results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WOLF has moderately acceptable construct validity, with the three-factor model being a borderline fit to the data. Tests of the convergent validity of the WOLF yielded satisfactory results. However, the analysis of the discriminant validity of the WOLF showed that the instrument poorly discriminated between work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation. Follow-up exploratory factor analysis, using recommended procedures for determining the number of factors to extract, revealed a two-factor solution, with the work enjoyment and intrinsic work motivation items loading on the same factor. Drawing on literature on psychological flow and motivation, as well as the findings of the present study, questions are raised over the adequacy of the conceptual basis of the three-factor model of work-related flow, the discriminant validity of the WOLF subscales, and the appropriateness of the wording of several of this measure's items. Using alternative methods and measures to investigate flow in work settings is recommended. PMID:25495162
Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee
Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…
MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.
Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…
The present study examined the psychometric properties of a Malay translation of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS; Henderson-King & Henderson-King, 2005). A total of 373 Malaysian women completed the ACSS along with measures of ideal-actual weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and demographics. Results showed that the Malay ACSS was best reduced to a two-factor solution, although an overall score of all 15 ACSS items showed the highest internal consistency. Results also showed that this overall score had good discriminant and divergent validity. It is expected that the availability of a Malay version of the ACSS will stimulate cross-cultural research on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery. PMID:20807682
Denckla, Christy A; Bornstein, Robert F; Mancini, Anthony D; Bonanno, George A
The Relationship Profile Test is a widely used measure of dependency, detachment, and healthy dependency that has been examined in both clinical and nonclinical settings, though researchers have yet to validate this measure among conjugally bereaved adults. The present study examines the construct validity of a three-facet model of dependency-detachment by comparing relationships among self-report, semistructured interview-rated, and knowledgeable informant-rated functioning among conjugally bereaved adults. Participants (N = 112) included bereaved adults (M = 51.1 years; SD = 9.7) who had experienced the loss of a spouse 1.5 to 3 years prior to taking part in this study. Findings indicate adequate psychometric properties and theoretically expected associations with various measures of wellness and health including satisfaction with life, coping flexibility, somatic complaints, and ego resiliency. Results draw attention to adaptive correlates of dependency, suggesting potentially beneficial mental health interventions. PMID:25038214
Maher, Brendan A; Gottesman, Irving I
The question of the status of cause-and-effect explanations of human behavior that posit physically existing causative factors and those that, on the other hand, posit hypothetical entities in the form of "useful fictions" has a long history. The influence of the works of Jeremy Bentham and Hans Vaihinger, as well as the later influence of Francis Galton, is described. Issues of the validity of hypothetical constructs and related problems of measurement and definition as found in psychoanalytic theory construction and in trait theory are examined. The significant and continuing interest generated by the landmark studies of K. MacCorquodale and P. E. Meehl (1948) and L. J. Cronbach and P. E. Meehl (1955) as well as the central importance of P. E. Meehl's thinking are described. PMID:16393008
Andrews, Nicole Emma; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela Joy
Overactivity is a frequently used term in chronic pain literature. It refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals engage in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain, resulting in periods of incapacity. Overactivity, as a construct, has been derived solely from patients' self-reports, raising concerns about the legitimacy of the construct. Self-reported overactivity reflects an individual's "belief," collected retrospectively, that their earlier activity levels have resulted in increased levels of pain. This may be different to an individual actually engaging in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain. In this study, a 5-day observational study design was used to investigate the validity of overactivity as a construct by examining the relationship between a self-report measure of overactivity, patterns of pain, and objectively measured physical activity over time. A sample of 68 adults with chronic pain completed a questionnaire investigating self-reported habitual engagement in overactivity and activity avoidance behaviour, before commencing 5 days of data collection. Over the 5-day period, participants wore an activity monitor and recorded their pain intensity 6 times a day using a handheld computer. Associations were found between (1) high levels of pain and both high overactivity and high avoidance, (2) high levels of overactivity and more variation in pain and objective activity across days, and (3) high levels of overactivity and the reoccurrence of prolonged activity engagement followed by significant pain increases observed in data sets. These results offer some preliminary support for the validity of overactivity as a legitimate construct in chronic pain. PMID:26067583
Smith, Gregory T.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.
The authors argue for a significant shift in how clinical psychology researchers conduct construct validation and theory validation tests. They argue that sound theory and validation tests can best be conducted on measures of unidimensional or homogeneous constructs. Hierarchical organizations of such constructs are useful descriptively and theoretically, but higher order composites do not refer to definable psychological processes. Application of this perspective to the approach of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to describing psychopathology calls into doubt the traditional use of the syndromal approach, in which single scores reflect the presence of multidimensional disorders. For many forms of psychological dysfunction, this approach does not appear optimal and may need to be discarded. The authors note that their perspective represents a straightforward application of existing psychometric theory, they demonstrate the practical value of adopting this perspective, and they provide evidence that this shift is already under way among clinical researchers. Description in terms of homogeneous dimensions provides improved validity, utility, and parsimony. In contrast, the use of composite diagnoses can retard scientific progress and hamper clinicians' efforts to understand and treat dysfunction. PMID:19719340
Khan, Asaduzzaman; Chien, Chi-Wen; Burton, Nicola W
The Kessler six-item psychological distress (K6) scale is widely used to screen for mental disorders; however, information is lacking on the rating scale performance or dimensionality structure of the scale. This study used a population based sample (n = 7596) to evaluate the construct validity of the K6 scale using Rasch partial credit analysis. The analysis showed that almost all of the five-point rating scales in the K6 items were used appropriately to differentiate psychological distress of the study participants. The analysis provided evidence of unidimensionality of the scale, although items 1 (so sad) and 3 (restless or fidgety) might offer a potential second off-dimensional component. All items appeared to fit the Rasch model's expectation as demonstrated by the acceptable item fit statistics. The study participants demonstrated valid response patterns when answering K6 items, except for some who were younger or had higher psychological distress. This study using Rasch analysis confirms the construct validity of the K6 scale and suggests that the K6 is a useful and valid instrument for assessing psychological distress in the mid-aged general population. Further research can facilitate better understanding about the unidimensionality of the scale. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24431150
de Souza, Ana L; Leal, Soraya C; Chaves, Sacha B; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Frencken, Jo E; Creugers, Nico H J
The Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) is a newly developed epidemiological instrument. The aim of this study was to investigate its construct validity. Four calibrated examiners, using CAST codes 0-6, visually examined 109 surfaces of extracted and exfoliated teeth. These teeth were then hemisectioned, photographed, and assessed histologically by two calibrated examiners using the Downer criteria. Twenty-eight of the 109 teeth were scanned using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and assessed by the same examiners using the same criteria. Validation was determined through calculation of the sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index for two categories of carious lesions examined visually, with histology and micro-CT as gold standards. Interexaminer consistency was κ = 0.76: SE ± 0.05 between visual and histological assessments of teeth and was κ = 0.89: SE ± 0.08 between visual and micro-CT assessments. For the category 'healthy' vs. 'diseased' (CAST codes 0-2 vs. CAST codes 3-6), sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index values of 100%, 92.9%, and 93%, respectively, for micro-CT, and 96.6%, 86%, and 83%, respectively, for histology, were obtained. For the category 'dentine' vs. 'non-dentine lesions' (CAST codes 0-3 vs. CAST codes 4-6) sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index values of 90%, 100%, and 90%, respectively, for micro-CT, and 81.4%, 100%, and 81%, respectively, for histology, were obtained. Construct validity of the CAST instrument was obtained. PMID:24533906
Teo, Timothy; Tan, Lynde
This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a theory that is commonly used in commercial settings, to the educational context to explain pre-service teachers' technology acceptance. It is also interested in examining its validity when used for this purpose. It has found evidence that the TPB is a valid model to explain pre-service…
Abdel-Gaid, Samiha; Trueblood, Cecil R.; Shrigley, Robert L.
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to design a system for constructing Likert attitude scales as supported by the sociopsychological and measurement literature, and (2) using the design to assemble a microcomputer attitude scale for inservice and preservice teachers (n = 281). The results of the study: (1) a 15-step flow chart for designing reliable and valid attitude scales, and (2) a 23-item microcomputer Likert attitude scale with the following characteristics: (a) coefficient alpha 0.89, (b) range of adjusted item-total correlations from 0.29 to 0.62, (c) range of interitem correlations from 0.04 to 0.60, (d) correlation of 0.20 with a mathematics attitude scale and 0.02 with a reading attitude scale, and (e) favorable factor analysis and emotional intensity data.
Woodruff, Susan I; Conway, Terry L; Edwards, Christine C; Hovell, Melbourne F
This study assessed the acceptability of collecting hair from Latino children to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and examined the concurrent validity between nicotine and cotinine levels in children's hair in relation to adult reports of the children's ETS exposure. Trained Latina lay community health advisors recruited 143 Spanish-speaking Latino adult volunteers and their children. Bilingual-bicultural measurement technicians collected two types of data: (a) the adult's paper-and-pencil report about the child's past-month exposure to cigarettes in the home and car and (b) a sample of the child's hair to be analyzed for nicotine and cotinine. Of the eligible subjects, 8.5% declined to participate because of the hair collection protocol, some citing cultural beliefs. Among participants in the study, few problems arose related to hair collected, probably because of the culturally sensitive approach used during recruitment and measurement. Adults' reports of exposure, hair nicotine, and hair cotinine showed considerable variation and were skewed to the right. Average nicotine levels for these children appeared to be comparable to those reported elsewhere, whereas cotinine levels appeared to be somewhat lower. Hair nicotine was more detectable than hair cotinine and, compared with cotinine, showed a clearer linear relationship with adults' reports. However, associations between adults' reports and both biological measures were modest. Collecting hair samples in the field (i.e., participants' homes) to measure Latino children's ETS exposure is generally acceptable when appropriate methods are used. Hair nicotine may be a more valid and practical biological measure than hair cotinine. Hair sampling may be a potentially useful, noninvasive technique in ETS studies, although the modest associations of constituents in children's hair with adults' reports indicates that each measure provides different information about ETS exposure. PMID:12791534
Xu, Feng; Hilpert, Peter; Randall, Ashley K; Li, Qiuping; Bodenmann, Guy
The Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI, Bodenmann, 2008) assesses how couples support each other when facing individual (e.g., workload) and common (e.g., parenting) stressors. Specifically, the DCI measures partners' perceptions of their own (Self) and their partners' behaviors (Partner) when facing individual stressors, and partners' common coping behaviors when facing common stressors (Common). To date, the DCI has been validated in 6 different languages from individualistic Western cultures; however, because culture can affect interpersonal interactions, it is unknown whether the DCI is a reliable measure of coping behaviors for couples living in collectivistic Eastern cultures. Based on data from 474 Chinese couples (N = 948 individuals), the current study examined the Chinese version of the DCI's factorial structure, measurement invariance (MI), and construct validity of test scores. Using 3 cultural groups (China, Switzerland, and the United States [U.S.]), confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 5-factor structure regarding Self and Partner and a 2-factor structure regarding Common dyadic coping (DC). Results from analyses of MI indicated that the DCI subscales met the criteria for configural, metric, and full/partial scalar invariance across cultures (Chinese-Swiss and Chinese-U.S.) and genders (Chinese men and women). Results further revealed good construct validity of the DCI test scores. In all, the Chinese version of the DCI can be used for measuring Chinese couples' coping behaviors, and is available for cross-cultural studies examining DC behaviors between Western and Eastern cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27183045
Tabung, Fred K.; Steck, Susan E.; Zhang, Jiajia; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D.; Agalliu, Ilir; Hingle, Melanie; Hou, Lifang; Hurley, Thomas G.; Jiao, Li; Martin, Lisa W.; Millen, Amy E.; Park, Hannah L.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Shikany, James M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Ockene, Judith K.; Hebert, James R.
Purpose Many dietary factors have either pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. We previously developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In this study we conducted a construct validation of the DII based on data from a food frequency questionnaire and three inflammatory biomarkers in a subsample of 2,567 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods We used multiple linear and logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to test whether baseline DII predicted concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFα-R2), or an overall biomarker score combining all three inflammatory biomarkers. Results The DII was associated with the four biomarkers with beta estimates (95%CI) comparing the highest with lowest DII quintiles as follows: IL-6: 1.26 (1.15, 1.38), Ptrend<0.0001; TNFα-R2: 81.43 (19.15, 143.71), Ptrend=0.004; dichotomized hs-CRP (odds ratio for higher versus lower hs-CRP): 1.30 (0.97, 1.67), Ptrend=0.34); and the combined inflammatory biomarker score: 0.26 (0.12, 0.40), Ptrend=0.0001. Conclusion The DII was significantly associated with inflammatory biomarkers. Construct validity of the DII indicates its utility for assessing the inflammatory potential of diet and for expanding its use to include associations with common chronic diseases in future studies. PMID:25900255
Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B; Pimentel, Claudia A; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C; Levy, Kenneth N
The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal narcissism and (b) insufficient scope of existing narcissism measures. Four studies are presented documenting the initial derivation and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI). The PNI is a 52-item self-report measure assessing 7 dimensions of pathological narcissism spanning problems with narcissistic grandiosity (Entitlement Rage, Exploitativeness, Grandiose Fantasy, Self-sacrificing Self-enhancement) and narcissistic vulnerability (Contingent Self-esteem, Hiding the Self, Devaluing). The PNI structure was validated via confirmatory factor analysis. The PNI correlated negatively with self-esteem and empathy, and positively with shame, interpersonal distress, aggression, and borderline personality organization. Grandiose PNI scales were associated with vindictive, domineering, intrusive, and overly-nurturant interpersonal problems, and vulnerable PNI scales were associated with cold, socially avoidant, and exploitable interpersonal problems. In a small clinical sample, PNI scales exhibited significant associations with parasuicidal behavior, suicide attempts, homicidal ideation, and several aspects of psychotherapy utilization. PMID:19719348
Meehan, Kevin B.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Clarkin, John F.
The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of a therapist measure for evaluating the affective communication created between the patient and therapist during the initial stages of treatment. The Affective Communication Questionnaire (ACQ) was administered to a sample of 81 therapists, each rating a single patient, and principal component analysis indicated the measure has coherent dimensions with strong internal consistency. The construct validity of the ACQ was then established in a sample of 16 therapists rating 73 patients diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The measure was found to have a strong relationship to the related constructs of transference, countertransference, and affect experience in predicted directions. The measure also was found to have a modest relationship to independent assessments of patient functioning; most notably more negative affect was significantly related to more odd/eccentric (cluster A) and less anxious/fearful (cluster C) personality disorder symptoms, and greater narrative coherence. Differences in affective communication as a function of treatment type were also evaluated. The clinical and research implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22844181
Jamnik, Veronica K; Thomas, Scott G; Burr, Jamie F; Gledhill, Norman
The purpose of this investigation was to develop and validate a fitness test for correctional officer (CO) applicants (FITCO) and to establish associated standards of acceptability. The FITCO incorporated the most important, physically demanding, and frequently occurring tasks of a CO. It consists of (i) a simulated cell search; (ii) an emergency response circuit (ERC), involving a 60-m run while scaling 4 sets of stairs, followed by simulations of an inmate control, wrist restraint, arm retraction, and 40-m mannequin drag; and (iii) a test of aerobic fitness. The validity of the FITCO was established by very high congruence between the oxygen consumption, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion of incumbent COs while performing the ERC with the same measurements while COs were performing the on-the-job tasks on which the ERC was based. The content validity of the FITCO was confirmed by very high Likert ratings (>6 on a 7-point scale) by both male and female incumbent COs of all ages concerning the importance, relatedness, physical demands, and overall appropriateness of the FITCO for evaluating CO applicants. We conclude that because the forces built into the ERC and the FITCO standards were both derived from the performance of safe and efficient incumbent female COs of all ages, and both the validity and test-retest reliability (intraclass correllation coefficient = 0.977) of the FITCO are very high, the FITCO was properly constructed to meet the requirements of the Supreme Court of Canada's Meiorin Decision. PMID:20130667
Gahleitner, Florian; Legg, Julian; Holland, Emma; Pearson, Sarah; Roberts, Graham
A meaningful analysis in research requires robust, valid data. Paper diaries allow the collection of data from individuals over time but are notorious for poor compliance and validity. SMS-technology is a novel method for data collection in medical research. Time-tagged SMS are transferred directly to an electronic file. We used SMS to collect symptoms and peak flow rate (PEFR) meter readings from 32 children with asthma. Parents responded first to five SMS daily for 7 days during an asymptomatic period and then for 14 days during a cold. Compliance with use of PEFR meter and SMS system were assessed. Digital PEFR meters enabled data download at the end of the study to confirm validity of transmitted data. Parents of 24 participants provided feedback about this data collection tool. Mean (±SD) "SMS-diary and PEFR-meter compliance" were 96% (±8) and 84% (±21) during baseline and 91% (±12) and 82% (±20) during cold respectively. Correctly reported PEFR values were found in 65.5% of all cases, in 8.3% PEFR values sent were "self-invented" and 2.4% of values were missing. All of the 22 parents completing the baseline questionnaire were happy to use SMS for this study. Of the 20 parents completing the follow up questionnaire, 95% (19/20) found the system user-friendly, 55% (11/20) would be more likely to participate in studies if they were using SMS data collection and 25% (5/20) were "sometimes unhappy" about receiving messages. This real-time capture of data is well accepted and could avoid some of the pitfalls of backfilled paper diaries. PMID:25847724
Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen
Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…
Es-Haghi, Masoumeh; Bassami, Mohammadreza; Dehghani, Hesam
Site directional migration is an important biological event and an essential behavior for latent migratory cells. A migratory cell maintains its motility, survival, and proliferation abilities by a network of signaling pathways where CXCR4/SDF signaling route plays crucial role for directed homing of a polarized cell. The chicken embryo due to its specific vasculature modality has been used as a valuable model for organogenesis, migration, cancer, and metastasis. In this research, the regulatory regions of chicken CXCR4 gene have been characterized in a chicken hematopoietic lymphoblast cell line (MSB1). A region extending from -2000 bp upstream of CXCR4 gene to +68 after its transcriptional start site, in addition to two other mutant fragments were constructed and cloned in a promoter-less reporter vector. Promoter activity was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry techniques. Our findings show that the full sequence from -2000 to +68 bp of CXCR4 regulatory region is required for maximum promoter functionality, while the mutant CXCR4 promoter fragments show a partial promoter activity. The chicken CXCR4 promoter validated in this study could be used for characterization of directed migratory cells in chicken development and disease models. PMID:26809356
Rupp, Deborah E; Vodanovich, Stephen J; Credé, Marcus
The authors investigated the factor structure and construct validity of the Fraboni Scale of Ageism and the age and gender differences in ageism scores. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the multidimensional nature of FSA scores and generally corroborated the initial factor structure reported by M. Fraboni, with some notable exceptions. Essentially, the present findings were aligned with theoretical models of ageism that emphasize both cognitive facets and affective facets. That is, on the basis of their factor analytic findings, the authors redefined Fraboni's original factors of Antilocution, Avoidance, and Discrimination as Stereotypes, Separation, and Affective Attitudes, respectively, because of the clustering of items within factors. The revised 3-factor structure accounted for 36.4% of the variance in FSA scores. FSA factor scores significantly related to other scores from other measures of age-related attitudes, with higher correlations among factors that were similar in terms of their cognitive nature versus their affective nature. Finally, younger individuals and men had significantly higher ageism scores on the FSA than older individuals and women. The authors discussed the importance of adequately assessing ageism, with particular emphasis devoted to the understanding of age bias. PMID:15960004
Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth A.
Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a methodology involving repeated assessments/surveys to collect data describing respondents’ current or very recent experiences and related contexts in their natural environments. The use of EMA in audiology research is growing. Purpose This study examined the construct validity (i.e., the degree to which a measurement reflects what it is intended to measure) of EMA in terms of measuring speech understanding and related listening context. Experiment 1 investigated the extent to which individuals can accurately report their speech recognition performance and characterize the listening context in controlled environments. Experiment 2 investigated whether the data aggregated across multiple EMA surveys conducted in uncontrolled, real-world environments would reveal a valid pattern that was consistent with the established relationships between speech understanding, hearing aid use, listening context, and lifestyle. Research Design This is an observational study. Study Sample Twelve and twenty-seven adults with hearing impairment participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Data Collection and Analysis In the laboratory testing of Experiment 1, participants estimated their speech recognition performance in settings wherein the signal-to-noise ratio was fixed or constantly varied across sentences. In the field testing the participants reported the listening context (e.g., noisiness level) of several semicontrolled real-world conversations. Their reports were compared to (1) the context described by normal-hearing observers and (2) the background noise level measured using a sound level meter. In Experiment 2, participants repeatedly reported the degree of speech understanding, hearing aid use, and listening context using paper-and-pencil journals in their natural environments for 1 week. They also carried noise dosimeters to measure the sound level. The associations between (1) speech understanding, hearing aid
Huang, Xiaoping; Hu, Zhongfeng
The main problem of the educational evaluation validity is that it just copies the conceptual framework system of validity from educational measurement to its own conceptual system. The validity conceptual system that fits the need of theory and practice of educational evaluation has not been established yet. According to the inherent attributive…
Glass, Joseph E.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Introduction There has been an increasing interest in studying the stigma of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) yet scant research has evaluated the conceptualization and measurement of alcohol stigma. This study examined the measurement properties (i.e. factor structure) and validity of the alcohol-adapted Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination scale (PDD), which assesses the construct of perceived alcohol stigma (PAS). Materials and Methods Our sample included 34,386 respondents from the Wave 2 assessment in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a population-representative survey of noninstitutionalized United States adults. Analytic procedures included confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results One factor (perceived devaluation-discrimination) and two factor (perceived devaluation, perceived discrimination) confirmatory factor analytic models fit the data well (CFI=0.958, TLI=0.942, RMSEA=0.056; CFI=0.962, TLI=0.946, RMSEA=0.054; respectively) when adjusting for item wording effects with a latent method factor. Despite having a better fit to the data (χ2(1) = 542, p < 0.0001), the two factors were highly correlated (r=0.90), which led us to favor a one-factor model. Structural equation models found that the inverse relationship between PAS and perceived interpersonal social support was strongest for persons with a stigmatized-labeling status. The same was not true in analyses predicting social network involvement. Conclusions A one-factor solution of perceived alcohol stigma had superior parsimony. The alcohol-adapted PDD appears to be a psychometrically sound measure and exhibits relationships that are consistent with modified labeling theory. PMID:22758603
McClarty, Katie Larsen
The construct map is a promising tool for organizing the data standard-setting panelists interpret. The challenge in applying construct maps to standard-setting procedures will be the judicious selection of data to include within this organizing framework. Therefore, this commentary focuses on decisions about what to include in the construct map.…
Baker, Spencer T.; Victor, James B.; Chambers, Anthony L.; Halverson, Jr., Charles F.
The purpose of this study was to investigate convergent and discriminant validity of the five-factor model of adolescent personality in a school setting using three different raters (methods): self-ratings, peer ratings, and teacher ratings. The authors investigated validity through a multitrait-multimethod matrix and a confirmatory factor…
Johnson, Brian W.
Regression analyses indicated that the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory has convergent validity with regard to the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and the Coopersmith Behavioral Academic Assessment Scale, has discriminant validity with regard to the Children's Social Desirability Scale, is sensitive to differences in achievement level,…
Arguments are presented for conceptualizing validity within a postmodern approach. Validity, reliability, and generalizability have been a holy trinity of social science research, and standard definitions of validity have been taken from criteria developed for psychometric tests. From a postmodern point of view, validity is sometimes discarded as…
Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.
N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…
Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu
The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…
Nimon, Kim; Zigarmi, Drea; Houson, Dobie; Witt, David; Diehl, Jim
Contemporary literature lacks a comprehensive set of constructs that provides for understanding both the organizational and job factors that influence employee work passion. Through a detailed analysis of literature, this research identifies eight constructs that form the basis for the appraisal of an employee's work experience with the use of…
Green, Donald Ross; Yen, Wendy M.
Basic skills tests in which measurement of growth is defined in the context of national norms are discussed. An integral part of the construction of norms is the production of a trait or ability score which is normed. Test publishers define a multidimensional trait by including items which measure it. The trait as a construct is a distinct…
Chen, Wei J; Chen, Hsing-Me; Chen, Chwen-Cheng; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Yu, Wu-Yang; Cheng, Andrew T A
Despite the wide use of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) in Western populations as a useful tool integrating both genetic and environmental influences on personality, some of its constructs remain questionable. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the TPQ and its relationship with aggression in Taiwanese adults. The subjects were 201 Taiwanese adults of wide ranges in age and educational level. Subjects were assessed using a Chinese version of the TPQ and the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. The internal consistency of the Chinese version of the TPQ scales is found to be mostly in the acceptable range except for the reward dependence (RD) scale and its subscales. The results of factor analysis of the 12 TPQ subscales partially support the four-factor model rather than the original three-factor model. The construct validity of the novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA) dimensions is supported by the findings that the NS is negatively correlated with age, the NS1 subscale is slightly negatively correlated with all the HA subscales, and the NS is positively correlated with aggression. We conclude that both the HA and NS scales of the TPQ are cross-culturally robust, while the RD scale needs to be refined. PMID:11893995
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Jackson, Kelly F; Guevarra, Rudy P; Miller, Matthew J; Harrington, Blair
This article describes the development and validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM): a new measure that assesses uniquely racialized risks and resiliencies experienced by individuals of mixed racial heritage. Across 2 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 25-item MEM with 5 subscales including Shifting Expressions, Perceived Racial Ambiguity, Creating Third Space, Multicultural Engagement, and Multiracial Discrimination. The 5-subscale structure of the MEM was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of criterion-related validity was partially supported with MEM subscales correlating with measures of racial diversity in one's social network, color-blind racial attitude, psychological distress, and identity conflict. Evidence of discriminant validity was supported with MEM subscales not correlating with impression management. Implications for future research and suggestions for utilization of the MEM in clinical practice with multiracial adults are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460977
Tetenbaum, Toby J.; And Others
Administered the Attitude toward Working Mothers Scale to 526 graduate students. Findings demonstrated the reliability, validity and generalizability of the 32 item scale and suggested that the AWM Scale could be useful in research in maternal employment. (JAC)
Hamilton, Laura S.
Open-ended test items are appearing increasingly on large-scale assessments, supplementing or replacing the more traditional multiple-choice format. Results from such tests are often used as outcome measures in studies relating achievement to educational processes and student characteristics. It is therefore important to discover the extent to which items in either format provide valid measurement of student achievement. This dissertation investigated the validity of multiple-choice (MC) and constructed-response (CR) science items from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Special attention was given to identifying characteristics of items that exhibited gender differences. Relationships among test performance, gender, and educational background variables were studied using several methods. Descriptive analyses and differential item functioning (DIF) studies identified items that showed large differences. Bivariate and multivariate relationships among achievement and other student characteristics were investigated using correlational and multilevel modeling procedures. Finally, an interview study provided details about students' responses and sources of knowledge; these details supplemented the results of the statistical analyses and suggested possible explanations for some findings. Analysis of the MC test revealed three major dimensions of science achievement: spatial-mechanical reasoning (SM), quantitative science (QS), and basic knowledge and reasoning (BKR). Only SM showed a large gender difference; the average score for males was approximately one half standard deviation higher than that for females. This dimension exhibited the greatest degree of DIF and the weakest relationships with educational background. The interviews revealed that SM items involved visualization and reference to hands-on experiences. On the CR rest, one item showed a large gender difference in favor of males and exhibited substantial DIF. Interviews revealed that
Hord, Carol A.; Kirk, Roger E.
Examined the validity of the Irrational Beliefs Inventory by administering various psychological instruments to 129 undergraduate students. Regarding construct validity, the Irrational Beliefs Inventory measured several variables measured by the Irrational Beliefs Test. With regard to concurrent validity, test anxiety was most strongly associated…
DeShong, Hilary L; Lengel, Gregory J; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E; O'Meara, Madison; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N
The Five Factor Borderline Inventory (FFBI) is a new self-report measure developed to assess traits of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from the perspective of the Five Factor Model of general personality. The current study sought to first replicate initial validity findings for the FFBI and then to further validate the FFBI with predispositional risk factors of the biosocial theory of BPD and with commonly associated features of BPD (e.g., depression, low self-esteem) utilizing two samples of young adults (N = 87; 85) who have engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury. The FFBI showed strong convergent and discriminant validity across two measures of the Five Factor Model and also correlated strongly with measures of impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD. The FFBI also related to two measures of early childhood emotional vulnerability and parental invalidation and measures of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Overall, the results provide support for the FFBI as a measure of BPD. PMID:25155158
Andrews, Martha C.; Kacmar, K. Michele
Impression management (managing associations with others to create a favorable impression) using such tactics as boasting, blurring, blaring, and burying was examined using factor and validity analyses of data from the Image Management by Association Scale. The scale satisfactorily represented the four tactics, although burying and blaring needed…
Kupermintz, Haggai; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Snow, Richard E.
This study investigated the validity of measures derived from a large-scale multiple-choice achievement test in mathematics, using evidence from introspective think-aloud protocols of students as they attempted test items. A small-scale study of 21 local high-school students was conducted to identify and describe cognitive processes underlying…
Markus, Keith A.
I congratulate Paul E. Newton on a thoughtful and evenhanded contribution to test validity theory. I especially appreciate the evident care that went into interpreting the various authors whose work Newton discusses. I found many useful insights along with the few minor points with which I might quibble. I comment on three aspects of Newton's…
Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan
Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…
Chang, Wei-Ching; Slaughter, Susan; Cartwright, Deborah; Chan, Chetwyn
Rasch analysis, often used in educational research, was used to evaluate the Motor component of the FONE FIM, the telephone version of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) (validated by T. Dodds, and others, 1993) with 132 geriatric patients. Rasch difficulty measures demonstrated the similarity of the phone and observational FIM measures.…
McDonell, James R.; Waters, Tracy J.
This paper reports the development and validation of the Neighborhood Observation Scale, a 41 item measure of neighborhood physical appearance, social appearance, safety, and amenities. Three independent ratings were collected on each of 244 neighborhoods in 132 census block groups in five South Carolina counties, for a total of 732 observations.…
Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.
Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…
Duffy, Ryan D.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Perry, Justin C.; Laurenzi, Cathy; Torrey, Carrie L.
This study constructed an instrument measuring work volition for adult populations, defined as the perceived capacity to make occupational choices despite constraints. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis produced a 3-factor structure containing subscales assessing general volition, financial constraints, and structural constraints. The full…
Gardner, Donald G.; Pierce, Jon L.
The authors empirically examined two operationalizations of the core self-evaluation construct: (a) the Judge, Erez, Bono, and Thoresen 12-item scale and (b) a composite measure of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism.The study found that the composite scale relates more strongly than the shorter scale to performance,…
This study examined test takers' perception of assessment demand and its impact on the measurement of intended constructs. More than 800 test takers took a pre- and a posttest of College English Test Band 4 and filled in a perception questionnaire to report the skills they perceive as necessary for answering the test. The study found test takers…
Rotenberg, Ken J.; Fox, Claire; Green, Sarah; Ruderman, Louise; Slater, Kevin; Stevens, Kelly; Carlo, Gustavo
A scale was constructed to assess children's generalized trust beliefs (CGTB) in four target groups (mother, father, teacher and peer) with respect to three bases of trust: reliability, emotionality, and honesty. The CGTB Scale was administered to 145 Year 5 and 156 Year 6 children (mean age = 10 years, 1 month) residing in the English Midlands,…
Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N.
The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Two problems were identified that impede integration of research and clinical findings regarding narcissistic personality pathology: (a) ambiguity regarding the assessment of pathological narcissism vs. normal…
Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Schroeder, David H.
The underlying constructs for an experimental battery (EB) consisting of artistic judgment tests--the Design Judgment Test (DJT), the Visual Designs Test (VDT), Proportion Appraisal (PA), and the Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test--were studied. Scores for 1,686 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation's aptitude-testing service were…
Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang
Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. PMID:26754615
Teten, Andra L.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Pacifici, Caesar
The psychometric properties of the Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB), a multimedia measure of adolescent dating attitudes, were examined. The ACSB is an interactive instrument that uses video vignettes to depict adolescent dating situations. Analyses of the measure's factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…
Morgan, Erin Senesac; Umberson, Katie; Hertzog, Christopher
The recently developed Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale (PSRS; Schlotz, Yim, Zoccola, Jansen, & Schulz, 2011) examines perceived stress reactivity with six different subscales. The current study builds on initial validation work with this scale by evaluating patterns the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on its six substantially correlated subscales. Examination of the relationships between the six PSRS subscales and other variables (personality, depressive affect, eudaimonic well-being, environmental demands, and aspects of work) indicated some differentiation between the different facets of stress reactivity. The PSRS scales also correlated highly with the more widely used Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). To account for all these relationships, a structural regression model specifying a hierarchical factor model for the PSRS scales showed that some relationships (e.g., with neuroticism) were best modeled at the general stress factor level using a latent variable also defined by both the PSS and the PSRS subscales. The model also demonstrated lower-level specific relationships that generated better fit than forcing all predictors to relate to the PSRS only through the general stress factor. Results indicate that domain-specific aspects of stress can be differentiated, which ultimately could prove useful in research on mental health consequences of stress originating from different life domains. PMID:24188152
Morgan, Erin Senesac; Umberson, Katie; Hertzog, Christopher
The recently developed Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale (PSRS; Schlotz, Yim, Zoccola, Jansen, & Schulz, 2011) examines perceived stress reactivity with 6 different subscales. The authors of the current study build on initial validation work with this scale by evaluating patterns of the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on its 6 substantially correlated subscales. Examination of the relationships between the 6 PSRS subscales and other variables (personality, depressive affect, eudaimonic well-being, environmental demands, and aspects of work) indicated some differentiation between the different facets of stress reactivity. The PSRS scales also correlated highly with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). To account for all of these relationships, a structural regression model specifying a hierarchical factor model for the PSRS scales showed that some relationships (e.g., with neuroticism) were best modeled at the general stress factor level using a latent variable also defined by both the PSS and the PSRS subscales. The model also demonstrated lower level specific relationships that generated better fit than when all predictors were forced to relate to the PSRS only through the general stress factor. Results indicate that domain-specific aspects of stress can be differentiated, which ultimately could prove useful in research on mental health consequences of stress originating from different life domains. PMID:24188152
Sen, Sandip; Janakiraman, Janani
Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of probabilistic optimization algorithms which utilize ideas from natural genetics. In this paper, we apply the genetic algorithm to a difficult machine learning problem, viz., to learn the description of pushdown automata (PDA) to accept a context-free language (CFL), given legal and illegal sentences of the language. Previous work has involved the use of GAs in learning descriptions for finite state machines for accepting regular languages. CFLs are known to properly include regular languages, and hence, the learning problem addressed here is of a greater complexity. The ability to accept context free languages can be applied to a number of practical problems like text processing, speech recognition, etc.
Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard
In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…
The Japanese translation of the revised Life Orientation Test was completed by 223 Japanese college students. Factor analysis yielded two factors, namely, Optimism and Pessimism. These factor scales showed adequate reliability and construct validity. PMID:15460361
Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P; Carrasco, Miguel Á
This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children's behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children's (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother-father or child-father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children's behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance. PMID:27242582
Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) is a Web application that provides instant access to thousands of potential participants for survey-based psychology experiments, such as the acceptability judgment task used extensively in syntactic theory. Because AMT is a Web-based system, syntacticians may worry that the move out of the experimenter-controlled environment of the laboratory and onto the user-controlled environment of AMT could adversely affect the quality of the judgment data collected. This article reports a quantitative comparison of two identical acceptability judgment experiments, each with 176 participants (352 total): one conducted in the laboratory, and one conducted on AMT. Crucial indicators of data quality--such as participant rejection rates, statistical power, and the shape of the distributions of the judgments for each sentence type--are compared between the two samples. The results suggest that aside from slightly higher participant rejection rates, AMT data are almost indistinguishable from laboratory data. PMID:21287108
Thornton, David; Knight, Raymond A
This article describes the construction and testing of a newly designed instrument to assess psychological factors associated with increased rates of sexual recidivism. The new instrument (Structured Risk Assessment-Forensic Version or SRA-FV) was based on previous research using the SRA framework. This article describes the results of testing SRA-FV with a large sample (N = 566) of sexual offenders being evaluated for an early civil commitment program. SRA-FV was found to significantly predict sexual recidivism for both child molesters and rapists and to have incremental predictive value relative to two widely used static actuarial instruments (Static-99R; Risk Matrix 2000/S). PMID:24379164
Giansanti, Daniele; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Brocco, Monica
When designing a complete system of daily-telerehabilitation it should be borne in mind that properly designed methodologies should be furnished for patients to execute specific motion tasks and for care givers to assess the relevant parameters. Whether in hospital or at home, the system should feature two basic elements: (a) instrumented and walking aids or supports, (b) equipment for the assessment of parameters. Being gait the focus, the idea was to design, construct and validate - as an alternative to the complex and expensive instruments currently used - a simple, portable kit that may be easily interfaced/integrated with the most common mechanical tools used in motion rehabilitation (instrumented walkways, aids, supports), with feedback to both patient for self-monitoring and trainer/therapist (present or remote) for clinical reporting. The proposed system consists of: one step-counter, three couples of photo-emitter detectors, one central unit for collecting and processing the telemetrically transmitted data; a software interface on a dedicated PC and a network adapter. The system has been successfully validated in a clinical application on two groups of 16 subjects at the 1st and 2nd level of the Tinetti test. The degree of acceptance by subjects and care-givers was high. The system was also successfully compared with an Inertial Measurement Unit, a de facto standard. The portable kit can be used with different rehabilitation tools and different ground rugosity. The advantages are: (a) very low costs when compared with optoelectronic solutions and other portable solutions; (b) very high accuracy, also for subjects with imbalance problems; (c) good compatibility with any rehabilitative tool. PMID:23891239
Castro, Marcelo P; Stebbings, Simon M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie D
The study aimed to determine, using systematic review and meta-analysis, the level of evidence supporting the construct validity of spinal mobility tests for assessing patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Following the guidelines proposed in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, three sets of keywords were used for data searching: (i) ankylosing spondylitis, spondyloarthritis, spondyloarthropathy, spondylarthritis; (ii) accuracy, association, construct, correlation, Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials, OMERACT, truth, validity; (iii) mobility, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index-BASMI, radiography, spinal measures, cervical rotation, Schober (a further 19 keywords were used). Initially, 2558 records were identified, and from these, 21 studies were retained. Fourteen of these studies were considered high level of evidence. Compound indexes of spinal mobility showed mostly substantial to excellent levels of agreement with global structural damage. Individual mobility tests for the cervico-thoracic spine showed only moderate agreements with cervical structural damage, and considering structural damage at the lumbar spine, the original Schober was the only test that presented consistently substantial levels of agreement. Three studies assessed the construct validity of mobility measures for inflammation and low to fair levels of agreement were observed. Two meta-analyses were conducted, with assessment of agreement between BASMI and two radiological indexes of global structural damage. The spinal mobility indexes and the original Schober test show acceptable construct validity for inferring the extent of structural damage when assessing patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Spinal mobility measures do not reflect levels of inflammation at either the sacroiliac joints and/or the spine. PMID:26337175
Hunt, Melissa; Hopko, Derek R.; Bare, Robert; Lejuez, C. W.; Robinson, E. V.
To continue research assessing the validity of the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) as a measure of risk taking, the BART was administered to a nonforensic sample of individuals with varying levels of psychopathic characteristics. Construct validity of the BART was evaluated by measuring risk-taking behavior in relation to self-reported…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Reichel, Isabella K.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd
Purpose: Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition" (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative…
Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre
The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…
Mok, Mo Ching Magdalena; Flynn, Marcellin
Studied the dimensionality and construct validity of the School Development Expectation Scale for use with Year 12 students in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the postulated five-factor model in the validation sample of 8,310 students. The scale was calibrated using the Rasch rating scale, and recommendations were made to refine…
Bhat, Mehraj A.
This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…
Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick
The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…
Whitty, Jennifer A.; Walker, Ruth; Golenko, Xanthe; Ratcliffe, Julie
Objectives This study provides insights into the validity and acceptability of Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) and profile-case Best Worst Scaling (BWS) methods for eliciting preferences for health care in a priority-setting context. Methods An adult sample (N = 24) undertook a traditional DCE and a BWS choice task as part of a wider survey on Health Technology Assessment decision criteria. A ‘think aloud’ protocol was applied, whereby participants verbalized their thinking while making choices. Internal validity and acceptability were assessed through a thematic analysis of the decision-making process emerging from the qualitative data and a repeated choice task. Results A thematic analysis of the decision-making process demonstrated clear evidence of ‘trading’ between multiple attribute/levels for the DCE, and to a lesser extent for the BWS task. Limited evidence consistent with a sequential decision-making model was observed for the BWS task. For the BWS task, some participants found choosing the worst attribute/level conceptually challenging. A desire to provide a complete ranking from best to worst was observed. The majority (18,75%) of participants indicated a preference for DCE, as they felt this enabled comparison of alternative full profiles. Those preferring BWS were averse to choosing an undesirable characteristic that was part of a ‘package’, or perceived BWS to be less ethically conflicting or burdensome. In a repeated choice task, more participants were consistent for the DCE (22,92%) than BWS (10,42%) (p = 0.002). Conclusions This study supports the validity and acceptability of the traditional DCE format. Findings relating to the application of BWS profile methods are less definitive. Research avenues to further clarify the comparative merits of these preference elicitation methods are identified. PMID:24759637
Piers, Craig; Piers, Ryan J; Fowler, J Christopher; Perry, J Christopher
Discrepancies in mental representations between self-aspects and significant others are associated with depression, personality disorders, emotional reactivity, and interpersonal distress. The Computerized Implicit Representation Test (CIRT) is a novel measure developed to assess discrepancies in mental representations. Inpatient participants (N = 165) enrolled in a longitudinal study completed baseline CIRT ratings of similarity between self-aspects (actual-self, ideal-self, and ought-self) and between actual-self and significant others (mother, father, liked others, and disliked others). Based on the similarity ratings, multidimensional scaling was utilized to generate distances between key self- and other representations in three-dimensional space. Results of univariate linear regression analyses demonstrated that discrepancies (distances) between self-aspects, actual-self to others, and actual-self to mother were significantly associated with impulsive and self-destructive behaviors and/or lifetime anxiety disorders. Multivariate hierarchical linear regression models further indicated that three CIRT variables provided incremental validity above and beyond age, gender, and/or borderline personality disorder. PMID:26682830
Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.
Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…
Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.
Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…
Kemper, Christoph J.; Lutz, Johannes; Bahr, Tobias; Ruddel, Heinz; Hock, Michael
Using two clinical samples of patients, the presented studies examined the construct validity of the recently revised Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3). Confirmatory factor analyses established a clear three-factor structure that corresponds to the postulated subdivision of the construct into correlated somatic, social, and cognitive components.…
Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette
Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…
Chmielewski, Michael; Sala, Margarita; Tang, Rui; Baldwin, Austin
Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research. Then, we examine the construct validity of a wide variety of affective judgment of physical activity measures in MTurk and student samples. Cronbach's alpha for the included measures was uniformly high; however, several scales contained excessively redundant items that ultimately lessen their construct validity. Moreover, dependability estimates for the majority of measures was poor, indicating high levels of transient measurement error. The included measures significantly predicted levels of physical activity; however, their relative predictive power was strongly associated with their dependability. In general, the affective judgment measures demonstrated poor convergent validity suggesting they are not interchangeable and best viewed as assessing distinct, albeit related, constructs. Another important limitation of these measures is that they exhibited poor discriminant validity from exercise self-efficacy, which represents an important theoretical and empirical issue for the field of health behavior research. Overall, the current findings indicate the available affective judgments of physical activity measures are suboptimal, have considerable construct validity limitations, and thereby prevent the further advancement of science, theory, and intervention development in this promising area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537007
Little, J. Nicole; Hoskins, Marie L.
This article explores the authors' critical reflections that arose while engaging in research with girls recovering from an eating disorder. The authors address issues related to media, consumerism, and identity construction. They emphasize that while there are no clear solutions to dilemmas facing girls in North American culture, researchers and…
Dobrogosz, Walter J; Peacock, Trent J; Hassan, Hosni M
Two pioneering achievements by Ilya Ilyich Metchnikoff were recorded in 1908. Most notable was his Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering the innate cellular immune response to an infectious challenge. Of lesser note was his recommendation, "...to absorb large quantities of microbes, as a general belief is that microbes are harmful. This belief is erroneous. There are many useful microbes, amongst which the lactic bacilli have an honorable place." While his discovery of the inflammatory response was rapidly incorporated into our understanding of cellular immunity, his recommendation "to absorb large quantities of microbes," on the other hand, languished for decades in limbos of indifference, skepticism, and disbelief. The present chapter is a synopsis of salient discoveries made during the past 100 years, which gradually displaced these skepticisms, validated his concept of "useful microbes," and propelled his "lactic bacilli" into the mainstream of modern medical science, practice, and therapy. PMID:20602986
Kissov, H K; Todorova, B P
Regardless of the great advance in prosthetic dentistry related to the development of new more elaborate materials and methods, the dentist must often correct some defects of the newly fabricated prosthetic constructions. In dentistry practice worldwide two tests for adjustment of fixed prosthetic constructions are applied most often - the silicone test and the suspension of Fe2O3 (rouge) and chloroform. The capabilities of the suspension of chloroform and rouge to assess the preliminary contacts between the prosthetic construction and the dental tissues haven't been reviewed in the dentistry literature in Bulgaria. The test is not familiar to the practicing dentists and this is an obstacle for its wide application in everyday practice. The purpose of the current study was to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the silicone test and the modified suspension of halothane and rouge recommended in the recent years. The assessment of the capabilities of the two tests for adjustment is based on the results of their application in the adjustment of crowns and bridges on the working model and on the prosthetic field. The results demonstrate that the two tests have different capabilities in different clinical situations and their concomitant use will allow more precise prosthetic treatment. PMID:15354473
ARDAKANI, Abolfazl; SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; HABIL, Hussain; JAMEEI, Fahimeh; RASHID, Rusdi; ZAHIRODIN, Alireza; MOTLAQ, Farid; MASJIDI ARANI, Abbas
Background: Given that validity is the baseline of psychological assessments, there is a need to provide evidence-based data for construct validity of such scales to advance the clinicians for evaluating psychiatric morbidity in psychiatric and psychosomatic setting. Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the Malaysian version of the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90-R. The sample comprised 660 individuals including diabetics, drug dependents, and normal population. The research scales were administered to the participants. Convergent and discriminant validity of both scales were investigated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using AMOS. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to obtain the relationship between the two scales. Results: The internal consistency of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were highly acceptable, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity of both scales. The results of this study revealed that the construct validity of GHQ-28 was acceptable, whereas discriminant validity of SCL-90-R was not adequate. According to Pearson correlation coefficient the relationships between three common subscales of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were significantly positive; somatization (r=0.671, P<0.01), Anxiety (r=0.728, P<0.01), and Depression (r=0.660, P <0.01). Conclusions: This study replicated the construct of the Malaysian version of GHQ-28, yet failed to support the nine-factor structure of the SCL-90-R. Therefore, multidimensionality of the SCL-90-R as clinical purposes is questionable, and it may be a better unitary measure for assessing and screening mental disorders. Further research need to be carried out to prove this finding. PMID:27252914
Frederick, Richard I; Bowden, Stephen C
This study uses a new method to summarize diagnostic validity information to explore which constructs are captured by malingering tests. The Test Validation Summary applies mixed-groups validation to investigate the meaning of test constructs and to estimate test classification characteristics when test validation groups are not "pure" criterion groups (ie, "compliant" vs "malingering"), but members have variable probability of malingering. The method permits the use of tests with relatively low validity to validate tests of greater validity. In our initial analysis, we argue that the Rey 15-Item Memory Test is best construed as an "intention test" (capturing the intention of testtakers when taking a test) as opposed to an "effort test." Using the Test Validation Summary and mixed-groups validation, we demonstrate that as an indicator of "intention to feign cognitive impairment," the Rey 15-Item Memory Test has estimated false-positive rate (FPR) = 0.02 and true-positive rate (TPR) = 0.57. We then explore the meaning of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT), which uses a dichotomous classification of performance as valid or invalid. Although the WMT is commonly referred to as an "effort test," we argue that it likely captures both "intention" and "effort" but collapses this information into a single dichotomous classification of symptom validity. We demonstrate that, as a result of this dichotomous classification process, the WMT likely has a problematic FPR. In our analysis of previously published WMT data, the WMT FPR is estimated at 0.12 when there is no predisposition to perform poorly but rises dramatically and unrealistically as the predisposition to perform poorly increases. We compare these findings to those of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP), which captures both intent and effort to classify 4 different sorts of response styles in cognitive testing. In our analyses, the VIP demonstrates that FPR = 0 and TPR = 0.86 when the construct being measured is
Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F
Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs. Particular emphasis is placed on establishing a formalized three-step procedure for achieving a posteriori content validity. Then the procedure is applied to development and empirical validation of two symmetrical component measures of market orientation, customer orientation and competitor orientation. Analysis suggests that average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also identify possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures. PMID:18982953
This study establishes the validity of the Prison Inmate Inventory for use among female inmates (N = 628). Contrast groups were used to establish construct validity; negative binomial regression analysis was used to confirm predictive validity. Female inmates who were arrested at a younger age demonstrated more severe problems with violence, antisocial traits, distress, adjustment to prison life, and judgment. Results from the negative binomial analysis revealed that inmate risk (low and severe) predicted expected counts of probation revocations, parole revocation, and escape attempts. Expected counts were not related to race/ethnicity in this sample. PMID:24122019
Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Chang, Chueh
The nursing profession has generally accepted humor as beneficial to health care. As nursing has always emphasized holistic care and the importance of individual needs, the profession values the ability of humor to positively affect all aspects of a patient's well being. The purposes of this study were to develop a "Chinese Humor Scale (CHS)" for the nursing profession and then test its reliability and validity. The 405 individuals selected for participation in this study included nursing on-the-job students from a medical university and professional nurses practicing at four hospitals in north Taiwan. Researchers developed a list of 57 key humor measures which were filled out and returned by study participants. An evaluation of results using Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated good consistency (alpha=.93) for the developed CHS. Intercorrelations amongst the four sub-scales were generally quite low, indicating each sub-scale measures dimensions relatively distinct from one another (r=.24 approximately .48, both p's<.001). The CHS was tested using item analysis. The scale was constructed in accordance with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (K.M.O.=.92). Thirty CHS items, categorized under the four indices of "humorous creativity", "tendency to laugh", "perceptivity to humor", and "humorous attitude", were found to explain 55.42% of total variances. The CHS was found to provide good validity using a content validity index (CVI) developed by five experts. The results of this study provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the proposed humor scale and support its application by nursing educators and clinicians to further test and assess concepts related to humor. Further research is needed to explore more fully the implications of humor in nursing. PMID:16237632
Nikolaus, Stephanie; Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Vonkeman, Harald E.; Glas, Cees A. W.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.
Objective Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing enables precise measurements of patient-reported outcomes at an individual level across different dimensions. This study examined the construct validity of a multidimensional computerized adaptive test (CAT) for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The ‘CAT Fatigue RA’ was constructed based on a previously calibrated item bank. It contains 196 items and three dimensions: ‘severity’, ‘impact’ and ‘variability’ of fatigue. The CAT was administered to 166 patients with RA. They also completed a traditional, multidimensional fatigue questionnaire (BRAF-MDQ) and the SF-36 in order to examine the CAT’s construct validity. A priori criterion for construct validity was that 75% of the correlations between the CAT dimensions and the subscales of the other questionnaires were as expected. Furthermore, comprehensive use of the item bank, measurement precision and score distribution were investigated. Results The a priori criterion for construct validity was supported for two of the three CAT dimensions (severity and impact but not for variability). For severity and impact, 87% of the correlations with the subscales of the well-established questionnaires were as expected but for variability, 53% of the hypothesised relations were found. Eighty-nine percent of the items were selected between one and 137 times for CAT administrations. Measurement precision was excellent for the severity and impact dimensions, with more than 90% of the CAT administrations reaching a standard error below 0.32. The variability dimension showed good measurement precision with 90% of the CAT administrations reaching a standard error below 0.44. No floor- or ceiling-effects were found for the three dimensions. Conclusion The CAT Fatigue RA showed good construct validity and excellent measurement precision on the dimensions severity and impact. The dimension variability had less ideal measurement characteristics
Validation of a Spanish version of the psychological inflexibility in pain scale (PIPS) and an evaluation of its relation with acceptance of pain and mindfulness in sample of persons with fibromyalgia
Background Psychological flexibility has been suggested as a fundamental process in health. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) is one of the scales employed for assessing psychological inflexibility in pain patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the PIPS and secondly, to compare it to two other psychological constructs, the acceptance of pain and mindfulness scales. Methods The PIPS was translated into Spanish by two bilingual linguistic experts, and then, back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered along with the Pain Visual Analogue Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Face validity, construct validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and convergent validity were tested. Also a multiple regression analysis was carried out.The usual guidelines have been followed for cross-cultural adaptations. Results Data were very similar to the ones obtained in the original PIPS version. The construct validity confirmed the original two-components solution which explained 61.6% of the variance. The Spanish PIPS had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.90). The Spanish PIPS’ score correlated significantly with worse global functioning (r = 0.55), anxiety (r = 0.54), depression (r = 0.66), pain catastrophizing (r = 0.62), pain acceptance (r = −0.72) and mindfulness (r = −0.47), as well as correlating modestly with pain intensity (r = 0.12). The multiple regression analyses showed that psychological inflexibility, acceptance and mindfulness are not overlapped. Conclusions The Spanish PIPS scale appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of
Yasin, Siti Munira; Taib, Khairul Mizan; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad
The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been used as one of the major constructs in developing effective cognitive behavioural interventions for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, in Western societies. This study aimed to examine the reliability and construct validity of the translated Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire among adult smokers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 40 smokers from four different worksites in Klang Valley. A 26-item TTM questionnaire was administered, and a similar set one week later. The questionnaire consisted of three measures; decisional balance, temptations and impact of smoking. Construct validity was measured by factor analysis and the reliability by Cronbach' s alpha (internal consistency) and test-retest correlation. Results revealed that Cronbach' s alpha coefficients for the items were: decisional balance (0.84; 0.74) and temptations (0.89; 0.54; 0.85). The values for test retest correlation were all above 0.4. In addition, factor analysis suggested two meaningful common factors for decisional balance and three for temptations. This is consistent with the original construct of the TTM questionnaire. Overall results demonstrated that construct validity and reliability were acceptable for all items. In conclusion, the Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool in ass. PMID:22126478
McGill, D A; van der Vleuten, C P M; Clarke, M J
Supervisor assessments are critical for both formative and summative assessment in the workplace. Supervisor ratings remain an important source of such assessment in many educational jurisdictions even though there is ambiguity about their validity and reliability. The aims of this evaluation is to explore the: (1) construct validity of ward-based supervisor competency assessments; (2) reliability of supervisors for observing any overarching domain constructs identified (factors); (3) stability of factors across subgroups of contexts, supervisors and trainees; and (4) position of the observations compared to the established literature. Evaluated assessments were all those used to judge intern (trainee) suitability to become an unconditionally registered medical practitioner in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia in 2007-2008. Initial construct identification is by traditional exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using Principal component analysis with Varimax rotation. Factor stability is explored by EFA of subgroups by different contexts such as hospital type, and different types of supervisors and trainees. The unit of analysis is each assessment, and includes all available assessments without aggregation of any scores to obtain the factors. Reliability of identified constructs is by variance components analysis of the summed trainee scores for each factor and the number of assessments needed to provide an acceptably reliable assessment using the construct, the reliability unit of analysis being the score for each factor for every assessment. For the 374 assessments from 74 trainees and 73 supervisors, the EFA resulted in 3 factors identified from the scree plot, accounting for only 68 % of the variance with factor 1 having features of a "general professional job performance" competency (eigenvalue 7.630; variance 54.5 %); factor 2 "clinical skills" (eigenvalue 1.036; variance 7.4 %); and factor 3 "professional and personal" competency (eigenvalue 0
Ambiguity in the meaning of job satisfaction has caused construct validity problems in research. A series of small-scale studies of teachers suggested a distinction between job fulfillment and job comfort as well as a need for understanding how job satisfaction is interpreted by researchers. (SK)
Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif
This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…
Delis, Dean C.; And Others
Explored validity of new clinical test of verbal memory incorporating constructs from normal and pathological memory research, to quantify the ways examinees learn verbal material. Factor analyses of normal subjects and neurological patients indicated that verbal memory consisted of a number of component factors, reflecting learning strategy,…
Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 170 QUEST assessments from a convenience sample of 94 children with CP involved in clinical and research treatment programmes (54 males, 40 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD…
Eaves, Ronald C.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.
The reliability and construct validity of ratings for the Autism Behavior Checklist were examined with a sample of 198 children diagnosed with autistic disorder and conditions often confused with autism. Alpha coefficients for the five scales of the ABC as well as the Total Score were reported and the factor structure of the ABC was examined…
McFarland, Michael B.; Petrie, Trent A.
Given the centrality of body dissatisfaction in the manifestation of eating, exercise, and affective disturbances in men, measurement of this construct becomes essential. Across 2 studies with male undergraduates (Ns = 189 and 188), the psychometric properties, including incremental validity and factor structure, of the 25-item Body Parts…
Dickes, Paul; Valentova, Marie; Borsenberger, Monique
The aim of the paper is to assess the construct validation of a multidimensional measure of social cohesion which is well theoretically grounded and has an equivalent/comparable interpretation across all European countries. Up-to-now published research on social cohesion is deficient in either one or both of these important aspects. This paper…
Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-ethnic construct validity of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Method: The sample consisted of 1,166 individuals diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness who were receiving treatment in community-based mental health programs. Multiple-group confirmatory factor…
This study examined the construct validity of the Motivation Orientation and Language Learning Strategy Scales: For Spanish as a Foreign Language (MOLLS). The MOLLS is a Likert-type scale, that has 20 items in 5 broad categories in the motivation orientation scale (MOS) and 18 items in 3 broad categories in the language learning strategies scale…
Kane, Michael J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.; Miura, Timothy K.; Colflesh, Gregory J. H.
The n-back task requires participants to decide whether each stimulus in a sequence matches the one that appeared n items ago. Although n-back has become a standard "executive" working memory (WM) measure in cognitive neuroscience, it has been subjected to few behavioral tests of construct validity. A combined experimental-correlational study…
Csarny, Richard J.
This study examined the degree to which certain religious/spiritual constructs simply reflect personality variables and to what extent they describe unique components of individual differences. It assessed the incremental validity of several recent or widely used religious measures over personality dimensions in predicting quality of life, racism,…
Motowidlo, Stephan J.
Presented is evidence bearing on the construct validity of the Estimate of Self-Competence (ESC) Scale, which was designed to measure generalized expectancy of task success. The results of correlational analyses of relationships between the ESC, expectancies of successful performance, and other measures are reported. (Author/AL)
Binks-Cantrell, Emily; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Washburn, Erin K.
Recent national reports have stressed the importance of teacher knowledge in teaching reading. However, in the past, teachers' knowledge of language and literacy constructs has typically been assessed with instruments that are not fully tested for validity. In the present study, an instrument was developed; and its reliability, item difficulty,…
Mandy, William P. L.; Charman, Tony; Skuse, David H.
Objective: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test the construct validity of the proposed "DSM-5" symptom model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison to alternative models, including that described in "DSM-IV-TR." Method: Participants were 708 verbal children and young persons (mean age, 9.5 years) with mild to severe autistic…
López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.
The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…
Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xixi; Li, Xu; Xu, Hui
The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--China Form consists of four subscales, with six items each to measure Concern, Control, Curiosity, and Confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. This study investigated the construction and validation of its Chinese Form. Results…
Examined the relationship between the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and scores on the Adventure scale of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII) among female college students (n=55). Women scoring high on the SSS scales also scored high on the Adventure scale, thereby supporting the construct validity of the SII Adventure scale. (RJM)
Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna
The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the "attitudes toward science class" of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs--science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to…
Memis, Ugur Altay
This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education activities scale (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…
Kunter, Mareike; Baumert, Jurgen
In this article, we examine the construct and criteria validity of student and teacher ratings as indicators of instructional features. As parsimonious measures, student and teacher reports are frequently used to assess aspects of the learning environment. From a methodological perspective, however, both approaches have been questioned. Whereas…
Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael; Kushner, Shauna; Quilty, Lena C.; Ayearst, Lindsay E.
In the current investigation, the authors examined the diagnostic construct validity of the "Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form" (MMPI-2-RF) in a patient sample. All participants were diagnosed via the "Structured Clinical Interview" for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P). The data set used in this study was composed…
Atkinson, Thomas M.; Ryan, Jeanne P.
The construct validity of three variants of the Trail Making Test was investigated using 162 undergraduate psychology students. During a 3-week period, the Trail Making Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Comprehensive Trail Making Test, and Connections Task were administered in six possible orders. Using confirmatory factor…
Gamache, LeAnn M.
To support the construct validity of a locally developed, sixth grade reading achievement test, an investigation of factorial invariance was made across 1556 majority, 327 Black minority, and 136 Asian minority examinees. Although the hypothesis of a unidimensional factor pattern was retained for each group, hypotheses of equal factor weights…
Pishghadam, Reza; Noghani, Mohsen; Zabihi, Reza
The present study was conducted to construct and validate a questionnaire of social and cultural capital in the foreign language context of Iran. To this end, a questionnaire was designed by picking up the most frequently-used indicators of social and cultural capital. The Factorability of the intercorrelation matrix was measured by two tests:…
Hitchcock, J.H.; Nastasi, B.K.; Dai, D.Y.; Newman, J.; Jayasena, A.; Bernstein-Moore, R.; Sarkar, S.; Varjas, K.
The purpose of this article is to illustrate a mixed-method approach (i.e., combining qualitative and quantitative methods) for advancing the study of construct validation in cross-cultural research. The article offers a detailed illustration of the approach using the responses 612 Sri Lankan adolescents provided to an ethnographic survey. Such…
Ghadi, Ibrahim; Alwi, Nor Hayati; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Talib, Othman
This research aims to evaluate the psychology properties of the construct validity for the Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD) instrument. The CTD instrument consists of 39 Likert-type items measuring seven dispositions, namely analyticity, open-mind, truth-seeking, systematicity, self-confidence inquisitiveness and maturity. The study involves…
Ramaswami, Soundaram; Babo, Gerard
This paper presents and discusses the statistical analysis of the responses from an online survey administered to a sample of US superintendents (n=225) in an attempt to explore and authenticate the construct validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through exploratory factor analysis. Using a Principal Axis Factor method, 6 factors were extracted…
Moneta, Giovanni B.; Yip, Pelen P. Y.
This study evaluated the construct validity of the scores of the Chinese version of the Need for Closure Scale (NFCS) as administered to a sample of Hong Kong college students who also completed the Personal Need for Structure Scale (PNS) and the Personal Fear of Invalidity Scale (PFI). The scale-scale and scale-facet correlations were similar to…
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Witte, Tracy K.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
The present study examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of scores derived from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) using latent variable modeling with 5 independent samples varying in age and level of psychopathology. The INQ was derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide and was developed to measure thwarted…
McCray, Jennifer S.; Chen, Jie-Qi
This study examines the construct validity of a new teacher interview designed to assess teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for preschool mathematics. PCK describes the subject matter knowledge a teacher needs for effective teaching. Data from 22 teachers and 113 Head Start children in a large midwestern city in the United States were…
Fortunato, Vincent F.
This study assessed the construct validity of three measures of negative affectivity (NA) by examining their relationships with measures of job stressors, strains, and attitudes. The authors also examined the extent to which controlling for scores on NA attenuated relationships between job stressors and strains differently depending on the NA and…
Gluck, Gerald A.
Kramer's study supporting the construct validity of the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (Firo-B) scale was replicated in this experiment. The significantly different results reported by Froehle may be due to differences in the populations sampled and in their environment. (GDC)
Heineman, Kirsten R.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Fidler, Vaclav; Middelburg, Karin J.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Aim: The Infant Motor Profile (IMP) is a qualitative assessment of motor behaviour of infants aged 3 to 18 months. The aim of this study was to investigate construct validity of the IMP through the relation of IMP scores with prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal variables, including the presence of brain pathology indicated by neonatal ultrasound…
Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Marinaro, Laura Marie
When utilizing self-assessments to determine motives for health behaviors, it is essential that the resulting data demonstrate sound psychometric properties. The purpose of this research was to assess the reliability and construct validity of college students' responses to the Reasons for Smoking Scale (RFS). Confirmatory factor analyses and…
Baig, Lubna; Violato, Claudio; Crutcher, Rodney
Introduction: The purpose of the study was to adduce evidence for estimating the construct validity of clinical competence measured through assessment instruments used for high-stakes examinations. Methods: Thirty-nine international physicians (mean age = 41 + 6.5 y) participated in high-stakes examination and 3-month supervised clinical practice…
Canivez, Gary L.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order…
Zolondek, Stacey; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Fowler, Katherine A.
The authors examined the construct and incremental validity of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P), a relatively new instrument designed to detect interpersonal behaviors associated with psychopathy. Observers of videotaped Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) interviews rated male prisoners (N = 93) on the IM-P. The IM-P correlated…
Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed
Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…
Cid, Eva; Granena, Gisela; Tragant, Elsa
The present study describes the process that was followed in the construction and validation of the foreign language attitudes and goals survey (FLAGS), a new questionnaire based on qualitative data from Tragant and Munoz [Tragant, Munoz, C., 2000. "La motivacion y su relacion con la edad en un contexto escolar de aprendizaje de una lengua…
Saulsman, Lisa M
This study aimed to enhance knowledge of the construct validity and diagnostic efficiency of the depression- and anxiety-related scales of the MCMI-III (Millon, 1994). The MCMI-III, various concurrent depression and anxiety measures, and an Axis I structured diagnostic interview were administered in a total sample of 696 outpatients with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, or both. Sound construct validity was found for the Dysthymia and Major Depression clinical syndrome scales and the Avoidant and Depressive personality disorder scales. The validity of the Anxiety scale was poor, showing moderate convergence with panic and worry-related anxiety measures, but problems discriminating from depression. Operating characteristics for discriminating depressed patients from anxious patients were fair for the Major Depression scale, but poor for the Anxiety and Dysthymia scales. PMID:21184333
Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas; Tapscott, Ryan L; Lynch, Paul J
Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. PMID:26694472
Groves, Christopher L.; Gentile, Douglas; Tapscott, Ryan L.; Lynch, Paul J.
Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. PMID:26694472
Clemons, Jim M
Despite the ubiquitous use of the flexed arm hang (FAH) as a field test of muscular fitness, evidence for the construct validity of it is lacking. The strongest validity coefficients (r) to date are 0.71 and 0.72 found by correlating modified versions of the FAH (i.e., 90 and 180° of elbow extension, respectively) with relative dynamic strength (i.e., 1 repetition maximum [1RM] lat pull downs × body mass). Considering a significant portion of all FAH and modified flexed arm hang (MFAH) performances are isometric, the test may be more correlated with the construct of relative isometric strength (RIS) rather than relative dynamic strength. The purpose of this study was to determine if the construct validity of the 90° MFAH might be strengthened by correlating it with either absolute isometric strength (AIS) (i.e., maximum volitional isometric contraction [MVIC]) or RIS (i.e., MVIC × body mass). Thirty-one college-aged women participated in the study. Inter-rater reliability coefficients for two 90° MFAH tests were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): F1,30 = 1.356, ICC = 0.99; F1,30 = 0.675, ICC = 0.99. In addition, test-retest reliability was also found to be excellent: F1,30 = 3.809; ICC = 0.98. Pearson product moment correlation (r) was used at an adjusted alpha level of 0.025 to examine construct validity of the 90° MFAH with both AIS (MVIC) and RIS (MVIC × body mass). Results indicated no significant relationship with AIS (r = 0.096, p = 0.606); however, a strong significant relationship emerged with RIS (r = 0.878, p = 0.000). It was concluded that 90° MFAH scores alone were not related to absolute strength; however, they were found to be a valid and reliable estimate of the construct of RIS. PMID:24983850
Background Yearly formative knowledge testing (also known as progress testing) was shown to have a limited construct-validity and reliability in postgraduate medical education. One way to improve construct-validity and reliability is to improve the authenticity of a test. As easily accessible internet has become inseparably linked to daily clinical practice, we hypothesized that allowing internet access for a limited amount of time during the progress test would improve the perception of authenticity (face-validity) of the test, which would in turn improve the construct-validity and reliability of postgraduate progress testing. Methods Postgraduate trainees taking the yearly knowledge progress test were asked to participate in a study where they could access the internet for 30 minutes at the end of a traditional pen and paper test. Before and after the test they were asked to complete a short questionnaire regarding the face-validity of the test. Results Mean test scores increased significantly for all training years. Trainees indicated that the face-validity of the test improved with internet access and that they would like to continue to have internet access during future testing. Internet access did not improve the construct-validity or reliability of the test. Conclusion Improving the face-validity of postgraduate progress testing, by adding the possibility to search the internet for a limited amount of time, positively influences test performance and face-validity. However, it did not change the reliability or the construct-validity of the test. PMID:24195696
Barrick, M R; Mount, M K
This study tests whether 2 types of response distortion (self-deception and impression management) affect the predictive validity of 2 of the "Big 5" personality dimensions, conscientiousness and emotional stability, in 2 applicant samples of long-haul semitruck drivers (n = 147 and n = 139). As hypothesized, conscientiousness (p = -.26 and -.26) and emotional stability (p = -.23 and -.21) were valid predictors of voluntary turnover in the 2 samples. Also as hypothesized, conscientiousness was a valid predictor of supervisory ratings of performance (p = .41 and .39) in the 2 samples. Although not hypothesized, emotional stability was also significantly related to supervisor ratings of performance (p = .23 and .27). Results from structural equations modeling indicated that applicants did distort their scores on both personality dimensions and the distortion occurred both through self-deception and impression management; however, neither type of distortion attenuated the predictive validities of either personality construct. PMID:8690688
Widagdo, I S; Pratt, N; Russell, M; Roughead, E E
Individuals identified as frail have been shown to be at an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. However, there is no gold standard frailty measure and frailty status can vary depending on the measure used, suggesting the measures perform differently. Construct validity can be used to assess a measure's performance. This study aimed to examine the construct validity of four frailty measures in an Australian older population using Rasch analysis. Frailty status among the 2087 participants aged 65 years and above from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) was assessed using: frailty phenotype--FP, simplified frailty phenotype--SFP, frailty index--FI, and prognostic frailty score--PFS. Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the measures, which is the extent to which the underlying characteristic of frailty is assessed. The criteria for unidimensionality from principal component analysis of the residuals was when 50% or more of the raw variance was explained by the measures, and less than 5% was unexplained variance. Only FI meet the unidimensionality criteria with 74% of explained variance and 2.1% of unexplained variance. SFP did not show a unidimensional construct with 13.3% of explained variance and 47.1% of unexplained variance. FP and PFS had 39.6%, 18.1% and 46.5%, 8.7% of explained and unexplained variance, respectively. Our findings showed that FI has better construct validity than the other three measures in assessing frailty among the Australian older population. PMID:27224497
Theodoros, Deborah G.; Russell, Trevor G.
Background: Usability is an emerging domain of outcomes measurement in assistive technology provision. Currently, no questionnaires exist to test the usability of mobile shower commodes (MSCs) used by adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To describe the development, construction, and initial content validation of an electronic questionnaire to test mobile shower commode usability for this population. Methods: The questionnaire was constructed using a mixed-methods approach in 5 phases: determining user preferences for the questionnaire’s format, developing an item bank of usability indicators from the literature and judgement of experts, constructing a preliminary questionnaire, assessing content validity with a panel of experts, and constructing the final questionnaire. Results: The electronic Mobile Shower Commode Assessment Tool Version 1.0 (eMAST 1.0) questionnaire tests MSC features and performance during activities identified using a mixed-methods approach and in consultation with users. It confirms that usability is complex and multidimensional. The final questionnaire contains 25 questions in 3 sections. The eMAST 1.0 demonstrates excellent content validity as determined by a small sample of expert clinicians. Conclusion: The eMAST 1.0 tests usability of MSCs from the perspective of adults with SCI and may be used to solicit feedback during MSC design, assessment, prescription, and ongoing use. Further studies assessing the eMAST’s psychometric properties, including studies with users of MSCs, are needed. PMID:25762862
Ribeiro de Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi; Nicolato, Arthur; Santos, Marcilea; Godinho, Joao Victor; Brito, Rafael; Alvarenga, Alexandre; Martins, Ana Luiza Valle; Prosdocimi, André; Trivelato, Felipe Padovani; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Reis, Augusto Barbosa; Maestro, Rolando Del
OBJECT The development of neurointerventional treatments of central nervous system disorders has resulted in the need for adequate training environments for novice interventionalists. Virtual simulators offer anatomical definition but lack adequate tactile feedback. Animal models, which provide more lifelike training, require an appropriate infrastructure base. The authors describe a training model for neurointerventional procedures using the human placenta (HP), which affords haptic training with significantly fewer resource requirements, and discuss its validation. METHODS Twelve HPs were prepared for simulated endovascular procedures. Training exercises performed by interventional neuroradiologists and novice fellows were placental angiography, stent placement, aneurysm coiling, and intravascular liquid embolic agent injection. RESULTS The endovascular training exercises proposed can be easily reproduced in the HP. Face, content, and construct validity were assessed by 6 neurointerventional radiologists and 6 novice fellows in interventional radiology. CONCLUSIONS The use of HP provides an inexpensive training model for the training of neurointerventionalists. Preliminary validation results show that this simulation model has face and content validity and has demonstrated construct validity for the interventions assessed in this study. PMID:26452122
Binks-Cantrell, Emily; Joshi, R Malatesha; Washburn, Erin K
Recent national reports have stressed the importance of teacher knowledge in teaching reading. However, in the past, teachers' knowledge of language and literacy constructs has typically been assessed with instruments that are not fully tested for validity. In the present study, an instrument was developed; and its reliability, item difficulty, and item discrimination were computed and examined to identify model fit by applying exploratory factor analysis. Such analyses showed that the instrument demonstrated adequate estimates of reliability in assessing teachers' knowledge of language constructs. The implications for professional development of in-service teachers as well as preservice teacher education are also discussed. PMID:22843431
Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Wilberg, Theresa; Karterud, Sigmund
This study sought to evaluate the construct validity of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) by investigating a sample of 2,619 patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs by a variety of statistical techniques. Nineteen patients (0.7%) reached the diagnostic threshold of SZPD. Results from the factor analyses indicated that SZPD consists of three factors: social detachment, withdrawal, and restricted affectivity/ anhedonia. Overall, internal consistency and diagnostic efficiency were poor and best for the criteria that belong to the social detachment factor. These findings pose serious questions about the clinical utility of SZPD as a diagnostic category. On the other hand, the three factors were in concordance with findings from previous studies and with the trait model for personality disorders in DSM-5, supporting the validity of SZPD as a dimensional construct. The authors recommend that SZPD should be deleted as a diagnostic category in future editions of DSM-5. PMID:25248009
Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Drislane, Laura E
This study sought to replicate and extend Hall and colleagues' (2014) work on developing and validating scales from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) to index the triarchic psychopathy constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. This study also extended Hall et al.'s initial findings by including the PPI Revised (PPI-R). A community sample (n = 240) weighted toward subclinical psychopathy traits and a male prison sample (n = 160) were used for this study. Results indicated that PPI-Boldness, PPI-Meanness, and PPI-Disinhibition converged with other psychopathy, personality, and behavioral criteria in ways conceptually expected from the perspective of the triarchic psychopathy model, including showing very strong convergent and discriminant validity with their Triarchic Psychopathy Measure counterparts. These findings further enhance the utility of the PPI and PPI-R in measuring these constructs. PMID:25325407
Thompson, Simon M; Salmon, Lucy J; Webb, Justin M; Pinczewski, Leo A; Roe, Justin P
Consecutive patients undergoing knee arthroplasty completed questionnaires: FJS, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and WOMAC Score (mean 39 months after surgery), and were mailed a repeat questionnaire after 4 to 6 weeks. The test-retest reliability was almost perfect for the FJS (ICC = 0.97), and the FJS subdomains (ICC > 0.8). Convergent construct validity of the FJS was correlated with the KOOS Subscores of Quality of Life (0.63, P = 0.001), Symptom (0.33, P = 0.001), Pain (0.68, P = 0.001) and ADL (0.66, P = 0.001) and the Total WOMAC (0.70, P = 0.001). The FJS demonstrates high test-retest reliability and construct validity compared to the Normalised WOMAC and KOOS Subscales. The FJS does not demonstrate the ceiling effect of the WOMAC or KOOS pain scores so may have greater discriminatory ability following TKR. PMID:26027525
Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.
This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463
Gold, Bernadette; Holodynski, Manfred
The current study describes the development and construct validation of a situational judgment test for assessing the strategic knowledge of classroom management in elementary schools. Classroom scenarios and accompanying courses of action were constructed, of which 17 experts confirmed the content validity. A pilot study and a cross-validation…
Fuentes López, Eduardo A; Morales, Felipe Cardemil
Recreational noise exposure and its impact on hearing is a problem to which increasing attention is being paid. In Spanish, it is necessary to have a reliable and valid instrument that is capable of describing the extent of noise exposure. The aim was to create and validate an instrument to determine listening habits and levels of recreational noise exposure in young people. We performed a transversal questionnaire validation study using university students. We assessed the validity of the content and appearance of the "Recreational Hearing Habits Questionnaire" (CHAR in Spanish) through experts' judgment. Then we piloted the administration of semantic adaptation with 30 students. Finally, the instrument was applied to 335 Chilean university students, obtaining with these indicators that demonstrated convergent validity of the construct, criterion and reliability. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, as well as correlation and agreement tests. It was confirmed that 14 questions in the questionnaire have a good item-test correlation, having also a factorial structure that indicates the existence of three-dimensions. The questionnaire has good internal consistency and convergent validity with the Noise Exposure Questionnaire. In addition, the score obtained in the CHAR is a predictor of the presence of notch at frequencies of 4 kHz in the right ear and 6 kHz in the left. The CHAR is useful for determining listening habits and thereby recreational noise exposure, indicating good psychometric properties. PMID:25209039
Cooper, Sheri L; Pelly, Fiona E; Lowe, John B
Nutrient profiling (NP) is defined as the science of ranking foods according to their nutritional composition for the purpose of preventing disease or promoting health. The application of NP is ultimately to assist consumers to make healthier food choices, and thus provide a cost effective public health strategy to reduce the incidence of diet-related chronic disease. To our knowledge, no review has assessed the evidence to confirm the validity of NP models. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the construct and criterion-related validity of NP models in ranking food according to their nutritional composition for the purpose of preventing disease and promoting health. We searched peer-reviewed research published to 30 June 2015 and used PUBMED, Global Health (CABI), and SCOPUS databases. Within study bias was assessed using an adapted version of the QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies -2) tool for all diagnostic studies and the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool for all non-diagnostic studies. The GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach was used to guide our judgement of the quality of the body of evidence for each outcome measure. From a total of 83 studies, 69 confirmed the construct validity of NP models; however most of these studies contained methodological weaknesses. Six studies used objective external measures to confirm the criterion-related validity of NP models; which inherently improved quality. The overall quality of evidence on the accuracy of NP models was judged to be very low to moderate using the GRADE approach. Many carefully designed studies to establish both construct and criterion-related validity are necessary to authenticate the application of NP models and provide the evidence to support the current definition of NP. PMID:26850312
Bejerholm, Ulrika; Eklund, Mona
It is highly relevant to estimate to what extent a person with schizophrenia engages in occupations and participates in different life situations in order to understand the determinants of well-being in this group of people. This study aimed at examining the construct validity of the instrument Profile of Occupational Engagement in persons with Schizophrenia, POES. Global Assessment of Functioning, GAF, and a scale measuring Satisfaction with daily occupations and Activity level were chosen as standards against which POES was validated. As hypothesized, moderate associations were found between POES and GAF (0.73), Activity level (0.70), and Satisfaction with daily occupations (0.50). Regarding the separate items of POES, the items that concerned the range of occupations performed had the strongest association with Activity level, and the items that concerned ongoing occupations, i.e. Routines and Extent of performing meaningful occupations, correlated most strongly with Satisfaction with daily occupations. Thus, the strongest associations were found for the expected items. Altogether, POES seems to possess satisfactory construct validity and be a construct in its own right, as indicated by correlations of expected size and direction with the selected instruments and for expected items. PMID:16720510
McCrae, R R; Costa, P T
The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) consists of 5 global domain and 18 specific facet scales developed to measure aspects of the five major dimensions of normal personality. To obtain optimal measures of these five dimensions from the NEO-PI scales, a method for the orthogonal rotation of principal components to maximize the convergent and discriminant validity of the rotated factors (validimax rotation) is proposed and applied to NEO-PI factors. Self-report data from 983 men and women were used to obtain the factors, and six alternative operationalizations of the five-factor model were used as external criteria to guide rotation. The rotation obtained was cross-validated on peer and spouse ratings on the NEO-PI, and in a second sample. NEO-PI domain scales, varimax factors, and validimax factors all showed evidence of construct validity, but validimax factors were somewhat superior, especially as measures of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. PMID:26794299
Crowson, H Michael
The author addressed the construct validity of B. Altemeyer's (1996) Dogmatism (DOG) scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of the scale provided evidence of unidimensionality, despite apparent method effects related to item wording. DOG scale scores correlated strongly and positively with the belief that knowledge is certain, providing convergent validity evidence for the measure. Scores on the DOG scale appeared empirically distinguishable from measures of need for cognition, need for structure, and need to evaluate. Criterion-related validity evidence came in the form of theoretically predictable relationships between the DOG scale and measures of religious fundamentalism, quest orientation, national identification, conservative ideology, dangerous world beliefs, and reactions to individuals and groups who hold worldview-incongruent beliefs and values. PMID:19537601
The main objective of this present study is to demonstrate the estimation of validity values and its consistency based on structural equation model. The method of estimation was then implemented to an empirical data in case of the construction the patient loyalty model. In the hypothesis model, service quality, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty were determined simultaneously, each factor were measured by any indicator variables. The respondents involved in this study were the patients who ever got healthcare at Puskesmas in Padang, West Sumatera. All 394 respondents who had complete information were included in the analysis. This study found that each construct; service quality, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty were valid. It means that all hypothesized indicator variables were significant to measure their corresponding latent variable. Service quality is the most measured by tangible, patient satisfaction is the most mesured by satisfied on service and patient loyalty is the most measured by good service quality. Meanwhile in structural equation, this study found that patient loyalty was affected by patient satisfaction positively and directly. Service quality affected patient loyalty indirectly with patient satisfaction as mediator variable between both latent variables. Both structural equations were also valid. This study also proved that validity values which obtained here were also consistence based on simulation study using bootstrap approach.
Background With data from a diverse sample of patients either in treatment for cancer or post-treatment for cancer, we examine inter-domain and cross-domain correlations among the core domains of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures (PROMIS® SexFS) and the corresponding domains from conceptually-similar measures of sexual function, the International Index of Erectile Function and the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings Men (N=389) and women (N=430) were recruited from a tumor registry, oncology clinics, and an internet panel. The PROMIS SexFS, International Index of Erectile Function, and Female Sexual Function Index were used to collect participants’ self-reported sexual function. The domains shared among the measures include desire/interest in sexual activity, lubrication and vaginal discomfort/pain (women), erectile function (men), orgasm, and satisfaction. We examined correlations among different domains within the same instrument (discriminant validity) and correlations among similar domains measured by different instruments (convergent validity). Correlations demonstrating discriminant validity ranged from 0.38 to 0.73 for men and 0.48 to 0.74 for women, while correlations demonstrating convergent validity ranged from 0.62 to 0.83 for men and 0.71 to 0.92 for women. As expected, correlations demonstrating convergent validity were higher than correlations demonstrating discriminant validity, with one exception (orgasm for men). Conclusions Construct validity was supported by convergent and discriminant validity in a diverse sample of patients with cancer. For patients with cancer who may or may not have sexual dysfunction, the PROMIS SexFS measures provide a comprehensive assessment of key domains of sexual function and satisfaction. PMID:23497200
The P.E.P. Report 1969-1973 focuses on the various findings and activities of the Program Evaluation Project. The establishment of validity is one of the major tasks of the developers of a measurement methodology. In this chapter, it is argued that the construct validity approach is essential to an understanding of the validity of Goal Attainment…
While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. PMID:24619971
Background This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Comprehensive Core Set for osteoarthritis (OA) in order to test its possible use as a measuring tool for functioning. Methods 100 patients with OA (84 F, 16 M; mean age 63 yr) completed forms including demographic and clinical information besides the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36®) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC). The ICF Comprehensive Core Set for OA was filled by health professionals. The internal construct validities of "Body Functions-Body structures" (BF-BS), "Activity" (A), "Participation" (P) and "Environmental Factors" (EF) domains were tested by Rasch analysis and reliability by internal consistency and person separation index (PSI). External construct validity was evaluated by correlating the Rasch transformed scores with SF-36 and WOMAC. Results In each scale, some items showing disordered thresholds were rescored, testlets were created to overcome the problem of local dependency and items that did not fit to the Rasch model were deleted. The internal construct validity of the four scales (BF-BS 16 items, A 8 items, P 7 items, EF 13 items) were good [mean item fit (SD) 0.138 (0.921), 0.216 (1.237), 0.759 (0.986) and -0.079 (2.200); person item fit (SD) -0.147 (0.652), -0.241 (0.894), -0.310 (1.187) and -0.491 (1.173) respectively], indicating a single underlying construct for each scale. The scales were free of differential item functioning (DIF) for age, gender, years of education and duration of disease. Reliabilities of the BF-BS, A, P, and EF scales were good with Cronbach's alphas of 0.79, 0.86, 0.88, and 0.83 and PSI's of 0.76, 0.86, 0.87, and 0.71, respectively. Rasch scores of BF-BS, A, and P showed moderate correlations with SF-36 and WOMAC scores where the EF had significant but weak correlations only with SF36-Social
Eklund, Mona; Bäckström, Martin
A self-report instrument assessing work-related factors among people with psychiatric disabilities would be useful when trying to match possible employment or prevocational opportunities with people's desires and capacities. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct and criterion validity of the Worker Role Self-Assessment (WRS) in this group as well as possible floor and ceiling effects. The participants were 283 clients from day centers for people with psychiatric disabilities and from outpatient units for people with psychosis. They completed the WRS and instruments selected to assess construct validity in terms of convergent (motivation for work and current activity level as reference variables) and discriminant validity (quality of life and self-rated health as reference variables). Two factors were identified, one tapping beliefs in a future worker role and one reflecting current capacities and routines. The internal consistency for the scale as a whole was good at 0.84. The factor reflecting a future worker role correlated as expected with the reference variables used to assess convergent and discriminant validity, whereas current capacities and routines showed a moderate association with quality of life and self-rated health, assumed to indicate discriminant validity. Criterion validity was shown in that those who had recent work experiences scored higher than the others on WRS. No floor or ceiling effects were identified. The findings indicate acceptable psychometric properties of the WRS. Further development is still warranted, however; the factor solution needs to be replicated and the construct validity should be further established. PMID:27103638
Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
Background: Different dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) have been found as valid predictors of further mental health problems and antisocial behaviors in youth. The present study aimed at testing the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of ODD dimensions derived from parent- and self-report measures. Method: Confirmatory…
Goldberg, Allon; Talley, Susan Ann; Adamo, Diane E
There are few well-validated tools that focus on the assessment of walking confidence in older adults. The main objective of this study was to assess construct validity of the 10-item Modified Gait Efficacy Scale (mGES) as a measure of walking confidence in older adults. Twenty-four older females completed the mGES, the 16-item Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC-16) scale, and the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Construct validity of the mGES was evaluated by quantifying relationships between the mGES and the ABC-16 and the SFT, and by examining the ability of the mGES to discriminate between known groups (no/lower fear of falling versus higher fear of falling). There was a strong correlation between mGES and the ABC-16 scale (rs = 0.85; p < 0.001). The mGES was significantly associated with SFT components that required lower extremity strength, stepping aerobic endurance, and walking agility and dynamic balance (rs = 0.45 to 0.61; p < 0.05). Relationships between the mGES and number of arm curls in 30 s, chair sit and reach test, and back scratch test were weak (rs = 0.13-0.25; p > 0.05). Mean mGES score was 91.5% in a no/lower fear of falling group, while it was 81.4% in a higher fear group (p = 0.22). There was a trend toward a significant difference in the unstandardized residuals derived from regression of ranked mGES scores on ranked covariate (age and 8 foot up and go) scores, between the no/lower versus higher fear of falling group (p = 0.095). These results support construct validity of the mGES as a measure of gait self-efficacy in community-dwelling older females. PMID:27253337
Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct. PMID:26027442
Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David
The Wender Utah Rating Scale (Ward, Wender, & Reimherr, 1993 ) has been widely used in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research to assess childhood symptoms retrospectively, but little research has examined its factor structure and specificity in predicting ADHD versus other psychopathology. Consequently, this study had 2 goals: (a) to examine the Wender Utah Rating Scale's structure, and (b) to explicate the construct validity of this measure by relating factors from our structural analyses to other ADHD, psychopathology, and personality measures. Structural analyses in an adult community sample (N = 294) yielded a 3-factor structure of aggression (e.g., angry), internalizing distress (e.g., depressed), and academic difficulties (e.g., underachiever). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that these factors failed to display specificity in their associations with ADHD versus other psychopathology. Aggression and internalizing distress associated most strongly with indicators of externalizing (e.g., ill temper, manipulativeness) and internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety), respectively. Academic difficulties associated most strongly with ADHD symptoms, but these relations were relatively weak. Taken together, these findings raise concerns about the Wender Utah Rating Scale's construct validity, although additional longitudinal research is needed to clarify to what extent the Wender Utah Rating Scale validly assesses childhood ADHD symptoms. PMID:27050760
Garvin, Jennifer Hornung; Gordon, Thomas F; Haignere, Clara; DuCette, Joseph P
This study involved the design and validation of a new Lyme disease risk assessment instrument. The study was funded in part by a research grant from the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) Foundation on Research and Education (FORE). The resulting instrument measured theoretical constructs such as attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, skills, and knowledge relative to Lyme disease. The survey assessment tool is described here, and the tool development process, the validation and reliability process, and results are presented. The assessment tool was created by using a standard instrument development process that first involved constructing possible items (questions) based on several health behavior theories and known health risk behaviors. These items were then further refined by using focus groups, a small pilot study, factor analysis, and a large-scale pilot study. Validity and reliability indices were established with a test-retest reliability coefficient of .66, and finally the tool was used among a population living in a Lyme-disease-endemic area. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .737 for behavioral items, .573 for cognitive items, and .331 for environmental items were established. PMID:18066379
Beasley, Christopher; Jason, Leonard; Miller, Steven
Person-environment fit (P-E fit) was initially espoused as an important construct in the field of community psychology; however, most of the theoretical and empirical development of the construct has been conducted by industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists. In the current study, the GEFS—a P-E fit measure was developed from I/O and business management perspectives on fit—was administered to 246 attendees of an annual convention for residents and alumni of Oxford House (OH), a network of over 1400 mutual-help recovery homes. The authors conducted confirmatory factor and convergent construct validity analyses on the GEFS. The results suggested that the theoretical factor structure of the measure adequately fit the data, suggesting that the GEFS is a valid measure of P-E fit. OH resident fit with their recovery home was related to satisfaction, but not expected tenure. Exploratory analyses revealed that the sufficient supply of resident needs by the recovery home and similarity between residents and their housemates predicted satisfaction with the recovery home, but only similarity with housemates predicted how long residents intended to stay in the OHs. PMID:22071911
High accuracy, geometric complexity and thus high cost of stellarators tend to hinder the advance of stellarator research. Nowadays, new manufacturing methods might be developed for the production of small and middle-size stellarators. The methods should demonstrate advantages with respect common fabrication methods, like casting, cutting, forging and welding, for the construction of advanced highly convoluted modular stellarators. UST2 is a small modular three period quasi-isodynamic stellarator of major radius 0.26 m and plasma volume 10 litres being currently built to validate additive manufacturing (3D printing) for stellarator construction. The modular coils are wound in grooves defined on six 3D printed half period frames designed as light truss structures filled by a strong filler. A geometrically simple assembling configuration has been concocted for UST2 so as to try to lower the cost of the device while keeping the positioning accuracy of the different elements. The paper summarizes the construction and assembling concepts developed, the devised positioning methodology, the design of the coil frames and positioning elements and, an initial validation of the assembling of the components.
Smits, Rochelle R; Stein, Jeffrey S; Johnson, Patrick S; Odum, Amy L; Madden, Gregory J
Delay discounting (the devaluation of delayed rewards) has been studied extensively using animal models with psychophysical adjustment procedures. Similar procedures have been developed to assess delay discounting in humans and these procedures most often use hypothetical rewards and delays. The Experiential Discounting Task (EDT) was developed to assess human delay discounting using real rewards and delays. In the present study we examined the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the EDT. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing it with a standard delay discounting task. The EDT had poor test-retest reliability and discounting rates obtained with this task were uncorrelated with those obtained in the standard delay discounting task. Area under the EDT discounting curve was negatively correlated with scores on a measure of boredom proneness (i.e., individuals prone to boredom more steeply discounted delayed money in the EDT). This correlation may underlie previous reports that discounting in the EDT is correlated with addictions, as some evidence suggests boredom proneness is correlated with gambling, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and sensation seeking. Boredom proneness scores were correlated with no other measure of discounting. These findings suggest the EDT measures a different construct than that measured by traditional delay discounting tasks. PMID:23421359
Hall, Jason R.; Drislane, Laura E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Morano, Mario; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.
The Triarchic model of psychopathy describes this complex condition in terms of distinct phenotypic components of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Brief self-report scales designed specifically to index these psychopathy facets have thus far demonstrated promising construct validity. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing facets of the Triarchic model using items from a well-validated existing measure of psychopathy—the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). A consensus rating approach was used to identify PPI items relevant to each Triarchic facet, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the resulting PPI-based Triarchic scales were evaluated in relation to multiple criterion variables (i.e., other psychopathy inventories, antisocial personality disorder features, personality traits, psychosocial functioning) in offender and non-offender samples. The PPI-based Triarchic scales showed good internal consistency and related to criterion variables in ways consistent with predictions based on the Triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy. PMID:24447280
Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas; Boardley, Ian D
The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport. PMID:23472827
Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.
Summary This study provides evidence that an Italian version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a reliable and valid self-report measure. In an Italian sample (N = 600), the PANAS showed solid psychometric properties, and several American findings with the PANAS were replicated. The replicability of the PANAS factor structure was confirmed by high congruence coefficients between the American and Italian varimax solutions. Alternative models were tested with Confirmatory Factor Analysis; as in previous studies, the two-factor model achieved the best fit, but absolute fit indices varied with the estimation methods used. The independence/bipolarity issue was also explored: Positive and negative affect scales remain substantially independent after accounting for measurement error and acquiescence. Some predictions from the tripartite model of anxiety and depression were confirmed, and external correlates of the PANAS replicated those found in other languages and cultures. These analyses offer strong support for the construct validity of the Italian PANAS. PMID:20467578
Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna
The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.
Pérez Moreno, J M; Otero, A; Pérez Tornero, E; Parron, T; Bretones, C; Sánchez Romero, J E
The questionnaire was developed after establishing the domains that might be measured with it and selecting 16 items. During June and September 1987 it was administered to 163 patients, selected by quota sampling, who belonged to two health centers and two outpatient clinics from the city of Almería. With the obtained data several parts of the questionnaire were validated: stability, homogeneity, distorting variables and constructed validity. There were significant differences (analysis of variance) between the satisfaction of the users of health centers and outpatient clinics (p = 0.042) (higher satisfaction in health centers). There were not marked differences between the users of both health centers (p = 0.144) and between both outpatient clinics (p = 0.66). The measurement of satisfaction is a valuable instrument for the investigation and administration of health services and a good indicator of the quality of care. PMID:2519563
Jepsen, Jørgen R; Laursen, Lise H; Kreiner, Svend; Larsen, Anders I
Objective: We have previously demonstrated that neurological individual findings and patterns can be reliably assessed in the examination of the upper limb and also that they are related to pain, weakness, and/or numbness/tingling. This study aimed to study further aspects of the construct validity of the neurological examination. Methods: Blinded to patient-characteristics, two examiners assessed the function of 16 muscles, the sensibility in 7 territories, and the nerve-mechanosensitivity at 20 locations in 82 upper limbs. Based on anatomical patterns and pre-designed algorithms, one or both examiners rated neuropathy as “possible” or “definite” in 40 limbs and also determined the location( s). We developed and tested hypotheses on anatomically and regionally related locations of nerve afflictions (a selective vulnerability of neurons, double and multiple crush, and a tendency to regional spread) and examined the stability of the internal structure of the constructs in different situations. The interrelations of findings were analyzed by hypothesis testing and factor analyses, and the homogeneity of location profiles was analyzed by a conditional likelihood test. Results: Out of 30 limbs with related locations of neuropathy, the findings of each examiner correlated positively (gamma > 0.35) in 22/25, respectively. The patterns of the interrelations identified by the two examiners were similar, with no evidence of any heterogeneity of location profiles for either examiner. Conclusions: This study supports the validity of the physical examination. However, feasibility of its application requires the demonstration of further aspects of construct validity and a favorable influence on patient-management and/or prevention. PMID:20148172
Motl, Robert W.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Peterson, Connie L.
Objective: To evaluate the factorial and construct validity of the Head Injury Scale (HIS) among a sample of male and female collegiate athletes. Design and Setting: Using a cross-sectional design, we established the factorial validity of the HIS scale with confirmatory factor analysis and the construct validity of the HIS with Pearson product moment correlation analyses. Using an experimental design, we compared scores on the HIS between concussed and nonconcussed groups with a 2 (groups) × 5 (time) mixed-model analysis of variance. Subjects: Participants (N = 279) in the cross-sectional analyses were predominately male (n = 223) collegiate athletes with a mean age of 19.49 ± 1.63 years. Participants (N = 33) in the experimental analyses were concussed (n = 17) and nonconcussed control (n = 16) collegiate athletes with a mean age of 19.76 ± 1.49 years. Measurements: All participants completed baseline measures for the 16-item HIS, neuropsychological testing battery, and posturography. Concussed individuals and paired controls were evaluated on days 1, 2, 3, and 10 postinjury on the same testing battery. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a theoretically derived, 3-factor model provided a good but not excellent fit to the 16-item HIS. Hence, the 16-item HIS was modified on the basis of substantive arguments about item-content validity. The subsequent analysis indicated that the 3-factor model provided an excellent fit to the modified 9-item HIS. The 3 factors were best described by a single second-order factor: concussion symptoms. Scores from the 16-item HIS and 9-item HIS were strongly correlated, but there were few significant correlations between HIS scores and scores from the neuropsychological and balance measures. A significant group-by-day interaction was noted on both the 9-item HIS and 16-item HIS, with significant differences seen between groups on days 1 and 2 postconcussion. Conclusions: We provide evidence for the factorial and
Lorenz, Timo; Beer, Clemens; Pütz, Jan; Heinitz, Kathrin
With the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) being the standard measure to assess psychological capital (PsyCap) in the context of organizations, this paper aims to broaden this domain-specific approach by introducing a measure with universal claim. Two studies were conducted to create and validate a German self-report scale (CPC-12) measuring PsyCap. We performed confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other positive psychological constructs on the data of two German samples (N1 = 321; N2 = 202). The twelve-item CPC-12 exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with a very good model fit and associations to other constructs concur with previous findings with other measures of PsyCap. PMID:27035437