Science.gov

Sample records for accepted chemical engineering

  1. Chemical Engineering Division Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical Engineering Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer was Theodore Vermeulen of the University of California at Berkeley. Other chemical engineers who received awards or special recognition at a recent ASEE annual conference are mentioned. (BB)

  2. Chemical Engineering Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Louis

    1978-01-01

    The opinion is presented that chemical engineering education seems to emphasize the professor's research and/or professional interests with little regard for the real needs of the student who intends to become a practicing engineer. (BB)

  3. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  4. Acceptability of bio-engineered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Danner, K

    1997-01-01

    For hundreds of years bacterial and viral vaccines have been-in a way-bioengineered and were generally well received by the public, the authorities, and the medical profession. Today, additional tools, e.g. molecular biology, enable new approaches to the development of better and safer products. Various vaccines derived from gene technology have now been licensed for commercial use and are acknowledged within the scientific community. Acceptance by the public and the politicians is, however, negatively influenced by the discussions encompassing gene manipulation in man and animals, transgenic plant, and "novel food". Lack of information leads to confusion and fear. Concurrently, the absence of spectacular and life-threatening epidemics limits the perceived value of immune prophylaxis and its benefits. Scientists in institutes and industry are in a position to stimulate acceptability of bio-engineered vaccines by following some simple rule: (1) adherence to the principles of safety; (2) establishment of analytical and control methods; (3) well functioning regulatory and reporting systems; (4) demonstration of usefulness and economic benefits; (5) open communication; and (6) correct and prudent wording. PMID:9023035

  5. Chemical Engineering in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has long been perceived as the domain of both physicists and mechanical engineers. This perception has endured even though the primary method of providing the thrust necessary to launch a rocket into space is chemical in nature. The chemical engineering and chemistry personnel behind the systems that provide access to space have labored in the shadows of the physicists and mechanical engineers. As exploration into the cosmos moves farther away from Earth, there is a very distinct need for new chemical processes to help provide the means for advanced space exploration. The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit. As we move away from Earth, there are additional options for propulsion. Unfortunately, few of these options can compare to the speed or ease of use provided by the chemical propulsion agents. It is with great care and significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquefied and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. These low-temperature liquids fall within a specialty area known as cryogenics. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions for use on Earth, in orbit, or on some other nonterrestrial body, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production of cryogenic fuels and the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for travel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a round-trip. The cost and the size of these expeditions are extreme at best. If we take everything necessary for our survival for the round-trip, we invalidate any chance of travel in the near future. As with the early explorers on Earth, we need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy

  6. The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabicky, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course for third- or fourth-year chemical engineering students designed to acquaint them with the chemical industry. The course deals with productivity, characteristics of the chemical industry, sources of information, industrial intelligence, research and development, patent law, technology transfer, and quality control. (TW)

  7. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  8. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    After several lean years, chemical engineering (a popular discipline among women) is witnessing a higher job demand for new graduates. Companies show a trend toward specialty chemicals with resultant needs for more engineering talent. Other opportunities in the field include agriculture and food processing, environmental control, biotechnology,…

  9. Chemical Engineering in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit and escape the bonds of Earth's gravity. In the future there may be other means available; however, currently few of these alternatives can compare to the speed or the ease of use provided by cryogenic chemical propulsion agents. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production and transport of cryogenic fuels as well as the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for mankind to travel within our solar system. It is with great care and at a significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquified and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a complete round-trip. The cost and the size of any expedition to another celestial body are extreme. If we are constrained by the need to take everything necessary (fuel, life support, etc.) for our survival and return, we greatly increase the risk of being able to go. As with the early explorers on Earth, we will need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy sources is paramount to success. Due to the current propulsion system designs, the in-situ processes will require liquefaction and the application of cryogenics. The challenge we face for the near future is to increase our understanding of cryogenic long-term storage and off-world production of cryogenic fluids. We must do this all within the boundaries of very restricted size, weight, and robustness parameters so that we may launch these apparatus from Earth and utilize them elsewhere. Miniaturization, efficiency, and physically robust systems will all play a part in

  10. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  11. Sustainability in Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassey, Jarka; Haile, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a concentrated strategy to embed sustainability teaching into a (chemical) engineering undergraduate curriculum throughout the whole programme. Innovative teaching approaches in subject-specific context are described and their efficiency investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The activities in…

  12. Chemical Engineering Students: A Distinct Group among Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…

  13. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance of aircraft engines and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An...

  14. Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutija, Davor P.; Prausnitz, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Provides three classroom examples showing students how chemical engineering techniques can supply partial answers to social questions, such as environmental issues. Examples are depletion of the ozone layer, nuclear winter, and air pollution by chemical solvents. (YP)

  15. Career Opportunities in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Trienne

    This pamphlet discusses career and employment opportunities in chemical engineering. Necessary college preparation is described and median salaries by degree are tabulated. Nontraditional careers in chemistry are also described. Future demand for chemists and chemical engineers is projected to 1985 and the availability of jobs for women and…

  16. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  17. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  18. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum. PMID:24702299

  19. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation destroys hazardous contaminants by chemically converting them to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are ideally more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. However, under some conditions, other hazardous compounds may be formed. The oxidizing agents most commonly use...

  20. Engineering microbes for efficient production of chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Gong, Wei; Dole, Sudhanshu; Grabar, Tammy; Collard, Andrew Christopher; Pero, Janice G; Yocum, R Rogers

    2015-04-28

    This present invention relates to production of chemicals from microorganisms that have been genetically engineered and metabolically evolved. Improvements in chemical production have been established, and particular mutations that lead to those improvements have been identified. Specific examples are given in the identification of mutations that occurred during the metabolic evolution of a bacterial strain genetically engineered to produce succinic acid. This present invention also provides a method for evaluating the industrial applicability of mutations that were selected during the metabolic evolution for increased succinic acid production. This present invention further provides microorganisms engineered to have mutations that are selected during metabolic evolution and contribute to improved production of succinic acid, other organic acids and other chemicals of commercial interest.

  1. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  2. Interactive Mathematica Simulations in Chemical Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Mathematica simulations with graphical displays of system behavior are an excellent addition to chemical engineering courses. The Manipulate command in Mathematica creates on-screen controls that allow users to change system variables and see the graphical output almost instantaneously. They can be used both in and outside class. More…

  3. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  4. Conceptests for a Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of conceptests and suggestions for preparing them for use in an undergraduate, chemical engineering thermodynamics course are presented. Conceptests, combined with hand-held transmitters (clickers), is an effective method to engage students in class. This method motivates students, improves their functional understanding of…

  5. Transport (Computer Programs for Chemical Engineering Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, R., Ed.

    This work contains 21 computer programs intended for use in a chemical engineering education format. The programs represent appropriate homework exercises for undergraduate students. The intended academic level is listed for each example. Although the activities deal with specific problems, the computer programs represent the areas of kinetics,…

  6. A First Chemical Engineering Lab Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punzi, Vito L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simple thermodynamics experiment recommended for use in beginning chemical engineering laboratory courses. Outlines the theory behind the experiment, which determines the specific heat of a liquid. Discusses the construction, operation, and maintenance of the apparatus involved, along with the experimental procedure. (TW)

  7. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  8. CFD applications in chemical propulsion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The present research is aimed at developing analytical procedures for predicting the performance and stability characteristics of chemical propulsion engines. Specific emphasis is being placed on understanding the physical and chemical processes in the small engines that are used for applications such as spacecraft attitude control and drag make-up. The small thrust sizes of these engines lead to low nozzle Reynolds numbers with thick boundary layers which may even meet at the nozzle centerline. For this reason, the classical high Reynolds number procedures that are commonly used in the industry are inaccurate and of questionable utility for design. A complete analysis capability for the combined viscous and inviscid regions as well as for the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic portions of the flowfield is necessary to estimate performance levels and to enable tradeoff studies during design procedures.

  9. Chemical-text hybrid search engines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy. PMID:20047295

  10. MCO Engineering Test Report Fuel Basket Handling Grapple Acceptance Test

    SciTech Connect

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    Acceptance testing of the production SNF Fuel Basket lift grapples to the required 150 percent maximum lift load is documented herein. The report shows the results affirming the proof test passage. The primary objective of this test was to confirm the load rating of the grapple per applicable requirements of ANSI 14 6 American National Standard For Radioactive Materials Special Lifting Devices for Shipping Containers Weighing 10,000 pounds (4500kg) or More. The above Standard requires a load test of 150% of the design load which must be held for a minimum of 10 minutes followed by a Liquid Penetrant or Magnetic Particle examination of critical areas and welds in accordance with the ANSI/ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 1989 Section 111 Division 1 section NF 5350.

  11. Engineering electrical properties of graphene: chemical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yuna; Novoselov, Konstantin; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-12-01

    To ensure the high performance of graphene-based devices, it is necessary to engineer the electrical properties of graphene with enhanced conductivity, controlled work function, opened or closed bandgaps, etc. This can be performed by various non-covalent chemical approaches, including molecular adsorption, substrate-induced doping, polymerization on graphene, deposition of metallic thin films or nanoparticles, etc. In addition, covalent approaches such as the substitution of carbon atoms with boron or nitrogen and the functionalization with hydrogen or fluorine are useful to tune the bandgaps more efficiently, with better uniformity and stability. In this review, representative examples of chemically engineered graphene and its device applications will be reviewed, and remaining challenges will be discussed.

  12. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  13. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  14. Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Yin

    2010-03-01

    The world's energy and global warming crises call for sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives to replace fossil fuel resources. Currently, most biofuels are produced from agricultural crops and residues, which lead to concerns about food security and land shortage. Compared to the current biofuel production system, cyanobacteria, as autotrophic prokaryotes, do not require arable land and can grow to high densities by efficiently using solar energy, CO(2), water, and inorganic nutrients. Moreover, powerful genetic techniques of cyanobacteria have been developed. For these reasons, cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, are attractive hosts for production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, several chemicals including ethanol, isobutanol and isoprene have been produced by engineered cyanobacteria directly using solar energy, CO(2), and water. Cyanobacterium is therefore a potential novel cell factory for fuels and chemicals production to address global energy security and climate change issues. PMID:21203966

  15. 2002 Chemical Engineering Division annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.; Graziano, D.; Miller, J. F.

    2003-05-22

    The Chemical Engineering Division is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. The Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory; Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services; and Dosimetry and Radioprotection services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature superconductors. Our wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by

  16. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  17. Comparison: Direct thrust nuclear engine, nuclear electric engine, and a chemical engine for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.H.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    The need for an advanced direct thrust nuclear rocket propulsion engine has been identified in Project Forecast 2, Air Force Systems Command report which looks into future Air Force needs. The Air Force Astronautical Laboratory (AFAL) has been assigned responsibility for developing the nuclear engine, and they in turn have requested support from teams of contractors who have the full capability to assist in the development of the nuclear engine. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has formed a team of experts with Martin Marietta for mission analysis. Science Applications International (SAIC) for flight safety analysis, Westinghouse for the nuclear subsystem, and Rocketdyne for the engine system. INEL is the overall program manager and manager for test facility design, construction and operation. The INEL team has produced plans for both the engine system and the ground test facility. AFAL has funded the INEL team to perform mission analyses to evaluate the cost, performance and operational advantages for a nuclear rocket engine in performing Air Force Space Missions. For those studies, the Advanced Nuclear Rocket Engine (ANRE), a scaled down NERVA derivative, was used as the baseline nuclear engine to compare against chemical engines and nuclear electric engines for performance of orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. 3 tabs.

  18. Chemically engineered extracts: source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, I Ayelen; Salazar, Mario O; Mendez, Luciana; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2011-04-19

    Biological research and drug discovery critically depend on access to libraries of small molecules that have an affinity for biomacromolecules. By virtue of their sustained success as sources of lead compounds, natural products are recognized as "privileged" starting points in structural space for library development. Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products have distinguishing structural properties; indeed, researchers have begun to quantify and catalog the differences between the two classes of molecules. Measurable differences in the number of chiral centers, the degree of saturation, the presence of aromatic rings, and the number of the various heteroatoms are among the chief distinctions between natural and synthetic compounds. Natural products also include a significant proportion of recurring molecular scaffolds that are not present in currently marketed drugs: the bioactivity of these natural substructures has been refined over the long process of evolution. In this Account, we present our research aimed at preparing libraries of semisynthetic compounds, or chemically engineered extracts (CEEs), through chemical diversification of natural products mixtures. The approach relies on the power of numbers, that is, in the chemical alteration of a sizable fraction of the starting complex mixture. Major changes in composition can be achieved through the chemical transformation of reactive molecular fragments that are found in most natural products. If such fragments are common enough, their transformation represents an entry point for chemically altering a high proportion of the components of crude natural extracts. We have searched for common reactive fragments in the Dictionary of Natural Products (CRC Press) and identified several functional groups that are expected to be present in a large fraction of the components of an average natural crude extract. To date, we have used reactions that incorporate (i) nitrogen atoms through carbonyl groups, (ii

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF WELLMAN-LORD/ALLIED CHEMICAL FGD TECHNOLOGY: ACCEPTANCE TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of acceptance tests of Wellman-Lord/Allied Chemical flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. Process performance guarantees were met or exceeded. During the 12-day Design Load test, the plant was operated at the design condition of a boiler flue gas out...

  20. Chemical engineering design of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    How a chemical reaction engineer would approach the challenge of designing a CO oxidation catalyst for pulsed CO2 lasers is described. CO oxidation catalysts have a long history of application, of course, so it is instructive to first consider the special requirements of the laser application and then to compare them to the characteristics of existing processes which utilize CO oxidation catalysts. All CO2 laser applications require a CO oxidation catalyst with the following characteristics: (1) active at stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO, (2) no inhibition by CO2 or other components of the laser environment, (3) releases no particulates during vibration or thermal cycling, and (4) long lifetime with a stable activity. In all applications, low consumption of power is desirable, a characteristic especially critical in aerospace applications and, thus, catalyst activity at low temperatures is highly desirable. High power lasers with high pulse repetition rates inherently require circulation of the gas mixture and this forced circulation is available for moving gas past the catalyst. Low repetition rate lasers, however, do not inherently require gas circulation, so a catalyst that did not require such circulation would be favorable from the standpoint of minimum power consumption. Lasers designed for atmospheric penetration of their infrared radiation utilize CO2 formed from rare isotopes of oxygen and this application has the additional constraint that normal abundance oxygen isotopes in the catalyst must not exchange with rare isotopes in the gas mixture.

  1. Selective Guide to Literature on Chemical Engineering. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Rosemary, Comp.

    The material in this guide covers areas important to the chemical industries. Topics such as heat and mass transfer, plastics, polymers, fluid flow, and process engineering are included. This document is a survey of information sources in chemical engineering and is intended to identify those core resources which can help engineers and librarians…

  2. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

  3. Introducing DAE Systems in Undergraduate and Graduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandela, Ravi Kumar; Sridhar, L. N.; Rengaswamy, Raghunathan

    2010-01-01

    Models play an important role in understanding chemical engineering systems. While differential equation models are taught in standard modeling and control courses, Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) system models are not usually introduced. These models appear naturally in several chemical engineering problems. In this paper, the introduction…

  4. At Age 100, Chemical Engineering Education Faces Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)

  5. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering. Research Needs and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Chemical engineers play a key role in industries such as petroleum, food, artificial fibers, petrochemicals, plastics and many others. They are needed to tailor manufacturing technology to the requirements of products and to integrate product and process design. This report discusses how chemical engineers are continuing to address technological…

  6. Results of the 2010 Survey on Teaching Chemical Reaction Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, David L.; Vigeant, Margot A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of faculty teaching the chemical reaction engineering course or sequence during the 2009-2010 academic year at chemical engineering programs in the United States and Canada reveals change in terms of content, timing, and approaches to teaching. The report consists of two parts: first, a statistical and demographic characterization of the…

  7. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  8. Introducing High School Students and Science Teachers to Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayles, Taryn Melkus; Aguirre, Fernando J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a summer institute for science teachers and their students in which the main goal was to increase enrollment in engineering and to encourage women and minority groups to increase their representation in the engineering workforce. Includes a description of typical chemical engineering jobs and general instruction in material balances,…

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1600 Sayles*, G.D. Environmental Engineering and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering (Arnold, R.G. (Ed.), Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers) 128 (1):1-2 (2002). EPA/600/J- 02/001. ...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

  11. Performance deterioration due to acceptance testing and flight loads; JT90 jet engine diagnostic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a flight loads test of the JT9D-7 engine are presented. The goals of this test program were to: measure aerodynamic and inertia loads on the engine during flight, explore the effects of airplane gross weight and typical maneuvers on these flight loads, simultaneously measure the changes in engine running clearances and performance resulting from the maneuvers, make refinements of engine performance deterioration prediction models based on analytical results of the tests, and make recommendations to improve propulsion system performance retention. The test program included a typical production airplane acceptance test plus additional flights and maneuvers to encompass the range of flight loads in revenue service. The test results indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-induced deterioration in the cold sectin of the engine. Differential thermal expansion between rotating and static parts plus aerodynamic loads combined to cause blade-to-seal rubs in the turbine.

  12. Ecologically acceptable strategy for the use of genetically engineered baculovirus pesticides. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, H.A.; Hughes, P.R.; van Beek, N.; Hamblin, M.

    1990-01-01

    The basis for the first U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approval for the field release of a genetically-engineered virus has been to take advantage of the biological properties of baculovirus in such a way that an engineered virus could possess enhanced pesticidal properties but, at the same time, would pose no environmental or health hazards. The ultimate goal of these investigations is to reduce the agricultural requirement for synthetic chemical pesticides through the development of viral pesticides with enhanced pesticidal properties.

  13. Acceptance Data Package: SXI Stepper Motor/Encoder. Aeroflex P/N 16187. A; Engineering Drawings and Associated Lists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Acceptance data package - engineering drawings and associated lists for fabrication, assembly and maintenance (cleaning, fluidized bed coating, bounding and staking) motor/encoded solar x-ray imager (SXI) (Aeroflex p/n 16187) were given.

  14. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric data and preliminary designs on liquid rocket engines for low thrust cargo orbit-transfer-vehicles are described and those items where technology is required to enhance the designs are identified. The results of film cooling studies to establish the upper chamber pressure limit are given. The study showed that regen cooling with RP-1 was not feasible over the entire thrust and chamber pressure ranges. The thermal data showed that the RP-1 bulk temperature exceeded the study coking temperature limit of 1010 R. Based upon the results presented, O2/H2 and O2/CH4 regen engine systems and O2/H2 film cooled engines were selected for further study in the system analysis. Six engine design concepts are examined.

  15. Laboratory Planning for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Harry F., Ed.

    This study is the result of a project of the Committee on Design, Construction and Equipment of Laboratories, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, of the National Academy of Sciences. The problems and methods of planning, designing and constructing varying types of chemical laboratories for research and developmental buildings are…

  16. Biological and chemical tests of contaminated soils to determine bioavailability and environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE)

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, C.R.; Menzie, C.A.; Pauwells, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The understanding of the concept of bioavailability of soil contaminants to receptors and its use in supporting the development of EAE is growing but still incomplete. Nonetheless, there is increased awareness of the importance of such data to determine acceptable cleanup levels and achieve timely site closures. This presentation discusses a framework for biological and chemical testing of contaminated soils developed as part of a Gas Research Institute (GRI) project entitled ``Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints in Soil Using a Risk Based Approach to Contaminated Site Management Based on Bioavailability of Chemicals in Soil.`` The presentation reviews the GRI program, and summarizes the findings of the biological and chemical testing section published in the GRI report. The three primary components of the presentation are: (1) defining the concept of bioavailability within the existing risk assessment paradigm, (2) assessing the usefulness of the existing tests to measure bioavailability and test frameworks used to interpret these measurements, and (3) suggesting how a small selection of relevant tests could be incorporated into a flexible testing scheme for soils to address this issue.

  17. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXHAUST PARTICLES FROM GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A program was conducted to chemically characterize particulate emissions from a current technology, high population, gas turbine engine. Attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines and total organics. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were...

  18. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  19. New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Mark T.; Deitcher, Robert W.; Xi, Yuanzhou; Davis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A new laboratory course has been developed at the University of Virginia for senior- level chemical engineering students. The new course is based on three 4-week long experiments in bioprocess engineering, energy conversion and catalysis, and polymer synthesis and characterization. The emphasis is on the integration of process steps and the…

  20. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  1. Discrete-Event Simulation in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheisz, Daniel; Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1988-01-01

    Gives examples, descriptions, and uses for various types of simulation systems, including the Flowtran, Process, Aspen Plus, Design II, GPSS, Simula, and Simscript. Explains similarities in simulators, terminology, and a batch chemical process. Tables and diagrams are included. (RT)

  2. Chemical Stimulation of Engineered Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter, E.

    2008-08-08

    The objective of this project is to design, develop and demonstrate methods for the chemical stimulation of candidate EGS reservoirs as well as the chemical treatment of mineral-scaled wellbores. First, a set of candidate chemical compounds capable of dissolving calcite was identified. A series of tests was then performed on each candidate in order to screen it for thermal stability and reactivity towards calcite. A detailed analysis was then performed on each compound that emerged from the screening tests in order to characterize its decay kinetics and reaction kinetics as functions of temperature and chemical composition. From among the compounds emerging from the laboratory studies, one compounds was chosen for a field experiment in order to verify the laboratory predictions.

  3. Acceptance threshold hypothesis is supported by chemical similarity of cuticular hydrocarbons in a stingless bee, Melipona asilvai.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, D L; Nascimento, F S

    2012-11-01

    The ability to discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates in insect societies is essential to protect colonies from conspecific invaders. The acceptance threshold hypothesis predicts that organisms whose recognition systems classify recipients without errors should optimize the balance between acceptance and rejection. In this process, cuticular hydrocarbons play an important role as cues of recognition in social insects. The aims of this study were to determine whether guards exhibit a restrictive level of rejection towards chemically distinct individuals, becoming more permissive during the encounters with either nestmate or non-nestmate individuals bearing chemically similar profiles. The study demonstrates that Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) guards exhibit a flexible system of nestmate recognition according to the degree of chemical similarity between the incoming forager and its own cuticular hydrocarbons profile. Guards became less restrictive in their acceptance rates when they encounter non-nestmates with highly similar chemical profiles, which they probably mistake for nestmates, hence broadening their acceptance level. PMID:23053920

  4. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, YZ; Lee, JK; Zhao, HM

    2013-11-15

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. PMID:24222925

  6. The five-minute chemical engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Korchinski, W.J.; Turpin, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Engineering offices are filled with computers and state-of-the-art software. Given the right set of circumstances, refinery engineers are delighted to use all of this stuff: technology is at their fingertips and, if time permits, one can grind out an answer to full machine precision. But, many really useful refinery calculations can be simplified using miscellaneous bits of information and a few rules. These calculation techniques provide a quick way to evaluate whether something is worth pursuing in more detail, or whether time would be better spent performing other activities. These estimates also provide reasonable answers in a timely manner, when engineers do not have access to all of the high-tech tools on their desktop. In most cases all that is required is an inexpensive calculator and five minutes of your time. Only a few really important constants are needed to do most quick-and-dirty refining calculations. These constants are summarized in four tables along with a set of commonly used equations. Examples are provided that illustrate use of the constants and equations. Some examples may be familiar: can a heat exchanger be used in a particular service; what size driver would be needed to compress a stream from one pressure to the next; how much fuel is being used by a boiler or process heater; how much energy can be saved by cutting reflux? The intent is to provide the tools to quickly estimate answers to these questions.

  7. Chemical engineering: Measurements for a competitive age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) activities supporting chemical research, environmental research, combustion and fuel research, and related industries are described in this video. Highlights include private sector involvement in the research and associated and guest scientist programs, the calibration of customers' instruments, and the direct funding for the NIST research projects by outside industries.

  8. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  9. Chemical-oxidation treatment. Engineering bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Oxidation destroys hazardous contaminants by chemically converting them to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are ideally more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. However, under some conditions, other hazardous compounds may be formed. The oxidizing agents most commonly used for the treatment of hazardous contaminants are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide. Current research has shown the combination of these reagents or ultraviolet (UV) light and an oxidizing agent(s) makes the process more effective. Treatability studies are necessary to document the applicability and performance of chemical oxidation systems technology for a specific site. The bulletin provides information on the technology applicability, limitations, a technology description, the types of residuals produced, site requirements, current performance data, status of the technology, and sources of further information.

  10. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle. PMID:25978270

  11. Acceptance Testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kliss, Mark; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of acceptance testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) technology. The VPCAR technology is currently being developed by NASA as a Mars transit vehicle water recycling system. NASA has recently completed a grant to develop a next generation VPCAR system. This grant was peer reviewed and funded through the Advanced Life Support (ALS) National Research Announcement (NRA). The grant funded a contract with Water Reuse Technology Inc. to construct an engineering development unit. This contract concluded with the shipment of the final deliverable to NASA on 8/31/03. The objective of the acceptance testing was to characterize the performance of this new system. This paper presents the results of mass power, and volume measurements for the delivered system. In addition, product water purity analysis for a Mars transit mission and a planetary base wastewater ersatz are provided. Acoustic noise levels, interface specifications and system reliability results are also discussed. An assessment of the readiness of the technology for human testing and recommendations for future improvements are provided.

  12. Reverse engineering chemical structures from molecular descriptors : how many solutions?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William Michael; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2005-06-01

    Physical, chemical and biological properties are the ultimate information of interest for chemical compounds. Molecular descriptors that map structural information to activities and properties are obvious candidates for information sharing. In this paper, we consider the feasibility of using molecular descriptors to safely exchange chemical information in such a way that the original chemical structures cannot be reverse engineered. To investigate the safety of sharing such descriptors, we compute the degeneracy (the number of structure matching a descriptor value) of several 2D descriptors, and use various methods to search for and reverse engineer structures. We examine degeneracy in the entire chemical space taking descriptors values from the alkane isomer series and the PubChem database. We further use a stochastic search to retrieve structures matching specific topological index values. Finally, we investigate the safety of exchanging of fragmental descriptors using deterministic enumeration.

  13. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms. PMID:23611567

  14. My contribution to broadening the base of chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Roger W H

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short account, from a personal viewpoint, of the various contributions I have made to expand the academic basis of chemical engineering from its origin in the unifying concept of unit operations, focussed on process design, to encompassing all the professional activities of industrial chemical engineers. This includes all aspects of planning and scheduling the operations as well as designing and controlling the process plant. The span of my career also happens to include the birth of the age of computing, with all the consequential implications. PMID:22432607

  15. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations. PMID:16565750

  16. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  17. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases. PMID:25416110

  18. Efficiency at maximum power of a chemical engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooyberghs, Hans; Cleuren, Bart; Salazar, Alberto; Indekeu, Joseph O.; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2013-10-01

    A cyclically operating chemical engine is considered that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. The working fluid is a gas of finite-sized spherical particles interacting through elastic hard collisions. For a generic transport law for particle uptake and release, the efficiency at maximum power ηmp takes the form 1/2+c Δ μ + O(Δ μ ^2), with 1/2 a universal constant and Δμ the chemical potential difference between the particle reservoirs. The linear coefficient c is zero for engines featuring a so-called left/right symmetry or particle fluxes that are antisymmetric in the applied chemical potential difference. Remarkably, the leading constant in ηmp is non-universal with respect to an exceptional modification of the transport law. For a nonlinear transport model, we obtain ηmp = 1/(θ + 1), with θ > 0 the power of Δμ in the transport equation.

  19. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  20. A Chemical Engineer's Perspective on Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical process systems engineering considers complex supply chains which are coupled networks of dynamically interacting systems. The quest to optimize the supply chain while meeting robustness and flexibility constraints in the face of ever changing environments necessitated the development of theoretical and computational tools for the analysis, synthesis and design of such complex engineered architectures. However, it was realized early on that optimality is a complex characteristic required to achieve proper balance between multiple, often competing, objectives. As we begin to unravel life's intricate complexities, we realize that that living systems share similar structural and dynamic characteristics; hence much can be learned about biological complexity from engineered systems. In this article, we draw analogies between concepts in process systems engineering and conceptual models of health and disease; establish connections between these concepts and physiologic modeling; and describe how these mirror onto the physiological counterparts of engineered systems. PMID:25506103

  1. 78 FR 56692 - Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit... August 20, 2013, Albany Engineering Corporation (Albany Engineering) filed an application for a..., Albany Engineering Corporation, 5 Washington Square, Albany, NY 12205; phone: (518) 456-7712....

  2. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  3. Interactive Graphics in CAD/CAI in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, D. R.

    This paper describes the development of a software program which incorporates interactive graphics techniques into a teaching and research environment at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Israel, and the experience of transferring the software from mainframe to personal computer (PC) operating systems at the California Institute of…

  4. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  5. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  6. Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A graduate-level computational chemistry course was designed and developed and carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the Fall of 2005. The thrust of the course was a reaction assignment that led students through a series of steps, beginning with energetic predictions based upon fundamental…

  7. A Vision of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    A dramatic shift in chemical engineering undergraduate education is envisioned, based on discipline-wide workshop discussions that have taken place over the last two years. Faculty from more than 53 universities and industry representatives from 19 companies participated. Through this process broad consensus has been developed regarding basic…

  8. Microfluidics and Microfabrication in a Chemical Engineering Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Shivaun D.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics, the manipulation of fluids in channels with micron dimensions, has emerged as an exciting new field that impacts the broad area of nano/microtechnology. This is an important area to train the next generation of chemical engineers. This paper describes an experiment where students are given a problem to design a microfluidic mixer…

  9. Teaching Technical Writing in a Lab Course in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques are presented for improving the technical writing of chemical engineering students enrolled in an undergraduate laboratory course. The principles of writing covered are adopted from the book, Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace, by Joseph M. Williams: General examples of writing are taken from this book and then are recast into examples…

  10. Pretest uncertainty analysis for chemical rocket engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric pretest uncertainty analysis has been performed for a chemical rocket engine test at a unique 1000:1 area ratio altitude test facility. Results from the parametric study provide the error limits required in order to maintain a maximum uncertainty of 1 percent on specific impulse. Equations used in the uncertainty analysis are presented.

  11. Sign control of magnetoresistance through chemically engineered interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Gobbi, Marco; Kinane, Christy J; Eich, Marius; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Hueso, Luis E

    2014-12-01

    Chemically engineered interfaces are shown to produce inversions of the magnetoresistance in spintronic devices including lithium fluoride interlayers. This behavior is explained by the formation of anti-ferromagnetic difluoride layers. By changing the order of deposition of the different materials, the sign of the magnetoresistance can be deterministically controlled both in organic spin valves and in inorganic magnetic tunnel junctions. PMID:25339373

  12. Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

  13. Computer Programs for Chemical Engineering, Volume VI: Stagewise Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, James H., Ed.

    Presented are some computer programs for undergraduate students. These computer programs were designed for use in standard chemical engineering courses such as kinetics, control, thermodynamics, transport, stagewise operation, and stoichiometry. Each of the 17 computer programs is presented in a separate section. Each section presents problem…

  14. A Course in Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    1984-01-01

    The organization and contents of a linear algebra course for chemical engineers are described. The course, which emphasizes both abstraction and application, meets twice a week for two hours and runs largely as a lecture, although active student participation is encouraged by frequent questions from the instructor. (JN)

  15. Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

  16. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  17. Approaches to Learning in a Second Year Chemical Engineering Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jennifer M.; Gunstone, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates student approaches to learning in a second year chemical engineering course by means of a qualitative research project which utilized interview and journal data from a group of 11 students. Identifies three approaches to learning: (1) conceptual; (2) algorithmic; and (3) information-based. Presents student responses to a series of…

  18. Exploring Simulator Use in the Preparation of Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerrick, Randy; Lund, Carl; Lee, Yonghee

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report the impact of students' usage of a simulator in the preparation of chemical engineers. This case study was conducted using content pretest and posttests, survey questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and an analysis of students' written response to design problems. Results showed the use of simulator was…

  19. Metabolic engineering of yeast for production of fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens; Larsson, Christer; van Maris, Antonius; Pronk, Jack

    2013-06-01

    Microbial production of fuels and chemicals from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers many advantages as a platform cell factory for such applications. Already applied on a huge scale for bioethanol production, this yeast is easy to genetically engineer, its physiology, metabolism and genetics have been intensively studied and its robustness enables it to handle harsh industrial conditions. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of its native cellular processes by metabolic engineering are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent scientific progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for the production of bioethanol, advanced biofuels, and chemicals. PMID:23611565

  20. Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shepard, L; Miracle, R E; Leksrisompong, P; Drake, M A

    2013-09-01

    Sour cream is a widely popular acidified dairy product. Volatile compounds and organic acids and their specific contributions to flavor or acceptance have not been established, nor has a comprehensive study been conducted to characterize drivers of liking for sour cream. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical and sensory properties of sour cream and to determine the drivers of liking for sour cream. Descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses followed by consumer testing were conducted. Flavor and texture attributes of 32 (22 full-fat, 6 reduced-fat, and 4 fat-free) commercial sour creams were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel. Percent solids, percent fat, pH, titratable acidity, and colorimetric measurements were conducted to characterize physical properties of sour creams. Organic acids were evaluated by HPLC and volatile aroma active compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing (n=201) was conducted on selected sour creams, followed by external preference mapping. Full-fat sour creams were characterized by the lack of surface gloss and chalky textural attributes, whereas reduced-fat and fat-free samples displayed high intensities of these attributes. Full-fat sour creams were higher in cooked/milky and milk fat flavors than the reduced-fat and fat-free samples. Reduced-fat and fat-free sour creams were characterized by cardboard, acetaldehyde/green, and potato flavors, bitter taste, and astringency. Lactic acid was the prominent organic acid in all sour creams, followed by acetic and citric acids. High aroma-impact volatile compounds in sour creams were 2,3-butanedione, acetic acid, butyric acid, octanal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octene-3-one, and acetaldehyde. Positive drivers of liking for sour cream were milk fat, cooked/milky and sweet aromatic flavors, opacity, color intensity, and adhesiveness. This comprehensive study established

  1. RH-TRU Waste Characterization by Acceptable Knowledge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, C.; Givens, C.; Bhatt, R.; Whitworth, J.

    2003-02-24

    Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is conducting an effort to characterize approximately 620 drums of remote-handled (RH-) transuranic (TRU) waste currently in its inventory that were generated at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF) between 1971 and 1995. The waste was generated at the AGHCF during the destructive examination of irradiated and unirradiated fuel pins, targets, and other materials from reactor programs at ANL-West (ANL-W) and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors. In support of this effort, Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure (formerly IT Corporation) developed an acceptable knowledge (AK) collection and management program based on existing contact-handled (CH)-TRU waste program requirements and proposed RH-TRU waste program requirements in effect in July 2001. Consistent with Attachments B-B6 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) and th e proposed Class 3 permit modification (Attachment R [RH-WAP] of this permit), the draft AK Summary Report prepared under the AK procedure describes the waste generating process and includes determinations in the following areas based on AK: physical form (currently identified at the Waste Matrix Code level); waste stream delineation; applicability of hazardous waste numbers for hazardous waste constituents; and prohibited items. In addition, the procedure requires and the draft summary report contains information supporting determinations in the areas of defense relationship and radiological characterization.

  2. Defect-engineered graphene chemical sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geonyeop; Yang, Gwangseok; Cho, Ara; Han, Jeong Woo; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-05-25

    We report defect-engineered graphene chemical sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity (e.g., 33% improvement in NO2 sensing and 614% improvement in NH3 sensing). A conventional reactive ion etching system was used to introduce the defects in a controlled manner. The sensitivity of graphene-based chemical sensors increased with increasing defect density until the vacancy-dominant region was reached. In addition, the mechanism of gas sensing was systematically investigated via experiments and density functional theory calculations, which indicated that the vacancy defect is a major contributing factor to the enhanced sensitivity. This study revealed that defect engineering in graphene has significant potential for fabricating ultra-sensitive graphene chemical sensors. PMID:26679757

  3. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlner, E.

    1943-01-01

    Chemical reactions can demonstrably occur in a fuel-air mixture compressed in the working cylinder of an Otto-cycle (spark ignition) internal-combustion engine even before the charge is ignited by the flame proceeding from the sparking plug. These are the so-called "prelinminary reactions" ("pre-flame" combustion or oxidation), and an exact knowledge of their characteristic development is of great importance for a correct appreciation of the phenomena of engine-knock (detonation), and consequently for its avoidance. Such reactions can be studied either in a working engine cylinder or in a combustion bomb. The first method necessitates a complicated experimental technique, while the second has the disadvantage of enabling only a single reaction to be studied at one time. Consequently, a new series of experiments was inaugurated, conducted in a motored (externally-driven) experimental engine of mixture-compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and measurable thermometrically.

  4. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  5. The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology started the first US chemical engineering program six score years ago. Since that time, the chemical engineering curriculum has evolved. The latest versions of the curriculum are attempts to broaden chemical engineering to add product engineering, biology and nanotechnology to the traditional process…

  6. 77 FR 30523 - Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Albany Engineering Corporation filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...) or 16,000 MWh (Scenario 2). Applicant Contact: Wendy Jo Carey, Albany Engineering Corporation,...

  7. Developing acceptance limits for measured bearing wear of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genge, Gary G.

    1991-01-01

    The probabilistic design approach currently receiving attention for structural failure modes has been adapted for obtaining measured bearing wear limits in the Space Shuttle Main Engine high-pressure oxidizer turbopump. With the development of the shaft microtravel measurements to determine bearing health, an acceptance limit was neeed that protects against all known faiure modes yet is not overly conservative. This acceptance criteria limit has been successfully determined using probabilistic descriptions of preflight hardware geometry, empirical bearing wear data, mission requirements, and measurement tool precision as an input for a Monte Carlo simulation. The result of the simulation is a frequency distribution of failures as a function of preflight acceptance limits. When the distribution is converted into a reliability curve, a conscious risk management decision is made concerning the acceptance limit.

  8. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production. PMID:26883347

  9. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon. PMID:21666928

  10. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  11. Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel between Teaching Chemical Engineering and Developing Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are expert systems development and teaching, the representation and processing of knowledge, knowledge representation in chemical engineering, and expert systems in chemical engineering. The seven phases of expert system development are illustrated. (CW)

  12. A New Venture in Graduate Education: Co-Op Ph.D. Programme in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, Thomas Z.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a cooperative Ph.D. program at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, in which industrial and governmental employers participate with the Department of Chemical Engineering in training chemical engineers. (CS)

  13. Showcasing Chemical Engineering Principles through the Production of Biodiesel from Spent Coffee Grounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendall, Sophie; Birdsall-Wilson, Max; Jenkins, Rhodri; Chew, Y. M. John; Chuck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical engineering is rarely encountered before higher-level education in the U.S. or in Europe, leaving prospective students unaware of what an applied chemistry or chemical engineering degree entails. In this lab experiment, we report the implementation of a three-day course to showcase chemical engineering principles for 16-17 year olds…

  14. Improving the Practical Education of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering Majors in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Feng-qing; Yu, Yi-feng; Ren, Shao-feng; Liu, Shao-jie; Rong, Xin-yu

    2014-01-01

    Practical education in chemical engineering has drawn increasing attention in recent years. This paper discusses two approaches to teaching and learning about experiments among upper-level chemical and pharmaceutical engineering majors in China. On the basis of years of experience in teaching chemical and pharmaceutical engineering, we propose the…

  15. Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

  16. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  17. Physico-chemical properties and acceptability of yam flour substituted with soy flour.

    PubMed

    Akingbala, J O; Oguntimein, G B; Sobande, A O

    1995-07-01

    Yam flour was substituted 10, 20 and 40% with defatted and full fat soy flour. The effect of the substitution on the proximate composition, swelling power, solubility, water binding capacity and Brabender visco amylograph cooking properties of the yam flour and acceptability of the cooked paste (amala), were evaluated. Protein contents of the mixtures were 23.0 and 25.5% on substituting 40% full-and defatted soy flours for yam flour, ash and crude fibre contents increased while carbohydrate content, swelling power, Brabender paste viscosities decreased with increase in soy flour substitution of yam flour. Colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability of pastes (amala) from the mixed flours were rated lower than that of yam flour. Up to 10% defatted and 20% full fat soy flour substitution for yam flour was acceptable for amala. PMID:8719741

  18. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  19. Engineering microbial chemical factories to produce renewable “biomonomers”

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Jake; Pugh, Shawn; McKenna, Rebekah; Nielsen, David R.

    2012-01-01

    By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called “biomonomers.” Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way toward new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible. PMID:22969753

  20. Applications of neural networks in chemical engineering: Hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. ); Grizzaffi, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Expert systems are known to be useful in capturing expertise and applying knowledge to chemical engineering problems such as diagnosis, process control, process simulation, and process advisory. However, expert system applications are traditionally limited to knowledge domains that are heuristic and involve only simple mathematics. Neural networks, on the other hand, represent an emerging technology capable of rapid recognition of patterned behavior without regard to mathematical complexity. Although useful in problem identification, neural networks are not very efficient in providing in-depth solutions and typically do not promote full understanding of the problem or the reasoning behind its solutions. Hence, applications of neural networks have certain limitations. This paper explores the potential for expanding the scope of chemical engineering areas where neural networks might be utilized by incorporating expert systems and neural networks into the same application, a process called hybridization. In addition, hybrid applications are compared with those using more traditional approaches, the results of the different applications are analyzed, and the feasibility of converting the preliminary prototypes described herein into useful final products is evaluated. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  2. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The…

  3. Report of the Polymer Core Course Committee: Polymer Principles for the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions for introducing polymer topics into: (1) introductory chemical engineering; (2) transport phenomena and unit operations; (3) chemical engineering thermodynamics; and (4) reaction engineering. Also included for each area are examples of textbooks in current use and a few typical problems. (JN)

  4. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  5. Appropriate Programs for Foreign Students in U.S. Chemical Engineering Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, M. E.

    Chemical engineers in developing countries may need abilities in a number of diverse areas including management, planning, chemistry, equipment, processes, politics, and improvisation. Chemical engineering programs for foreign students can be arranged by informed advisers with student input for inclusion of some of these areas in addition to…

  6. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  7. An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the biological sciences necessitate the training of chemical engineers to translate these fundamental discoveries into applications that will benefit society. Accordingly, Tulane University revised its core chemical engineering curriculum in 2005 to include a new introductory course in bioengineering and biotechnology for sophomores.…

  8. Work-Based Higher Degrees: Responding to the Knowledge Needs of Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2007-01-01

    University-workplace partnerships are strategies increasingly called for in higher education. This article reports on collaborative knowledge production between employed professional chemical engineers (registered for higher degrees) and their university-based supervisors (researchers in the field of chemical engineering). The study draws on a…

  9. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  10. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, John; Escher, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction.

  11. Peer-Assisted Tutoring in a Chemical Engineering Curriculum: Tutee and Tutor Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieran, Patricia; O'Neill, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Tutorials (PATs), a form of Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL), were introduced to a conventional 4-year honours degree programme in Chemical Engineering. PATs were designed to support students in becoming more self-directed in their learning, to develop student confidence in tackling Chemical Engineering problems and to promote effective…

  12. A Summer Leadership Development Program for Chemical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Annie E.; Evans, Greg J.; Reeve, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The Engineering Leaders of Tomorrow Program (LOT) is a comprehensive curricular, co-curricular, extra-curricular leadership development initiative for engineering students. LOT envisions: "an engineering education that is a life-long foundation for transformational leaders and outstanding citizens." Academic courses, co-curricular certificate…

  13. Building an Evaluation Strategy for an Integrated Curriculum in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Joseph J.; Parker, Robert S.; Abatan, Adetola; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Increasing knowledge integration has gained wide-spread support as an important goal in engineering education. The Chemical Engineering Pillars curriculum at the University of Pittsburgh, unique for its use of block scheduling, is one of the first four-year, integrated curricula in engineering, and is specifically designed to facilitate knowledge…

  14. An Alternative Route to Chemical Engineering for Minority and Other Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, E. L.

    The following three alternative ways in which minority group chemistry majors may be trained as chemical engineers are examined in this paper: (l) they are admitted as engineers and take the same courses as engineering students at the graduate level; (2) undergraduate courses are taken as part of the transition from chemistry to chemical…

  15. The Use of the Software MATLAB To Improve Chemical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damatto, T.; Maegava, L. M.; Filho, R. Maciel

    In all the Brazilian Universities involved with the project "Prodenge-Reenge", the main objective is to improve teaching and learning procedures for the engineering disciplines. The Chemical Engineering College of Campinas State University focused its effort on the use of engineering softwares. The work developed by this project has allowed all…

  16. Online Data Resources in Chemical Engineering Education: Impact of the Uncertainty Concept for Thermophysical Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kang, Jeong Won; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W.; Diky, Vladimir; Muzny, Chris D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Chirico, Robert D.; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of uncertainty for thermophysical properties and its critical impact for engineering applications in the core courses of chemical engineering education. To facilitate the translation of developments to engineering education, we employ NIST Web Thermo Tables to furnish properties data with their associated expanded…

  17. Guest Editorial: The Professional Status of European Chemists and Chemical Engineers.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Reiner; Taylor, Philip; Majcen, Nineta H; De Angelis, Francesco; Wilmet, Sophie; Varella, Evangelia; Kozaris, Ioannis

    2015-07-01

    Which country pays its chemists and chemical engineers the highest salaries? Where can I find a new job quickest? Which chemical sub-discipline offers most jobs? Reliable answers for these and other questions have been derived from the first European employment survey for chemists and chemical engineers, which was carried out in 2013. Here we publish the first general evaluation of the results of this survey. PMID:26059644

  18. Chemical compound navigator: a web-based chem-BLAST, chemical taxonomy-based search engine for browsing compounds.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, M D; Vondrasek, Jiri; Wlodawer, Alexander; Rodriguez, H; Bhat, T N

    2006-06-01

    A novel technique to annotate, query, and analyze chemical compounds has been developed and is illustrated by using the inhibitor data on HIV protease-inhibitor complexes. In this method, all chemical compounds are annotated in terms of standard chemical structural fragments. These standard fragments are defined by using criteria, such as chemical classification; structural, chemical, or functional groups; and commercial, scientific or common names or synonyms. These fragments are then organized into a data tree based on their chemical substructures. Search engines have been developed to use this data tree to enable query on inhibitors of HIV protease (http://xpdb.nist.gov/hivsdb/hivsdb.html). These search engines use a new novel technique, Chemical Block Layered Alignment of Substructure Technique (Chem-BLAST) to search on the fragments of an inhibitor to look for its chemical structural neighbors. This novel technique to annotate and query compounds lays the foundation for the use of the Semantic Web concept on chemical compounds to allow end users to group, sort, and search structural neighbors accurately and efficiently. During annotation, it enables the attachment of "meaning" (i.e., semantics) to data in a manner that far exceeds the current practice of associating "metadata" with data by creating a knowledge base (or ontology) associated with compounds. Intended users of the technique are the research community and pharmaceutical industry, for which it will provide a new tool to better identify novel chemical structural neighbors to aid drug discovery. PMID:16508960

  19. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme in Ghana: students' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme is being migrated from a subject-based to a competency-based curriculum. This paper evaluates the programme from the point of view of students. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in the department and were analysed using SPSS. The survey involved administering questionnaires to students at all levels in the department. Analysis of the responses indicated that the majority of the students had decided to pursue chemical engineering due to the career opportunities available. Their knowledge of the programme learning outcomes was, however, poor. The study revealed that none of the students was interested in developing indigenous industries.

  20. The Chemical Engineering behind How Carbonated Beverages Go Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on project was developed to educate new chemical engineering students about the types of problems chemical engineers solve and to improve student enthusiasm for studying chemical engineering. In this project, students studied the phenomenon of carbonated beverages going flat. The project was implemented in 2003 and 2004 at Kansas State…

  1. IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION--ENGINEERING ISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue Papers are a series of technology transfer documents that summarize the latest available information on specific technical issues, including fate and transport, specific contaminants, selected treatment and site rem...

  2. A Course in Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering for High School Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Gordon A.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a 16-week course on fundamentals of chemical engineering offered to high school science teachers by the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Discusses the course structure, including the topics addressed. Provides two material balance problems in the appendices. (TW)

  3. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Jarboe, Laura R.; Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Xuan; Moore, Jonathan C.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2010-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors. PMID:20414363

  4. A 15-Month MS Chemical Engineering Degree Program for BS Chemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Richard W.; Oscarson, John L.

    1979-01-01

    The key to shortening the time-frame for this program is a special summer course in unit operations, and the replacement of the usual nine credits of minor courses with undergraduate chemical engineering courses. (BB)

  5. GFO and JASON Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report. Update: GFO--Acceptance to December 27, 2007, JASON--Acceptance to December 26, 2007. Version 1: June 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, A. M.; Hancock, D. W.; Hayne, G. S.; Brooks, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present and document GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) performance analyses and results. This is the eighth Assessment Report since the initial report. This report extends the performance assessment since acceptance to 27 December 2007. Since launch, a variety of GFO performance studies have been performed: Appendix A provides an accumulative index of those studies. We began the inclusion of analyses of the JASON altimeter after the end of the Topographic Experiment (TOPEX) mission. Prior to this, JASON and TOPEX were compared during our assessment of theTOPEX altimeter. With the end of the TOPEX mission, we developed methods to report on JASON as it relates to GFO.

  6. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  7. Incorporating Molecular and Cellular Biology into a Chemical Engineering Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kim C.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for a workforce that can apply engineering principles to molecular based discovery and product development in the biological sciences. To this end, Tulane University established a degree program that incorporates molecular and cellular biology into the chemical engineering curriculum. In celebration of the tenth anniversary…

  8. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  9. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  10. CURRICULUM: A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students--Indigo: A World of Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2012-01-01

    Sophomore liberal arts and engineering students enrolled in a course to learn and practice some basic chemical engineering side by side. The course was developed around the theme of indigo dyeing, which has an interesting history, fascinating chemistry and is accessible to all students. The students participated in a variety of active learning…

  11. The role of chemical metallurgy in the emerging field of materials science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. Austin

    1994-12-01

    Materials science and engineering has been emerging as a unique academic discipline during the last decade and a half. The role of chemical metallurgy in this emerging field is not well defined, yet it has played an important historical role in the intellectual development of the discipline of metallurgical engineering in terms of teaching, research, and technological appli-cations. In this lecture, I have attempted to define the role of chemical metallurgy in this emerg-ing field and, moreover, to propose using the broader term “chemical processing of material” instead of chemical metallurgy. The role is to educate materials scientists and engineers at the baccalaureate degree level as well as the graduate degree level. I believe that if materials sci-entists and engineers have a good grasp of the principles of chemical processing of materials, they will be in an excellent position to tackle many of the challenging and important problems facing us in the materials field. I have also given in this lecture three diverse examples of materials problems that have been studied using the basic principles of chemical processing of materials. These examples are used to demonstrate that the tools of chemical metallurgy can be used effectively to study many contemporary materials science and engineering problems.

  12. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers. PMID:24534000

  13. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  14. GFO and JASON Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report. Update: GFO-Acceptance to End of Mission on October 22, 2008, JASON-Acceptance to September 29, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, A. M.; Hancock, D. W., III; Hayne, G. S.; Brooks, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present and document GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) performance analyses and results. This is the ninth Assessment Report since the initial report and is our final one. This report extends the performance assessment since acceptance on November 29, 2000 to the end of mission (EOM) on October 22, 2008. Since launch, February 10, 1998 to the EOM, we performed a variety of GFO performance studies; Appendix A provides an accumulative index of those studies. We began the inclusion of analyses of the JASON altimeter after the end of the Topographic Experiment (TOPEX) mission. Prior to this, JASON and TOPEX were compared during our assessment of the TOPEX altimeter. With the end of the TOPEX mission, we developed methods to report on JASON as it related to GFO. It should be noted the GFO altimeter, after operating for over 7 years, was power cycled off to on and on to off approximately 14 times a day for over 18 months in space with no failure. The GFO altimeter proved to be a remarkable instrument providing stable ocean surface measurements for nearly eight years. This report completes our GFO altimeter performance assessment.

  15. Use of Research-Based Instructional Strategies in Core Chemical Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Michael; Borrego, Maura; Henderson, Charles; Cutler, Stephanie; Froyd, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Traditional lecturing remains the most prevalent mode of instruction despite overwhelming research showing the increased effectiveness of many alternate instructional strategies. This study examines chemical engineering instructors' awareness and use of 12 such instructional strategies. The study also examines how chemical engineering…

  16. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  17. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Reactor Analysis: A Web-Based Reactor Design Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbey, Nese; Clay, Molly; Russell, T.W. Fraser

    2014-01-01

    An approach to explain chemical engineering through a Web-based interactive game design was developed and used with college freshman and junior/senior high school students. The goal of this approach was to demonstrate how to model a lab-scale experiment, and use the results to design and operate a chemical reactor. The game incorporates both…

  18. Effects of chemical equilibrium on turbine engine performance for various fuels and combustor temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald H.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the differences in turbine engine performance with and without the chemical dissociation effects for various fuel types over a range of combustor temperatures. Both turbojet and turbofan engines were studied with hydrocarbon fuels and cryogenic, nonhydrocarbon fuels. Results of the study indicate that accuracy of engine performance decreases when nonhydrocarbon fuels are used, especially at high temperatures where chemical dissociation becomes more significant. For instance, the deviation in net thrust for liquid hydrogen fuel can become as high as 20 percent at 4160 R. This study reveals that computer central processing unit (CPU) time increases significantly when dissociation effects are included in the cycle analysis.

  19. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance... approved plan must do the following: (1) Submit an engineering type catalog or representative drawings of... specifications by comparing details of the materials' chemical composition, mechanical properties, method...

  20. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance... approved plan must do the following: (1) Submit an engineering type catalog or representative drawings of... specifications by comparing details of the materials' chemical composition, mechanical properties, method...

  1. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance... approved plan must do the following: (1) Submit an engineering type catalog or representative drawings of... specifications by comparing details of the materials' chemical composition, mechanical properties, method...

  2. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance... approved plan must do the following: (1) Submit an engineering type catalog or representative drawings of... specifications by comparing details of the materials' chemical composition, mechanical properties, method...

  3. Circumventing Graphical User Interfaces in Chemical Engineering Plant Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, Noel; Schwartz, Rachel M.; Behrend, Douglas; Miao, Peter; Cheung, H. Michael; Beitle, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) are pervasive elements of most modern technical software and represent a convenient tool for student instruction. For example, GUIs are used for [chemical] process design software (e.g., CHEMCAD, PRO/II and ASPEN) typically encountered in the senior capstone course. Drag and drop aspects of GUIs are challenging for…

  4. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael S.; Lee, Gil U.

    2005-07-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology contains research papers contributed by the participants of the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), which was held in Austin, Texas, USA, 7-12 November, 2004. This conference saw 284 oral presentations from institutions around the world, which is the highest number for this topical conference series to date. These presentations were organized into 64 sessions, covering the range of nanotechnology subject areas in which chemical engineers are currently engaged. These sessions included the following areas. • Fundamentals: thermodynamics at the nanoscale; applications of nanostructured fluids; transport properties in nanophase and nanoscale systems; molecular modelling methods; self and directed assembly at the nanoscale; nanofabrication and nanoscale processing; manipulation of nanophases by external fields; nanoscale systems; adsorption and transport in carbon nanotubes; nanotribology; making the transition from materials and phenomena to new technologies; operation of micro-and nano-systems. • Materials: nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization; nanoscale structure in polymers; nanotemplating of polymers; synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; nanowires; nanoparticle assemblies and superlattices; nanoelectronic materials; self-assembly of templated inorganic materials; nanostructured hybrid organic/inorganic materials; gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles; multicomponent structured particles; nano energetic materials; liquid-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. • Energy: synthesis and characterization of nanostructured catalytic materials; nanomaterials and devices for energy applications. • Biotechnology: nanobiotechnology; nanotechnology for the biotechnology and pharmaceuticals industries; nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology for sensors; advances in biomaterials, bionanotechnology, biomimetic

  5. Chemical Engineering Curricula for the Future: Synopsis of Proceedings of a U.S.-India Conference, January, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkrishna, D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary of a seminar for changing the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum in India. Identifies and describes biotechnology, materials for structural and microelectronic catalysis, and new separation processes as emerging areas. Evaluates the current curriculum, including basic science, engineering lore, chemical engineering,…

  6. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6% are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6%. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  7. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6 percent are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6 percent. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  8. Combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines: Experiments and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D L

    2002-06-07

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are being considered as an alternative to diesel engines. The HCCI concept involves premixing fuel and air prior to induction into the cylinder (as is done in current spark-ignition engine) then igniting the fuel-air mixture through the compression process (as is done in current diesel engines). The combustion occurring in an HCCI engine is fundamentally different from a spark-ignition or Diesel engine in that the heat release occurs as a global autoignition process, as opposed to the turbulent flame propagation or mixing controlled combustion used in current engines. The advantage of this global autoignition is that the temperatures within the cylinder are uniformly low, yielding very low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}, the chief precursors to photochemical smog). The inherent features of HCCI combustion allows for design of engines with efficiency comparable to, or potentially higher than, diesel engines. While HCCI engines have great potential, several technical barriers exist which currently prevent widespread commercialization of this technology. The most significant challenge is that the combustion timing cannot be controlled by typical in-cylinder means. Means of controlling combustion have been demonstrated, but a robust control methodology that is applicable to the entire range of operation has yet to be developed. This research focuses on understanding basic characteristics of controlling and operating HCCI engines. Experiments and detailed chemical kinetic simulations have been applied to the characterize some of the fundamental operational and design characteristics of HCCI engines. Experiments have been conducted on single and multi-cylinder engines to investigate general features of how combustion timing affects the performance and emissions of HCCI engines. Single-zone modeling has been used to characterize and compare the implementation of different control strategies. Multi

  9. An approach in building a chemical compound search engine in oracle database.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Volarath, P; Harrison, R

    2005-01-01

    A searching or identifying of chemical compounds is an important process in drug design and in chemistry research. An efficient search engine involves a close coupling of the search algorithm and database implementation. The database must process chemical structures, which demands the approaches to represent, store, and retrieve structures in a database system. In this paper, a general database framework for working as a chemical compound search engine in Oracle database is described. The framework is devoted to eliminate data type constrains for potential search algorithms, which is a crucial step toward building a domain specific query language on top of SQL. A search engine implementation based on the database framework is also demonstrated. The convenience of the implementation emphasizes the efficiency and simplicity of the framework. PMID:17282834

  10. Towards cleaner combustion engines through groundbreaking detailed chemical kinetic models

    PubMed Central

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Blurock, Edward; Bounaceur, Roda; Fournet, René; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Sirjean, Baptiste; Warth, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of limiting the environmental impact of transportation, this paper reviews new directions which are being followed in the development of more predictive and more accurate detailed chemical kinetic models for the combustion of fuels. In the first part, the performance of current models, especially in terms of the prediction of pollutant formation, is evaluated. In the next parts, recent methods and ways to improve these models are described. An emphasis is given on the development of detailed models based on elementary reactions, on the production of the related thermochemical and kinetic parameters, and on the experimental techniques available to produce the data necessary to evaluate model predictions under well defined conditions. PMID:21597604

  11. Accelerated protein engineering for chemical biotechnology via homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Nordwald, Erik M; Garst, Andrew; Gill, Ryan T; Kaar, Joel L

    2013-12-01

    Protein engineering has traditionally relied on random mutagenesis strategies to generate diverse libraries, which require high-throughput screening or selection methods to identify rare variants. Alternatively, approaches to semi-rational library construction can be used to minimize the screening load and enhance the efficiency by which improved mutants may be identified. Such methods are typically limited to characterization of relatively few variants due to the difficulties in generating large rational libraries. New tools from synthetic biology, namely multiplexed DNA synthesis and homologous recombination, provide a promising avenue to rapidly construct large, rational libraries. These technologies also enable incorporation of synthetically encoded features that permit efficient characterization of the fitness of each mutant. Extension of these tools to protein library design could complement rational protein design cycles in an effort to more systematically search complex fitness landscapes. The highly parallelized nature with which such libraries can be generated also has the potential to expand directed protein evolution from single protein targets to protein networks whose concerted activities are required for the biological function of interest. PMID:23540421

  12. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology and the advances in yeast strain engineering will stimulate development of novel yeast-based processes for chemicals production. PMID:24677744

  13. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  14. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Chemical Composition of Calcine at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Frazee; J. D. Christian

    2004-02-01

    To send calcine produced at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Yucca Mountain Project for disposal, characterization information will be required. To sample calcine from its existing storage location would require extensive personnel exposure. Sufficient analyses of the chemical composition of the calcine would be extremely difficult and very expensive. In support of characterization development, the chemical composition of calcine from Bin 3 of Calcine Solid Storage Facility II was thermodynamic modeled. This calcine was produced in the Waste Calcination Facility during its second processing campaign, operating with indirect heating at 400 C and 0.744 bar (0.734 atm) during processing of aluminum high-level liquid waste (first cycle extraction raffinate from reprocessing aluminum-clad fuels) from tanks WM-180 and -182 from December 27, 1966 through August 26, 1967. The current modeling effort documents the input compositional data (liquid feed and calciner off-gas) for Batches 300 - 620 and a methodology for estimating the calcine chemical composition. The results, along with assumptions and limitations of the thermodynamic calculations, will serve as a basis for benchmarking subsequent calculations. This will be done by comparing the predictions against extensive analytical results that are currently being obtained on representative samples of the modeled calcine. A commercial free-energy minimization program and database, HSC 5.1, was used to perform the thermodynamic calculations. Currently available experimental data and process information on the calcine were used to make judgments about specific phases and compounds to include and eliminate in the thermodynamic calculations. Some off-gas species were eliminated based on kinetics restrictions evidenced by experimental data and other estimates, and some calcine components and off-gas compounds were eliminated as improbable species (unreliable thermodynamic data). The current Yucca

  15. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-11-15

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. PMID:25450194

  16. Engineering chemically modified viruses for prostate cancer cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K; Weiss, G A

    2015-12-01

    Specific detection of circulating tumor cells and characterization of their aggressiveness could improve cancer diagnostics and treatment. Metastasis results from such tumor cells, and causes the majority of cancer deaths. Chemically modified viruses could provide an inexpensive and efficient approach to detect tumor cells and quantitate their cell surface biomarkers. However, non-specific adhesion between the cell surface receptors and the virus surface presents a challenge. This report describes wrapping the virus surface with different PEG architectures, including as fusions to oligolysine, linkers, spacers and scaffolded ligands. The reported PEG wrappers can reduce by >75% the non-specific adhesion of phage to cell surfaces. Dynamic light scattering verified the non-covalent attachment by the reported wrappers as increased sizes of the virus particles. Further modifications resulted in specific detection of prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA, a key prostate cancer biomarker. The approach allowed quantification of PSMA levels on the cell surface, and could distinguish more aggressive forms of the disease. PMID:26463253

  17. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  18. The Role of Electronic Preprints in Chemical Communication: Analysis of Citation, Usage, and Acceptance in the Journal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes the use and acceptance of electronic preprints in chemistry literature based on a survey of authors of preprints appearing in the Chemistry Preprint Server (CPS). Shows that preprints are convenient for disseminating research findings and for receiving feedback before submitting to a peer-review journal, but that reception of…

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    As the serious effects of global climate change become apparent and access to fossil fuels becomes more limited, metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists are looking towards greener sources for transportation fuels. In recent years, microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals from simple sugars. Specifically, we overexpressed all three fatty acid biosynthesis genes, namely acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1) and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2), in S. cerevisiae. When coupled to triacylglycerol (TAG) production, the engineered strain accumulated lipid to more than 17% of its dry cell weight, a four-fold improvement over the control strain. Understanding that TAG cannot be used directly as fuels, we also engineered S. cerevisiae to produce drop-in fuels and chemicals. Altering the terminal "converting enzyme" in the engineered strain led to the production of free fatty acids at a titer of approximately 400 mg/L, fatty alcohols at approximately 100mg/L and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) at approximately 5 mg/L directly from simple sugars. We envision that our approach will provide a scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals. PMID:23899824

  20. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  1. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  2. A Multi-Institution Study of Student Demographics and Outcomes in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Susan M.; Layton, Richard A.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Brawner, Catherine E.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large multi-institutional dataset, we describe demographics and outcomes for students starting in and transferring into chemical engineering (ChE). In this dataset, men outnumber women in ChE except among black students. While ChE starters graduate in ChE at rates comparable to or above their racial/ethnic population average for…

  3. Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and the United States: A Perspective (Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Sigmund

    1988-01-01

    Compares graduate chemical engineering education practices of the U.S. and Japan. States that Japanese universities have set time limits on degrees due to industrial hiring practices. Concludes that Japanese graduates are highly trained and uniform. They tend to stay in the same job throughout their career. (MVL)

  4. Sustainability in the Design, Synthesis and Analysis of Chemical Engineering Processes 1st edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book preface explains the needs found by the book editors for assembling the state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge relevant to chemical engineering, sustainability, and sustainable uses of wastes and materials management, and to do so in an accessible and c...

  5. Development of Chemical Engineering Course Methods Using Action Research: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically…

  6. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Douglas D.; Guo, Hui; Karnik, Nikhila

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assembly of a simple, low-cost, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system and its use in the undergraduate chemical engineering laboratory course to perform simple experiments. By interpreting the results from these experiments students are able to gain significant experience in the general method of…

  7. Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and…

  8. Conceptual Framework to Help Promote Retention and Transfer in the Introductory Chemical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanyak, Michael E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In an introductory chemical engineering course, the conceptual framework of a holistic problem-solving methodology in conjunction with a problem-based learning approach has been shown to create a learning environment that nurtures deep learning rather than surface learning. Based on exam scores, student grades are either the same or better than…

  9. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  10. Teaching Population Balances for Chemical Engineering Students: Application to Granulation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…

  11. An Internet-Based Distributed Laboratory for Interactive Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jing; Kettler, David J.; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2007-01-01

    A common undergraduate chemical engineering experiment has been modified for on-line operation over the Internet. By adopting rapidly changing Internet and object component technologies, we developed a novel approach combining the Internet and regular laboratory equipment. The client-server applications use a Visual Basic and Labtech programming…

  12. Water--1970. Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series No. 107, Volume 67, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Lawrence K., Ed.

    Due to the tremendous interest in all phases of environmental control, particularly with reference to water pollution control, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is attempting to provide the lay public with accurate information about water resources so they may react with proper knowledge and constructive activity. This anthology…

  13. Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators: Part 1 (Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Jason M.; Silverstein, David L.; Visco, Donald P., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering faculty members are often asked to teach a core course that they have not taught before. The immediate thought is to come up with some new ideas to revolutionize that core course in ways that will engage students and maximize learning. This paper summarizes the authors' selection of the most effective, innovative approaches…

  14. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  15. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  16. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  17. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  18. Finding Hidden Chemistry in Ancient Egyptian Artifacts: Pigment Degradation Taught in a Chemical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gime´nez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show the application of the study of ancient technology and science on teaching (and learning) chemistry in Chemical Engineering Undergraduate studies. Degradation patterns of pigments used in Ancient Egypt were incorporated in the syllabus of the course entitled "Technological and Scientific…

  19. A Matter of Chemical Engineering (On Teaching an Intensive Course in Technical Communication for Undergraduates).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ralda M.

    Because the ability to write reports and make oral presentations is crucial to success, the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of California (Berkeley) has set up an in-house, required course that is given every semester to about 60 students. Divided into three sections, one of which is for non-native speakers of English, the…

  20. Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing: Are They in Step? Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Warren D.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the evolution of instructional computing in the design and control courses. Discusses process design, process control, and expert systems. Concludes that the computing tools for undergraduate instruction are mostly in step with design and control practice in chemical engineering. (CW)

  1. Progressively Fostering Students' Chemical Information Skills in a Three-Year Chemical Engineering Program in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Christel; Arnoux, Marie-Jose´; Breuzard, Jere´my; Marchal, Claire; Nikitine, Clémence; Renaudat, Alice; Toulgoat, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Literature searches are essential for scientists. Thus, courses on how to do a good literature search have been integrated in studies at CPE Lyon for many years. Recently, we modified our pedagogical approach in order to initiate students progressively in the search for chemical information. In addition, this new teaching organization is now based…

  2. Engineering cell factories for producing building block chemicals for bio-polymer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic polymers are widely used in daily life. Due to increasing environmental concerns related to global warming and the depletion of oil reserves, the development of microbial-based fermentation processes for the production of polymer building block chemicals from renewable resources is desirable to replace current petroleum-based methods. To this end, strains that efficiently produce the target chemicals at high yields and productivity are needed. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have enabled the biosynthesis of polymer compounds at high yield and productivities by governing the carbon flux towards the target chemicals. Using these methods, microbial strains have been engineered to produce monomer chemicals for replacing traditional petroleum-derived aliphatic polymers. These developments also raise the possibility of microbial production of aromatic chemicals for synthesizing high-performance polymers with desirable properties, such as ultraviolet absorbance, high thermal resistance, and mechanical strength. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in metabolic engineering approaches to optimize microbial strains for producing building blocks to synthesize aliphatic and high-performance aromatic polymers. PMID:26794242

  3. Development and testing of dry chemicals in advanced extinguishing systems for jet engine nacelle fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Ling, A. C. (Editor); Mayer, L. A.; Myronik, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of dry chemical in extinguishing and delaying reignition of fires resulting from hydrocarbon fuel leaking onto heated surfaces such as can occur in jet engine nacelles is studied. The commercial fire extinguishant dry chemical tried are sodium and potassium bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, carbamate (Monnex), metal halogen, and metal hydroxycarbonate compounds. Synthetic and preparative procedures for new materials developed, a new concept of fire control by dry chemical agents, descriptions of experiment assemblages to test dry chemical fire extinguishant efficiencies in controlling fuel fires initiated by hot surfaces, comparative testing data for more than 25 chemical systems in a 'static' assemblage with no air flow across the heated surface, and similar comparative data for more than ten compounds in a dynamic system with air flows up to 350 ft/sec are presented.

  4. NNEPEQ - Chemical equilibrium version of the Navy/NASA Engine Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.; Gordon, S.

    1989-01-01

    The Navy NASA Engine Program, NNEP, currently is in use at a large number of government agencies, commercial companies and universities. This computer code has been used extensively to calculate the design and off-design (matched) performance of a broad range of turbine engines, ranging from subsonic turboprops to variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Recently, there has been increased interest in applications for which NNEP was not capable of simulating, namely, high Mach applications, alternate fuels including cryogenics, and cycles such as the gas generator air-turbo-rocker (ATR). In addition, there is interest in cycles employing ejectors such as for military fighters. New engine component models had to be created for incorporation into NNEP, and it was found necessary to include chemical dissociation effects of high temperature gases. The incorporation of these extended capabilities into NNEP is discussed and some of the effects of these changes are illustrated.

  5. Biofuels and bio-based chemicals from lignocellulose: metabolic engineering strategies in strain development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rachel; Dou, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Interest in developing a sustainable technology for fuels and chemicals has unleashed tremendous creativity in metabolic engineering for strain development over the last few years. This is driven by the exceptionally recalcitrant substrate, lignocellulose, and the necessity to keep the costs down for commodity products. Traditional methods of gene expression and evolutionary engineering are more effectively used with the help of synthetic biology and -omics techniques. Compared to the last biomass research peak during the 1980s oil crisis, a more diverse range of microorganisms are being engineered for a greater variety of products, reflecting the broad applicability and effectiveness of today's gene technology. We review here several prominent and successful metabolic engineering strategies with emphasis on the following four areas: xylose catabolism, inhibitor tolerance, synthetic microbial consortium, and cellulosic oligomer assimilation. PMID:26466596

  6. NNEPEQ: Chemical equilibrium version of the Navy/NASA Engine Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, Laurence H.; Gordon, Sanford

    1988-01-01

    The Navy NASA Engine Program, NNEP, currently is in use at a large number of government agencies, commercial companies and universities. This computer code has bee used extensively to calculate the design and off-design (matched) performance of a broad range of turbine engines, ranging from subsonic turboprops to variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Recently, there has been increased interest in applications for which NNEP was not capable of simulating, namely, high Mach applications, alternate fuels including cryogenics, and cycles such as the gas generator air-turbo-rocker (ATR). In addition, there is interest in cycles employing ejectors such as for military fighters. New engine component models had to be created for incorporation into NNEP, and it was found necessary to include chemical dissociation effects of high temperature gases. The incorporation of these extended capabilities into NNEP is discussed and some of the effects of these changes are illustrated.

  7. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  8. Chemical and biological sensors based on defect-engineered graphene mesh field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seunghee H.; Kwon, Sun Sang; Yi, Jaeseok; Park, Won Il

    2016-07-01

    Graphene has been intensively studied for applications to high-performance sensors, but the sensing characteristics of graphene devices have varied from case to case, and the sensing mechanism has not been satisfactorily determined thus far. In this review, we describe recent progress in engineering of the defects in graphene grown by a silica-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique and elucidate the effect of the defects upon the electrical response of graphene sensors. This review provides guidelines for engineering and/or passivating defects to improve sensor performance and reliability.

  9. Physico-chemical changes during storage and sensory acceptance of low sodium probiotic Minas cheese added with arginine.

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Vidal, V A S; Cappato, L P; Garcia, R K A; Cavalcanti, R N; Freitas, M Q; Conte Junior, C A; Padilha, M C; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Arellano, D B; Bollini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Cruz, A G

    2016-04-01

    The partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride (0%, 25%, and 50%) and addition of arginine (1% w/w) in probiotic Minas cheese was investigated. Microbiological (Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and functionality of the prebiotics L. acidophilus), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, organic acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles), rheological (uniaxial compression) and sensory (hedonic test with 100 consumers) characterizations were carried out. The sodium reduction and addition of arginine did not constitute a hurdle to lactic and probiotic bacteria survival, with presented values of about 9 log CFU/g, ranging from 7.11 to 9.21 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, lower pH values, higher proteolysis, and a decrease in toughness, elasticity and firmness were observed, as well as an increase in lactic, citric, and acetic acid contents. In contrast, no change was observed in the fatty acid profile. With respect to the sensory acceptance, the probiotic low-sodium Minas cheese presented scores above 6.00 (liked slightly) for the attributes flavor and overall acceptance. The addition of arginine can be a potential alternative for the development of probiotic dairy products with reduced sodium content. PMID:26593536

  10. Strategies and Applications for Incorporating Physical and Chemical Signal Gradients in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory

    2008-01-01

    From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field—biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering—by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell–protein–biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue–like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal

  11. Engineering data transfer test with EDCARS using MIL-R-28002 (Raster). Laboratory Acceptance Test and User Application Test

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-17

    This paper documents the results of a sequence of tests conducted to evaluate the DoD Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) data interchange capability of the Air Force Engineering Data Computer-Assisted Retrieval System (EDCARS). The CALS initiative specifies a standard digital interface to streamline the interchange of technical data between the DoD and the commercial sector. The CALS Test Network (CTN) is tasked to conduct tests of military standards which specify this digital interface. The testing results outlined in this report are intended to evaluate the EDCARS systems`s ability to sport CALS data interchanges and establish the level of technical data interoperability implemented at this DoD engineering data repository.

  12. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliaritsi, E.; Zoumpoulakis, L.; Simitzis, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Hristoforou, E.

    2006-04-01

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications.

  13. Morphology engineering of monolayer MoS2 by adjusting chemical environment during growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingjie; Luo, Xingfang; Yuan, Cailei; Han, Shuming; Yu, Ting; Yang, Yong; Li, Qinliang

    2015-11-01

    The precise control of the morphology of monolayer MoS2 is of particular importance for their potential applications and device performance. In this work, we present an experimental method to study the shape evolution of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown MoS2 flakes. We observed that the morphology of monolayer MoS2 flakes transformed from truncated triangular shape to triangular shape by increasing the stoichiometric ratio of S:Mo, and consequently tailor the optical properties of MoS2 flakes. The results suggest the possibility to engineer the morphology of monolayer MoS2 by adjusting the chemical environment during growth.

  14. Extinguishing in-flight engine fuel-leak fires with dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fire extinguishant storage temperature requirements were examined for several commercially available dry chemicals. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of dry powder extinguishant that, when discharged into a jet engine fuel leak fire, would stick to the hot surfaces. Moreover, after putting out the initial fire, these extinguishants would act as antireignition catalysts, even when the fuel continued to leak onto the heated surface.

  15. Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydrogen Storage, Pressure Vessel and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done with cryo-sorbent based and chemical-based hydrogen storage materials. Balance of plant components were developed, proof-of-concept testing performed, system costs estimated, and transient models validated as part of this work.

  16. Chemical and Biophysical Modulation of Cas9 for Tunable Genome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-18

    The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering has revolutionized the ability to interrogate genomes of mammalian cells. Programming the Cas9 endonuclease to induce DNA breaks at specified sites is achieved by simply modifying the sequence of its cognate guide RNA. Although Cas9-mediated genome editing has been shown to be highly specific, cleavage events at off-target sites have also been reported. Minimizing, and eventually abolishing, unwanted off-target cleavage remains a major goal of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology before its implementation for therapeutic use. Recent efforts have turned to chemical biology and biophysical approaches to engineer inducible genome editing systems for controlling Cas9 activity at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here, we review recent advancements to modulate Cas9-mediated genome editing by engineering split-Cas9 constructs, inteins, small molecules, protein-based dimerizing domains, and light-inducible systems. PMID:26857072

  17. PDF modeling of chemically reacting flows in a compression-ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj Mohan, Vivek Raja; Haworth, Daniel; Li, Jian

    2013-11-01

    A transported probability density function (PDF) model is used to simulate the in-cylinder combustion processes in a compression-ignition heavy-duty engine. The flow inside the cylinder in a compression-ignition engine is chemically reacting and highly turbulent. Therefore, the turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature will influence the mean reaction rates. These turbulence-chemistry interactions (TCI) play an important role in predicting the combustion processes accurately. Recent results from in-cylinder combustion simulations for a compression-ignition engine are compared with measured data for several operating conditions. The PDF model, which takes into account for TCI, predicts the combustion processes more accurately compared to a model which neglects TCI. Marked differences are observed in predicting the flame structure and the pressure and heat-release traces as well as in predicting the emission characteristics.

  18. Metabolic engineering in chemolithoautotrophic hosts for the production of fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nybo, S Eric; Khan, Nymul E; Woolston, Benjamin M; Curtis, Wayne R

    2015-07-01

    The ability of autotrophic organisms to fix CO2 presents an opportunity to utilize this 'greenhouse gas' as an inexpensive substrate for biochemical production. Unlike conventional heterotrophic microorganisms that consume carbohydrates and amino acids, prokaryotic chemolithoautotrophs have evolved the capacity to utilize reduced chemical compounds to fix CO2 and drive metabolic processes. The use of chemolithoautotrophic hosts as production platforms has been renewed by the prospect of metabolically engineered commodity chemicals and fuels. Efforts such as the ARPA-E electrofuels program highlight both the potential and obstacles that chemolithoautotrophic biosynthetic platforms provide. This review surveys the numerous advances that have been made in chemolithoautotrophic metabolic engineering with a focus on hydrogen oxidizing bacteria such as the model chemolithoautotrophic organism (Ralstonia), the purple photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter), and anaerobic acetogens. Two alternative strategies of microbial chassis development are considered: (1) introducing or enhancing autotrophic capabilities (carbon fixation, hydrogen utilization) in model heterotrophic organisms, or (2) improving tools for pathway engineering (transformation methods, promoters, vectors etc.) in native autotrophic organisms. Unique characteristics of autotrophic growth as they relate to bioreactor design and process development are also discussed in the context of challenges and opportunities for genetic manipulation of organisms as production platforms. PMID:25959019

  19. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young Joon; Westman, Matthew P.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonication in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.

  20. Direct Measurement and Chemical Speciation of Top Ring Zone Liquid During Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Burrows, Barry Clay; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript consists of proof of concept experiments involving direct measurements and detailed chemical speciation from the top ring zone of a running engine. The work uses a naturally aspirated single cylinder utility engine that has been modified to allow direct liquid sample acquisition from behind the top ring. Samples were analyzed and spectated using gas chromatographic techniques. Results show that the liquid mixture in the top ring zone is neither neat lubricant nor fuel but a combination of the two with unique chemical properties. At the tested steady state no-load operating condition, the chemical species of the top ring zone liquid were found to be highly dependent on boiling point, where both low reactivity higher boiling point fuel species and lubricant are observed to be the dominant constituents. The results show that at least for the tested condition, approximately 25% of the top ring zone is comprised of gasoline fuel like molecules, which are dominated by high octane number aromatic species, while the remainder of the liquid is comprised of lubricant like species.

  1. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

    2009-03-30

    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and

  2. [Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals].

    PubMed

    Liu, Weixi; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil, the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource. Therefore, the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum. Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes, high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application. According to the research progresses in recent years, this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose, which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway, engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production. In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues, the development of advanced bio-fuel technology, especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology, is environmentally benign and sustainable. PMID:24364352

  3. HYPER-­TVT: Development and Implementation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Students of Chemical and Process Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Marina; Mazzotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-TVT is a computer-aided education system that has been developed at the Institute of Process Engineering at the ETH Zurich. The aim was to create an interactive learning environment for chemical and process engineering students. The topics covered are the most important multistage separation processes, i.e. fundamentals of separation…

  4. Power optimization of chemically driven heat engine based on first and second order reaction kinetic theory and probability theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-03-01

    The finite-time thermodynamic method based on probability analysis can more accurately describe various performance parameters of thermodynamic systems. Based on the relation between optimal efficiency and power output of a generalized Carnot heat engine with a finite high-temperature heat reservoir (heat source) and an infinite low-temperature heat reservoir (heat sink) and with the only irreversibility of heat transfer, this paper studies the problem of power optimization of chemically driven heat engine based on first and second order reaction kinetic theory, puts forward a model of the coupling heat engine which can be run periodically and obtains the effects of the finite-time thermodynamic characteristics of the coupling relation between chemical reaction and heat engine on the power optimization. The results show that the first order reaction kinetics model can use fuel more effectively, and can provide heat engine with higher temperature heat source to increase the power output of the heat engine. Moreover, the power fluctuation bounds of the chemically driven heat engine are obtained by using the probability analysis method. The results may provide some guidelines for the character analysis and power optimization of the chemically driven heat engines.

  5. Implementing a Systematic Process for Rapidly Embedding Sustainability within Chemical Engineering Education: A Case Study of James Cook University, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Madoc; Schneider, Phil; Desha, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has emerged as a primary context for engineering education in the 21st Century, particularly the sub-discipline of chemical engineering. However, there is confusion over how to go about integrating sustainability knowledge and skills systemically within bachelor degrees. This paper addresses this challenge, using a case study of an…

  6. Effect of continuous assessment on learning outcomes on two chemical engineering courses: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning results after the adoption of continuous assessment in the courses. Also student feedback suggests higher quality in teaching after the adoption of more activating teaching methods which compel students to study effectively throughout the course.

  7. Chemical and biomimetic total syntheses of natural and engineered MCoTI cyclotides.

    PubMed

    Thongyoo, Panumart; Roqué-Rosell, Núria; Leatherbarrow, Robin J; Tate, Edward W

    2008-04-21

    The naturally-occurring cyclic cystine-knot microprotein trypsin inhibitors MCoTI-I and MCoTI-II have been synthesised using both thia-zip native chemical ligation and a biomimetic strategy featuring chemoenzymatic cyclisation by an immobilised protease. Engineered analogues have been produced containing a range of substitutions at the P1 position that redirect specificity towards alternative protease targets whilst retaining excellent to moderate affinity. Furthermore, we report an MCoTI analogue that is a selective low-microM inhibitor of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV) 3C protease, the first reported peptide-based inhibitor of this important viral enzyme. PMID:18385853

  8. Chemical disorder as an engineering tool for spin polarization in Mn3Ga -based Heusler systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadov, S.; D'Souza, S. W.; Wollmann, L.; Kiss, J.; Fecher, G. H.; Felser, C.

    2015-03-01

    Our study highlights spin-polarization mechanisms in metals by focusing on the mobilities of conducting electrons with different spins instead of their quantities. Here, we engineer electron mobility by applying chemical disorder induced by nonstoichiometric variations. As a practical example, we discuss the scheme that establishes such variations in tetragonal Mn3Ga Heusler material. We justify this approach using first-principles calculations of the spin-projected conductivity components based on the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. It follows that, in the majority of cases, even a small substitution of some other transition element instead of Mn may lead to a substantial increase in spin polarization along the tetragonal axis.

  9. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  10. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures. PMID:26965669

  11. Non-Natural Sugar Analogues: Chemical Probes for Metabolic Oligosaccharide Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aich, Udayanath; Yarema, Kevin J.

    Metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) is a rapidly growing technology emerging from the field of chemical biology that allows novel chemical functionalities to be biosynthetically installed into the carbohydrates of living cells and animals. Since pioneering efforts to modulate sialic acid display through the use of non-natural N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) analogues were reported 15 years ago, monosaccharide probes have been developed to manipulate N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), and fucose-containing glycans. The 'first generation' of analogues, comprised of a series of ManNAc derivatives with elongated N-acyl chains, demonstrated pathway permissivity and the ability of this methodology to impinge on biological processes ranging from pathogen binding to gene expression and cell adhesion. Later analogues have incorporated chemical function groups including ketones, azides, thiols, and alkyne not normally found in carbohydrates. These groups serve as 'tags' for the subsequent use of chemoselective ligation reactions to further elaborate the chemical properties of the cell surface and thereby greatly expand the potential of MOE technology to offer control over biological processes.

  12. Modelling cycle to cycle variations in an SI engine with detailed chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Etheridge, Jonathan; Mosbach, Sebastian; Kraft, Markus; Wu, Hao; Collings, Nick

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents experimental results and a new computational model that investigate cycle to cycle variations (CCV) in a spark ignition (SI) engine. An established stochastic reactor model (SRM) previously used to examine homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion has been extended by spark initiation, flame propagation and flame termination sub-models in order to simulate combustion in SI engines. The model contains a detailed chemical mechanism but relatively short computation times are achieved. The flame front is assumed to be spherical and centred at the spark location, and a pent roof and piston bowl geometry are accounted for. The model is validated by simulating the pressure profile and emissions from an iso-octane fuelled single cylinder research engine that showed low CCV. The effects of key parameters are investigated. Experimental results that show cycle to cycle fluctuations in a four-cylinder naturally aspirated gasoline fuelled SI engine are presented. The model is then coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool, which is used to simulate the breathing events during a multi-cycle simulation. This allows an investigation of the cyclic fluctuations in peak pressure. The source and magnitude of nitric oxide (NO) emissions produced by different cycles are then investigated. It was found that faster burning cycles result in increased NO emissions compared with cycles that have a slower rate of combustion and that more is produced in the early stages of combustion compared with later in the cycle. The majority of NO was produced via the thermal mechanism just after combustion begins. (author)

  13. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together.

  14. Administration of high school competency requirements for chemical and petroleum engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Increased instructional demands on engineering schools for chemical and petroleum graduates, caused by variations in energy prices, has led to efforts to better define and assess the competencies of students entering these fields. The standard of measurement of these competencies is that of freshmen grade point average (GPA). Required competencies include problem-solving ability, computer literacy, a knowledge of mathematics, and communications skills. Correlations of GPA with other readily available high school transcript data of high school rank and SAT scores is the traditional predictor of success or nonsuccess, or degree of competency, for these students. This study was concerned with different combinations of predictors than the traditional ones presently in use. Data from 307 students enrolled in chemical and petroleum engineering at Texas Tech University between 1972 and 1977 were subjected to statistical analysis using the procedure of multiple linear regression. The following variables were found to be meaningful predictors of freshman GPA: (1) SAT scores; (2) high school rank relative to class size; (3) advanced placement status; (4) grades in high school science courses; (5) grades in high school mathematics courses. From these variables, five equations were developed for use by the counselor or advisor in placing or advising entering students. These predictive equations yielded an R/sup 2/ value of approximately 0.54.

  15. ["Two professions for a single task". The introduction of chemical engineering in Spain during the first Francoism].

    PubMed

    Toca, Angel

    2006-01-01

    Through the first half of the 20th century, chemical engineering was established as an academic option in the training of specialists for the North-American and European chemical industry, whereas it was not a special field of study in Spain until the 1990s. The reason for this delay was a battle of interests between chemist and industrial engineers to control this career during the first Francoism. This article will try to show the development and professionalization of specialists for the Spanish chemical industry. PMID:17214141

  16. Site-specific antibody-drug conjugation through an engineered glycotransferase and a chemically reactive sugar.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhongyu; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Yanping; Feng, Yang; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Colantonio, Simona; Dyba, Marzena A; Qasba, Pradman K; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2014-01-01

    Conjugation of small molecule drugs to specific sites on the antibody molecule has been increasingly used for the generation of relatively homogenous preparations of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) with physicochemical properties similar or identical to those of the naked antibody. Previously a method for conjugation of small molecules to glycoproteins through existing glycans by using an engineered glycotransferase and a chemically reactive sugar as a handle was developed. Here, for the first time, we report the use of this method with some modifications to generate an ADC from a monoclonal antibody, m860, which we identified from a human naïve phage display Fab library by panning against the extracellular domain of human HER2. M860 bound to cell surface-associated HER2 with affinity comparable to that of Trastuzumab (Herceptin), but to a different epitope. The m860ADC was generated by enzymatically adding a reactive keto-galactose to m860 using an engineered glycotransferase and conjugating the reactive m860 to aminooxy auristatin F. It exhibited potent and specific cell-killing activity against HER2 positive cancer cells, including trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells. This unique ADC may have utility as a potential therapeutic for HER2 positive cancers alone or in combination with other drugs. Our results also validate the keto-galactose/engineered glycotransferase method for generation of functional ADCs, which could potentially also be used for preparation of ADCs targeting other disease markers. PMID:25517304

  17. Band Gap Engineering in a 2D Material for Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Guo, Zhenkun; Mcwilliams, Peter E; Darges, John E; Druffel, Daniel L; Moran, Andrew M; Warren, Scott C

    2016-01-13

    The electronic structure of 2D semiconductors depends on their thickness, providing new opportunities to engineer semiconductors for energy conversion, electronics, and catalysis. Here we show how a 3D semiconductor, black phosphorus, becomes active for solar-to-chemical energy conversion when it is thinned to a 2D material. The increase in its band gap, from 0.3 eV (3D) to 2.1 eV (2D monolayer), is accompanied by a 40-fold enhancement in the formation of chemical products. Despite this enhancement, smaller flakes also have shorter excited state lifetimes. We deduce a mechanism in which recombination occurs at flake edges, while the "van der Waals" surface of black phosphorus bonds to chemical intermediates and facilitates electron transfer. The unique properties of black phosphorus highlight its potential as a customizable material for solar energy conversion and catalysis, while also allowing us to identify design rules for 2D photocatalysts that will enable further improvements in these materials. PMID:26651872

  18. Using an operator training simulator in the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculim

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An operator training simulator (OTS) is to the chemical engineer what a flight simulator is to the aerospace engineer. The basis of an OTS is a high-fidelity dynamic model of a chemical process that allows an engineer to simulate start-up, shut-down, and normal operation. It can also be used to test the skill and ability of an engineer or operator to respond and control some unforeseen situation(s) through the use of programmed malfunctions. West Virginia University (WVU) is a member of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA). Working through the NETL-RUA, the authors have spent the last four years collaborating on the development of a high-fidelity OTS for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture that is the cornerstone of the AVESTARTM (Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research) Center with sister facilities at NETL and WVU in Morgantown, WV. This OTS is capable of real-time dynamic simulation of IGCC plant operation, including start-up, shut-down, and power demand load following. The dynamic simulator and its human machine interfaces (HMIs) are based on the DYNSIM and InTouch software, respectively, from Invensys Operations Management. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the authors’ experiences in using this sophisticated dynamic simulation-based OTS as a hands-on teaching tool in the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum. At present, the OTS has been used in two separate courses: a new process simulation course and a traditional process control course. In the process simulation course, concepts of steady-state and dynamic simulations were covered prior to exposing the students to the OTS. Moreover, digital logic and the concept of equipment requiring one or more permissive states to be enabled prior to successful operation were also covered. Students were briefed about start-up procedures and the importance of following a predetermined

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  20. Production and Characterization of Chemically Inactivated Genetically Engineered Clostridium difficile Toxoids.

    PubMed

    Vidunas, Eugene; Mathews, Antony; Weaver, Michele; Cai, Ping; Koh, Eun Hee; Patel-Brown, Sujata; Yuan, Hailey; Zheng, Zi-Rong; Carriere, Marjolaine; Johnson, J Erik; Lotvin, Jason; Moran, Justin

    2016-07-01

    A recombinant Clostridium difficile expression system was used to produce genetically engineered toxoids A and B as immunogens for a prophylactic vaccine against C. difficile-associated disease. Although all known enzymatic activities responsible for cytotoxicity were genetically abrogated, the toxoids exhibited residual cytotoxic activity as measured in an in vitro cell-based cytotoxicity assay. The residual cytotoxicity was eliminated by treating the toxoids with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis of the EDC-inactivated toxoids identified crosslinks, glycine adducts, and β-alanine adducts. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that modifications resulting from the chemical treatment did not appreciably affect recognition of epitopes by both toxin A- and B-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Compared to formaldehyde-inactivated toxoids, the EDC/N-hydroxysuccinimide-inactivated toxoids exhibited superior stability in solution with respect to reversion of cytotoxic activity. PMID:27233688

  1. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bays, J. Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J.; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D.; Gieleciak, Rafal M.; Huber, Marcia L.; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S.; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was taken to assist in determining the minimum level of surrogate-fuel compositional accuracy that is required to adequately emulate the performance characteristics of the target fuel under different combustion modes. For each of the four surrogate fuels, an approximately 30 L batch was blended, and a number of the physical and chemical properties were measured. This work documents the surrogate-fuel creation process and the results of the property measurements. PMID:27330248

  2. Chemical composition of selected core samples, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, L.L.; Cecil, L.D.; Wood, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents chemical compositions determined from 84 subsamples and 5 quality-assurance split subsamples of basalt core from the eastern Snake River Plain. The 84 subsamples were collected at selected depths from 5 coreholes located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. This report was jointly prepared by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company and the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. Ten major elements and as many as 32 trace elements were determined for each subsample either by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, or by both methods. Descriptive statistics for each element were calculated and tabulated by analytical method for each corehole.

  3. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  4. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  5. Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.; Werner, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO/sub 3/ Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed.

  6. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A; Breneman, Curt M

    2016-08-17

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage. PMID:27324304

  7. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2016-08-01

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  8. A reduced chemical kinetic model for IC engine combustion simulations with primary reference fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2008-12-15

    A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of primary reference fuel (PRF) has been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced reaction mechanism for n-heptane oxidation, a new reduced n-heptane mechanism was generated by including an additional five species and their relevant reactions, by updating the reaction rate constants of several reactions pertaining to oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach, a reduced mechanism for iso-octane oxidation was built and combined with the n-heptane mechanism to form a PRF mechanism. The final version of the PRF mechanism consists of 41 species and 130 reactions. Validation of the present PRF mechanism was performed with measurements from shock tube tests, and HCCI and direct injection engine experiments available in the literature. The results show that the present PRF mechanism gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements for multidimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  9. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  10. Catalytically active polymers obtained by molecular imprinting and their application in chemical reaction engineering.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, O

    2001-08-01

    Molecular imprinting is a way of creating polymers bearing artificial receptors. It allows the fabrication of highly selective plastics by polymerizing monomers in the presence of a template. This technique primarily had been developed for the generation of biomimetic materials to be used in chromatographic separation, in extraction approaches and in sensors and assays. Beyond these applications, in the past few years molecular imprinting has become a tool for producing new kinds of catalysts. For catalytic applications, the template must be chosen, so that it is structurally comparable with the transition state (a transition state analogue, TSA) of a reaction, or with the product or substrate. The advantage of using these polymeric catalysts is obvious: the backbone withstands more aggressive conditions than a bio material could ever survive. Results are presented showing the applicability of a molecularly imprinted catalyst in different kinds of chemical reactors. It is demonstrated that the catalysts can be utilized not only in batch but also in continuously driven reactors and that their performance can be improved by means of chemical reaction engineering. PMID:11429307

  11. Strategies for the chemical and biological functionalization of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering: a review

    PubMed Central

    Tallawi, Marwa; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Rai, Ranjana; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    The development of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is challenging, primarily owing to the requirement of achieving a surface with favourable characteristics that enhances cell attachment and maturation. The biomaterial surface plays a crucial role as it forms the interface between the scaffold (or cardiac patch) and the cells. In the field of CTE, synthetic polymers (polyglycerol sebacate, polyethylene glycol, polyglycolic acid, poly-l-lactide, polyvinyl alcohol, polycaprolactone, polyurethanes and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) have been proven to exhibit suitable biodegradable and mechanical properties. Despite the fact that they show the required biocompatible behaviour, most synthetic polymers exhibit poor cell attachment capability. These synthetic polymers are mostly hydrophobic and lack cell recognition sites, limiting their application. Therefore, biofunctionalization of these biomaterials to enhance cell attachment and cell material interaction is being widely investigated. There are numerous approaches for functionalizing a material, which can be classified as mechanical, physical, chemical and biological. In this review, recent studies reported in the literature to functionalize scaffolds in the context of CTE, are discussed. Surface, morphological, chemical and biological modifications are introduced and the results of novel promising strategies and techniques are discussed. PMID:26109634

  12. Strategies for the chemical and biological functionalization of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    Tallawi, Marwa; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Rai, Ranjana; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-07-01

    The development of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is challenging, primarily owing to the requirement of achieving a surface with favourable characteristics that enhances cell attachment and maturation. The biomaterial surface plays a crucial role as it forms the interface between the scaffold (or cardiac patch) and the cells. In the field of CTE, synthetic polymers (polyglycerol sebacate, polyethylene glycol, polyglycolic acid, poly-l-lactide, polyvinyl alcohol, polycaprolactone, polyurethanes and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) have been proven to exhibit suitable biodegradable and mechanical properties. Despite the fact that they show the required biocompatible behaviour, most synthetic polymers exhibit poor cell attachment capability. These synthetic polymers are mostly hydrophobic and lack cell recognition sites, limiting their application. Therefore, biofunctionalization of these biomaterials to enhance cell attachment and cell material interaction is being widely investigated. There are numerous approaches for functionalizing a material, which can be classified as mechanical, physical, chemical and biological. In this review, recent studies reported in the literature to functionalize scaffolds in the context of CTE, are discussed. Surface, morphological, chemical and biological modifications are introduced and the results of novel promising strategies and techniques are discussed. PMID:26109634

  13. Band gap engineering via electrostatic chemical strain in cation ordered LaSrAlO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Rondinelli, James M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we employ density functional theory to examine a novel design route that employs A-site cation ordering to engineer the band gaps of (A,A')BO4 Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) oxides. Using LaSrAlO4 as a model material, we show that the band gap is highly sensitive to the A-site cation ordering ranging from 3-4.5 eV. When the [AlO2]-1 layers are interleaved between two chemically equivalent [LaO]1+ or [SrO]0+ layers, we obtain the smallest band gap with a reduction of ~1 eV determined from the Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid exchange-correlation functional. We relate the observed band gap reduction to the local bond distortions arising from electrostatic chemical strain induced changes to the O 2 p and La 5 d states in the valence and conduction bands, respectively. The project was supported by The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (grant no. N66001-12-4224). The views, opinions, and/or findings reported here are solely those of the authors and do not represent official views of DARPA or DOD.

  14. Strain engineering of selective chemical adsorption on monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Du, Aijun; Chen, Changfeng; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Nanomaterials are prone to influence by chemical adsorption because of their large surface to volume ratios. This enables sensitive detection of adsorbed chemical species which, in turn, can tune the properties of the host material. Recent studies discovered that single and multi-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films are ultra-sensitive to several important environmental molecules. Here we report new findings from ab inito calculations that reveal substantially enhanced adsorption of NO and NH3 on strained monolayer MoS2 with significant impact on the properties of the adsorbates and the MoS2 layer. The magnetic moment of adsorbed NO can be tuned between 0 and 1 μB strain also induces an electronic phase transition between the half-metal and the metal. Adsorption of NH3 weakens the MoS2 layer considerably, which explains the large discrepancy between the experimentally measured strength and breaking strain of MoS2 films and previous theoretical predictions. On the other hand, adsorption of NO2, CO, and CO2 is insensitive to the strain conditions in the MoS2 layer. This contrasting behavior allows sensitive strain engineering of selective chemical adsorption on MoS2 with effective tuning of mechanical, electronic, and magnetic properties. These results suggest new design strategies for constructing MoS2-based ultrahigh-sensitivity nanoscale sensors and electromechanical devices.Nanomaterials are prone to influence by chemical adsorption because of their large surface to volume ratios. This enables sensitive detection of adsorbed chemical species which, in turn, can tune the properties of the host material. Recent studies discovered that single and multi-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films are ultra-sensitive to several important environmental molecules. Here we report new findings from ab inito calculations that reveal substantially enhanced adsorption of NO and NH3 on strained monolayer MoS2 with significant impact on the properties of the adsorbates and the

  15. Programming chemical kinetics: engineering dynamic reaction networks with DNA strand displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Niranjan

    Over the last century, the silicon revolution has enabled us to build faster, smaller and more sophisticated computers. Today, these computers control phones, cars, satellites, assembly lines, and other electromechanical devices. Just as electrical wiring controls electromechanical devices, living organisms employ "chemical wiring" to make decisions about their environment and control physical processes. Currently, the big difference between these two substrates is that while we have the abstractions, design principles, verification and fabrication techniques in place for programming with silicon, we have no comparable understanding or expertise for programming chemistry. In this thesis we take a small step towards the goal of learning how to systematically engineer prescribed non-equilibrium dynamical behaviors in chemical systems. We use the formalism of chemical reaction networks (CRNs), combined with mass-action kinetics, as our programming language for specifying dynamical behaviors. Leveraging the tools of nucleic acid nanotechnology (introduced in Chapter 1), we employ synthetic DNA molecules as our molecular architecture and toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement as our reaction primitive. Abstraction, modular design and systematic fabrication can work only with well-understood and quantitatively characterized tools. Therefore, we embark on a detailed study of the "device physics" of DNA strand displacement (Chapter 2). We present a unified view of strand displacement biophysics and kinetics by studying the process at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1-dimensional energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps, and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates three-dimensional geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for

  16. A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in Chemical Engineering University Education in Europe and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, Peter; Aim, Karel; Dohrn, Ralf; Elliott, J. Richard; Jackson, George; Jaubert, Jean-Noel; Macedo, Eugenia A.; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Reczey, Kati; Victorov, Alexey; Zilnik, Ljudmila Fele; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey on the teaching of thermodynamics and transport phenomena in chemical engineering curricula in European and US Universities was performed and results are presented here. Overall, 136 universities and colleges responded to the survey, out of which 81 from Europe and 55 from the USA. In most of the institutions responding at least two…

  17. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In addition…

  18. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  19. Specific and Optional Curriculum: An Experience in the Undergraduate Program of Chemical Engineering in Cienfuegos University, Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Yolanda García; Velázquez, Claudia Alvarado; Castillo, Rolando Delgado

    2016-01-01

    This paper pursues to define the pillars for designing the specific (SC) and optional curricula (OC) of Unit Operations and Processes (UOP) Discipline in the Chemical Engineering Program. To achieve this objective a methodology was developed, which was characterized by the participation of every member in the educational process: professors,…

  20. Integrating Academic and Mentoring Support for the Development of First-Year Chemical Engineering Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Edmond I.; Chau, Ying

    2010-01-01

    An academic and professional development course has been introduced to help first-year chemical engineering students to deal proactively with the transition from secondary school to university and to develop professional skills. The course uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a personality model to facilitate skills development and many…

  1. First Year Chemical Engineering Students' Conceptions of Energy in Solution Processes: Phenomenographic Categories for Common Knowledge Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenezer, Jazlin V.; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first-year chemical engineering students' conceptions of the energy changes taking place in dissolution. Students were individually interviewed and transcripts (n=17) were analyzed using a phenomenographic methodology. The phenomenographic category explanations given by students were used as the basis for developing an approach to…

  2. Pressure for Fun: A Course Module for Increasing Chemical Engineering Students' Excitement and Interest in Mechanical Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarbrough, Will J.; Case, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    A new module in a first year mechanical drawing course was designed with the primary goal of exciting chemical engineering students about mechanical things. Other goals included increasing student ability and confidence to explain how things work. A variety of high intensity, hands-on, facilitated group activities using pumps and valves were…

  3. Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

  4. Nanofibrous asymmetric membranes self-organized from chemically heterogeneous electrospun mats for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoxi; Chen, Tian; Xin, Yanjiao; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Zhe; Lei, Jing; Chu, Bin; Wang, Yifei; Tang, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric membranes, which mimic the structure and functions of human skin, have been extensively pursued as ideal skin tissue engineering constructs. In this study, we demonstrated that nanostructured asymmetric membranes can be prepared by the self-organization of chemically heterogeneous bilayer electrospun membranes in aqueous solutions. Structurally, the skin layer consists of hydrophobic β-glucan butyrate nanofibers and its inner layer consists of hydrophilic β-glucan acetate nanofibers. After the electrospinning process, both of the layers are in a dense state. When placed in water, the skin layer absorbs little water and still remains dense, but the fibers in the inner layer become extensively hydrated and spontaneously reorganize into a fully stretched structure, resulting in a significant volume increase and a density decrease of the inner layer. SEM imaging showed that β-glucan ester nanofibers exhibited a bead-free and uniform structure. Contact angle measurement and swelling tests showed that the inner layer was highly hydrophilic with extensive swelling, but the skin layer was highly hydrophobic with little swelling. Mechanical tests indicated that the nanofibrous asymmetric membranes had good mechanical properties in both the dry and wet states. In vitro cytocompatibility tests showed that nanofibrous asymmetric membranes could promote the adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. A preliminary in vivo study performed on a full thickness mouse skin wound model demonstrated that the nanofibrous asymmetric membranes significantly accelerated the wound healing process by promoting re-epithelialization, tissue remodeling and collagen deposition. Taken together, our study provides a novel model for the design and fabrication of nanostructured asymmetric membranes, and our β-glucan based nanofibrous asymmetric membranes could be used as an advanced platform for skin tissue engineering. PMID:27327625

  5. GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) Altimeter Document Series, Volume 8: GFO Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report Update:The First 109 Cycles Since Acceptance November 29, 2000 to December 26, 2005. Version 1, Volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, A. M.; Hancock, D. W., III; Hayne, G. S.; Brooks, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present and document GFO performance analyses and results. This is the fifth Assessment Report since the initial report. This report extends the performance assessment since acceptance to 26 December 2005. The initial GFO Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report, March 2001 (NASA/TM-2001-209984/Ver.1/Vol.1) covered the GFO performance from Launch to Acceptance (10 February 1998 to 29 November 2000). The second of the series covered the performance from Acceptance to the end of Cycle 20 (29 November 2000 to 21 November 2001). The third of the series covered the performance from Acceptance to the end of Cycle 42 (29 November 2000 to 30 November 2002). The fourth of the series covered the performance from Acceptance to the end of Cycle 64 (29 November 2000 to 17 December 2003). The fifth of the series covered performance from Acceptance to the end of Cycle 86 (29 November 2000 to 17 December 2004). Since launch, we have performed a variety of GFO performance studies; an accumulative index of those studies is provided in Appendix A.

  6. The Navy/NASA Engine Program (NNEP89): Interfacing the program for the calculation of complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions (CEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    The NNEP is a general computer program for calculating aircraft engine performance. NNEP has been used extensively to calculate the design and off-design (matched) performance of a broad range of turbine engines, ranging from subsonic turboprops to variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Recently, however, there has been increased interest in applications for which NNEP is not capable of simulating, such as the use of alternate fuels including cryogenic fuels and the inclusion of chemical dissociation effects at high temperatures. To overcome these limitations, NNEP was extended by including a general chemical equilibrium method. This permits consideration of any propellant system and the calculation of performance with dissociation effects. The new extended program is referred to as NNEP89.

  7. A critical Action Research approach to curriculum development in a laboratory-based chemical engineering course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Scott R.

    This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.

  8. Chemical and engineering properties of fired bricks containing 50 weight percent of class F fly ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Laird, C.J.; Ho, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The generation of fly ash during coal combustion represents a considerable solid waste disposal problem in the state of Illinois and nationwide. In fact, the majority of the three million tons of fly ash produced from burning Illinois bituminous coals is disposed of in landfills. The purpose of this study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility of mitigating this solid waste problem by making fired bricks with the large volume of fly ash generated from burning Illinois coals. Test bricks were produced by the extrusion method with increasing amounts (20-50% by weight) of fly ash as a replacement for conventional raw materials. The chemical characteristics and engineering properties of the test bricks produced with and without 50 wt% of fly ash substitutions were analyzed and compared. The properties of the test bricks containing fly ash were at least comparable to, if not better than, those of standard test bricks made without fly ash and met the commercial specifications for fired bricks. The positive results of this study suggest that further study on test bricks with fly ash substitutions of greater than 50wt% is warranted. Successful results could have an important impact in reducing the waste disposal problem related to class F fly ash while providing the brick industry with a new low cost raw material. Copyright ?? 2001 Taylor & Francis.

  9. Engineering nanoparticles surface for biosensing: "Chemical noses" to detect and identify proteins, bacteria and cancerous cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda-Sanchez, Oscar Ramon

    Rapid and sensitive detection of biomolecules is an important issue in nanomedicine. Many disorders are manifested by changes in protein levels of serum and other biofluids. Rapid and effective differentiation between normal and cancerous cells is an important challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of tumor. Likewise, rapid and effective identification of pathogens is a key target in both biomedical and environmental monitoring. Most biological recognition processes occur via specific interactions. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP s) feature sizes commensurate with biomacromolecules, coupled with useful physical and optical properties. A key issue in the use of nanomaterials is controlling the interfacial interactions of these complex systems. Modulation of these physicochemical properties can be readily achieved by engineering nanoparticles surface. Inspired by the idea of mimicking nature, a convenient, precise and rapid method for sensing proteins, cancerous cells and bacteria has been developed by overtaking the superb performance of biological olfactory systems in odor detection, identification, tracking, and location. On the fundamental side, an array-based/'chemical nose' sensor composed of cationic functionalized AuNPs as receptors and anionic fluorescent conjugated polymers or green fluorescent proteins or enzyme/substrates as transducers that can properly detect and identify proteins, bacteria, and cancerous cells has been successfully fabricated.

  10. Engineering furfural tolerance in Escherichia coli improves the fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars into renewable chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Lee, James Y.; York, Sean W.; Zheng, Huabao; Mullinnix, Michael T.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatments such as dilute acid at elevated temperature are effective for the hydrolysis of pentose polymers in hemicellulose and also increase the access of enzymes to cellulose fibers. However, the fermentation of resulting syrups is hindered by minor reaction products such as furfural from pentose dehydration. To mitigate this problem, four genetic traits have been identified that increase furfural tolerance in ethanol-producing Escherichia coli LY180 (strain W derivative): increased expression of fucO, ucpA, or pntAB and deletion of yqhD. Plasmids and integrated strains were used to characterize epistatic interactions among traits and to identify the most effective combinations. Furfural resistance traits were subsequently integrated into the chromosome of LY180 to construct strain XW129 (LY180 ΔyqhD ackA::PyadC′fucO-ucpA) for ethanol. This same combination of traits was also constructed in succinate biocatalysts (Escherichia coli strain C derivatives) and found to increase furfural tolerance. Strains engineered for resistance to furfural were also more resistant to the mixture of inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysates, confirming the importance of furfural as an inhibitory component. With resistant biocatalysts, product yields (ethanol and succinate) from hemicellulose syrups were equal to control fermentations in laboratory media without inhibitors. The combination of genetic traits identified for the production of ethanol (strain W derivative) and succinate (strain C derivative) may prove useful for other renewable chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars. PMID:23431191

  11. Engineering furfural tolerance in Escherichia coli improves the fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars into renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Yomano, Lorraine P; Lee, James Y; York, Sean W; Zheng, Huabao; Mullinnix, Michael T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2013-03-01

    Pretreatments such as dilute acid at elevated temperature are effective for the hydrolysis of pentose polymers in hemicellulose and also increase the access of enzymes to cellulose fibers. However, the fermentation of resulting syrups is hindered by minor reaction products such as furfural from pentose dehydration. To mitigate this problem, four genetic traits have been identified that increase furfural tolerance in ethanol-producing Escherichia coli LY180 (strain W derivative): increased expression of fucO, ucpA, or pntAB and deletion of yqhD. Plasmids and integrated strains were used to characterize epistatic interactions among traits and to identify the most effective combinations. Furfural resistance traits were subsequently integrated into the chromosome of LY180 to construct strain XW129 (LY180 ΔyqhD ackA::PyadC'fucO-ucpA) for ethanol. This same combination of traits was also constructed in succinate biocatalysts (Escherichia coli strain C derivatives) and found to increase furfural tolerance. Strains engineered for resistance to furfural were also more resistant to the mixture of inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysates, confirming the importance of furfural as an inhibitory component. With resistant biocatalysts, product yields (ethanol and succinate) from hemicellulose syrups were equal to control fermentations in laboratory media without inhibitors. The combination of genetic traits identified for the production of ethanol (strain W derivative) and succinate (strain C derivative) may prove useful for other renewable chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars. PMID:23431191

  12. Macedonian journal of chemistry and chemical engineering: open journal systems--editor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The development and availability of personal computers and software as well as printing techniques in the last twenty years have made a profound change in the publication of scientific journals. Additionally, the Internet in the last decade has revolutionized the publication process to the point of changing the basic paradigm of printed journals. The Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in its 40-year history has adopted and adapted to all these transformations. In order to keep up with the inevitable changes, as editor-in-chief I felt my responsibility was to introduce an electronic editorial managing of the journal. The choice was between commercial and open source platforms, and because of the limited funding of the journal we chose the latter. We decided on Open Journal Systems, which provided online submission and management of all content, had flexible configuration--requirements, sections, review process, etc., had options for comprehensive indexing, offered various reading tools, had email notification and commenting ability for readers, had an option for thesis abstracts and was installed locally. However, since there is limited support it requires a moderate computer knowledge/skills and effort in order to set up. Overall, it is an excellent editorial platform and a convenient solution for journals with a low budget or journals that do not want to spend their resources on commercial platforms or simply support the idea of open source software. PMID:25711222

  13. Load-Dependent Emission Factors and Chemical Characteristics of IVOCs from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Cross, Eben S; Sappok, Alexander G; Wong, Victor W; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-11-17

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of mobile-source emissions requires the characterization of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), relatively-low-vapor-pressure gas-phase species that may generate secondary organic aerosol with high yields. Due to challenges associated with IVOC detection and quantification, IVOC emissions remain poorly understood at present. Here, we describe measurements of the magnitude and composition of IVOC emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine. Measurements are made on an engine dynamometer and utilize a new mass-spectrometric instrument to characterize the load dependence of the emissions in near-real-time. Results from steady-state engine operation indicate that IVOC emissions are highly dependent on engine power, with highest emissions at engine idle and low-load operation (≤25% maximum rated power) with a chemical composition dominated by saturated hydrocarbon species. Results suggest that unburned fuel components are the dominant IVOCs emitted at low loads. As engine load increases, IVOC emissions decline rapidly and become increasingly characterized by unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics, newly formed from incomplete combustion processes at elevated engine temperatures and pressures. Engine transients, including a cold-start ignition and engine acceleration, show IVOC emission profiles that are different in amount or composition compared to steady-state combustion, underscoring the utility of characterizing IVOC emissions with high time resolution across realistic engine operating conditions. We find possible evidence for IVOC losses on unheated dilution and sampling surfaces, which need to be carefully accounted for in IVOC emission studies. PMID:26461982

  14. Chemical Engineering of Enzymes: Altered Catalytic Activity, Predictable Selectivity and Exceptional Stability of the Semisynthetic Peroxidase Seleno-Subtilisin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häring, Dietmar; Schreier, Peter

    The increasing demand for enzymes as highly selective, mild, and environmentally benign catalysts is often limited by the lack of an enzyme with the desired catalytic activity or substrate selectivity and by their instability in biotechnological processes. The previous answers to these problems comprised genetically engineered enzymes and several classes of enzyme mimics. Here we describe the potential of chemical enzyme engineering: native enzymes can be modified by merely chemical means and basic equipment yielding so-called semisynthetic enzymes. Thus, the high substrate selectivity of the enzymatic peptide framework is combined with the catalytic versatility of a synthetic active site. We illustrate the potential of chemically engineered enzymes with the conception of the semisynthetic peroxidase seleno-subtilisin. First, the serine endoprotease subtilisin was crystallized and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to give cross-linked enzyme crystals which were found to be insoluble in water or organic solvents and highly stable. Second, serine 221 in the active site (Enz-OH) was chemically converted into an oxidized derivative of selenocystein (Enz-SeO2H). As a consequence, the former proteolytic enzyme gained peroxidase activity and catalyzed the selective reduction of hydroperoxides. Due to the identical binding sites of the semisynthetic peroxidase and the protease, the substrate selectivity of seleno-subtilisin was predictable in view of the well-known selectivity of subtilisin.

  15. Electrostatic Chemical Strain: An Approach to Electronic Structure Engineering in Layered Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondinelli, James

    2015-03-01

    Traditional approaches to create and control functional electronic materials have focused on new phases in previously unknown bulk minerals. More recently, interlayer physics has spawned interest in known materials in unexplored atomic scale geometries, especially in complex transition metal oxides (TMO), where heterostructures and superlattices with abrupt interfaces can be created on demand. The interfaces between TMO overs a handle to direct the electrostatic field exerted on the transition metal centers via the coordinating oxygen ligands, which alter the M cation's d-orbital occupancies and spin state, thereby imparting desirable electronic functionality. In this talk, I describe an atomistic engineering approach that makes use of long-range electrostatic interactions between atomic metal-monoxide planes (AO and A'O) in naturally occurring superlattices, e.g., Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), phases, to tune interlayer atomic structure, orbital degeneracies, and magnetic properties. Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, I show how this electrostatic chemical strain (ECS) effect can be used to tune both crystal field energies and the frontier orbital structure in correlated (La, A)NiO4 RP phases at fixed stoichiometry. I describe how to enhance the Ni eg orbital polarization, resulting in NiO6 units that exhibit a single d (x2 -y2) band at the Fermi level--electronic features similar to the layered superconducting cuprates. This approach is generic in construction, making it applicable to any layered topology supporting heterovalent cation substitutions. I conclude by showing it is a realistic strategy to tailor the electronic properties of known materials, and discover yet-to-be realized novel functional oxides without resorting to complex assembly of multi-component heterostructures. Funding for this work is provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Grant No. N66001-12-4224 and performed in collaboration with P

  16. Physical and chemical properties of the products of in situ vitrification engineering tests 5, 6, and 7

    SciTech Connect

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.

    1991-12-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an in situ thermal treatment process that is being investigated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for application to buried waste sites. ISV is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. The INEL is evaluating whether the treatment process is a viable one for remediating a buried mixed transuranic waste site at the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site. As part of the INEL investigation, a series of tests have been performed that address issues associated with vitrification of buried waste. Two pilot ISV tests and four tests at laboratory scale, formerly called engineering scale, were performed in 1990 to support the INEL investigation. The chemical composition and leaching of the produce glass is described.

  17. Chemical analysis of diesel engine nanoparticles using a nano-DMA/thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tobias, H J; Beving, D E; Ziemann, P J; Sakurai, H; Zuk, M; McMurry, P H; Zarling, D; Waytulonis, R; Kittelson, D B

    2001-06-01

    Diesel engines are known to emit high number concentrations of nanoparticles (diameter < 50 nm), but the physical and chemical mechanisms by which they form are not understood. Information on chemical composition is lacking because the small size, low mass concentration, and potential for contamination of samples obtained by standard techniques make nanoparticles difficult to analyze. A nano-differential mobility analyzer was used to size-select nanoparticles (mass median diameter approximately 25-60 nm) from diesel engine exhaust for subsequent chemical analysis by thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry. Mass spectra were used to identify and quantify nanoparticle components, and compound molecular weights and vapor pressures were estimated from calibrated desorption temperatures. Branched alkanes and alkyl-substituted cycloalkanes from unburned fuel and/or lubricating oil appear to contribute most of the diesel nanoparticle mass. The volatility of the organic fraction of the aerosol increases as the engine load decreases and as particle size increases. Sulfuric acid was also detected at estimated concentrations of a few percent of the total nanoparticle mass. The results are consistent with a mechanism of nanoparticle formation involving nucleation of sulfuric acid and water, followed by particle growth by condensation of organic species. PMID:11414024

  18. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals. PMID:25431012

  19. Sequence-engineered mRNA Without Chemical Nucleoside Modifications Enables an Effective Protein Therapy in Large Animals

    PubMed Central

    Thess, Andreas; Grund, Stefanie; Mui, Barbara L; Hope, Michael J; Baumhof, Patrick; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola; Schlake, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being a transient carrier of genetic information, mRNA could be a versatile, flexible, and safe means for protein therapies. While recent findings highlight the enormous therapeutic potential of mRNA, evidence that mRNA-based protein therapies are feasible beyond small animals such as mice is still lacking. Previous studies imply that mRNA therapeutics require chemical nucleoside modifications to obtain sufficient protein expression and avoid activation of the innate immune system. Here we show that chemically unmodified mRNA can achieve those goals as well by applying sequence-engineered molecules. Using erythropoietin (EPO) driven production of red blood cells as the biological model, engineered Epo mRNA elicited meaningful physiological responses from mice to nonhuman primates. Even in pigs of about 20 kg in weight, a single adequate dose of engineered mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) induced high systemic Epo levels and strong physiological effects. Our results demonstrate that sequence-engineered mRNA has the potential to revolutionize human protein therapies. PMID:26050989

  20. Physical properties, chemical composition, and cloud forming potential of particulate emissions from a marine diesel engine at various load conditions.

    PubMed

    Petzold, A; Weingartner, E; Hasselbach, J; Lauer, P; Kurok, C; Fleischer, F

    2010-05-15

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from one serial 4-stroke medium-speed marine diesel engine were measured for load conditions from 10% to 110% in test rig studies using heavy fuel oil (HFO). Testing the engine across its entire load range permitted the scaling of exhaust PM properties with load. Emission factors for particle number, particle mass, and chemical compounds were determined. The potential of particles to form cloud droplets (cloud condensation nuclei, CCN) was calculated from chemical composition and particle size. Number emission factors are (3.43 +/- 1.26) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 85-110% load and (1.06 +/- 0.10) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 10% load. CCN emission factors of 1-6 x 10(14) (kg fuel)(-1) are at the lower bound of data reported in the literature. From combined thermal and optical methods, black carbon (BC) emission factors of 40-60 mg/(kg fuel) were determined for 85-100% load and 370 mg/(kg fuel) for 10% load. The engine load dependence of the conversion efficiency for fuel sulfur into sulfate of (1.08 +/- 0.15)% at engine idle to (3.85 +/- 0.41)% at cruise may serve as input to global emission calculations for various load conditions. PMID:20402501

  1. Emissions from diesel versus biodiesel fuel used in a CRDI SUV engine: PM mass and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Gangwar, Jitendra; Gupta, Tarun; Gupta, Sudhir; Agarwal, Avinash K

    2011-07-01

    The diesel tailpipe emissions typically undergo substantial physical and chemical transformations while traveling through the tailpipe, which tend to modify the original characteristics of the diesel exhaust. Most of the health-related attention for diesel exhaust has focused on the carcinogenic potential of inhaled exhaust components, particularly the highly respirable diesel particulate matter (DPM). In the current study, parametric investigations were made using a modern automotive common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) diesel engine operated at different loads at constant engine speed (2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend on a 47-mm quartz substrate. This was followed by chemical analysis of the particulates collected on the substrate for benzene-soluble organic fraction (BSOF) (marker of toxicity). BSOF results showed decrease in its level with increasing engine load for both diesel and biodiesel. In addition, real-time measurements for organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (marker of toxicity) were carried out on the diluted primary exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. PAH concentrations were found to be the maximum at 20% rated engine load for both the fuels. The collected particulates from diesel and biodiesel-blend exhaust were also analyzed for concentration of trace metals (marker of toxicity), which revealed some interesting results. PMID:21689006

  2. Vicher: A Virtual Reality Based Educational Module for Chemical Reaction Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, John T.; Fogler, H. Scott

    1996-01-01

    A virtual reality application for undergraduate chemical kinetics and reactor design education, Vicher (Virtual Chemical Reaction Model) was originally designed to simulate a portion of a modern chemical plant. Vicher now consists of two programs: Vicher I that models catalyst deactivation and Vicher II that models nonisothermal effects in…

  3. Carbon Dioxide Extraction from the Atmosphere Through Engineered Chemical Sinkage: Enabling Energy and Environmental Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Ziock, H.; Rueff, G.; Smith, W. S.; Colman, J.; Elliott, S.; Lackner, K.; Johnston, N. A.

    2002-05-01

    We present the case for carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction from air using engineered chemical sinks as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Existing carbon sequestration strategies such as CO2 injection into geologic formations or the deep ocean and mineral carbonation, require a pure stream of concentrated CO2 to be viable. Furthermore, current emphasis on reducing the global CO2 emissions is on large centralized power plants. However, more than half of all emissions are from the transportation sector and small, distributed sources such as home heating, etc. Most solutions for dealing with these sources explicitly or implicitly entail completely overhauling the existing infrastructure. To solve these problems, Los Alamos National Laboratory has conceived a novel approach for directly extracting CO2 from the atmosphere. Direct extraction converts the dilute CO2 (370 parts per million) in the atmosphere into a pure CO2 stream ready for permanent sequestration. It provides the following advantages: (1) Preserves our existing energy use and fuel distribution systems, which represent a large investment, (2) Indirectly captures CO2 from the myriad of small, distributed, and mobile sources that otherwise are not accessible to sequestration, (3) Allows atmospheric CO2 levels to be restored to their pre-industrial age value, (4) Provides free transport of CO2 to suitable sequestration sites by using natural atmospheric circulation, and (5) Is relatively compact and therefore inexpensive when compared to renewable concepts. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport CO2 to sites where the CO2 is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. The bound CO2 is then recovered as pure gas by heating together with the solid adsorbent that is recycled. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution efficiently converts CO2 to a CaCO3 solid that can be heated to obtain pure CO2 and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs

  4. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  5. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  6. Geochemistry and stratigraphic correlation of basalt lavas beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, M.F.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Hughes, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-nine samples of basaltic core were collected from wells 121 and 123, located approximately 1.8 km apart north and south of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Samples were collected from depths ranging from 15 to 221 m below land surface for the purpose of establishing stratigraphic correlations between these two wells. Elemental analyses indicate that the basalts consist of three principal chemical types. Two of these types are each represented by a single basalt flow in each well. The third chemical type is represented by many basalt flows and includes a broad range of chemical compositions that is distinguished from the other two types. Basalt flows within the third type were identified by hierarchical K-cluster analysis of 14 representative elements: Fe, Ca, K, Na, Sc, Co, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Hf, Ta, and Th. Cluster analyses indicate correlations of basalt flows between wells 121 and 123 at depths of approximately 38-40 m, 125-128 m, 131-137 m, 149-158 m, and 183-198 m. Probable correlations also are indicated for at least seven other depth intervals. Basalt flows in several depth intervals do not correlate on the basis of chemical compositions, thus reflecting possible flow margins in the sequence between the wells. Multi-element chemical data provide a useful method for determining stratigraphic correlations of basalt in the upper 1-2 km of the eastern Snake River Plain.

  7. Synthetic control of mammalian-cell motility by engineering chemotaxis to an orthogonal bioinert chemical signal

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jason S.; Rhau, Benjamin; Hermann, Aynur; McNally, Krista A.; Zhou, Carmen; Gong, Delquin; Weiner, Orion D.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Onuffer, James; Lim, Wendell A.

    2014-01-01

    Directed migration of diverse cell types plays a critical role in biological processes ranging from development and morphogenesis to immune response, wound healing, and regeneration. However, techniques to direct, manipulate, and study cell migration in vitro and in vivo in a specific and facile manner are currently limited. We conceived of a strategy to achieve direct control over cell migration to arbitrary user-defined locations, independent of native chemotaxis receptors. Here, we show that genetic modification of cells with an engineered G protein-coupled receptor allows us to redirect their migration to a bioinert drug-like small molecule, clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). The engineered receptor and small-molecule ligand form an orthogonal pair: The receptor does not respond to native ligands, and the inert drug does not bind to native cells. CNO-responsive migration can be engineered into a variety of cell types, including neutrophils, T lymphocytes, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. The engineered cells migrate up a gradient of the drug CNO and transmigrate through endothelial monolayers. Finally, we demonstrate that T lymphocytes modified with the engineered receptor can specifically migrate in vivo to CNO-releasing beads implanted in a live mouse. This technology provides a generalizable genetic tool to systematically perturb and control cell migration both in vitro and in vivo. In the future, this type of migration control could be a valuable module for engineering therapeutic cellular devices. PMID:24711398

  8. Major Challenges to Engineering Education for Sustainable Development: What Has to Change to Make It Creative, Effective, and Acceptable to the Established Disciplines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2004-01-01

    Scholars and professionals committed to fostering sustainable development have urged a re-examination of the curriculum and restructuring of research in engineering-focused institutions of higher learning. This article will address the following themes and questions: How can multi- and trans-disciplinary teaching and research coexist in a…

  9. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  10. Implementation of a cooperative methodology to develop organic chemical engineering skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, J. F.; Díaz Blanco, M. J.; Toscano Fuentes, C.; Martín Alfonso, J. E.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate how most of the competences required by engineering students may be developed through an active methodology based on cooperative learning/evaluation. Cooperative learning was employed by the University of Huelva's third-year engineering students. The teaching methodology pretends to create some of the most relevant engineering skills required nowadays such as the ability to cooperate finding appropriate information; the ability to solve problems through critical and creative thinking; and the ability to make decisions and to communicate effectively. The statistical study carried out supports the hypothesis that comprehensive and well-defined protocols in the development of the subject, the rubric and cooperative evaluation allow students to acquire a successful learning.

  11. Crystal Engineering of an nbo Topology Metal-Organic Framework for Chemical Fixation of CO₂ under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Chen, Yao; Niu, Youhong; Williams, Kia; Cash, Lindsay; Perez, Pastor J.; Wojtas, Lukasz; Cai, Jianfeng; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-02-20

    Crystal engineering of the nbo metal–organic framework (MOF) platform MOF-505 with a custom-designed azamacrocycle ligand (1,4,7,10-tetrazazcyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetra-p-methylbenzoic acid) leads to a high density of well-oriented Lewis active sites within the cuboctahedral cage in MMCF-2, [Cu₂(Cu-tactmb)(H₂O)₃(NO₃)₂]. This MOF demonstrates high catalytic activity for the chemical fixation of CO₂ into cyclic carbonates at room temperature under 1 atm pressure.

  12. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  13. Surface engineering on CeO2 nanorods by chemical redox etching and their enhanced catalytic activity for CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyun; Li, Jing; Ma, Yuanyuan; Qu, Yongquan

    2015-07-01

    Controllable surface properties of nanocerias are desired for various catalytic processes. There is a lack of efficient approaches to adjust the surface properties of ceria to date. Herein, a redox chemical etching method was developed to controllably engineer the surface properties of ceria nanorods. Ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide were used to perform the redox chemical etching process, resulting in a rough surface and/or pores on the surface of ceria nanorods. Increasing the etching cycles induced a steady increase of the specific surface area, oxygen vacancies and surface Ce3+ fractions. As a result, the etched nanorods delivered enhanced catalytic activity for CO oxidation, compared to the non-etched ceria nanorods. Our method provides a novel and facile approach to continuously adjust the surface properties of ceria for practical applications.Controllable surface properties of nanocerias are desired for various catalytic processes. There is a lack of efficient approaches to adjust the surface properties of ceria to date. Herein, a redox chemical etching method was developed to controllably engineer the surface properties of ceria nanorods. Ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide were used to perform the redox chemical etching process, resulting in a rough surface and/or pores on the surface of ceria nanorods. Increasing the etching cycles induced a steady increase of the specific surface area, oxygen vacancies and surface Ce3+ fractions. As a result, the etched nanorods delivered enhanced catalytic activity for CO oxidation, compared to the non-etched ceria nanorods. Our method provides a novel and facile approach to continuously adjust the surface properties of ceria for practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Diameter distributions of as-prepared and etched samples, optical images, specific catalytic data of CO oxidation and comparison of CO oxidation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01846c

  14. Teaching Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics at Three Levels--Experience from the Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Michelsen, Michael L.; Clement, Karsten H.

    2009-01-01

    According to so-called "Bologna model," many technical universities in Europe have divided their educations into separate 3-year Bachelor and 2-year Master programs (followed by an optional Ph.D. study). Following the "Bologna model," DTU has recently transformed its 5-year engineering education into a 3-year Bachelor (B.Sc.) and a two-year Master…

  15. Integrating Metabolic Engineering and Heterogeneous Chemocatalysis: New Opportunities for Biomass to Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yanping; Zeng, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yugen

    2016-05-23

    Creating breakthroughs: Integrating metabolic engineering process and chemocatalysis system creates tremendous opportunities in biomass transformation. Recently, a breakthrough in the field of applying integrated metabolic process and chemocatalysis systems in biomass transformation has been achieved by combining biocatalysis with electrochemical processes in one pot. PMID:27151374

  16. The Chemical Engineer's Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronell, Daniel G.; Hariri, M. Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Computer programming in undergraduate engineering education all too often begins and ends with the freshman programming course. Improvements in computer technology and curriculum revision have improved this situation, but often at the expense of the students' learning due to the use of commercial "black box" software. This paper describes the…

  17. Breaking the Chemical and Engineering Barriers to Lignocellulosic Biofuels: Next Generation Hydroccarbon Biorefineries

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-03-01

    This roadmap to “Next Generation Hydrocarbon Biorefineries” outlines a number of novel process pathways for biofuels production based on sound scientific and engineering proofs of concept demonstrated in laboratories around the world. This report was based on the workshop of the same name held June 25-26, 2007 in Washington, DC.

  18. Chemical Science and Technology I. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Jack T.; Wolf, Lawrence J.

    This study guide is part of an interdisciplinary program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum. This curriculum integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and electronic technology with the objective of training technicians in the use of electronic…

  19. Chemical Science and Technology II. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Jack T.; Wolf, Lawrence J.

    This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed to provide a framework for training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. This interdisciplinary course of study integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics,…

  20. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  1. Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents five problems that are representative of some of the "movie problems" that he has used on tests in various courses, including reactor design, heat transfer, mass transfer, engineering economics, and fluid mechanics. These problems tend to be open-ended. They can be challenging and can often be worked a variety…

  2. Process/Engineering Co-Simulation of Oxy-Combustion and Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, David

    2013-03-01

    Over the past several years, the DOE has sponsored various funded programs, collectively referred to as Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) programs, which have targeted the development of a steady-state simulator for advanced power plants. The simulator allows the DOE and its contractors to systematically evaluate various power plant concepts, either for preliminary conceptual design or detailed final design.

  3. Building an Understanding of Heat Transfer Concepts in Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Prince, Michael J.; Vigeant, Margot A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the distinctions among heat, energy and temperature can be difficult for students at all levels of instruction, including those in engineering. Misconceptions about heat transfer have been found to persist, even after students successfully complete relevant coursework. New instructional methods are needed to address these…

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Injectable, Biodegradable, Phosphate-Containing, Chemically Cross-Linkable, Thermoresponsive Macromers for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Novel, injectable, biodegradable macromer solutions that form hydrogels when elevated to physiologic temperature via a dual chemical and thermo-gelation were fabricated and characterized. A thermogelling, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based macromer with pendant phosphate groups was synthesized and subsequently functionalized with chemically cross-linkable methacrylate groups via degradable phosphate ester bonds, yielding a dual-gelling macromer. These dual-gelling macromers were tuned to have transition temperatures between room temperature and physiologic temperature, allowing them to undergo instantaneous thermogelation as well as chemical gelation when elevated to physiologic temperature. Additionally, the chemical cross-linking of the hydrogels was shown to mitigate hydrogel syneresis, which commonly occurs when thermogelling materials are raised above their transition temperature. Finally, degradation of the phosphate ester bonds of the cross-linked hydrogels yielded macromers that were soluble at physiologic temperature. Further characterization of the hydrogels demonstrated minimal cytotoxicity of hydrogel leachables as well as in vitro calcification, making these novel, injectable macromers promising materials for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24758298

  5. Transfer of Chemically Modified Graphene with Retention of Functionality for Surface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Whitener, Keith E; Lee, Woo-Kyung; Bassim, Nabil D; Stroud, Rhonda M; Robinson, Jeremy T; Sheehan, Paul E

    2016-02-10

    Single-layer graphene chemically reduced by the Birch process delaminates from a Si/SiOx substrate when exposed to an ethanol/water mixture, enabling transfer of chemically functionalized graphene to arbitrary substrates such as metals, dielectrics, and polymers. Unlike in previous reports, the graphene retains hydrogen, methyl, and aryl functional groups during the transfer process. This enables one to functionalize the receiving substrate with the properties of the chemically modified graphene (CMG). For instance, magnetic force microscopy shows that the previously reported magnetic properties of partially hydrogenated graphene remain after transfer. We also transfer hydrogenated graphene from its copper growth substrate to a Si/SiOx wafer and thermally dehydrogenate it to demonstrate a polymer- and etchant-free graphene transfer for potential use in transmission electron microscopy. Finally, we show that the Birch reduction facilitates delamination of CMG by weakening van der Waals forces between graphene and its substrate. PMID:26784372

  6. Chemical exposures of rocket-engine test-stand personnel and cancer mortality in a cohort of aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Ritz, B; Morgenstern, H; Froines, J; Moncau, J

    1999-10-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6107 aerospace workers to examine whether exposure to chemicals--primarily hydrazine fuels--during rocket-engine fueling and testing affects cancer mortality. When conditional logistic regression analysis was applied and adjusted for confounding variables, the estimated rate ratio for lung cancer mortality, comparing exposed to unexposed workers from the same facility, ranged from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.52) to 2.10 (95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 3.25), depending on job-duration threshold (6 or 24 months) and lag (0 to 15 years). Similar results were obtained for hemato- and lymphopoietic cancer and for bladder and kidney cancer mortality, but estimates for these cancers were imprecise. We concluded that occupational exposure to hydrazine or other chemicals associated with rocket-engine testing jobs increased the risk of dying from lung cancer, and possibly other cancers, in this population of aerospace workers; however, our results need to be replicated in other populations. PMID:10529946

  7. Reaction Engineering International and Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff exchange: Addressing computational fluid dynamics needs of the chemical process industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Staff exchanges, such as the one described in this report, are intended to facilitate communications and collaboration among scientists and engineers at Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, in US industry, and academia. Funding support for these exchanges is provided by the DOE, Office of Energy Research, Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Funding levels for each exchange typically range from $20,000 to $40,000. The exchanges offer the opportunity for the laboratories to transfer technology and expertise to industry, gain a perspective to industry`s problems, and develop the basis for further cooperative efforts through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAS) or other mechanisms. Information in this report on the staff exchange of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff with Reaction Engineering International (REI) includes the significant accomplishments, significant problems, industry benefits realized, recommended follow-on work and potential benefit of that work. The objectives of this project were as follows: Work with REI to develop an understanding of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) needs of the chemical process industry; assess the combined capabilities of the PNL and REI software analysis tools to address these needs; and establish a strategy for a future programmatically funded, joint effort to develop a new CFD tool for the chemical process industry.

  8. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  9. Chemical characterisation of dredged sediments in relation to their potential use in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Tea; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-04-01

    During capital and/or maintenance dredging operations, large amounts of material are produced. Instead of their discharge, dredged sediments may be a valuable natural resource if not contaminated. One of the possible areas of application is civil engineering. In the present work, the environmental status of seaport dredged sediment was evaluated in order to investigate its potential applicability as a secondary raw material. Sediments were analysed for element concentrations in digested samples, aqueous extracts and fractions from sequential extraction; for fluoride, chloride and sulphate concentrations in aqueous extracts; and for tributyltin (TBT). Granulometric and mineralogical compositions were also analysed. The elemental impact was evaluated by calculation of the enrichment factors. The total element concentrations determined showed moderate contamination of the dredged sediments as was confirmed also by their moderate enrichment factors, presumably as a result of industrial and port activities. Elemental concentrations in the aqueous extract were very low and therefore do not represent any hazard for the environment. The water-soluble element concentrations were under the threshold levels set by the EU Directive on the landfill of waste, on the basis of which the applicability of dredged sediments in civil engineering is evaluated, while the content of chloride and sulphate were above the threshold levels. It was found out that due to the large amounts of sediment available, civil engineering applications such as the construction of embankments and backfilling is the most beneficial recycling solution at present. PMID:27000319

  10. Chemical Kinetics in the expansion flow field of a rotating detonation-wave engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. A key step towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release.

  11. Chemical kinetic simulation of hydrocarbon oxidation through the exhaust port of a spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.C.; Hochgreb, S.

    1996-12-01

    The oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons, remaining in the cylinder of a spark-ignited engine after the main combustion event, takes place both in-cylinder and in the exhaust port. Hydrocarbons emerging from engine tailpipes consist of unburned fuel as well as products of incomplete combustion. This paper addresses the extent of oxidation and the production of nonfuel species in the exhaust port of a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Simulations of the unsteady thermal and composition state of the gases emerging from the cylinder were coupled to detailed chemistry models of the oxidation of hydrocarbons (propane, isooctane, methane, and ethane) to determine the change in the average composition of the gas as it passes through the exhaust port. The results are compared to previously measured speciated compositions of the exhaust gases at the exhaust port inlet and outlet. A stratification parameter to represent the growth of the thermal boundary layer due to heat transfer is added to the simplified unsteady plug flow simulation. Comparisons between model and experiment show that the concentration of products of incomplete combustion can only be adequately reproduced if stratification effects are taken into account.

  12. On the Use of Interactive Texts in Undergraduate Chemical Reaction Engineering Courses: A Pedagogical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asensio, Daniela A.; Barassi, Francisca J.; Zambon, Mariana T.; Mazza, Germán D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a pedagogical experience carried out at the University of Comahue, Argentina, with an interactive text (IT) concerning Homogeneous Chemical Reactors Analysis. The IT was built on the frame of the "Mathematica" software with the aim of providing students with a robust computational tool. Students'…

  13. Grand Challenges and Chemical Engineering Curriculum--Developments at TU Dortmund University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kockmann, Norbert; Lutze, Philip; Gorak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Chemical processing industry is progressively focusing their research activities and product placements in the areas of Grand Challenges (or Global Megatrends) such as mobility, energy, communication, or health care and food. Innovation in all these fields requires solving high complex problems, rapid product development as well as dealing with…

  14. GFO Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report. Update: The First 43 Cycles Since Acceptance, November 29, 2000 to November 30, 2002, Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W., III; Hayne, G. S.; Lockwood, D. W.; Brooks, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's Geosat Follow-On (GFO) Mission, launched on February 20, 1998, is one of a series of altimetric satellites which include Seasat, Geosat, ERS-1, and TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P). The purpose of this report is to document the GFO altimeter performance determined from the analyses and results performed by NASA's GSFC and Wallops altimeter, calibration team. It is the third of an anticipated series of NASA's GSFC and Wallops GFO performance documents, each of which will update assessment results. This report covers the performance from instrument acceptance by the Navy on November 29, 2000, to the end of Cycle 42 on November 30, 2002. Data derived from GFO will lead to improvements in the knowledge of ocean circulation, ice sheet topography, and climate change. In order to capture the maximum amount of information from the GFO data, accurate altimeter calibrations are required for the civilian data set which NOAA will produce. Wallops Flight Facility has provided similar products for the Geosat and T/P missions and is doing the same for GFO.

  15. GFO Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report. Update: The First 65 Cycles Since Acceptance, November 29, 2000 to December 9, 2003, Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W., III; Hayne, G. S.; Lockwood, D. W.; Brooks, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's Geosat Follow-On (GFO) Mission, launched February 10, 1998, is one of a series of altimetric satellites which include Seasat, Geosat, ERS-1, and TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P). The purpose of this report is to document the GFO altimeter performance determined from the analyses and results performed by NASA's GSFC and Wallops altimeter calibration team. It is the fourth of an anticipated series of NASA's GSFC and Wallops GFO performance documents, each of which will update assessment results. This report covers the performance from instrument acceptance by the Navy on November 29, 2000, to the end of Cycle 65 on December 9, 2003. Data derived from GFO will lead to improvements in the knowledge of ocean circulation, ice sheet topography, and climate change. In order to capture the maximum amount of information from the GFO data, accurate altimeter calibrations are required for the civilian data set which NOAA will produce. Wallops Flight Facility has provided similar products for the Geosat and T/P missions and is doing the same for GFO.

  16. A chemical free, nanotechnology-based method for airborne bacterial inactivation using engineered water nanostructures†‡

    PubMed Central

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Bordini, Andre; Diaz, Edgar; Molina, Ramon; Watson, Christa; Deloid, Glen; Lenard, Steve; Fix, Natalie; Mizuyama, Yosuke; Yamauchi, Toshiyuki; Brain, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Airborne pathogens are associated with the spread of infectious diseases and increased morbidity and mortality. Herein we present an emerging chemical free, nanotechnology-based method for airborne pathogen inactivation. This technique is based on transforming atmospheric water vapor into Engineered Water Nano-Structures (EWNS) via electrospray. The generated EWNS possess a unique set of physical, chemical, morphological and biological properties. Their average size is 25 nm and they contain reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. In addition, EWNS are highly electrically charged (10 electrons per particle on average). A link between their electric charge and the reduction of their evaporation rate was illustrated resulting in an extended lifetime (over an hour) at room conditions. Furthermore, it was clearly demonstrated that the EWNS have the ability to interact with and inactivate airborne bacteria. Finally, inhaled EWNS were found to have minimal toxicological effects, as illustrated in an acute in-vivo inhalation study using a mouse model. In conclusion, this novel, chemical free, nanotechnology-based method has the potential to be used in the battle against airborne infectious diseases. PMID:26180637

  17. Cryo-chemical decellularization of the whole liver for mesenchymal stem cells-based functional hepatic tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Yen, Meng-Hua; Chang, Yin; Yang, Vincent W.; Lee, Oscar K.

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for severe hepatic failure to date. However, the limited supply of donor organs has severely hampered this treatment. So far, great potentials of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to replenish the hepatic cell population have been shown; nevertheless, there still is a lack of an optimal three-dimensional scaffold for generation of well-transplantable hepatic tissues. In this study, we utilized a cryo-chemical decellularization method which combines physical and chemical approach to generate acellular liver scaffolds (ALS) from the whole liver. The produced ALS provides a biomimetic three-dimensional environment to support hepatic differentiation of MSCs, evidenced by expression of hepatic-associated genes and marker protein, glycogen storage, albumin secretion, and urea production. It is also found that hepatic differentiation of MSCs within the ALS is much more efficient than two-dimensional culture in vitro. Importantly, the hepatic-like tissues (HLT) generated by repopulating ALS with MSCs are able to act as functional grafts and rescue lethal hepatic failure after transplantation in vivo. In summary, the cryo-chemical method used in this study is suitable for decellularization of liver and create acellular scaffolds that can support hepatic differentiation of MSCs and be used to fabricate functional tissue-engineered liver constructs. PMID:24462361

  18. Chemical ionization mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 emissions from jet engines in flight and test chamber operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunton, D. E.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Borghetti, J. F.; Federico, G. S.; Miller, T. M.; Thorn, W. F.; Viggiano, A. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Cofer, W. R.; McDougal, D. S.; Wey, C. C.

    2000-11-01

    We report the results of two measurements of the concentrations and emission indices of gas-phase sulfur dioxide (EI(SO2)) in the exhaust of an F100-200E turbofan engine. The broad goals of both experiments were to obtain exhaust sulfur speciation and aerosol properties as a function of fuel sulfur content. In the first campaign, an instrumented NASA T-39 Sabreliner aircraft flew in close formation behind several F-16 fighter aircraft to obtain near-field plume composition and aerosol properties. In the second, an F-100 engine of the same type was installed in an altitude test chamber at NASA Glenn Research Center where gas composition and nonvolatile aerosol concentrations and size distributions were obtained at the exit plane of the engine. In both experiments, SO2 concentrations were measured with the Air Force Research Laboratory chemical ionization mass spectrometer as a function of altitude, engine power, and fuel sulfur content. A significant aspect of the program was the use of the same fuels, the same engine type, and many of the same diagnostics in both campaigns. Several different fuels were purchased specifically for these experiments, including high-sulfur Jet A (˜1150 ppmm S), low-sulfur Jet A (˜10 ppmm S), medium-sulfur mixtures of these two fuels, and military JP-8+100 (˜170 and ˜300 ppmm S). The agreement between the flight and test cell measurements of SO2 concentrations was excellent, showing an overall precision of better than ±10% and an estimated absolute accuracy of ±20%. The EI(SO2) varied from 2.49 g SO2/kg fuel for the high-sulfur fuel in the test chamber to less than 0.01 g/kg for the lowest-sulfur fuel. No dependence of emission index on engine power, altitude or simulated altitude, separation distance or plume age, or the presence of contrails was observed. In all experiments the measured EI(SO2) was consistent with essentially all of the fuel sulfur appearing as gas-phase SO2 in the exhaust. However, accurate determination of S

  19. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  20. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  1. Chemical engineering challenges of nuclear waste cleanup: The future in tank processing

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, R.K.

    1996-10-01

    The 103 million gallons of mixed chemical and radioactive waste in DOE`s 241 underground storage tanks are as complex and heterogenous a material as man has ever created. The future of tank waste processing - of all waste processing - lies in establishing programs that integrate the interdisciplinary efforts of basic, applied, and process scientists at every stage of the technology development and deployment life cycle. In this way, a technically broad based foundation is developed that allows scientifically-sound and technically-defensible decisions to be made regarding waste remediation. In DOE`s national tank waste remediation technology development programs, Tanks Focus Area, we have begun to establish these activities. Examples of these, which will be discussed, include a tank process chemistry effort which focuses on developing an understanding of the chemical and physical properties of tank wastes affecting the development of process technologies, particularly the colloidal properties of the waste; a process control effort which applies this information to generate the chemical intelligence and understanding necessary to make informed decisions on how to use technology to remediate tank wastes and includes sensor and micro scale analytical methods development; and an aggressive effort in waste forms to develop a fundamental understanding of structure-function-performance relations in potential inorganic ion exchange materials and glasses.

  2. Bioelectrocatalysts: engineered oxidoreductase system for utilization of fumarate reductase in chemical synthesis, detection, and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Doo Hyun; Vieille, C; Zeikus, J G

    2003-10-01

    Fumarate reductase was used as a model oxidoreductase to demonstrate continuous electrical cofactor reduction-oxidation during the bioelectrochemical synthesis and detection of chemicals. The enzyme preparation was immobilized onto a graphite felt electrode that was modified with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), neutral red, and fumarate reductase (which contained menaquinone) were covalently linked by peptide bonds to the CMC. The electron mediator neutral red allowed NAD and menaquinone to be recycled electrically during enzymatic chemical synthesis. Succinate detection by the bioelectrocatalyst was linear from 5 microM to 10 mM succinate. Fumarate synthesis using this bioelectrode was dependent on succinate utilization and resulted in proportional production of electricity and fumarate. Succinate synthesis using this bioelectrocatalyst was dependent on current and fumarate concentration. This bioelectrocatalyst system may enhance the utility of menaquinone- and/or pyridine nucleotide-linked oxidoreductases in diverse enzymatic fuel cells and sensors. It may also enhance the utility of oxidoreductase-based chemical synthesis systems because it eliminates the problem of cofactor recycling. PMID:14566068

  3. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  4. Predictive Synthesis of Freeform Carbon Nanotube Microarchitectures by Strain-Engineered Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Sei Jin; Zhao, Hangbo; Kim, Sanha; De Volder, Michael; John Hart, A

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput fabrication of microstructured surfaces with multi-directional, re-entrant, or otherwise curved features is becoming increasingly important for applications such as phase change heat transfer, adhesive gripping, and control of electromagnetic waves. Toward this goal, curved microstructures of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fabricated by engineered variation of the CNT growth rate within each microstructure, for example by patterning of the CNT growth catalyst partially upon a layer which retards the CNT growth rate. This study develops a finite-element simulation framework for predictive synthesis of complex CNT microarchitectures by this strain-engineered growth process. The simulation is informed by parametric measurements of the CNT growth kinetics, and the anisotropic mechanical properties of the CNTs, and predicts the shape of CNT microstructures with impressive fidelity. Moreover, the simulation calculates the internal stress distribution that results from extreme deformation of the CNT structures during growth, and shows that delamination of the interface between the differentially growing segments occurs at a critical shear stress. Guided by these insights, experiments are performed to study the time- and geometry-depended stress development, and it is demonstrated that corrugating the interface between the segments of each microstructure mitigates the interface failure. This study presents a methodology for 3D microstructure design based on "pixels" that prescribe directionality to the resulting microstructure, and show that this framework enables the predictive synthesis of more complex architectures including twisted and truss-like forms. PMID:27378165

  5. What Are Acceptable Limits of Radiation?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Brad Gersey, lead research scientist at the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, describes the legal and acceptable limits ...

  6. Assignment of function to Histidines 260 and 298 by engineering the E1 component of the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; substitutions that lead to acceptance of substrates lacking the 5-carboxyl group.†

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Da Jeong; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Balakrishnan, Anand; Patel, Hetalben; Song, Jaeyoung; Wang, Junjie; Jordan, Frank; Farinas, Edgardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The first component (E1o) of the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) was engineered to accept substrates lacking the 5-carboxylate group by subjecting H260 and H298 to saturation mutagenesis. Apparently, H260 is required for substrate recognition, but H298 could be replaced by hydrophobic residues of similar molecular volume. To interrogate whether the second component would enable synthesis of acyl-coenzymeA derivatives, hybrid complexes consisting of recombinant components of OGDHc (o) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (p) enzymes were constructed, suggesting that a different component is the ‘gatekeeper’ for specificity for these two multienzyme complexes in bacteria, E1p for pyruvate, but E2o for 2-oxoglutarate. PMID:21809826

  7. Adjustment of Protein Crystal Porosity for Biotemplating: Chemical and Protein Engineering Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, Yariv; Cohen-Hadar, Noa; Lagziel-Simis, Shira; Dror, Yael; Frolow, Felix; Freeman, Amihay

    2010-05-01

    Protein crystals, routinely prepared for the elucidation of protein 3D structures by X-ray crystallography, present an ordered and highly accurate 3D array of protein molecules. Inherent to the 3D arrangement of the protein molecules in the crystal is a complementary 3D array of voids made of interconnected cavities and exhibiting highly ordered porosity. Here we propose and demonstrate feasibility of using chemical and genetic tools to alter protein crystal packing by a series of modifications of targeted sites on protein's surface, enabling the generation of a series of protein crystal biotemplates, all originating from same parent protein.

  8. Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of the chemical chaperone ectoine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The stabilizing and function-preserving effects of ectoines have attracted considerable biotechnological interest up to industrial scale processes for their production. These rely on the release of ectoines from high-salinity-cultivated microbial producer cells upon an osmotic down-shock in rather complex processor configurations. There is growing interest in uncoupling the production of ectoines from the typical conditions required for their synthesis, and instead design strains that naturally release ectoines into the medium without the need for osmotic changes, since the use of high-salinity media in the fermentation process imposes notable constraints on the costs, design, and durability of fermenter systems. Results Here, we used a Corynebacterium glutamicum strain as a cellular chassis to establish a microbial cell factory for the biotechnological production of ectoines. The implementation of a mutant aspartokinase enzyme ensured efficient supply of L-aspartate-beta-semialdehyde, the precursor for ectoine biosynthesis. We further engineered the genome of the basic C. glutamicum strain by integrating a codon-optimized synthetic ectABCD gene cluster under expressional control of the strong and constitutive C. glutamicum tuf promoter. The resulting recombinant strain produced ectoine and excreted it into the medium; however, lysine was still found as a by-product. Subsequent inactivation of the L-lysine exporter prevented the undesired excretion of lysine while ectoine was still exported. Using the streamlined cell factory, a fed-batch process was established that allowed the production of ectoine with an overall productivity of 6.7 g L-1 day-1 under growth conditions that did not rely on the use of high-salinity media. Conclusions The present study describes the construction of a stable microbial cell factory for recombinant production of ectoine. We successfully applied metabolic engineering strategies to optimize its synthetic production in the

  9. Superior Mobility in Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesized Graphene by Grain Size Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Nicholas; Dean, Cory; Meric, Inanc; van der Zande, Arend; Huang, Pinshane; Wang, Lei; Muller, David; Shepard, Kenneth; Hone, James

    2012-02-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) offers a promising method to produce large-area films of graphene, crucial for commercial realization of graphene-based applications. However, electron transport in CVD grown graphene has continued to fall short of the performance demonstrated by graphene derived from mechanical exfoliation. Lattice defects and grain boundaries developed during growth, structural defects and chemical contamination introduced during transfer, and charged scatterers present in sub-optimal dielectric substrates have all been identified as sources of disorder in CVD grown graphene devices. We grow CVD graphene and fabricate field-effect transistors, attempting to minimize potential sources of disorder. We reduce density of grain boundaries in CVD graphene by controlling domain sizes up to 250 microns. By transferring CVD graphene onto h-BN utilizing a dry-transfer method, we minimize trapped charges at the interface between graphene and in the underlying substrate. We report field-effect mobilities up to 110,000 cm2V-1s-1 and oscillations in magnetotransport measurements below 1 T, confirming the high quality and low disorder in our CVD graphene devices.

  10. A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2005-11-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  11. Synthetic methylotrophy: engineering the production of biofuels and chemicals based on the biology of aerobic methanol utilization.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, William B; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Bennett, Robert K; Fast, Alan G; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic methylotrophy is the development of non-native methylotrophs that can utilize methane and methanol as sole carbon and energy sources or as co-substrates with carbohydrates to produce metabolites as biofuels and chemicals. The availability of methane (from natural gas) and its oxidation product, methanol, has been increasing, while prices have been decreasing, thus rendering them as attractive fermentation substrates. As they are more reduced than most carbohydrates, methane and methanol, as co-substrates, can enhance the yields of biologically produced metabolites. Here we discuss synthetic biology and metabolic engineering strategies based on the native biology of aerobic methylotrophs for developing synthetic strains grown on methanol, with Escherichia coli as the prototype. PMID:25796071

  12. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  13. CHEMICAL RE-ENGINEERING OF CHLOROTOXIN IMPROVES BIOCONJUGATION PROPERTIES FOR TUMOR IMAGING AND TARGETED THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Akcan, Muharrem; Stroud, Mark R.; Hansen, Stacey J.; Clark, Richard J.; Daly, Norelle L.; Craik, David J.; Olson, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Bioconjugates composed of chlorotoxin and near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) moieties are being advanced toward human clinical trials as intra-operative imaging agents that will enable surgeons to visualize small foci of cancer. In previous studies, the NIRF molecules were conjugated to chlorotoxin, which results in a mixture of mono-, di-, and tri-labeled peptide. Here we report a new chemical entity that bound only a single NIRF molecule. The lysines at positions 15 and 23 were substituted with either Ala or Arg, which resulted in only mono-labeled peptide that was functionally equivalent to native chlorotoxin:Cy5.5. We also analyzed the serum stability and serum half life of cyclized chlorotoxin, which showed an 11 hour serum half life and resulted in a mono-labeled product. Based on these data, we propose to advance a mono-labeled chlorotoxin to human clinical trials. PMID:21210710

  14. Annette Bunge: developing the principles in percutaneous absorption using chemical engineering principles.

    PubMed

    Stinchcomb, A L

    2013-01-01

    Annette Bunge and her research group have had the central theme of mathematically modeling the dermal absorption process. Most of the research focus has been on estimating dermal absorption for the purpose of risk assessment, for exposure scenarios in the environment and in the occupational setting. Her work is the basis for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's estimations for dermal absorption from contaminated water. It is also the basis of the dermal absorption estimates used in determining if chemicals should be assigned a 'skin notation' for potential systemic toxicity following occupational skin exposure. The work is truly translational in that it started with mathematical theory, is validated with preclinical and human experiments, and then is used in guidelines to protect human health. Her valued research has also extended into the topical drug bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment field. PMID:23921118

  15. Chemical functionalization of surfaces for building three-dimensional engineered biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Marco E.; Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Mansur, Herman S.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a new approach for developing biosensors based on enzymatic systems with designed three-dimensional structures. Silica glass slides were chemically functionalized at surfaces by reacting with organosilanes, 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTES), and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), using sol-gel process at room temperature. The functionalization of the supports was characterized by contact angle measurements and FTIR spectroscopy. The first enzyme layer was covalently immobilized to the support by a bi-functional linker (glutaraldehyde). The second enzyme layer was deposited using the protein conjugation method based on the high affinity "avidin-biotin" interactions. Each enzyme was biotinylated before being added to the nanostructured system and avidin was used as the binder between consecutive enzyme layers. The biochemical response was assayed at all stages to certify that the enzymatic bioactivity was retained throughout the entire layer-by-layer (LBL) process. The model of building 3D-enzymatic systems was evaluated using the enzymatic structure with glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). It was verified that the amino-modified support presented the highest bioactivity response compared to the other chemical functionalities. Moreover, the bienzyme nanostructure demonstrated relevant biochemical activity upon injecting the glucose substrate into the system. Finally, as a proof of concept, the bienzyme systems were assayed using real samples of regular and sugar-free soft drinks where they effectively behaved as structured biosensor for glucose with the built-in 3D hybrid architecture. Based on the results, it can be foreseen the development of promising new nanomaterials for several analytical applications such as monitoring the quality of food and beverages for nutrition purposes.

  16. KCN Chemical Etch for Interface Engineering in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Buffière, Marie; Brammertz, Guy; Sahayaraj, Sylvester; Batuk, Maria; Khelifi, Samira; Mangin, Denis; El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Arzel, Ludovic; Hadermann, Joke; Meuris, Marc; Poortmans, Jef

    2015-07-15

    The removal of secondary phases from the surface of the kesterite crystals is one of the major challenges to improve the performances of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cells. In this contribution, the KCN/KOH chemical etching approach, originally developed for the removal of CuxSe phases in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin films, is applied to CZTSe absorbers exhibiting various chemical compositions. Two distinct electrical behaviors were observed on CZTSe/CdS solar cells after treatment: (i) the improvement of the fill factor (FF) after 30 s of etching for the CZTSe absorbers showing initially a distortion of the electrical characteristic; (ii) the progressive degradation of the FF after long treatment time for all Cu-poor CZTSe solar cell samples. The first effect can be attributed to the action of KCN on the absorber, that is found to clean the absorber free surface from most of the secondary phases surrounding the kesterite grains (e.g., Se0, CuxSe, SnSex, SnO2, Cu2SnSe3 phases, excepting the ZnSe-based phases). The second observation was identified as a consequence of the preferential etching of Se, Sn, and Zn from the CZTSe surface by the KOH solution, combined with the modification of the alkali content of the absorber. The formation of a Cu-rich shell at the absorber/buffer layer interface, leading to the increase of the recombination rate at the interface, and the increase in the doping of the absorber layer after etching are found to be at the origin of the deterioration of the FF of the solar cells. PMID:26039042

  17. A Chemically Polymerized Electrically Conducting Composite of Polypyrrole Nanoparticles and Polyurethane for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Broda, Christopher R.; Lee, Jae Y.; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Schmidt, Christine E.; Harrison, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of cell types respond to electrical stimuli, accordingly many conducting polymers (CPs) have been used as tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds, one such CP is polypyrrole (PPy). PPy is a well studied biomaterial with potential TE applications due to its electrical conductivity and many other beneficial properties. Combining its characteristics with an elastomeric material, such as polyurethane (PU), may yield a hybrid scaffold with electrical activity and significant mechanical resilience. Pyrrole was in situ polymerized within a PU emulsion mixture in weight ratios of 1:100, 1:20, 1:10 and 1:5, respectively. Morphology, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and cytocompatibility with C2C12 myoblast cells were characterized. The polymerization resulted in a composite with a principle base of PU interspersed with an electrically percolating network of PPy nanoparticles. As the mass ratio of PPy to PU increased so did electrical conductivity of the composites. In addition, as the mass ratio of PPy to PU increased, stiffness of the composite increased while maximum elongation length decreased. Ultimate tensile strength was reduced by approximately 47% across all samples with the addition of PPy to the PU base. Cytocompatibility assay data indicated no significant cytotoxic effect from the composites. Static cellular seeding of C2C12 cells and subsequent differentiation showed myotube formation on the composite materials. PMID:21681943

  18. Physico-chemical characterization of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles: the critical role of microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Fontaine, A.; Coleman, V. A.; Jämting, A. K.; Lawn, M.; Herrmann, J.; Miles, J. R.

    2010-06-01

    Three different methods for extracting zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles from commercially available sunscreen were investigated to determine the most appropriate route for producing a sample suitable for measuring the primary particle size. Direct dilution of the formulation, centrifugal methods and chemical washing were trialed in combination with ultrasonic processing and surfactant addition to generate samples that are suitable for particle size analysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to monitor the extraction and re-dispersion process. Washing with hexane, methanol and water to remove the formulation, in combination with pulsed high-powered ultrasonication and the addition of a charge-stabilizing surfactant was found to be the most efficient way of producing de-agglomerated samples. DLS measurements gave average hydrodynamic particle diameters of 87 nm for ZnO and 76 nm for TiO2, compared to equivalent spherical particle diameters of 21 +/- 12 nm for ZnO (81 particles) and 19 +/- 14 nm for TiO2 (81 particles) obtained from TEM analysis.

  19. Principles of Chemical Bonding and Band Gap Engineering in Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The performance of solar cells based on hybrid halide perovskites has seen an unparalleled rate of progress, while our understanding of the underlying physical chemistry of these materials trails behind. Superficially, CH3NH3PbI3 is similar to other thin-film photovoltaic materials: a semiconductor with an optical band gap in the optimal region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Microscopically, the material is more unconventional. Progress in our understanding of the local and long-range chemical bonding of hybrid perovskites is discussed here, drawing from a series of computational studies involving electronic structure, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The orientational freedom of the dipolar methylammonium ion gives rise to temperature-dependent dielectric screening and the possibility for the formation of polar (ferroelectric) domains. The ability to independently substitute on the A, B, and X lattice sites provides the means to tune the optoelectronic properties. Finally, ten critical challenges and opportunities for physical chemists are highlighted. PMID:25838846

  20. Germanium-on-Silicon Strain Engineered Materials for Improved Device Performance Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathan, Jayesh Moorkoth

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a chemical vapor deposition process for growing epitaxial films of germanium on silicon (001) substrates with two-dimensional (2-D) morphology, and a low density of threading dislocations. Growth was carried out in a reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD) system by a two-step growth technique. An accurate knowledge of elastic constants of thin films is important in understanding the effect of strain on material properties. Residual thermal strain was used to measure the Poisson ratio of Ge films grown on Si(001) substrates, by the sin2Psi method and highresolution x-ray diffraction. The Poisson ratio of the Ge films was measured to be 0.25, compared to the bulk value of 0.27. The result was found to be independent of film thickness and defect density, which confirmed that the strain is associated with the elastic response of the film. The study showed that the use of Poisson ratio instead of bulk compliance values yields a more accurate description of the state of in-plane strain present in the film. The experimentally measured in-plane strain in Ge films was found to be lower than the theoretical calculations based on the differential thermal expansion coefficients of Si and Ge. The mechanism of thermal misfit strain relaxation in epitaxial Ge films grown on Si(001) substrates was investigated by x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Lattice misfit strain associated with Ge/(001)Si mismatched epitaxy is relieved by a network of Lomer edge misfit dislocations during the first step of the growth technique. However, thermal misfit strain energy during growth is relieved by interdiffusion mechanism at the heterointerface. Two SiGe compositions containing 0.5 and 6.0 atomic percent Si were detected that relieve the thermal mismatch strain associated with the two steps of the growth process. This study discusses the importance of interdiffusion mechanism in relieving small misfit strains

  1. Production of shikimic acid from Escherichia coli through chemically inducible chromosomal evolution and cofactor metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shikimic acid (SA) produced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) is a key intermediate for the synthesis of neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), an anti-influenza drug. However, plants cannot deliver a stable supply of SA. To avoid the resulting shortages and price fluctuations, a stable source of affordable SA is required. Although recent achievements in metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains have significantly increased SA productivity, commonly-used plasmid-based expression systems are prone to genetic instability and require constant selective pressure to ensure plasmid maintenance. Cofactors also play an important role in the biosynthesis of different fermentation products. In this study, we first constructed an E. coli SA production strain that carries no plasmid or antibiotic marker. We then investigated the effect of endogenous NADPH availability on SA production. Results The pps and csrB genes were first overexpressed by replacing their native promoter and integrating an additional copy of the genes in a double gene knockout (aroK and aroL) of E. coli. The aroG fbr , aroB, aroE and tktA gene cluster was integrated into the above E. coli chromosome by direct transformation. The gene copy number was then evolved to the desired value by triclosan induction. The resulting strain, E. coli SA110, produced 8.9-fold more SA than did the parental strain E. coli (ΔaroKΔaroL). Following qRT-PCR analysis, another copy of the tktA gene under the control of the 5Ptac promoter was inserted into the chromosome of E. coli SA110 to obtain the more productive strain E. coli SA110. Next, the NADPH availability was increased by overexpressing the pntAB or nadK genes, which further enhanced SA production. The final strain, E. coli SA116, produced 3.12 g/L of SA with a yield on glucose substrate of 0.33 mol/mol. Conclusion An SA-producing E. coli strain that carries neither a plasmid nor an antibiotic marker was

  2. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Steindler, M J; Ader, M; Barletta, R E

    1980-01-01

    In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing methods (PDPM) for nuclear fuel, tungsten crucibles were successfully spun for use in laboratory-scale experiments. Corrosion testing of refractory metals and alloys in PDPM environments was done. Ceramic substrates were successfully coated with tungsten. Solubility measurements were made to determine Cd/Mg alloy composition and temperature at which dissolved Th will precipitate. Experiments were started to study the reduction of high-fired ThO/sub 2/ with Ca in a molten metal-molten salt system. Work on the fused salt electrolysis of CaO was started. Equipment for determining phase diagrams for U-Cu-Mg system was set up. The reaction of UO/sub 2/ with molten equimolar NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ was studied as part of a project to identify chemically feasible nonaqueous fuel reprocessing methods. Work was continued on development of a flowsheet for reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting actinides into ammonium chloro-aluminate (and alternative salts) from a bismuth solution. Preparation of Th, U, and Pu nitrides after dissolution of spent fuel elements in molten tin is being studied. Leach rates of glass beads, pulverized beads, and beads encapsulated in a lead matrix with no protective envelope were studied. A method (employing no pressure or vacuum systems) of encapsulating various solid wastes in a lead metal matrix was developed and tested. A preliminary integration was made of earlier data on effects of impacts on metal-matrix waste forms.Leach migration experiments were compared with conventional infiltration experiments as methods of evaluating geologic formations as barriers to nuclide migration. The effect of the streaming potential on the rates of transport of radioactive I/sup -/ and Na/sup +/ through kaolinite columns was measured, as well as adsorption of iodide and iodate by several compounds; implications of the results upon the disposal of radioactive iodine are discussed.

  3. Analysis of the porewater chemical composition of a Spanish compacted bentonite used in an engineered barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, A. M. a.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.; Rivas, P.

    Compacted bentonites are being considered in many countries as a backfill material in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. A knowledge of the porewater chemistry in the clay barrier is essential since the porewater composition influences the release and transport of the radionuclides. However, quantification of the water chemistry in compacted bentonite under repository conditions is difficult. The methodology followed to obtain the porewater composition of the FEBEX bentonite is described in this paper. It is based on the characterisation of the solid phase, determination of the physico-chemical properties of the montmorillonite component and geochemical modelling. The FEBEX bentonite has a high cation exchange capacity (∼1 eq/kg), high surface area (∼725 m 2/g total surface area and 62 m 2/g external surface area) and accessory minerals such as carbonates, sulphates, pyrite, etc.; and organic matter. The chloride inventory in the FEBEX bentonite is ∼22 mmol/kg. The montmorillonite, together with the other mineral phases present, will determine the composition of the porewater. However, in order to calculate a unique aqueous chemistry, two further quantities are required, the chloride concentration and the pH. Water vapour adsoption/desorption isotherms, together with c-lattice spacing determinations, were used to identify the different states and location of water. Most of the water in the as received bentonite resides in the interlayer space. However, the measurements indicate that about 0.053 l/kg may be regarded as free water, implying a chloride concentration of 0.42 M. The pH of the system is fixed by equilibrium with the atmosphere ( PCO 2=10 -3.5 bar) and saturation with the carbonate phases present. The porewater calculated to be in equilibrium with the as received FEBEX bentonite powder is a Na-Ca-Mg chloride type with a high ionic strength, 0.66 M, and a pH of ∼7.4. Likewise, in order to calculate the porewater composition of

  4. Chemical vapour deposition of group-VIB metal dichalcogenide monolayers: engineered substrates from amorphous to single crystalline.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingqing; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2015-05-01

    As structural analogues of graphene but with a sizeable band gap, monolayers of group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2, M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te, etc.) have emerged as the ideal two dimensional prototype for exploring fundamental issues in physics such as valley polarization, and for engineering a wide range of nanoelectronic, optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications. Recently, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) was introduced as a more efficient preparation method than traditional chemical or physical exfoliation options, and has allowed for the successful synthesis of large-area MX2 monolayers possessing a large domain size, high thickness uniformity and continuity, and satisfactory crystal quality. This tutorial review therefore focuses on introducing the more recent advances in the CVD growth of MX2 (MoS2, WS2, MoS2(1-x)Se2xetc.) monolayers via the sulphurisation/decomposition of pre-deposited metal-based precursors, or the one-step reaction and deposition of gaseous metal and chalcogen feedstocks. Differences in growth behaviour caused by commonly used amorphous SiO2/Si, and newly adopted insulating single crystal substrates such as sapphire, mica and SrTiO3, are also comparatively presented. Also discussed are the essential parameters that influence the growth of MX2, such as the temperature, the source-substrate distance and the composition of the carrier gas (Ar/H2). Finally, an assessment is provided for viable future pathways for fine-tuning of the domain size and orientation, thickness uniformity, and the bandgap of MX2 and its alloys. PMID:25256261

  5. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:27131325

  6. Engineering highly organized and aligned single walled carbon nanotube networks for electronic device applications: Interconnects, chemical sensor, and optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Lae

    For 20 years, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been studied actively due to their unique one-dimensional nanostructure and superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. For these reasons, they offer the potential to serve as building blocks for future electronic devices such as field effect transistors (FETs), electromechanical devices, and various sensors. In order to realize these applications, it is crucial to develop a simple, scalable, and reliable nanomanufacturing process that controllably places aligned SWNTs in desired locations, orientations, and dimensions. Also electronic properties (semiconducting/metallic) of SWNTs and their organized networks must be controlled for the desired performance of devices and systems. These fundamental challenges are significantly limiting the use of SWNTs for future electronic device applications. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to fabricate highly controlled micro/nanoscale SWNT network structures and present the related assembly mechanism to engineer the SWNT network topology and its electrical transport properties. A method designed to evaluate the electrical reliability of such nano- and microscale SWNT networks is also presented. Moreover, we develop and investigate a robust SWNT based multifunctional selective chemical sensor and a range of multifunctional optoelectronic switches, photo-transistors, optoelectronic logic gates and complex optoelectronic digital circuits.

  7. Chemical Synthesis, Characterization, and Biocompatibility Study of Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Phosphate Nanocomposite for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Nabakumar; Mishra, Debasish; Banerjee, Indranil; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Bhargava, Parag; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2009-01-01

    A novel bioanalogue hydroxyapatite (HAp)/chitosan phosphate (CSP) nanocomposite has been synthesized by a solution-based chemical methodology with varying HAp contents from 10 to 60% (w/w). The interfacial bonding interaction between HAp and CSP has been investigated through Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of the composite and the homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix have been investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The mechanical properties of the composite are found to be improved significantly with increase in nanoparticle contents. Cytotoxicity test using murine L929 fibroblast confirms that the nanocomposite is cytocompatible. Primary murine osteoblast cell culture study proves that the nanocomposite is osteocompatible and highly in vitro osteogenic. The use of CSP promotes the homogeneous distribution of particles in the polymer matrix through its pendant phosphate groups along with particle-polymer interfacial interactions. The prepared HAp/CSP nanocomposite with uniform microstructure may be used in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:20130797

  8. 14 CFR 21.502 - Acceptance of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance of articles. 21.502 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.502 Acceptance of articles. An article (including an article produced under a letter of...

  9. 14 CFR 21.502 - Acceptance of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance of articles. 21.502 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.502 Acceptance of articles. An article (including an article produced under a letter of...

  10. 14 CFR 21.502 - Acceptance of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance of articles. 21.502 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.502 Acceptance of articles. An article (including an article produced under a letter of...

  11. 14 CFR 21.502 - Acceptance of articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance of articles. 21.502 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.502 Acceptance of articles. An article (including an article produced under a letter of...

  12. Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide turnover in natural and engineered microbial communities: biological pathways, chemical reactions, and novel technologies

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Frank; Wunderlin, Pascal; Udert, Kai M.; Wells, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an environmentally important atmospheric trace gas because it is an effective greenhouse gas and it leads to ozone depletion through photo-chemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. Mitigating its steady increase in atmospheric concentration requires an understanding of the mechanisms that lead to its formation in natural and engineered microbial communities. N2O is formed biologically from the oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) or the reduction of nitrite (NO−2) to NO and further to N2O. Our review of the biological pathways for N2O production shows that apparently all organisms and pathways known to be involved in the catabolic branch of microbial N-cycle have the potential to catalyze the reduction of NO−2 to NO and the further reduction of NO to N2O, while N2O formation from NH2OH is only performed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In addition to biological pathways, we review important chemical reactions that can lead to NO and N2O formation due to the reactivity of NO−2, NH2OH, and nitroxyl (HNO). Moreover, biological N2O formation is highly dynamic in response to N-imbalance imposed on a system. Thus, understanding NO formation and capturing the dynamics of NO and N2O build-up are key to understand mechanisms of N2O release. Here, we discuss novel technologies that allow experiments on NO and N2O formation at high temporal resolution, namely NO and N2O microelectrodes and the dynamic analysis of the isotopic signature of N2O with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS). In addition, we introduce other techniques that use the isotopic composition of N2O to distinguish production pathways and findings that were made with emerging molecular techniques in complex environments. Finally, we discuss how a combination of the presented tools might help to address important open questions on pathways and controls of nitrogen flow through complex microbial communities that eventually lead to N2O build

  13. Metabolic engineering of cellular transport for overproduction of the platform chemical 1,5-diaminopentane in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kind, Stefanie; Kreye, Steffen; Wittmann, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    The present work describes the development of a superior strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum for diaminopentane (cadaverine) production via metabolic engineering of cellular transport processes. In C. glutamicum DAP-3c, a tailor-made producer, the diaminopentane forming enzyme, lysine decarboxylase, was inhibited in vivo by its end-product, suggesting a potential bottleneck at the level of the export. The previously proposed lysine exporter lysE was shown not to be involved in diaminopentane export. Its deletion did not reduce diaminopentane secretion and could therefore be exploited to completely eliminate the export of lysine, an undesired by-product. Genome-wide transcription profiling revealed the up-regulation of 35 candidate genes as response to diaminopentane overproduction, including several transporters. The highest expression increase (2.6-fold) was observed for a permease, encoded by cg2893. Targeted gene deletion in the producer resulted in a 90% reduced diaminopentane secretion. Genome-based overexpression of the exporter, however, revealed a 20% increased yield, a 75% reduced formation of the undesired by-product N-acetyl-diaminopentane and a substantially higher viability, reflected by increased specific rates for growth, glucose uptake and product formation. Similarly, deletion of cg2894, TetR type repressor neighboring the permease gene, resulted in improved production properties. The discovery and amplification of the permease, as presented here, displays a key contribution towards superior C. glutamicum strains for production of the platform chemical diaminopentane. The exact function of the permease remained unclear. Its genetic modification had pronounced effects on various intracellular pools of the biosynthetic pathway, which did not allow a final conclusion on its physiological role, although a direct contribution to diaminopentane export appears possible. PMID:21821142

  14. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-04-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95.

  15. Some Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters of Samples of Scleractinium Coral Aquaculture Skeleton Used for Reconstruction/Engineering of the Bone Tissue.

    PubMed

    Popov, A A; Sergeeva, N S; Britaev, T A; Komlev, V S; Sviridova, I K; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Dgebuadze, P Yu; Teterina, A Yu; Kuvshinova, E A; Schanskii, Ya D

    2015-08-01

    Physical and chemical (phase and chemical composition, dynamics of resorption, and strength properties), and biological (cytological compatibility and scaffold properties of the surface) properties of samples of scleractinium coral skeletons from aquacultures of three types and corresponding samples of natural coral skeletons (Pocillopora verrucosa, Acropora formosa, and Acropora nobilis) were studied. Samples of scleractinium coral aquaculture skeleton of A. nobilis, A. formosa, and P. verrucosa met the requirements (all study parameters) to materials for osteoplasty and 3D-scaffolds for engineering of bone tissue. PMID:26388568

  16. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  17. Student Chemical Engineering Reflective ePortfolios--ChE Student Perceptions of Learning from Reflective ePortfolio Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.; Raisor, Cindy; Fowler, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Engineering educators and employers value and prioritize communication skills, but developing and assessing such skills in engineering programs is challenging. Reflective ePortfolios provide opportunities to enhance communication skills. The purpose of this three-­year qualitative case study was to investigate the use of reflective ePortfolios in…

  18. Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer based on nanobamboo array architecture for efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaotian; Liow, Chihao; Bisht, Ankit; Liu, Xinfeng; Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2015-04-01

    Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer for highly synergistic photocatalysis is successfully realized based on nanobamboo array architecture. Programmable assemblies of various components and heterogeneous interfaces, and, in turn, engineering of the energy band structure along the charge transport pathways, play a critical role in generating excellent synergistic effects of multiple components for promoting photocatalytic efficiency. PMID:25704499

  19. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  20. Technician Career Opportunities in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers' Council for Professional Development, New York, NY.

    Career opportunities for engineering technicians are available in the technologies relating to air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, aviation and aerospace, building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial engineering, instrumentation, internal combustion engines, mechanical…

  1. Proceedings of the 31. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2: Conversion technologies, electro-chemical technologies, Stirling engines, thermal management

    SciTech Connect

    Chetty, P.R.K.; Jackson, W.D.; Dicks, E.B.

    1996-12-31

    The 148 papers contained in Volume 2 are arranged topically as follows -- (A) Conversion Technologies: Superconductivity applications; Advanced cycles; Heat engines; Heat pumps; Combustion and cogeneration; Advanced nuclear reactors; Fusion Power reactors; Magnetohydrodynamics; Alkali metal thermal to electric conversion; Thermoelectrics; Thermionic conversion; Thermophotovoltaics; Advances in electric machinery; and Sorption technologies; (B) Electrochemical Technologies: Terrestrial fuel cell technology; and Batteries for terrestrial power; (C) Stirling Engines: Stirling machine analysis; Stirling machine development and testing; and Stirling component analysis and testing; (D) Thermal Management: Cryogenic heat transfer; Electronic components and power systems; Environmental control systems; Heat pipes; Numeric analysis and code verification; and Two phase heat and mass transfer. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  2. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  3. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  4. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  5. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  6. Identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds in chemical ionization GC-MS using a mass-to-structure (MTS) Search Engine with integral isotope pattern ranking.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M

    2013-02-21

    The mass-to-structure or MTS Search Engine is an Access 2010 database containing theoretical molecular mass information for 19,438 compounds assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. This database, which contains no experimental mass spectral data, was developed as an aid to identification of compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization (API)-LC-MS. This paper describes a powerful upgrade to this database, a fully integrated utility for filtering or ranking candidates based on isotope ratios and patterns. The new MTS Search Engine is applied here to the identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds including pesticides, nitrosoamines and other pollutants. Methane and isobutane chemical ionization (CI) GC-MS spectra were obtained from unit mass resolution mass spectrometers to determine MH(+) masses and isotope ratios. Isotopes were measured accurately with errors of <4% and <6%, respectively, for A + 1 and A + 2 peaks. Deconvolution of interfering isotope clusters (e.g., M(+) and [M - H](+)) was required for accurate determination of the A + 1 isotope in halogenated compounds. Integrating the isotope data greatly improved the speed and accuracy of the database identifications. The database accurately identified unknowns from isobutane CI spectra in 100% of cases where as many as 40 candidates satisfied the mass tolerance. The paper describes the development and basic operation of the new MTS Search Engine and details performance testing with over 50 model compounds. PMID:23248816

  7. Application of a Genetic Algorithm to the Optimization of Rate Constants in Chemical Kinetic Models for Combustion Simulation of HCCI Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Kyu; Ito, Kazuma; Yoshihara, Daisuke; Wakisaka, Tomoyuki

    For numerically predicting the combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, practical chemical kinetic models have been explored. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been applied to the optimization of the rate constants in detailed chemical kinetic models, and a detailed kinetic model (592 reactions) for gasoline reference fuels with arbitrary octane number between 60 and 100 has been obtained from the detailed reaction schemes for iso-octane and n-heptane proposed by Golovitchev. The ignition timing in a gasoline HCCI engine has been predicted reasonably well by zero-dimensional simulation using the CHEMKIN code with this detailed kinetic model. An original reduced reaction scheme (45 reactions) for dimethyl ether (DME) has been derived from Curran’s detailed scheme, and the combustion process in a DME HCCI engine has been predicted reasonably well in a practical computation time by three-dimensional simulation using the authors’ GTT code, which has been linked to the CHEMKIN subroutines with the proposed reaction scheme and also has adopted a modified eddy dissipation combustion model.

  8. Standard-B hydrogen monitoring system acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.T.

    1994-09-08

    Test Engineering was supported by Tank Waste Remediation System Safety Programs Engineering Support in the performance of an Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) to qualify the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) cabinet installed on waste tank 241-SY-103. The June 7, 1994 ATP performance was controlled by West Waste Tank Farms work package 2W-94-322. The ATP was conducted following the final installation of a second Whittaker electro-chemical hydrogen monitoring cell. The cabinet had been sited on the waste tank two years earlier, but never connected to the exhaust vent header to monitor Tank 241-SY-103 vent header exhaust gases. The cabinet was then modified, to remove two undesirable solid state hydrogen monitors and install a second Whittaker electro-chemical hydrogen monitoring sensor and signal conditioning. The ATP was used to assure that the cabinet wiring and components were properly installed and labeled and that the two years without operation had not seriously damaged the installed equipment. Electrical and pneumatic tests were performed to assure system integrity.

  9. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, Evan

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  10. Three-stage autoignition of gasoline in an HCCI engine: An experimental and chemical kinetic modeling investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon

    2008-12-15

    The alternative HCCI combustion mode presents a possible means for decreasing the pollution with respect to conventional gasoline or diesel engines, while maintaining the efficiency of a diesel engine or even increasing it. This paper investigates the possibility of using gasoline in an HCCI engine and analyzes the autoignition of gasoline in such an engine. The compression ratio that has been used is 13.5, keeping the inlet temperature at 70 C, varying the equivalence ratio from 0.3 to 0.54, and the EGR (represented by N{sub 2}) ratio from 0 to 37 vol%. For comparison, a PRF95 and a surrogate containing 11 vol% n-heptane, 59 vol% iso-octane, and 30 vol% toluene are used. A previously validated kinetic surrogate mechanism is used to analyze the experiments and to yield possible explanations to kinetic phenomena. From this work, it seems quite possible to use the high octane-rated gasoline for autoignition purposes, even under lean inlet conditions. Furthermore, it appeared that gasoline and its surrogate, unlike PRF95, show a three-stage autoignition. Since the PRF95 does not contain toluene, it is suggested by the kinetic mechanism that the benzyl radical, issued from toluene, causes this so-defined ''obstructed preignition'' and delaying thereby the final ignition for gasoline and its surrogate. The results of the kinetic mechanism supporting this explanation are shown in this paper. (author)

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  12. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  13. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  14. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  15. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  16. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  17. Learning in style: Investigation of factors impacting student success in chemical engineering at individual and team-levels with a focus on student learning styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskioglu, Elif Eda

    Our three studies examine the factors of learning styles, student self-efficacy, collective (team) efficacy, attitudes, perceptions, and performance at individual and team levels. Each study addresses a different environment: (i) Individual Level-we are interested in how variability in learning styles engaged by specific exam problems may correlate with student learning styles, self-efficacy, and performance in our introductory chemical engineering course, Process Fundamentals (i.e., mass and energy or material balances); (ii) Team Level-we are interested in understanding how team composition with respect to learning styles (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous teams) may influence these factors in the upper level Unit Operations course; (iii) Combinatorial Level-we are interested in understanding how collective efficacy may influence individual self-efficacy and again if there are any correlations with learning styles and performance in the senior level Process Design and Development course. Some of the most interesting results of these studies have stemmed from the study on individual students, which has shown correlations between learning style preferences and performance in specific instances. Even more interesting, evaluating and characterizing the learning styles that exam problems engage has shown strong variations in problem types by instructor. This presents new questions regarding how these variations may affect student understanding and subsequent performance. Also included are details regarding a course developed in Technical and Professional Communication (for Chemical Engineers) that was offered Spring 2014 and Spring 2015.

  18. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injection strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant

  19. Metabolic Engineering of a Glycerol-Oxidative Pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for Utilization of Bioethanol Thin Stillage: Potential To Produce Platform Chemicals from Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. PMID:25281374

  20. Metabolic engineering of a glycerol-oxidative pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for utilization of bioethanol thin stillage: potential to produce platform chemicals from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. PMID:25281374

  1. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  2. Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles Emitted by a Passenger Car Engine Fueled by Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, J. M.; Gross, D. S.; Dutcher, D. D.; Drayton, M.; Kittelson, D.; McMurry, P.

    2007-12-01

    With concerns of national security, climate change, and human health, many people have called for oil independence for the United States and for the creation of alternative fuels. Ethanol has been widely praised as a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuels, due to the fact that it can be produced locally. A great deal of work has been done to characterize the energy balance of ethanol production versus consumption, but there have been fewer studies of the environmental and health impacts of emissions from combustion of ethanol/gasoline mixtures such as those burned in the modern vehicle fleet. To study the particulate emissions from such fuels, different ethanol/gasoline fuel mixtures with 0, 20, 40, and 85% ethanol were burned in a dynamometer-mounted automobile engine. The engine exhaust was diluted and sampled with two aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers (TSI 3800 ATOFMS), sampling different particle size ranges (50-500 nm and 150-3000 nm, respectively), to measure size and composition of the emitted aerosol particles. A variety of other aerosol characterization techniques were also employed to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles, the mass emission rate from the engine, and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle emissions. Here we will focus on results from the ATOFMS, which provides us with a particle size and mass spectra - for both negative and positive ions - for each particle that is sampled. Particles being emitted were found to contain primarily PAHs, elemental carbon (EC), nitrates, and sulfates. Particles were analyzed to investigate trends in particle composition as a function of fuel ethanol content, particle size, and for the types of particles emitted. A trend in particle type as a function of fuel ethanol content was evident in smaller particles, and trends in composition as a function of particle size were visible across the entire size range sampled.

  3. Engineering a Chemical Switch into the Light-driven Proton Pump Proteorhodopsin by Cysteine Mutagenesis and Thiol Modification.

    PubMed

    Harder, Daniel; Hirschi, Stephan; Ucurum, Zöhre; Goers, Roland; Meier, Wolfgang; Müller, Daniel J; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-25

    For applications in synthetic biology, for example, the bottom-up assembly of biomolecular nanofactories, modules of specific and controllable functionalities are essential. Of fundamental importance in such systems are energizing modules, which are able to establish an electrochemical gradient across a vesicular membrane as an energy source for powering other modules. Light-driven proton pumps like proteorhodopsin (PR) are excellent candidates for efficient energy conversion. We have extended the versatility of PR by implementing an on/off switch based on reversible chemical modification of a site-specifically introduced cysteine residue. The position of this cysteine residue in PR was identified by structure-based cysteine mutagenesis combined with a proton-pumping assay using E. coli cells overexpressing PR and PR proteoliposomes. The identified PR mutant represents the first light-driven proton pump that can be chemically switched on/off depending on the requirements of the molecular system. PMID:27294681

  4. Quality control of automotive engine oils with mass-sensitive chemical sensors--QCMs and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Dickert, F L; Forth, P; Lieberzeit, P A; Voigt, G

    2000-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polyurethanes were used as sensor materials for monitoring the degradation of automotive engine oils. Imprinting with characteristic oils permits the analysis of these complex mixtures without accurately knowing their composition. Mass-sensitive quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) coated with such layers exhibit mass effects in addition to frequency shifts caused by viscosity, which can be compensated by an uncoated quartz or a non-imprint layer. Incorporation of degradation products into the imprinted coatings is a bulk phenomenon, which is proven by variation of the sensor layer height. Therefore, the resulting sensor effects are determined by the degradation products in the oil. PMID:11227411

  5. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  6. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

  7. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Jensen, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1989-91. Water in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, and ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins. Water levels in wells throughout the INEL generally declined during 1989-91 due to drought. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL decreased or remained constant during 1989-91. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption processes, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL were variable during 1989-91. Sodium and chloride concentrations in the southern part of the INEL increased slightly during 1989-91 because of increased waste-disposal rates and a lack of recharge from the Big Lost River. Plumes of 1,1,1-trichloroethane have developed near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex as a result of waste disposal practices.

  8. Covalent Attachment to GaP(110) - Engineering the Chemical Functionalization of a III-V Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A. J.; Ugeda, M. M.; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Min; Tilley, T. Don; Pérez, Rubén; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Crommie, M. F.

    2014-03-01

    With its 2.3 eV bulk bandgap, relatively high conduction band edge, and low chemical reactivity, the (110) surface of GaP is an excellent candidate for many UV and visible light applications, such as photo-catalysis and light-induced chemical reduction. However, the reconstruction and resulting charge transfer of the surface makes it difficult to covalently attach the required molecules. Indeed, very little work has been done to understand either covalent functionalization or passivation of this surface. Here we report on a Staudinger-type, thermally-driven covalent attachment of perfluorophenyl azide (pfpa) to GaP(110). We have studied the adsorption of pfpa molecules by means of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in combination with first principles calculations. We show a progression from a physisorbed state at room temperature to a covalently attached state after exposure to slightly higher temperatures (~ 50°C). The developed approach is expected to be valid for various other functional groups attached to the azide, as well as other III-V semiconductors.

  9. Chemical Equilibrium And Transport (CET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Powerful, machine-independent program calculates theoretical thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Aids in design of compressors, turbines, engines, heat exchangers, and chemical processing equipment.

  10. Re-engineering nalidixic acid's chemical scaffold: A step towards the development of novel anti-tubercular and anti-bacterial leads for resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Peraman, Ramalingam; Varma, Raghu Veer; Reddy, Y Padmanabha

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of antibacterial and antimycobacterial resistance stimulated a thrust to discover new drugs for infectious diseases. Herein we report the work on re-engineering nalidixic acid's chemical scaffold for newer leads. Stepwise clubbing of quinoxaline, 1,2,4-triazole/1,3,4-oxadiazole with nalidixic acid yielded better compounds. Compounds were screened against ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv species. Results were obtained as minimum inhibitory concentration, it was evident that molecule with quinoxaline linked azide as side chain served as antitubercular lead (<6.25 μg/ml) whilst molecule with oxadiazole or triazole linked quinoxaline side chain served as anti-bacterial lead. Few compounds were significantly active against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris with MIC less than 0.06 μg/ml and relatively potent than ciprofloxacin. No true compound was potentially active against Salmonella species as compared to amoxicillin. PMID:26277407

  11. Investigation of the chemical stability of the laser-induced fluorescence tracers acetone, diethylketone, and toluene under IC engine conditions using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Trost, Johannes; Zigan, Lars; Eichmann, Simone C; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the chemical stability of the common laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) tracers acetone, diethylketone, and toluene. Stability is analyzed using linear Raman spectroscopy inside a heated pressure cell with optical access, which is used for the LIF calibration of these tracers. The measurements examine the influence of temperature, pressure, and residence time on tracer oxidation, which occurs without a rise in temperature or pressure inside the cell, highlighting the need for optical detection. A comparison between the three different tracers shows large differences, with diethylketone having the lowest and toluene by far the highest stability. An analysis of the sensitivity of the measurement shows that the detection limit of the oxidized tracer is well below 3% molar fraction, which is typical for LIF applications in combustion devices such as internal combustion (IC) engines. Furthermore, the effect on the LIF signal intensity is examined in an isothermal turbulent mixing study. PMID:24085091

  12. CO/sub 2/ and carbonate chemistry applied to geothermal engineering. Guidance for interpreting and using chemical data about geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    The chemistry of high-HCO/sub 3/ resources is emphasized because they present special complications about data interpretation, development of vapor, and potential for scale deposition. Solubility of CO/sub 2/ and its exsolution from liquids is treated according to the unique context presented by geothermal resources. Contrasts between this approach and the treatment of CO/sub 2/ solubility in physical chemistry and other geochemical contexts are presented. Dimensional units for solubility coefficients different from those of physical chemists are presented to favor engineering application. The effects of CO/sub 2/ on wellbore flow, initiation of flashing, and depth of the 2-phase zone are described and illustrated with examples. To aid the understanding of fluid behavior and the interplay with the design process, specially constructed charts - chemical maps - are presented, examples given for their use, and directions given for their construction.

  13. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  14. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  15. Which biotech foods are most acceptable to the public?

    PubMed

    Lusk, Jayson L; McFadden, Brandon R; Rickard, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    New discoveries are prompting questions about which types of genetically engineered foods and applications are likely to be most accepted by the public. Results of a survey of over 1000 US consumers reveals that people prefer eating beef to eating corn or apples if the foods are not genetically engineered, but exactly the opposite is true if the foods are genetically engineered. Eating fresh food is preferred to processed, but much less so if both food types are genetically engineered. Desirability of genetic engineering depends on the reason for the biotechnology application. PMID:25388815

  16. Engineering of a Synthetic Metabolic Pathway for the Assimilation of (d)-Xylose into Value-Added Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Cam, Yvan; Alkim, Ceren; Trichez, Debora; Trebosc, Vincent; Vax, Amélie; Bartolo, François; Besse, Philippe; François, Jean Marie; Walther, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    A synthetic pathway for (d)-xylose assimilation was stoichiometrically evaluated and implemented in Escherichia coli strains. The pathway proceeds via isomerization of (d)-xylose to (d)-xylulose, phosphorylation of (d)-xylulose to obtain (d)-xylulose-1-phosphate (X1P), and aldolytic cleavage of the latter to yield glycolaldehyde and DHAP. Stoichiometric analyses showed that this pathway provides access to ethylene glycol with a theoretical molar yield of 1. Alternatively, both glycolaldehyde and DHAP can be converted to glycolic acid with a theoretical yield that is 20% higher than for the exclusive production of this acid via the glyoxylate shunt. Simultaneous expression of xylulose-1 kinase and X1P aldolase activities, provided by human ketohexokinase-C and human aldolase-B, respectively, restored growth of a (d)-xylulose-5-kinase mutant on xylose. This strain produced ethylene glycol as the major metabolic endproduct. Metabolic engineering provided strains that assimilated the entire C2 fraction into the central metabolism or that produced 4.3 g/L glycolic acid at a molar yield of 0.9 in shake flasks. PMID:26186096

  17. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M M; Peterson, J M

    1989-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon-Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA`s National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action.

  18. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injectionmore » strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still

  19. An experimental and numerical investigation on the influence of external gas recirculation on the HCCI autoignition process in an engine: Thermal, diluting, and chemical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon; Guibert, Philippe

    2008-11-15

    In order to contribute to the solution of controlling the autoignition in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, parameters linked to external gas recirculation (EGR) seem to be of particular interest. Experiments performed with EGR present some difficulties in interpreting results using only the diluting and thermal aspect of EGR. Lately, the chemical aspect of EGR is taken more into consideration, because this aspect causes a complex interaction with the dilution and thermal aspects of EGR. This paper studies the influence of EGR on the autoignition process and particularly the chemical aspect of EGR. The diluents present in EGR are simulated by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, with dilution factors going from 0 to 46 vol%. For the chemically active species that could be present in EGR, the species CO, NO, and CH{sub 2}O are used. The initial concentration in the inlet mixture of CO and NO is varied between 0 and 170 ppm, while that of CH{sub 2}O alters between 0 and 1400 ppm. For the investigation of the effect of the chemical species on the autoignition, a fixed dilution factor of 23 vol% and a fixed EGR temperature of 70 C are maintained. The inlet temperature is held at 70 C, the equivalence ratios between 0.29 and 0.41, and the compression ratio at 10.2. The fuels used for the autoignition are n-heptane and PRF40. It appeared that CO, in the investigated domain, did not influence the ignition delays, while NO had two different effects. At concentrations up until 45 ppm, NO advanced the ignition delays for the PRF40 and at higher concentrations, the ignition delayed. The influence of NO on the autoignition of n-heptane seemed to be insignificant, probably due to the higher burn rate of n-heptane. CH{sub 2}O seemed to delay the ignition. The results suggested that especially the formation of OH radicals or their consumption by the chemical additives determines how the reactivity of the autoignition changed. (author)

  20. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  1. Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci

    PubMed Central

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Young, Carolyn A.; Hesse, Uljana; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Andreeva, Kalina; Calie, Patrick J.; Fleetwood, Damien J.; Haws, David C.; Moore, Neil; Oeser, Birgitt; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Schweri, Kathryn K.; Voisey, Christine R.; Farman, Mark L.; Jaromczyk, Jerzy W.; Roe, Bruce A.; O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Scott, Barry; Tudzynski, Paul; An, Zhiqiang; Arnaoudova, Elissaveta G.; Bullock, Charles T.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Chen, Li; Cox, Murray; Dinkins, Randy D.; Florea, Simona; Glenn, Anthony E.; Gordon, Anna; Güldener, Ulrich; Harris, Daniel R.; Hollin, Walter; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Johnson, Richard D.; Khan, Anar K.; Leistner, Eckhard; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Li, Chunjie; Liu, JinGe; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Miao; Mace, Wade; Machado, Caroline; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Pan, Juan; Schmid, Jan; Sugawara, Koya; Steiner, Ulrike; Takach, Johanna E.; Tanaka, Eiji; Webb, Jennifer S.; Wilson, Ella V.; Wiseman, Jennifer L.; Yoshida, Ruriko; Zeng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some—including the infamous ergot alkaloids—have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne), and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the

  2. Applications of a morphological scene change detection (MSCD) for visual leak and failure identification in process and chemical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Harvey, Paul K.; Smith, Jeremy S.

    2010-10-01

    Morphological Scene Change Detection (MSCD) is a process typically tasked at detecting relevant changes in a guarded environment for security applications. This can be implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) by a combination of binary differences based around exclusive-OR (XOR) gates, mathematical morphology and a crucial threshold setting. The additional ability to set up the system in virtually any location due to the FPGA makes it ideal for insertion into an autonomous mobile robot for patrol duties. However, security is not the only potential of this robust algorithm. This paper details how such a system can be used for the detection of leaks in piping for use in the process and chemical industries and could be deployed as stated in the above manner. The test substance in this work was water, which was pumped either as a liquid or as low pressure steam through a simple pipe configuration with holes at set points to simulate the leaks. These holes were situated randomly at either the center of a pipe (in order to simulate an impact to it) or at a joint or corner (to simulate a failed weld). Imagery of the resultant leaks, which were visualised as drips or the accumulation of steam, which where analysed using MATLAB to determine their pixel volume in order to calibrate the trigger for the MSCD. The triggering mechanism is adaptive to make it possible in theory for the type of leak to be determined by the number of pixels in the threshold of the image and a numerical output signal to state which of the leak situations is being observed. The system was designed using the DSP Builder package from Altera so that its graphical nature is easily comprehensible to the non-embedded system designer. Furthermore, all the data from the DSP Builder simulation underwent verification against MATLAB comparisons using the image processing toolbox in order to validate the results.

  3. Identification, design and synthesis of oxygenated hydrocarbon-based carbon dioxide-soluble polymers for chemical and petroleum engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei

    Over the past two decades the use of sub/supercritical CO2 has received much attention as a green alternative to organic solvents for chemical processes because of its pressure-tunable physicochemical properties and economic advantages. However the advantages are diminished because of a relative narrow range of CO2-soluble materials. The goal of this work is to identify, design and synthesize oxygenated hydrocarbon-based CO 2-soluble polymers that are able to serve as construction blocks for copolymers, dispersants, surfactants, and thickeners. Without concerning on the cost and the environmental persistence like fluorinated materials, the inexpensive and environmentally benign materials would significantly enhance the viability of sub/supercritical CO2-based technology. Based on both experimental heuristics and ab initio simulation of molecular modeling (performed by Dr. Johnson's group), we proposed specific new polymer structures: poly (3-acetoxy oxetane) (PAO), poly (vinyl methoxymethyl ether) (PVMME), poly (vinyl 1-methoxyethyl ether) (PVMEE), and cellulose triacetate (CTA) oligomers. Phase behavior studies were also performed with novel CO 2-philic compounds containing vinyl acetate, propylene glycol, or multiple tert-butyl groups. PAO, PVMME and PVMME were soluble in CO2, but not as soluble as poly (vinyl acetate). Oligomers of cellulose triacetate with as many as four repeat units solubilized into dense CO2 less than 14 MPa in the concentration range of 1-5 wt%. Phase behaviors of more than twenty compounds in dense CO2 were studied in this project. A new type of phase behavior for solid CO2-philes that melt and dissolve in CO 2 was detailed using a model binary mixture of beta-D-maltose octaacetate and CO2. Copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and vinyl acetate (VAc) exhibited lower miscibility pressures than either of the homopolymers, probably due to quadradentate binding configurations with CO 2. Phase behavior investigation of poly (propylene glycol

  4. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  5. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  6. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  7. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan. 50.25-10 Section 50.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance of piping components by specific...

  8. GEOSAT Follow-on (GFO) Altimeter Document Series. Volume 1; GFO Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report: From Launch to Acceptance, 10 February 1998 to 29 November 2000; 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, David W., III; Hayne, George S.; Brooks, Ronald L.; Lockwood, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    The US Navy's Geosat Follow-On (GFO) Mission, launched on February 10, 1998, is the latest in a series of altimetric satellites which include Seasat, Geosat, ERS-1, and TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P). The purpose of this report is to document the GFO altimeter performance determined from the analyses and results performed by the NASA/GSFC/Wallops altimeter calibration team. It is the first of an anticipated series of NASA/GSFC/Wallops' GFO performance documents, each of which will update assessment results. This report covers the performance from launch to instrument acceptance by the Navy on November 29, 2000. Data derived from GFO will lead to improvements in the knowledge of ocean circulation, ice sheet topography, and climate change. In order to capture the maximum amount of information from the GFO data, accurate altimeter calibrations are required for the civilian data set which NOAA will produce. Wallops Flight Facility has provided similar products for the Geosat and T/P missions and is doing the same for GFO.

  9. Chemical pollution from transportation vehicles.

    PubMed

    Starkman, E S

    1969-04-01

    Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

  10. The Use of Chemical and Physical Properties for Characterization of Strontium Distribution Coefficients at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Rosentreter; R. Nieves; J. Kalivas; J. P. Rousseau; R. C. Bartholomay

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study to determine strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of surficial sediments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Batch experimental techniques were used to determine experimental Kds of 20 surficial-sediment samples from the INEEL. The Kds describe the distribution of a solute between the solution and solid phase. A best-fit model was obtained using a four-variable data set consisting of surface area, manganese oxide concentration, specific conductance, and pH. Application of the model to an independent split of the data resulted in an average relative error of prediction of 20 percent and a correlation coefficient of 0.921 between predicted and observed strontium Kds. Chemical and physical characteristics of the solution and sediment that could successfully predict the Kd values were identified. Prediction variable select ion was limited to variables which are either easily determined or have available tabulated characteristics. The selection criterion could circumvent the need for time- and labor-intensive laboratory experiments and provide an alternate faster method for estimating strontium Kds.

  11. Technical and Engineering Feasibility Study of the Vitrification of Plutonium-Bearing Sludges at the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine by Means of Microwave Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Revenko, Y.A.; Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Vassilyev, A.V.; Borisov, G.B.; Nazarov, A.V.; Aloy, A.S.; Shvedov, A.A.; Gusakov, B.V.; Jardine, L.J.

    2000-03-03

    This engineering feasibility study compared three possible technical options and their economic viability of processing plutonium-bearing sludges containing 0.6 MT of weapons-grade Pu accumulated at the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC) at Krasnoyarsk. In Option 1, the baseline, the sludges are processed by extraction and purification of plutonium for storage using existing technologies, and the non-soluble radioactive residues generated in these processes undergo subsequent solidification by cementation. Options 2 and 3 involve the direct immobilization of plutonium-bearing sludges into a solid matrix (without any Pu extraction) using a microwave solidification process in a metal crucible to produce a glass, which is boron-silicate in Option 2 and phosphate glass in Option 3. In all three options, the solid radioactive waste end products will be placed in storage for eventual geologic disposal. Immobilization of residual plutonium into glass-like matrices provides both safer storage over the lifetime of the radionuclides and greater security against unauthorized access to stored materials than does the extraction and concentration of PuO{sub 2}, supporting our efforts toward non-proliferation of fissile materials. Although immobilization in boron-silicate glass appears now to be marginally preferable compared to the phosphate glass option, a number of technical issues remain to be assessed by further study to determine the preferable immobilization option.

  12. Combining chemoinformatics with bioinformatics: in silico prediction of bacterial flavor-forming pathways by a chemical systems biology approach "reverse pathway engineering".

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjin; Bienfait, Bruno; Sacher, Oliver; Gasteiger, Johann; Siezen, Roland J; Nauta, Arjen; Geurts, Jan M W

    2014-01-01

    The incompleteness of genome-scale metabolic models is a major bottleneck for systems biology approaches, which are based on large numbers of metabolites as identified and quantified by metabolomics. Many of the revealed secondary metabolites and/or their derivatives, such as flavor compounds, are non-essential in metabolism, and many of their synthesis pathways are unknown. In this study, we describe a novel approach, Reverse Pathway Engineering (RPE), which combines chemoinformatics and bioinformatics analyses, to predict the "missing links" between compounds of interest and their possible metabolic precursors by providing plausible chemical and/or enzymatic reactions. We demonstrate the added-value of the approach by using flavor-forming pathways in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as an example. Established metabolic routes leading to the formation of flavor compounds from leucine were successfully replicated. Novel reactions involved in flavor formation, i.e. the conversion of alpha-hydroxy-isocaproate to 3-methylbutanoic acid and the synthesis of dimethyl sulfide, as well as the involved enzymes were successfully predicted. These new insights into the flavor-formation mechanisms in LAB can have a significant impact on improving the control of aroma formation in fermented food products. Since the input reaction databases and compounds are highly flexible, the RPE approach can be easily extended to a broad spectrum of applications, amongst others health/disease biomarker discovery as well as synthetic biology. PMID:24416282

  13. Chemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1991--93

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, B.J.; Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled 14 wells during 1991--93 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for manmade contaminants and naturally occurring constituents. One hundred sixty-one samples were collected from 10 ground-water monitoring wells and 4 production wells. Twenty-one quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed; 2 were blank samples and 19 were replicate samples. The two blank samples contained concentrations of six inorganic constituents that were slightly greater than the laboratory reporting levels (the smallest measured concentration of a constituent that can be reported using a given analytical method). Concentrations of other constituents in the blank samples were less than their respective reporting levels. The 19 replicate samples and their respective primary samples generated 614 pairs of analytical results for a variety of chemical and radiochemical constituents. Of the 614 data pairs, 588 were statistically equivalent at the 95% confidence level; about 96% of the analytical results were in agreement. Two pairs of turbidity measurements were not evaluated because of insufficient information and one primary sample collected in January 1992 contained tentatively identified organic compounds when the replicate sample did not.

  14. Acceptance test procedure for the 105-KW isolation barrier leak rate

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, K.J.

    1995-05-19

    This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared in accordance with CM-6-1 EP 4.2, Standard Engineering Practices.

  15. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  16. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  17. High Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0831, for the construction and operation of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement (HLWTFR) Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The HLWTFR Project as originally proposed by the DOE and as analyzed in this EA included: (1) replacement of five high-level liquid waste storage tanks with four new tanks and (2) the upgrading of existing tank relief piping and high-level liquid waste transfer systems. As a result of the April 1992 decision to discontinue the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at INEL, DOE believes that it is unlikely that the tank replacement aspect of the project will be needed in the near term. Therefore, DOE is not proposing to proceed with the replacement of the tanks as described in this-EA. The DOE`s instant decision involves only the proposed upgrades aspect of the project described in this EA. The upgrades are needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act requirements, and the Department`s obligations pursuant to the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement and Consent Order among the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Idaho. The environmental impacts of the proposed upgrades are adequately covered and are bounded by the analysis in this EA. If DOE later proposes to proceed with the tank replacement aspect of the project as described in the EA or as modified, it will undertake appropriate further review pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act.

  18. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  19. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  20. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  1. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  3. A new cascade-less engine operated from subsonic to hypersonic conditions: designed by computational fluid dynamics of compressible turbulence with chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitoh, Ken; Nakamura, Kazushi; Emoto, Takehiro

    2010-12-01

    By using our computational fluid dynamic models, a new type of single engine capable of operating over a wide range of Mach numbers from subsonic to hypersonic regimes is proposed for airplanes, whereas traditional piston engines, turbojet engines, and scram engines work only under a narrower range of operating conditions. The new engine has no compressors or turbines such as those used in conventional turbojet engines. An important point is its system of super multijets that collide to compress gas for the transonic regime. Computational fluid dynamics is applied to clarify the potential of this engine. The peak pressure at the combustion center is over 2.5 MPa, while that just before ignition is over 1.0 MPa. The maximum power of this engine will be sufficient for actual use. Under the conditions of higher Mach numbers, the main intake passage located in front of the super multijet nozzles, takes in air more. That results in a ram or scramjet engine for supersonic and hypersonic conditions.

  4. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  5. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  6. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  7. A Course in... Biochemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Terry K-L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for senior undergraduates and first year graduate students in biochemical engineering. Discusses five experiments used in the course: aseptic techniques, dissolved oxygen measurement, oxygen uptake by yeast, continuous sterilization, and cultivation of microorganisms. (MVL)

  8. Biocommodity Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  9. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  10. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  11. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  12. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  13. The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2010-03-01

    The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

  14. THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES ACCEPTANCE (ETA) PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Christina B. Behr-Andres

    2001-10-01

    The objective of the Environmental Technologies Acceptance (ETA) Program at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to advance the development, commercial acceptance, and timely deployment of selected private sector technologies for the cleanup of sites in the nuclear defense complex as well as the greater market. As a result of contract changes approved by National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) representatives to incorporate activities previously conducted under another NETL agreement, there are now an additional task and an expansion of activities within the stated scope of work of the ETA program. As shown in Table 1, this cooperative agreement, funded by NETL (No. DE-FC26-00NT40840), consists of four tasks: Technology Selection, Technology Development, Technology Verification, and System Engineering. As currently conceived, ETA will address the needs of as many technologies as appropriate under its current 3-year term. There are currently four technical subtasks: Long-Term Stewardship Initiative at the Mound Plant Site; Photocatalysis of Mercury-Contaminated Water; Subcritical Water Treatment of PCB and Metal-Contaminated Paint Waste; and Vegetative Covers for Low-Level Waste Repositories. This report covers activities during the second six months of the three-year ETA program.

  15. Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

  16. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  17. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  18. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing incidents of plagiarism by college students. College students rated the acceptability of different responses by college faculty to a case description of a college student who engaged in plagiarism. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by…

  19. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  20. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  1. 46 CFR 162.060-12 - Use and acceptance of existing test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use and acceptance of existing test data. 162.060-12 Section 162.060-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-12 Use and acceptance of...

  2. W-026, acceptance test report fire alarm system (submittal number 1571.1)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-16

    This Acceptance Test Report was written by 3-D Protection Systems, Inc., and PCL Construction. WRAP I Facility Engineering, Solid Waste Fire Safety, Kaiser Acceptance Inspector and Hanford Fire Department personnel witnessed this test. All exceptions were resolved. The resolutions are attached. Contractor`s Material and Test Certificates are attached. Results from Solid Waste Industrial Hygiene sound level surveys are also included.

  3. 46 CFR 54.05-17 - Weld toughness test acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. 54.05-17 Section 54.05-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-17 Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. (a) For Charpy...

  4. 46 CFR 54.05-17 - Weld toughness test acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. 54.05-17 Section 54.05-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-17 Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. (a) For Charpy...

  5. 14 CFR 151.123 - Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning agreement. 151.123 Section 151.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.123 Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance...

  6. 14 CFR 151.123 - Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance planning agreement. 151.123 Section 151.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.123 Procedures: Offer; amendment; acceptance; advance...

  7. Microbial Consortia Engineering for Cellular Factories: in vitro to in silico systems

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Hans C; Carlson, Ross P

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review discusses the current state of experimental and computational microbial consortia engineering with a focus on cellular factories. A discussion of promising ecological theories central to community resource usage is presented to facilitate interpretation of consortial designs. Recent case studies exemplifying different resource usage motifs and consortial assembly templates are presented. The review also highlights in silico approaches to design and to analyze consortia with an emphasis on stoichiometric modeling methods. The discipline of microbial consortia engineering possesses a widely accepted potential to generate highly novel and effective bio-catalysts for applications from biofuels to specialty chemicals to enhanced mineral recovery. PMID:24688677

  8. Computers in Engineering Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This bibliography cites 26 books, papers, and reports dealing with various uses of computers in engineering education; and describes several computer programs available for use in teaching aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and electronic, mechanical, and nuclear engineering. Each computer program entry is presented by name, author,…

  9. Engineering Technology Curriculum Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes curriculum guidelines for the following engineering technologies: chemical, industrial, mining, petroleum, nuclear, civil, mechanical, electrical, automotive, and manufacturing. In a few years, these Engineering Council for Professional Development committee guidelines are intended to become the criteria by which programs will be judged…

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Four - Appendix G

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix G. Appendix G is a presentation of VOC chromatography data collected during the study. Information on the calibration curves and calibration checks used as well as the sample GC reports themselves are included here. The concentration values presented on the GC reports are calculation using the data from the applicable calibration curve and any necessary dilutions which were made.

  11. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining; L. J. Campbell

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  12. Medium-depth chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Monheit, G D

    2001-07-01

    The combination medium-depth chemical peel (Jessner's solution +35% TCA) has been accepted as a safe, reliable, and effective method for the treatment of moderate photoaging skin. This article discusses the procedure in detail, including postoperative considerations. PMID:11599398

  13. The Chemical Heritage Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    1998-04-01

    This first in a series of articles on the Chemical Heritage Foundation will outline a brief history of the foundation and give an overview of its present programs, with emphasis on the Othmer Library of Chemical History. The Chemical Heritage Foundation (CHF) is a unique asset and unique partnership of the chemical community. It had its origins in a simple written agreement some 15 years ago, in January 1982. CHF's mission of recording, preserving, and making known the heritage of chemical achievement does not reflect the concerns of the chemical corporations or of anyone directly concerned with the "image" or economic and political future of the chemical sciences. Rather, it was an idea of academics and professional scientists. Thus it was appropriate that the three founding organizations were the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the University of Pennsylvania.

  14. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  15. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  16. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate must subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to an acceptable...) The test runs required by paragraph (a) of this section may be made with the engine...

  17. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate must subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to an acceptable...) The test runs required by paragraph (a) of this section may be made with the engine...

  18. Development, Implementation, and Analysis of Desktop-Scale Model Industrial Equipment and a Critical Thinking Rubric for Use in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golter, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to address some of the challenges facing engineering education, namely the demand that students be better prepared to practice professional as well as technical skills, we have developed an intervention consisting of equipment, assessments and a novel pedagogy. The equipment consists of desktop-scale replicas of common industrial…

  19. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  20. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  1. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  2. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  4. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3... Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance officer shall, within 15 days, complete and send the contractor a DD Form 1637, Notice of Acceptance...

  5. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  6. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  8. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  9. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

  10. TERMINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTING PROCESSES IN THE ALLUVIAL SEDIMENTS OF A HEADWATER STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical fluxes between catchments and streams are influenced by biochemical processes in the groundwater-stream water (GW-SW) ecotone, the interface between stream surface water and groundwater. Terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) that are utilized in respiration of ...

  11. Strain-Based Acceptance Criteria for Energy-Limited Events

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer D. Snow; Dana K. Morton

    2009-07-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code was primarily written with stress-based acceptance criteria. These criteria are applicable to force, displacement, and energy-controlled loadings and ensure a factor of safety against failure. However, stress-based acceptance criteria are often quite conservative for one time energy-limited events such as accidental drops and impacts. For several years, the ASME Working Group on Design of Division 3 Containments has been developing the Design Articles for Section III, Division 3, “Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material and Waste,” and has wanted to establish strain-based acceptance criteria for accidental drops of containments. This Division 3 working group asked the Working Group on Design Methodology (WGDM) to assist in developing these strain-based acceptance criteria. This paper discusses the current proposed strain-based acceptance criteria, associated limitations of use, its background development, and the current status.

  12. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 50 SLURRY FOR SALTSTONE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, APRIL 2007 SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2007-12-07

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of the second quarter April 2007 sampling of Tank 50H for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Six one liter samples were taken in polyethylene bottles to analyze for the WAC contaminants and a 200 mL sample was taken in a steel container for analysis of volatile organic compounds. The information from this characterization will be given to Waste Solidification Engineering personnel to qualify the transfer of aqueous waste to the Saltstone Facility. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) All six of the one liter samples taken in April 2007 from the mixed slurry in Tank 50 have the same compositions within the experimental uncertainty of the analyses. (2) Of the ninety-one process, chemical, and radioactive WAC target or limit contaminants listed in Revision 7 of the 'Waste Acceptance Criteria for Aqueous Waste sent to the Z-Area Saltstone Production Facility', eighty-nine had concentrations that were unequivocally less than the WAC limit or target. (3) The two contaminants whose concentrations could not be shown to be less than their WAC targets were methanol and radioactive Nb-93m. Currently the AD Section of SRNL does not have a method for measuring methanol in caustic solutions. For Nb-93m the results are ambiguous due to possible interferences in the ICP-MS analysis from Zr-93 or Mo-93. (4) Of the six additional chemical and radioactive contaminants requested in the TTR for Saltstone qualification, five were measured or calculated. These were Sb, Be, Tl, along with total beta and gamma. The AD Section does not have a method to measure the 6th contaminant which was the cyanide ion.

  14. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    The major accomplishments were the completion of the Basic Stirling Engine (BSE) and the Stirling Engine System (SES) designs on schedule, the approval and acceptance of those designs by NASA, and the initiation of manufacture of BSE components. The performance predictions indicate the Mod II engine design will meet or exceed the original program goals of 30% improvement in fuel economy over a conventional Internal Combustion (IC) powered vehicle, while providing acceptable emissions. This was accomplished while simultaneously reducing Mod II engine weight to a level comparable with IC engine power density, and packaging the Mod II in a 1985 Celebrity with no external sheet metal changes. The projected mileage of the Mod II Celebrity for the combined urban and highway CVS cycle is 40.9 mpg which is a 32% improvement over the IC Celebrity. If additional potential improvements are verified and incorporated in the Mod II, the mileage could increase to 42.7 mpg.

  15. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  16. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  17. Supramolecular engineering through temperature-induced chemical modification of 2H-tetraphenylporphyrin on Ag(111): flat phenyl conformation and possible dehydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Di Santo, Giovanni; Blankenburg, Stephan; Castellarin-Cudia, Carla; Fanetti, Mattia; Borghetti, Patrizia; Sangaletti, Luigi; Floreano, Luca; Verdini, Alberto; Magnano, Elena; Bondino, Federica; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Nguyen, Manh-Thuong; Gaspari, Roberto; Passerone, Daniele; Goldoni, Andrea

    2011-12-16

    Scratching the surface: Formation of a monolayer of 2H-tetraphenylporphyrins (2H-TPP) on Ag(111), either by sublimation of a multilayer in the range 525-600 K or by annealing (at the same temperature) a monolayer deposited at room temperature, induces a chemical modification of the molecules. Rotation of the phenyl rings into a flat conformation is observed and tentatively explained, by using DFT calculations, as a peculiar reaction due to molecular dehydrogenation. PMID:22113855

  18. Chemical and process thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    The book is intended mainly to be used as a text for undergraduate chemical engineering studies. Presented is a unified and up-to-date treatment of the major chemical and engineering applications of thermodynamics. Special features include a four chapter sequence on phase equilibrium which begins with simple concepts discussions. More difficult concepts are introduced gradually. Partial molar properties and infinite dilution activity coefficients appear toward the end of the sequence. Solution behavior, including activity coefficients via UNIVAC, is covered. Chapter 14 discusses heat exchange, separation processes, and second law analysis of chemical processes. Chapter 12 provides a firm foundation for chemical equilibrium, and Chapter 13 includes complex chemical equilibrium and free energy minimization. A selection of end-of-chapter problems is included to help the student apply principles and concepts in practical situations.

  19. Development, implementation, and analysis of desktop-scale model industrial equipment and a critical thinking rubric for use in chemical engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golter, Paul B.

    In order to address some of the challenges facing engineering education, namely the demand that students be better prepared to practice professional as well as technical skills, we have developed an intervention consisting of equipment, assessments and a novel pedagogy. The equipment consists of desktop-scale replicas of common industrial equipment. These are implemented in the form of modular cartridges that can be interchanged in a base unit containing water, power and instrumentation. These Desktop Learning Modules (DLMs) are effective at providing a hands on experience in most classroom environments without requiring either water or power hook-ups. Furthermore, the DLMs respond quickly enough that multiple experiments by multiple groups can be run in a single one hour class. We refined an existing critical thinking rubric to be more specific to the realm of engineering problem solving. By altering our pedagogy to a project based environment using the critical thinking rubric as a primary grading tool, we are able to observe and measure the critical thinking skills of student groups. This rubric is corroborated with an industrial perspective and measures constructs that are important to the students' future careers.

  20. Green strategy from waste to value-added-chemical production: efficient biosynthesis of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine by an engineered biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Value-added intermediates produced by microorganisms during the catabolism of N-heterocycles are potential building blocks for agrochemical synthesis and pharmaceutical production. 6-Hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine (HSP), an intermediate in nicotine degradation, is an important precursor for the synthesis of drugs and compounds with biological activities. In the present study, we show that an engineered biocatalyst, Pseudomonas putida P-HSP, efficiently produced HSP from the renewable raw material of tobacco-waste that contains a high concentration of nicotine. The genetically constructed strain P-HSP realized a high accumulation of HSP, and HSP production was 3.7-fold higher than the non-engineered strain S16. Under optimal conditions, HSP was produced at high concentrations of 6.8 g l−1 and 16.3 g l−1 from tobacco-waste and nicotine, respectively. This work demonstrates a green strategy to block the catabolic pathway of N-heterocycles, which is a promising approach for the mutasynthesis of valuable compounds. PMID:24953905

  1. Green strategy from waste to value-added-chemical production: efficient biosynthesis of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine by an engineered biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Value-added intermediates produced by microorganisms during the catabolism of N-heterocycles are potential building blocks for agrochemical synthesis and pharmaceutical production. 6-Hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine (HSP), an intermediate in nicotine degradation, is an important precursor for the synthesis of drugs and compounds with biological activities. In the present study, we show that an engineered biocatalyst, Pseudomonas putida P-HSP, efficiently produced HSP from the renewable raw material of tobacco-waste that contains a high concentration of nicotine. The genetically constructed strain P-HSP realized a high accumulation of HSP, and HSP production was 3.7-fold higher than the non-engineered strain S16. Under optimal conditions, HSP was produced at high concentrations of 6.8 g l(-1) and 16.3 g l(-1) from tobacco-waste and nicotine, respectively. This work demonstrates a green strategy to block the catabolic pathway of N-heterocycles, which is a promising approach for the mutasynthesis of valuable compounds. PMID:24953905

  2. Biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters by metabolically engineered bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Tae Wan; Jung, Yu Kyung; Yang, Taek Ho

    2012-02-01

    Due to increasing concerns about environmental problems, climate change and limited fossil resources, bio-based production of chemicals and polymers is gaining attention as one of the solutions to these problems. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters that can be produced by microbial fermentation. PHAs are synthesized using monomer precursors provided from diverse metabolic pathways and are accumulated as distinct granules inside the cells. On the other hand, most so-called bio-based polymers including polybutylene succinate, polytrimethylene terephthalate, and polylactic acid (PLA) are synthesized by a chemical process using monomers produced by fermentation. PLA, an attractive biomass-derived plastic, is currently synthesized by heavy metal-catalyzed ring opening polymerization of L-lactide that is made from fermentation-derived L-lactic acid. Recently, a complete biological process for the production of PLA and PLA copolymers from renewable resources has been developed by direct fermentation of recombinant bacteria employing PHA biosynthetic pathways coupled with a novel metabolic pathway. This could be accomplished by establishing a pathway for generating lactyl-CoA and engineering PHA synthase to accept lactyl-CoA as a substrate combined with systems metabolic engineering. In this article, we review recent advances in the production of lactate-containing homo- and co-polyesters. Challenges remaining to efficiently produce PLA and its copolymers and strategies to overcome these challenges through metabolic engineering combined with enzyme engineering are discussed. PMID:22057878

  3. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  4. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  5. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

  6. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  7. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 966.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary within ten days after being notified...

  8. 7 CFR 924.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 924.25 Section 924.25 Agriculture....25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary promptly after being notified...

  9. 7 CFR 924.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 924.25 Section 924.25 Agriculture....25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary promptly after being notified...

  10. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 923.25 Acceptance. Any person prior... written acceptance of willingness to serve on the committee....

  11. 7 CFR 993.31 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 993.31 Section 993.31 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Prune Marketing Committee § 993.31 Acceptance. Each person selected as a... with the Secretary a written acceptance within 15 days after receiving notice of his selection....

  12. 7 CFR 1215.23 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1215.23 Section 1215.23 Agriculture... Acceptance. Each individual nominated for membership of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary at the time of nomination....

  13. 7 CFR 906.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 906.25 Section 906.25 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.25 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the...

  14. 7 CFR 946.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 946.26 Section 946.26 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.26 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a committee member or as an alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  15. 7 CFR 959.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 959.29 Section 959.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance within ten days after being notified of such selection....

  16. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank Export... bankers' acceptances (“BAs”) that may be created by an individual member bank from 50 per cent (or 100...

  17. 24 CFR 3282.355 - Submission acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Submission acceptance. 3282.355... § 3282.355 Submission acceptance. (a) A party whose submission is determined by the Department to be adequate shall be granted provisional acceptance until December 15, 1976, or for a six month period...

  18. 7 CFR 906.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 906.25 Section 906.25 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.25 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the...

  19. 24 CFR 3282.355 - Submission acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission acceptance. 3282.355... § 3282.355 Submission acceptance. (a) A party whose submission is determined by the Department to be adequate shall be granted provisional acceptance until December 15, 1976, or for a six month period...

  20. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...