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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Non-Tariff Barriers, Market Access and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the effects of non-tariff barriers, in terms of both variable and fixed export costs, on trade structure. The relationship between fixed and variable trade costs determines whether international trade emerges. If trade emerges, only variable, but not fixed export costs, influence the trade structure. The empirical results suggest that non-tariff barriers act, in particular, as fixed export

Thomas Mathä

2001-01-01

2

NON-TARIFF TRADE BARRIERS IN AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As trade agreements lower tariff rates throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These non-tariff barriers can be just as troublesome for exporting companies. Non-tariff barriers include technical measures, customs rules and procedures, transport regulations or costs, lack of knowledge of regional markets, and import policies. The objective of this study is to identify non-tariff barriers faced by U.S.,

Jeremy W. Mattson; Won W. Koo; Richard D. Taylor

2004-01-01

3

Market Access Rivalry and Ecolabeling Standards: Are Eco-labels Non-tariff Barriers in Disguise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the merits of eco-labeling as a consumer information and market-based environmental policy alternative, the promise that green consumerism holds in encouraging environmentally conscious production decisions also raises concerns over whether eco-labeling deters the market access of developing countries in high income countries, and e®ectively serves the role of a non-tari® barrier to trade. In this paper, we disentangle the

Arnab K. Basu; Nancy H. Chau

2001-01-01

4

Quantifying non-tariff measures in international agricultural trade: a tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade on African horticultural exports to the European markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh food and agricultural products from sub- Saharan Africa meet few tariff barriers because of preferential market access granted to ACP countries through Lomé and Cotonou Act. However, non-tariff barriers are still serious impediments to trade. This paper focuses more specifically on technical barriers to trade (TBT) and sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) on horticultural exports from Kenya and Zambia

Nicodeme Nimenya; Bruno Henry de Frahan; Pascal-Firmin Ndimira

2008-01-01

5

Quantifying non-tariff measures in international agricultural trade: a tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade on African horticultural exports to the European markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrac t— Fresh food and agricultural products from sub- Saharan Africa meet few tariff barriers because of preferential market access granted to ACP countries through Lomé and Cotonou Act. However, non-tariff barriers are still serious impediments to trade. This paper focuses more specifically on technical barriers to trade (TBT) and sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) on horticultural exports from Kenya

Henry de Frahan

6

78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry...increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI...non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports of...

2013-03-07

7

75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry...increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI...non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports of...

2010-02-24

8

Trade Possibilities and Non-Tariff Barriers to Indo-Pak Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify the bilateral trade possibilities and non-tariff barriers between India and Pakistan. The study shows that there is a large untapped trade potential between the two countries. Using the potential trade approach, the study finds that the export potential from India to Pakistan is to the tune of US$ 9.5 billion while that from Pakistan to

Nisha Taneja

2007-01-01

9

Sustaining Free Trade with Imperfect Private Information about Non-Tariff Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the issue of sustaining free trade when countries receive imperfect private information about each other’s non-tariff barriers. Because the countries can misrepresent their private belief about other countries’ protection levels, the punishment scheme to deter deviations from free trade should provide right incentives for the countries to elicit the true private information. This incentive constraint (ICP) restricts

Jee-Hyeong Park

2004-01-01

10

Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout th e world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTB s include any of a number of hindrances that restric t the ability of companies to export. NTB s may now have a greater impact on trade than tariff

Z. Ardakani; S. Yazdani; O. Gilanpour

2009-01-01

11

The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.  

PubMed

International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779

Lupien, John R

2002-07-01

12

Domestic support and tariff reductions in the presence of non-tariff barriers: A gravity model for primary and processed agricultural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural trade liberalization negotiations are currently at a crossroads. Progress was made to eliminate export subsidies, but small open economies’ demand for lower domestic support and tariffs on agricultural goods do not find much support among large policy active countries. Many non-tariff barriers still also impede agricultural trade. This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a gravity model to explain

Lota Tamini; Pascal Ghazalian; Jean-Philippe Gervais; Bruno Larue

2006-01-01

13

On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-González and Padrón-Fumero [Moraga-González, J.L., Padrón-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource

Tsuyoshi Toshimitsu

2008-01-01

14

Technical Barriers, Import Licenses And Tariffs As Means Of Limiting Market Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff

Jan G. JØrgensen; Philipp J. H. Schrodery

2004-01-01

15

An Assessment of Environmentally related Non-tariff Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

International trade can affect the environment in different ways. This may justify the introduction of border measures by the importing countries. In addition to various dispositions in the GATT, GATS, TRIPs agreements, as well as in the Agreement on Agriculture, this issue is regulated by the agreements on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and on the application of Sanitary and

Lionel Fontagné; Friedrich von Kirchbach; Mondher Mimouni

2005-01-01

16

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) Activities 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the activities and progress reports of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) committees related to: Action related to the 1982 GATT Ministerial Work Program; Quantitative restrictions and other non-tariff measures; GATT rules a...

1985-01-01

17

Chinese accession to the WTO: Economic implications for China, other Asian and North American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, using a dynamic, multi-sector and multi-country Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model, analyses the combined economic impact of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers on textiles and apparel by the industrialized countries in China and North America and other major economies. The combined impacts of these two policy initiatives

Madanmohan Ghosh; Someshwar Rao

2010-01-01

18

Market Access for Developing Countries' Exports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on Tuesday May 8, 2001, Market Access for Developing Countries' Exports is a 61-page report that strives to show that developing countries are also benefiting from multilateral, unilateral, and regional trade liberalization. The report is divided into three main sections. Protection in Merchandise Trade offers information on tariffs, agricultural subsidies and non-tariff measures, and trade preferences. The second section, Trade in Services, provides background, current research, and forecasts in two categories: barriers to trade in services and measuring barriers to trade in services. Finally, the last section explores the benefits of liberalizations in several different factions.

19

The Precautionary Principle and Other Non-Tariff Barriers to Free and Fair International Food Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food

John R. Lupien

2002-01-01

20

Non-tariff Barriers to Trade Caused by SPS Measures and Customs Procedures with Product Quality Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a methodology to quantify the combined effects of two major nontariff barriers (NTBs), sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and customs and administrative procedures. We employ a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) utility function with factor-augmenting technical progress to incorporate changes in the quality of goods. We then estimate the effects of these two NTBs in the Japanese

Lan Liu; Chengyan Yue

2009-01-01

21

Non-Tariff Measures: A global context for the changing international competitiveness of the Canadian softwood lumber industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian softwood lumber industry is currently at a critical juncture in its development. Despite a global trend towards liberal- ized trade and the removal of trade restrictions, exporters of softwood lumber—one of Canada's most important economic sectors— find themselves embroiled in a contentious trade dispute once again. This paper has the overarching aim of stepping back from the details

David H. Cohen; Nobuyuki Muto; Robert A. Kozak

2003-01-01

22

Market Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negotiation of improved market access in agriculture is crucial to the success of the Doha Round. The depth of tariff cuts will be the main indication of the level of ambition of the agricultural talks and hence the Round as a whole. Agricultural tariffs remain five times higher than tariffs in industrial goods, and account for the bulk of

Mario Jales; Timothy E. Josling; Andre Meloni Nassar; M. Ann Tutwiler

2005-01-01

23

American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT and T) FTS 2000 Tariff 16 Pricing and NPA/NXX Access Area Cross Reference Tables (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diskette contains the pricing data and formats for FTS2000 Network A, as contained in Tariff 16. Prices are contained in /DATA directory. Price table formats are contained in the /FMT directory. One file exists in each directory for each FTS2000 prici...

1994-01-01

24

American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT and T) FTS 2000 Tariff 16 Pricing and NPA/NXX Access Area Cross Reference Tables (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One diskette contains the pricing data and formats for FTS2000 Network A, as contained in Tariff 16. Prices are contained in /DATA directory. Price table formats are contained in the /FMT directory. One file exists in each directory for each FTS2000 prici...

1993-01-01

25

Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments  

SciTech Connect

As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

2012-11-15

26

46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tariff number; (3) Tariff title; (4) Tariff type (e.g., commodity...shall be preceded by their associated 2-digit prefixes, with the remaining digits...optional); (3) Publication date; (4) Effective date; (5) Origin...

2013-10-01

27

Accessibility  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Center for Cancer Research (CCR) wants the information on this Web site to be accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let us know.

28

49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Identification of tariff publication. 1312.8 Section 1312.8 Transportation...SERVICE TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR...1312.8 Identification of tariff publication. (a) Every tariff...

2013-10-01

29

49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6 Section 1310.6 Transportation...1310.6 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Copies of tariffs, specific...charges for furnishing copies of tariff publications to interested persons. If a...

2013-10-01

30

British American Tobacco's tactics during China's accession to the World Trade Organization  

PubMed Central

Background China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 after years of negotiations. As a WTO member, China had to reduce tariffs on imported cigarettes and remove non?tariff barriers to allow foreign cigarettes to be more competitive in the Chinese market. Among foreign tobacco companies, British American Tobacco (BAT) was the most active lobbyist during China's WTO negotiations. Objective To review and analyse BAT's tactics and activities relating to China's entry into the WTO. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents were reviewed and are featured here. Industry documents were searched mainly on the website of BAT's Guildford Depository and other documents' websites. 528 documents were evaluated and 142 were determined to be relevant to China's entry into the WTO. Results BAT was extremely active during the progress of China's entry into the WTO. The company focused its lobbying efforts on two main players in the negotiations: the European Union (EU) and the US. Because of the negative moral and health issues related to tobacco, BAT did not seek public support from officials associated with the WTO negotiations. Instead, BAT lobbyists suggested that officials protect the interests of BAT by presenting the company's needs as similar to those of all European companies. During the negotiation process, BAT officials repeatedly spoke favourably of China's accession into the WTO, with the aim of presenting BAT as a facilitator in this process and of gaining preferential treatment from their Chinese competitor. Conclusions BAT's activities clearly suggest that tobacco companies place their own interests above public health interests. Today, China struggles with issues of tobacco control that are aggravated by the aggressive practices of transnational tobacco companies, tobacco?tariff reductions and the huge number of smokers. For the tobacco?control movement to progress in China, health advocates must understand how foreign tobacco companies have undermined anti?tobacco activities by taking advantage of trade liberalisation policies. China should attach importance to public health and comprehensive tobacco?control policies and guarantee strong protection measures from national and international tobacco interests supported by international trade agreements.

Zhong, Fei; Yano, Eiji

2007-01-01

31

Still Taxed to Death: An Analysis of Taxes and Tariffs on Medicines, Vaccines and Medical Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role that tariffs, domestic taxes, and regulatory requirements pose on access to essential drugs, vaccines and devices for the diseases that afflict the developing world. While aid has increased in recent years and the price of many drugs has fallen, access to medicines, vaccines and devices has not increased greatly. There are numerous reasons for this,

Roger Bate; Richard Tren; Jasson Urbach

2005-01-01

32

49 CFR 1312.13 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1312.13 Section 1312.13...SERVICE TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR...13 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Definitions....

2013-10-01

33

Economic Effects of Carbon-Tariff Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global climate warming, people are more concerned about climate issues, so that carbon-tariff barrier, as a new green trade barrier, become the forefront of research in the field of trade issues. In this paper, the economic effects of carbon tariff barrier, including the effects of exporting country, importing country, international trade commodity structure were analyzed. By the analysis,

Mei Zhang; Lin Zhang

2011-01-01

34

Two-part tariffs with quality degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a firm's incentive to sell a service that is of lower quality when the firm offers a menu of two-part tariffs. Each tariff is characterized by a fixed fee together with two screening instruments, these being a uniform per unit charge and a quality restriction. We find that allocation of quality is monotonic in type, while per

Sissel Jensen

2008-01-01

35

Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Bhinekawati, R.

1992-10-21

36

Industry market research, China: Electrical power systems. Transmission equipment market. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the electric power transmission equipment market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Not Available

1993-01-01

37

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Electric power distribution equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the electric power distribution equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Not Available

1991-08-01

38

Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Electric power distribution equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the electric power distribution equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Sihombing, P.

1991-08-20

39

Industry sector analysis: The profile of the market for water and wastewater pollution control systems (the Philippines). Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the water and wastewater pollution control systems market in the Philippines. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Philippine consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Miranda, A.L.

1990-11-01

40

Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Water pollution control equipment. Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Bhinekawati

1992-01-01

41

Polish Law No. 445 Governing Tariffs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

English translation of Polish law on tariffs, which took effect January 1, 1990. Includes provisions on who may engage in foreign trade, customs duties, duty-free imports, import and export licenses, temporary imports, measurement of dutiable value of mer...

1989-01-01

42

The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs  

SciTech Connect

Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.

Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.

2006-05-12

43

47 CFR 69.3 - Filing of access service tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...elements to be effective on July 1 of any even-numbered year, the association may compute rate changes based upon statistical methods which represent a reasonable equivalent to the cost support information otherwise required under part 61 of...

2013-10-01

44

18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Exception to form and composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154...RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

2009-04-01

45

18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Exception to form and composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154...RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

2010-04-01

46

75 FR 4689 - Electronic Tariff Filings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Parts 35, 131, 154, 157, 250, 281, 284, 300, 341, 344...Guide for Electronic Filing of Parts 35, 154, 284, 300, and 341 Tariff Filing (Implementation...a) (2009); accord, e.g., 18 CFR 154.8 (2009). It is, and remains,...

2010-01-29

47

Do Big Countries Win Tariff Wars?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yes. It is widely believed that tariffs invite retaliation, and that the postretaliation equilibrium l eaves all countries worse off than they would be at free trade. The a uthors present a simple pure exchange model, with two countries and t wo goods, and show which endowment patterns are consistent with this belief. They find that if one country is

John Kennan; Raymond Riezman

1988-01-01

48

49 CFR 1312.7 - STB tariff designation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be followed by not more than 2 letter suffixes. Examples of tariff numbers are: STB XXXX 100 STB XX 8000-A STB XXXX 12345-AB (ii) Suffixes may be used only to designate reissues of tariffs. As an example, a reissue of tariff 1000...

2013-10-01

49

The Value of Distributed Generation under Different TariffStructures  

SciTech Connect

Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing structure for standby service. In particular, the utilities do not feel that DG customers are paying their fair share of transmission and distribution costs - traditionally recovered through a volumetric($/kWh) mechanism - under existing tariff structures. In response, new tariff structures with higher fixed costs for DG have been implemented in New York and in California. This work analyzes the effects of different electricity tariff structures on DG adoption. First, the effects of the new standby tariffs in New York are analyzed in different regions. Next generalized tariffs are constructed, and the sensitivity to varying levels of the volumetric and the demand ($/kW, i.e. maximum rate) charge component are analyzed on New York's standard and standby tariff as well as California's standby tariff. As expected, DG profitability is reduced with standby tariffs, but often marginally. The new standby structures tend to promote smaller base load systems. The amount of time-of-day variability of volumetric pricing seems to have little effect on DG economics.

Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

2006-05-31

50

Technical Barriers to Trade in the European Union : Importance for the New EU Members. An Assessment for Agricultural and Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to assess the role of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) for new member states (NMSs) exports in the agri-food sector, in the period just before the EU accession actually stepped into force. The assessment is based on a detailed sectoral gravity model, which was enhanced with inclusion of different categories of NTBs: sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS), quality measures

Emmanuelle Chevassus-Lozza; Darja Majkovic; Vanessa Persillet; Manuela Unguru

2005-01-01

51

Study on Safety Green Barriers Based on International Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green Security Barrier is a non-tariff barriers in currently international trade which is applied by more and more developed countries to comply with, the barriers are in compliance with relevant national trade agreement and nominal reason is reasonable, especially China has been accession to the WTO, and unable to avoidable. At present, our country's many products have great lost because

Wei Liu; Xiaohong Chen

2011-01-01

52

18 CFR 385.205 - Tariff or rate filings (Rule 205).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must make a tariff or rate filing in order to establish or change any specific rate, rate schedule, tariff, tariff schedule, fare, charge, or term or condition of service, or any classification, contract, practice, or any related regulation...

2013-04-01

53

Industry sector analysis, China: Urban water sanitation. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market for urban water sanitation in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

Not Available

1993-01-01

54

Industry sector analysis: The market for renewable energy resources (the Philippines). Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the renewable energy resources market in the Philippines. Sub-sectors covered include biomass, solar energy, photovoltaic cells, windmills, and mini-hydro systems. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Philippine consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Cannon, E.; Miranda, A.L.

1990-08-01

55

47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...symbols used in tariffs are reserved for the purposes indicated below: Rto signify reduction. Ito signify increase. Cto signify changed regulation. Tto signify a change in text but no change in rate or regulation. Sto signify reissued...

2010-10-01

56

Impact of Alternative Tariff Rates on Military Airlift Command Revenues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigated the relationship between Airlift Services Industrial Fund (ASIF) tariff rates and the resulting demand for Military Aircraft Command (MAC) services in regard to channel airlift. Emphasis was placed on the economic theory of price ...

P. L. Caruso J. P. Eisenberg

1984-01-01

57

Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

Evans, Meredydd

2007-04-01

58

Desirable role in an international duopoly model with tariffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study an international market model in which the home government imposes a tariff on the imported goods. The model has two stages. In the first stage, the home government chooses an import tariff to maximize a function that cares about the home firm's profit and the total revenue. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot or in a Stackelberg competition. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

2012-09-01

59

77 FR 66601 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...November 18, 2012, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC) will be modified to include a new TOFC for the Federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs): TOFC 1220: ``Rate Extensions''. This code will permit PMAs to...

2012-11-06

60

United States Imposes Penalty Tariffs on the European Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting this week, American gourmets may find the prices of imported goods such as Roquefort cheese, truffles, and goose pate skyrocketing, as the United States's stiff penalty tariff on European exports goes into effect. This week's In The News looks at looks at the history of, reasoning behind, and effects of these tariffs. In 1988, the European Union banned the import of US beef, citing that hormones injected into the animals could cause cancer. Earlier this year, however, the World Trade Organization ruled that the EU's reasoning for the ban was unfounded and allowed the US up to $116.8 million a year of penalty tariffs on European Union exports. The following seven resources provide documents, news, background information, and commentary on this issue.

Missner, Emily D.

61

75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Customs and Border Protection; Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under...SUMMARY: Each year the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading...

2010-04-28

62

19 CFR 145.51 - Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.51 Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930. (a) Types of articles. Various articles, as...

2013-04-01

63

19 CFR 10.863 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.  

...Requirements § 10.863 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for OFTA preferential tariff treatment for an originating good by including on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the...

2014-04-01

64

19 CFR 10.863 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements § 10.863 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for OFTA preferential tariff treatment for an originating good by including on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the...

2012-04-01

65

19 CFR 10.863 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements § 10.863 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for OFTA preferential tariff treatment for an originating good by including on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the...

2013-04-01

66

19 CFR 10.863 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements § 10.863 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for OFTA preferential tariff treatment for an originating good by including on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the...

2011-04-01

67

19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton...

2013-04-01

68

47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cm) diskette, or a 5 inch CD-ROM, formatted in an IBM-compatible form using either WordPerfect 5.1, Microsoft Word 6, or Microsoft Word 97 software. No diskettes shall contain more than one tariff. The diskette or CD-ROM must be...

2009-10-01

69

47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cm) diskette, or a 5 inch CD-ROM, formatted in an IBM-compatible form using either WordPerfect 5.1, Microsoft Word 6, or Microsoft Word 97 software. No diskettes shall contain more than one tariff. The diskette or CD-ROM must be...

2010-10-01

70

The Cost of Shoulder Arthroscopy: A Comparison with National Tariff  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION ‘Payment by results’ was introduced with the aim of providing each trust with a transparent and fair remuneration for the work done. Hospitals are paid a tariff for each Healthcare Resource Group (HRG). The tariff is calculated at a national level, by means of a complex manipulation of historic financial data. However, the financial viability of a hospital relies on these payments and so accuracy is vital. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a cost analysis of shoulder arthroscopic procedures carried out at an elective orthopaedic unit. This unit is self contained and well audited, providing an unique opportunity to make a more accurate cost analysis. We calculated the cost of the facility, consumables/implants, anaesthetics and staff pay. This was then compared with the amount paid to the trust. RESULTS All arthroscopic operations performed at our institution attract a tariff of £1780. Our cost of a subacromial decompression was £1307, a profit of £473. A rotator cuff repair was £2672, a loss of £892. CONCLUSIONS The tariff is inaccurate. The arthroscopic HRG is too general and fails to address the extra time and expense of equipment some procedures utilise. We found cost was very sensitive to length of operation. Delays and even teaching can make a ‘profitable operation’ lose money for the trust.

Hearnden, Anthony; Tennent, Duncan

2008-01-01

71

47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tariffs must be made by reprinting the page upon which a change or addition is made. Such changed page is to be... Cto signify changed regulation. Tto signify a change in text but no change in rate or regulation. Sto signify reissued...

2013-10-01

72

76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar for entry through November 30, 2011...tariff-rate quota for imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2011-10-04

73

Would the right tariff aggregator for policy analysis please stand up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional use of import-weighted averages in tariff aggregation has little theoretical basis and wastes valuable information typically available in the detailed structure of protection. We build on the Anderson–Neary Trade Restrictiveness Index (TRI) and define ways in which a detailed set of tariffs may be aggregated consistently to provide measures of the impact of tariffs at the sectoral level.

Christian F. Bach; Will Martin

2001-01-01

74

47 CFR 1.773 - Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shows: (A) That there is a high probability the tariff would be found unlawful after...following: (A) That there is a high probability the tariff would be found unlawful after...following: (A) That there is a high probability the tariff would be found unlawful...

2013-10-01

75

Coordinated Tax-Tariff Reforms, Informality, and Welfare Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the revenue, efficiency, and distributional implications of a simple strategy of offsetting tariff reductions with increases in destination-based consumption taxes so as to leave consumer prices unchanged. We employ a dynamic micro-founded macroeconomic model of a small open developing economy, which features an informal sector that cannot be taxed, a formal agricultural sector, and an import-substitution sector.

J. E. Ligthart; G. C. van der Meijden

2010-01-01

76

Taxes, Tariffs and Transfer Pricing in Multinational Corporate Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three interrelated aspects of U.S. multinational corporation activity are analyzed here: the ability to shift profits from high-tax countries to low-tax countries; the impact of host country taxes and tariffs on the distribution of real capital; and the influence of these policies on international trade patterns of the United States and host countries. The cross-sectional empirical analysis indicates that the

Harry Grubert; John Mutti

1991-01-01

77

Proposal Of A Spanish CPV Feed-in Tariff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent research and field experiences in CPV systems have proved that this technology has present and potential advantages when compared with other sources of energy. Despite of that, if this technology wants to initiate its learning curve with the increment of the production and the consequent price reduction, it is necessary an institutional support that allows this technology to compete against other sources of energy through the creation of a favourable and attractive economic environment for potential investors to get interested in this new technology. Nowadays, Spain is a world CPV referent. The research developed by some of its organism and the industrial experience obtained in the past years through the installation of thousands of MW, is a guarantee of its scientific and industrial potential. The intention of this report is to justify the reasons to set aside a power cap of 10 MW in the Spanish PV regulatory framework dedicated exclusively to CPV systems, and the increment of the feed-in tariff in 10.2 c€/kWh over the present tariff and to reduce progressively this support in a 13% annual until it reaches the flat PV tariff.

Pérez-Higueras, P.; Muñoz, E.; Almonacid, G.; Vidal, P. G.; Banda, P.; Luque-Heredia, I.; Valera, P.; Cabrerizo, M.

2010-10-01

78

The Socially Optimal Import Tariff and Tax Credit for Ethanol with Farm Subsidies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine how the U.S. ethanol tax credit and import tariff affect the corn-ethanol-gasoline markets and how farm subsidies interact with these policies. We show how the ethanol tax credit and import tariff each uniquely affect the ethanol and gasoline prices. The ethanol import tariff alone increases the terms of trade in ethanol imports and corn exports, but decreases the

Harry de Gorter; David R. Just; Qinwen Tan

2009-01-01

79

Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

2013-10-01

80

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

...by fax, mail, or courier. The Market Monitoring Unit may alert the Commission orally in advance of the written referral...by fax, mail, or courier. The Market Monitoring Unit may alert the Commission orally in advance of the written...

2014-04-01

81

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...changes that could remedy the perceived design flaw, any recommendations...commissions regarding the perceived design flaw, and any actions...system operator regarding the perceived design flaw. (vi) Market...further reforms to remove barriers to comparable treatment...

2010-04-01

82

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...changes that could remedy the perceived design flaw, any recommendations...commissions regarding the perceived design flaw, and any actions...system operator regarding the perceived design flaw. (vi) Market...further reforms to remove barriers to comparable treatment...

2009-04-01

83

Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) comprise a variety of arrangements that favor member parties over non-members by extending tariff and other non-tariff preferences. PTAs, particularly free trade agreements (FTAs), have proliferated in recent years. In...

R. J. Ahearn

2010-01-01

84

19 CFR 10.881 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as an originating good under § 10.873 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the OFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary,...

2012-04-01

85

19 CFR 10.881 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as an originating good under § 10.873 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the OFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary,...

2011-04-01

86

19 CFR 10.881 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as an originating good under § 10.873 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the OFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary,...

2013-04-01

87

19 CFR 10.881 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

...as an originating good under § 10.873 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the OFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary,...

2014-04-01

88

An Analysis of a Demand Charge Electricity Grid Tariff in the Residential Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months January, February and December, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their network and power prices,

2009-01-01

89

77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...baseline tariffs in accordance with Order No. 714 \\2\\ or face revocation of their market-based...Electronic Tariff Filings, Order No. 714, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,276 (2008...In Order No. 714, the Commission explained that in...

2012-04-23

90

18 CFR 385.209 - Notices of tariff or rate examination and orders to show cause (Rule 209).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Issuance. (1) If the Commission seeks to determine the validity of any rate, rate schedule, tariff, tariff schedule, fare, charge, or term or condition of service, or any classification, contract, practice, or any related regulation...

2013-04-01

91

47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subject to price cap regulation...a) Each price cap tariff...supporting materials sufficient...required adjustments to each PCI...e) Each price cap tariff...supporting materials sufficient to make the adjustments to each...

2013-10-01

92

76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2011-04-15

93

77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...notice that the tariff-rate quota for sugar established by the United States-Colombia...establishes a tariff-rate quota for imports of sugar from Colombia. USTR is providing...

2012-04-25

94

77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...notice that the tariff-rate quotas for sugar established by the United States-Panama...three tariff-rate quotas for imports of sugar from Panama. USTR is providing...

2012-10-26

95

77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2012-04-26

96

Expanded Access  

MedlinePLUS

... appropriate. 4. Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information and Pharmacology and Toxicology Information including a description of the ... requesting expanded access. Some companies establish a lottery system to determine which patients will have treatment access. ...

97

Accessibility Policy  

Cancer.gov

Accessibility The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is committed to providing access to all of its electronic materials, including this CD-ROM, to all individuals, including people with disabilities. To provide this information,

98

Access Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Slide show on Authentication (Who goes there?; Determine whether access is allowed; Authenticate human to machine; Authenticate machine to machine) and Authorization (Are you allowed to do that?; Once you have access, what can you do?; Enforces limits on actions)

Stamp, Mark

2009-02-24

99

18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and...chapter, such as for the exchange of natural gas. The special rate schedule must contain a title page showing the parties to the...

2013-04-01

100

75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Jurisdictional Agreements In Order No. 714,\\1\\ the Commission adopted regulations...Electronic Tariff Filings, Order No. 714, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,276 (2008...pdf. \\3\\ As indicated in Order No. 714, this phrase is intended to encompass...

2010-05-28

101

75 FR 75185 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...secretary/edis.htm. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Beck, Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements (202-205-2603, fax 202-205-2616, david.beck@usitc.gov). The media should contact Margaret...

2010-12-02

102

75 FR 75695 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...edis.usitc.gov. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Beck, Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements (202-205-2603, fax 202-205-2616, david.beck@usitc.gov), or Janis L. Summers, Attorney Advisor,...

2010-12-06

103

76 FR 15340 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...secretary/edis.htm. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Beck, Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements (202-205-2603, fax 202-205-2616, david.beck@usitc.gov), or Janis Summers, Attorney Advisor,...

2011-03-21

104

19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference...and sewn or otherwise assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or the United States, and that...

2013-04-01

105

19 CFR 10.510 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.510 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon...

2013-04-01

106

18 CFR 35.47 - Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...practices in organized wholesale electric markets. 35.47 Section 35.47 Conservation...Practices In Organized Wholesale Electric Markets § 35.47 Tariff provisions regarding...practices in organized wholesale electric markets. Each organized wholesale...

2013-04-01

107

An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff\\u000a charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce\\u000a peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power\\u000a prices,

Andreas V. Stokke; Gerard L. Doorman; Torgeir Ericson

2010-01-01

108

Tariffs versus VAT in the presence of heterogeneous firms and an informal sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate over the use of tariffs or value added taxes in developing countries has focused on the difficulty of collecting\\u000a VAT from the informal sector. This paper contributes by considering this issue with heterogeneous firms and endogenous entry.\\u000a This yields two results. First, a cut in the tariff reduces the size of the informal sector. Second, the imposition of VAT

Ronald B. Davies; Lourenço S. Paz

2010-01-01

109

Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

2009-01-01

110

Foreclosing competition through access charges and price discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes competition between two asymmetric networks, an incumbent and a new entrant. Networks compete in non-linear tariffs and may charge different prices for on-net and off-net calls. Departing from cost-based access pricing allows the incumbent to foreclose the market in a profitable way. If the incumbent benefits from customer inertia, then it has an incentive to insist on

Angel L. Lopez; Patrick Rey

2009-01-01

111

Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

Suber, Peter

2012-01-01

112

Access Denied  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

Villano, Matt

2008-01-01

113

WTO Accession, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the impact of China's WTO accession on trade and economic relation across the Taiwan Strait and its implications for rest of the world by a recursive dynamic, 17-region, 25- sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model according to actual market access commitments that China and Taiwan have made in their final official WTO offers. The simulation results shown

Zhi Wang

114

Accessibility, transcription, and access everywhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessibility in the workplace and in academic settings has increased dramatically for users with disabilities, driven by greater awareness, legislative mandate, and technological improvements. Gaps, however, remain. For persons who are deaf and hard of hearing in particular, full participation requires complete access to audio materials, both for live settings and for prerecorded audio and visual information. Even for users

Keith Bain; Sara H. Basson; Alexander Faisman; Dimitri Kanevsky

2005-01-01

115

75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2010-03-25

116

The Dutch tariff: results and arguments for an effective design for national EQ-5D valuation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to estimate a Dutch EQ-5D tariff and to determine in a simulation study using the dataset of the original UK valuation study, the number of health states and respondents needed to estimate a reliable tariff. In all, 300 Dutch respondents directly valued 17 states compared to 3000 respondents and 42 states in the original

L. M. Lamers; J. McDonnell; P. F. M. Stalmeier; P. F. M. Krabbe; J. J. V. Busschbach

2006-01-01

117

Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

118

48 CFR 27.204-2 - Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade...COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.204-2 Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and...

2010-10-01

119

75 FR 38805 - Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's Electronic Filing System...display on its electronic filing system the time used by the Commission to mark officially the time that eFilings and eTariff submissions are...

2010-07-06

120

78 FR 45597 - Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain Cheeses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 25 to Chapter 4 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...Additional U.S. note 21 to chapter 4 is modified by: Deleting from...8. Additional U.S. note 22 to chapter 4 is modified by: Deleting...

2013-07-29

121

19 CFR 10.233 - Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED...Trade Partnership Act Non-Textile Articles Under the United States-Caribbean...

2013-04-01

122

Real time optimal interruptible tariff mechanism incorporating utility-customer interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal power flow based framework is proposed to determine the incentive rates of an interruptible tariff mechanism (ITM) on an hour-to-hour basis. Interaction between the utility and customers contracting interruptible load is incorporated in the analytical framework by formulating customer response functions to the ITM. It is shown that ITM is able to reduce costs and aid in system

Kankar Bhattacharya; M. H. J. Bollen; Jaap E. Daalder

2000-01-01

123

Closed Jaguar, Open Dragon: Comparing Tariffs in Latin America and Asia before World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an enormous literature that has analyzed the comparative experiences of Latin America and Asia in post-World War II trade policy, almost no attention has been paid to the comparative experience prior to the wars. Even a cursory look at the best available empirical evidence reveals tremendous contrasts between the two regions. Latin America had the highest tariff barriers on

Michael A. Clemens; Jeffrey G. Williamson

2002-01-01

124

Estimating the Amount of a Global Feed-in Tariff for Renewable Electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple model to estimate the subsidy cost embedded in a global feed-in tariff (GFIT) to simultaneously stimulate electrification and the take-up of renewable energy sources for electricity generation in developing countries. The GFIT would subsidize developing countries for investments they make in generation capacity for renewable electricity up to a threshold level of electricity consumption per capita.

David Le Blanc Samantha DeMartino

2010-01-01

125

Expanding Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

Roach, Ronald

2007-01-01

126

Access Denied  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

Raths, David

2012-01-01

127

WTO Accession, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the impact of China's WTO accession on trade and economic relation across the Taiwan Strait and its implications for rest of the world by a recursive dynamic, 17-region, 25- sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with import embodied technology transfer, trade policy induced total factor productivity (TFP) growth, and explicit treatment of TRQ of agricultural products. The

Zhi Wang

128

Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (CFTA). The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

Bryan, T.; Lee, S.

1992-08-01

129

Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way of moving the electricity sector toward a model focused on providing energy services rather than providing electricity.

Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

2011-01-20

130

2011 Report on Technical Barriers to Trade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was created to respond to the concerns of U.S. companies, farmers, ranchers and manufacturers, which increasingly encounter non-tariff trade barriers in the form of product standards, testing requirements, and other technical requirements as t...

R. Kirk

2011-01-01

131

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

132

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

133

77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2012-09-17

134

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-04-27

135

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2011-04-12

136

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-07-06

137

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

138

76 FR 28973 - Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; Order on Rehearing and Accepting Tariff Filing, Subject to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...matters in the following sections. a. Clustering and Effective Date i. Terra-Gen Tariff...Terra-Gen proposes provisions to address clustering of transmission system impact studies...studies.\\22\\ Terra-Gen's proposed clustering provisions provide, among other...

2011-05-19

139

77 FR 40589 - Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2012 Tariff...Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending...International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of...

2012-07-10

140

78 FR 39259 - Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2013 Tariff...Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending...International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of...

2013-07-01

141

75 FR 38772 - Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2010 Tariff...Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending...International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of...

2010-07-06

142

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the “one hospital” approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the “one hospital” model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital’s cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level.

2012-01-01

143

Availability Based Tariff and its impact On different Industry Players-A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABT is a performance-based tariff for the supply of electricity by generators owned and controlled by the central government. It is also a new system of scheduling and dispatch, which requires both generators and beneficiaries to commit to day-ahead schedules. It is a system of rewards and penalties seeking to enforce day ahead pre-committed schedules, though variations are permitted if notified One and one half hours in advance. The order emphasizes prompt payment of dues. ABT (Availability Based Tariff) along with the Electricity Act of 2003 is perhaps the most significant and definitive step taken in the Indian power sector so far to bring more efficiency and focus to this vital infrastructure. The ABT mechanism is based on financial principles. ABT scheme is for unscheduled interchange of power. The paper reviews ABT issues, its components, clauses, mechanism, benefits and the impact of grid on different players like generation utilities, grid operator, consumers involved in power generation, transmission and distribution. While the proposed tariff structure has wide implications for each player, this deals exclusively with the technology challenges/opportunities thrown up by ABT.

Holmukhe, R. M.; Pawar, Yogini; Desai, R. S.; Hasarmani, T. S.

2010-10-01

144

'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market  

PubMed Central

Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard employment, the company's regional reorganisation involved the loss of hundreds of jobs. Conclusions Regional integration organisations and their member states should be aware of the capacity of TTCs to act in a coordinated transnational manner to influence policy in their own interests, and coordinate their own public health and tax policies in a similarly effective way.

2011-01-01

145

Rate-stabilization tariffs and step adjustments as new departures in utility rate making  

SciTech Connect

The author is in search of methods and measures which utility regulatory commissions might adopt for fuller achievement of the proper objectives of regulation, especially the enablement of utilities to recover all prudent costs of service and to earn a fair return on common equity investment; and for improved performance in the regulatory oversight of utilities. He examines two strategies in particular which have been utilized by some commissions, namely, rate stabilization tariffs and adjustments of rates on the basis of single or specific cost items, and cites what they can and cannot do by way of attainment of the stated regulatory objectives. 11 references.

Mandl, A.D.

1984-06-07

146

46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission...shipments. (c) Weight or measurement, container size, and number...application, i.e., the error, failure to publish,...

2013-10-01

147

Hemodialysis access - self care  

MedlinePLUS

An access is needed for you to get hemodialysis. Using the access, blood is removed from your body, cleaned by ... dialyzer, then returned to your body. Usually the access is put in a person's arm. But it ...

148

Multiple Access Trade Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the ret...

M. Motamedi

1990-01-01

149

Vascular Access for Hemodialysis  

MedlinePLUS

... Kidney Failure Series : Vascular Access for Hemodialysis Vascular Access for Hemodialysis On this page: What is an ... Top ] What is a venous catheter for temporary access? If your kidney disease has progressed quickly, you ...

150

United States Access Board  

MedlinePLUS

... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

151

Tariff Rate Quotas on U.S. Steel Imports: The Implications on Global Trade and Relative Competitiveness of Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2002, the United States imposed tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) of about 30 percent on most imported steel above set quotas. This measure is expected to reduce steel exports from East Asian countries, particularly from Japan and Korea. At the same time, the U.S. action is likely to harm its automobile, metal products, and other related industries by raising the

Hiro Lee; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe

152

Tariff liberalization and the growth of world trade: a comparative historical analysis for the evaluation of the multilateral trading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between tariff barriers and world trade growth from a comparative and historical perspective and at the same time derive some useful indications for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the current multilateral trading system in promoting world trade. The distinguishing feature of this work is the complex reconstruction of the

Silvia Nenci

2009-01-01

153

Study on How U.S. Imposing Carbon Tariffs will Influence China's Export Trade and Its Countermeasure Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States, China's biggest export market, is planning to impose a carbon tariff against countries without strict GHG emissions reduction standards, which will necessarily have immense influence on China's export trade. In this dissertation, its background and imposing methods are initially discussed. Impact on China's export trade volume, commodity prices, various industrial sectors, foreign investment manner, corporate operation modes

Sun Ruihua; Jiao Yuanyuan

2011-01-01

154

Opportunities for Energy Storage Associated to Wind Farms with Guaranteed Feed-in Tariffs in the Present French Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a wind farm with an obli- gation to purchase at a fixed feed-in tariff. The wind farm production must always stay below an upper limit existing for the obligation to purchase energy. An energy storage sys- tem associated to the studied wind farm allows to increase the installed capacity while maintaining the same upper limit for the

Fouad Abou Chacra; Patrick Bastard; Gilles Fleury

155

Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

2010-10-01

156

The impact of the Uruguay Round on tariff escalation in agricultural products 1 This article is based on a recently concluded study (see Lindland, 1997, The Impact of the Uruguay Round on Tariff Escalation in Agricultural Products, Commodities and Trade Division, FAO, Rome, 78 pp.) by the author who is agricultural trade policy analyst in the Commodities and Trade Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. The views in this article are the author's and do not necessarily reflect those of FAO. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tariff escalation (i.e. higher tariffs on processed agricultural products than on their input commodities) has been one of the obstacles for developing countries in their efforts to establish processing industries for exports. This article assesses the changes in tariff escalation resulting from the Uruguay Round (UR) tariff concessions, examining the agricultural import markets of EU, Japan and the US. The

Jostein Lindland

1997-01-01

157

World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

Washington Univ., Seattle.

158

Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

159

Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

Cornell, Peter M.

160

MERCOSUR-EUROPEAN UNION TRADE: How Important Is EU Trade Liberalization for MERCOSUR's Exports?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, MERCOSUR's past exports to the EU under the protectionist environment of the period between 1988 and 1996 are examined and an attempt is made to determine MERCOSUR's exports' growth potential in a liberalized EU market. A sectoral study is considered indispensable since tariff and non-tariff trade barriers vary strongly among sectors. The influence of the macroeconomic environment

Nowak-Lehmann D. Felicitas; Martínez-Zarzoso Inmaculada

2005-01-01

161

Firearm Access Alert  

MedlinePLUS

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Firearm Access Alert HealthDay January 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... deaths here each year. The researchers say restricting access may effectively prevent injury. I'm Dr. Cindy ...

162

Data Access Request Process  

Cancer.gov

This page contains instructions for submitting a Data Access Request for dataset(s) under the purview of the Extramural National Cancer Institute (NCI) Data Access Committee (DAC) and an overview of the review process.

163

Access to Government Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the public's right of access to government publications is increasingly difficult to manage in light of changing technologies and budget constraints, and suggests principles and policies to preserve the traditional right of access. (28 references) (LAE)

Allen, Kenneth B.

1992-01-01

164

Accessibility (Section 508)  

Cancer.gov

All NCI websites must be accessible to users, as described in Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. Section 508 requires federal agencies to make their electronic and information technologies, including websites, conform to certain accessibility standards. The following are the standards that NCI Web developers must follow to comply with Section 508 requirements. These standards are based on the Access Board's Web Accessibility Standards, which should also be read by NCI Web developers.

165

Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility\\u000a in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could\\u000a differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy\\u000a permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels,

Robert Frohardt; Bor-Yuh Evan Chang; Sriram Sankaranarayanan

2011-01-01

166

Access Interface Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies

Susan Fager; David R. Beukelman; Melanie Fried-Oken; Tom Jakobs; John Baker

2012-01-01

167

Open Access and beyond.  

PubMed

Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

2006-01-01

168

Measuring public transport accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction This paper sets out a review of issues connected with measuring accessibility, particularly in appraisal of transport or development schemes. Accessibility in this context is taken to mean ease of access to transport in order to reach key destinations and services. This is an area that has assumed greater importance in overall policy making in recent years; indeed,

Andy Poole

2003-01-01

169

Vascular Access for Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Over 90% of these patients received hemodialysis, necessitating an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft (AVG), or tunneled catheter (TC) to provide access to high-volume blood flow. Adequate performance by any of these access options is required for successful hemodialysis, and creating and maintaining functional access for the large and growing number of dialysis patients poses economic challenges. Although in

DIRK M. HENTSCHEL; Reza Abdi; Javeed Ansari; Jessamyn Bagley; D. Sangeeta Bhattia; Joseph V. Bonventre; Barry M. Brenner; Anil K. Chandraker; David M. Charytan; Mary Choi; Kenneth B. Christopher; Gary C. Curhan; Bradley M. Denker; Jeremy Duffield; John P. Forman; Markus H. Frank; M. D. Indira Gulena; Andreas Herrlich; Li-Li Hsiao; Benjamin D. Humphreys; John J. Iacomini; Takaharu Ichimura; Julie Lin; M. P. H. Edgar; L. Milford; David B. Mount; Nader Najafian; Jagdeep Obhrai; Shona Pendse; Martin R. Pollak; Mohamed H. Sayegh; Julian L. Seifter; Jagesh V. Shah; Alice M. Sheridan; Ajay K. Singh; Theodore I. Steinman; Chun-Ming Sung; Eric N. Taylor; Chaorui Tian; John K. Tucker; Vishal Vaidya; Sushrut S. Waikar; Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer; D. Xueli Yuan; D. Kambiz Zandi-Nejad; Jing Zhou

170

Demystifying Remote Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

Howe, Grant

2009-01-01

171

UNIX Disk Access Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disk access patterns are becoming ever more important to understand as the gap between processor and disk performance increases. The study presented here is a detailed characterization of every low-level disk access generated by three quite different systems over a two month period. The contributions of this paper are the detailed information we prove about the disk accesses on these

Chris Ruemmler; John Wilkes

1993-01-01

172

Cancer Data Access System  

Cancer.gov

The Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) is a web portal that facilitates access to PLCO data. Investigators can register with CDAS and request access to data collected through December 31, 2009 for the first 13 years of participation for each subject in the PLCO trial. Newly diagnosed cancers and deaths continue to be collected and will be available in the future.

173

Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.  

PubMed

Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J

2014-01-01

174

Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs  

PubMed Central

Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57?m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313?€/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; Baeyens, J.; Degreve, J.

2014-01-01

175

Demystifying Open Access  

SciTech Connect

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

Salvatore Mele

2007-05-14

176

Demystifying Open Access  

ScienceCinema

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

177

Demystifying Open Access  

ScienceCinema

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

178

Demystifying Open Access  

SciTech Connect

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access which retains all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, brings the spiraling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

Mele, Salvatore (CERN) [CERN

2007-05-30

179

Access & Persistence. Summer 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Access & Persistence" describes the roundtable discussion, "Ensuring Access to College Amid Economic Uncertainty," held on June 13, 2008 in Nashville, Tennessee. The purpose of the discussion was to gather information from a variety of perspectives within the higher education community on effects of the credit crisis and general…

Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

2008-01-01

180

Accessibility, Easiness and Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In setting the cut-scores on National Curriculum tests it is important to maintain standards. In the process of test development, both within and across years, changes are made to the style of the questions in order to increase their "accessibility". This raises the question of whether a more accessible test should have higher cut-scores. Purely…

Bramley, Tom

2005-01-01

181

NCI at Frederick: Accessibility  

Cancer.gov

The NCI at Frederick campus is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let us know.

182

Intellectual Access to Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

1999-01-01

183

Accessing the Microform Publication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

Schindler, Stan

1985-01-01

184

Improving School Access Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

185

Local access optical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both broadcast CATV and switched telephony access networks have evolved, over decades, to deliver their respective services efficiently. But these networks are not necessarily optimal for services that are rapidly emerging. This suggests that the access infrastructure will likely change in the future, driven by demands for new services and the costs of providing them. Will fiber optic networks play

Nicholas J. Frigo

1996-01-01

186

Access to Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

2006-01-01

187

Demystifying Open Access  

ScienceCinema

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access which retains all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, brings the spiraling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

188

Solar oven access door  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved access door is disclosed for a solar oven. The access door's inner surface, which holds a disposable food tray, is provided with a depressed area below the food tray to permit deformation of the tray bottom when the thickness of food in the tray exceeds the depth of the food tray.

Steinberg

1983-01-01

189

Solar oven access door  

SciTech Connect

An improved access door is disclosed for a solar oven. The access door's inner surface, which holds a disposable food tray, is provided with a depressed area below the food tray to permit deformation of the tray bottom when the thickness of food in the tray exceeds the depth of the food tray.

Steinberg, H.A.

1983-11-29

190

Comparing Information Access Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

Chalmers, Matthew

1999-01-01

191

Multiple access trade study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

Motamedi, Masoud

1990-01-01

192

Blind axillar venous access.  

PubMed

The axillary vein has been suggested as an alternate site for venous access to avoid the "subclavian crush phenomenon. " Many techniques have been used to access this structure. They include complicated anatomical landmarks, contrast venography, Doppler, and ultrasound. A simple technique using the basic anatomical landmark of the deltopectoral groove and a blind venous stick has been used successfully in 165 of 168 consecutive pacemaker and ICD procedures; there were only three failures. These required an alternate approach. With a thorough knowledge of the regional anatomy, the axillary vein can be safely used as a primary site of venous access. PMID:10456639

Belott, P H

1999-07-01

193

Live Access Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. LAS enables users to view data with on-the-fly graphics, request custom subsets of variables in a variety of file formats, and compare variables from distributed locations. LAS enables the data provider to unify access to multiple types of data in a single interface, create thematic data servers from distributed data sources (through the use of DODS/OPenDAP), offer derived products on the fly, and offer unique products (e.g. visualization styles specialized for the data).

Hankin, Steve

2002-09-09

194

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

Background

With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

Scope of Contributions

This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
  • Optical access network architectures and protocols
  • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
  • Active optical networks
  • Multiple access control
  • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
  • Network survivability
  • Field trials and standards
  • Performance modeling and analysis

Manuscript Submission

To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-01-01

195

Assessment of Accessibility Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report assesses alternative accessibility measures using data from the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas metropolitan area. The measures are evaluated against the following considerations: good theoretical basis of the measure, reasonable data needs, and good...

C. Bhat S. Handy K. Kockelman H. Mahmassani Q. Chen I. Srour L. Weston

2001-01-01

196

HRP Data Accessibility 2009  

NASA Video Gallery

Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

197

Undermanning and Architectural Accessibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary results from behavior setting surveys conducted at remote military stations in Alaska for deriving habitability criteria for cold regions military installations reveal the architectural factor of accessibility to significantly influence underm...

C. B. Ledbetter

1974-01-01

198

Internet Access to Spacecraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a fl...

J. Rash R. Parise K. Hogie E. Criscuolo J. Langston C. Jackson H. Price

2000-01-01

199

Mobile multiple access study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

1977-01-01

200

Vascular Access in Children  

SciTech Connect

Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

Krishnamurthy, Ganesh, E-mail: krishnamurthy@email.chop.edu; Keller, Marc S. [Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology (United States)

2011-02-15

201

Critical factors for achieving multiple goals with water tariff systems: Combining limited data sources and expert testimony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Price instruments are well-known policy handles to influence effectively residential water demand. Prices used to be set by water authorities in such a way that the principle of cost coverage was respected; they acted as prominent instruments in residential water policies in the past decades. More recently, however, price instruments are increasingly used to meet simultaneously financial, environmental, and social goals. This paper addresses four conditions for an appropriate tariff system for residential water use which are often found in the recent literature on the economics of water use. The paper analyzes the importance of background factors (e.g., low water availability) of these four principles as well as the extent to which actual tariff systems are employed in five mutually contrasting cities (Amsterdam, Athens, London, Seville, and Tel Aviv). Meta-analytic techniques, in particular, rough set analysis stemming from artificial intelligence, are applied to identify the common underlying relations between background factors and success of achieving multiple goals in these five urban case studies. The paper concludes with policy recommendations.

Dalhuisen, Jasper; Nijkamp, Peter

2002-07-01

202

An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

Plater, Steve

2009-10-01

203

Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

2005-11-14

204

Do patents for antiretroviral drugs constrain access to AIDS treatment in Africa?  

PubMed

Public attention and debate recently have focused on access to treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in poor, severely affected countries, such as those in Africa. Whether patents on antiretroviral drugs in Africa are impeding access to lifesaving treatment for the 25 million Africans with human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. We studied the patent statuses of 15 antiretroviral drugs in 53 African countries. Using a survey method, we found that these antiretroviral drugs are patented in few African countries (median, 3; mode, 0) and that in countries where antiretroviral drug patents exist, generally only a small subset of antiretroviral drugs are patented (median and mode, 4). The observed scarcity of patents cannot be simply explained by a lack of patent laws because most African countries have offered patent protection for pharmaceuticals for many years. Furthermore, in this particular case, geographic patent coverage does not appear to correlate with antiretroviral treatment access in Africa, suggesting that patents and patent law are not a major barrier to treatment access in and of themselves. We conclude that a variety of de facto barriers are more responsible for impeding access to antiretroviral treatment, including but not limited to the poverty of African countries, the high cost of antiretroviral treatment, national regulatory requirements for medicines, tariffs and sales taxes, and, above all, a lack of sufficient international financial aid to fund antiretroviral treatment. We consider these findings in light of policies for enhancing antiretroviral treatment access in poor countries. PMID:11597292

Attaran, A; Gillespie-White, L

2001-10-17

205

Enterprise Dynamic Access Control (EDAC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Enterprise Access Control (EDAC) represents an access control model that adheres to the basic principles of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) standard published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The EDAC accommodates complex...

R. Fernandez

2005-01-01

206

Access control system operation  

SciTech Connect

An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described.

Barnes, L.D.

1981-06-01

207

Access Accommodation Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new mission payload concept for the International Space Station (ISS) called ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station) has undergone a preliminary study which is now complete, and its results are published here. The mission holds the promise for answering many of the outstanding astrophysical questions associated with Galactic cosmic rays and their role in our Galaxy. ACCESS science goals include measurement of the rare ultra-high energy and ultra-heavy components of cosmic radiation which have not been analyzed previously above the Earth's atmosphere. The critical resource made available by the ISS is collection factor (area x exposure time), as much as 10,000 square meters-sr-days for a four-year stay on-orbit. This will allow ACCESS to go beyond balloon-borne detectors and take the science of cosmic-ray observation to the threshold of space. The ACCESS instrument, consisting of a charge module, a transition radiation detector, and a calorimeter, should make valuable measurements of nuclei throughout the periodic table up to 1015 eV. The concept, options, mission plan, and accommodation issues for such an ISS payload are summarized. This includes the carrier, ISS Site, mass, thermal control, power, data and operations. The study demonstrates that the ISS, as a stable science platform at the threshold of space, makes improved cosmic-ray ACCESS possible at the turn of the century.

Wilson, Thomas L.; Wefel, John P.

1999-01-01

208

Access America for Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access America for Students, also referred to as students.gov, is a clearinghouse of government information pertinent to students in high school or higher education. This directory is organized by categories, including plan your education, pay for your education, taxes, and career development. Each category links to related government agencies, programs, and informative resources. Fast Links, located on the left side of the screen, provides one-click access to the appropriate places to register to vote, reserve a campsite, get a passport, or change your address, among other important services and information. Students.gov is sponsored by the Department of Education and is part of the Access America program which offers special interest portals for other types of government information.

209

Radiosonde Database Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The radiosonde real-time archive is comprised of all North American Global Telecommunications Service (GTS) observations primarily from Northern and Central American civilian and some military radiosonde sites not yet available on CD-ROM (currently 1997 thru 1999). Since late 1998, the archive has been upgraded to include all international observations transmitted via GTS. These data undergo extensive gross error and hydrostatic consistency checks before being incorporated into a randomly accessible compressed data archive developed at the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL). Data is stored in the same randomly accessible compressed data format, and is customizable in terms of input dates and source stations.

2006-01-12

210

Migrants' access to healthcare.  

PubMed

There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare. PMID:21975158

Norredam, Marie

2011-10-01

211

Beyond Cryptographic Conditional Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional access (CA) systems manage charge- able content (e.g., movies). Traditional CA systems use a smartcard as a cryptographic component that decrypts broadcast content for authorized recipients. Since that approach protects content by protecting cryptographic keys, it has two inherent weaknesses: It relies on the smartcard to protect universal secrets (i.e., the broadcast keys); and it cannot protect con- tent

David M. Goldschlag; David W. Kravitz

212

Accessibility - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is committed to providing access to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information on the Team Science Toolkit. To provide this information, the Team Science Toolkit has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended).

213

Unique Access to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

Goble, Don

2009-01-01

214

Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents uniform standards for facility accessibility by physically handicapped persons for Federal and federally funded facilities. The standards are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and facilities to the extent required by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended. Technical…

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

215

AHA: Audio HTML Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the “AHA” system for presenting HTML in audio for blind users and others who wish to access the WWW non-visually. AHA is a framework and set of suggestions for HTML presentation based on an initial experiment. Further experimentation and further revisions will be performed with the system.

Frankie James

1997-01-01

216

Insights into facility access.  

PubMed

Hospitals and healthcare premises are extremely busy environments, having to cope with continuous streams of high volume traffic, which includes stretchers and wheelchairs. With time of the essence, it is imperative that staff and patients have easy, reliable access throughout the building. PMID:15510451

2004-10-01

217

Media Access Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Media Access Group (MAG), part of the prestigious WGBH Broadcasting, focuses on making a variety of media accessible to people with disabilities and providing information about that process. Users will find information about the services and products offered - which include captioning services (both real-time and offline), descriptive video service (descriptions of visual portions of film and media for those who are blind or have vision impairments) and MoPix (a project which is working to bring both captioning and descriptive video to the big screen). In addition to explanations of their services the MAG site also offers a section on research and development which links users to NCAM (the National Center for Accessible Media) which is the research and development component of MAG. The resources section includes the MAG Guides which highlight various issues related to captioning and descriptive video, including the FCC's rules related to both topics. Also available under the resources tab are descriptive video guides, information on accessible DVDs and links to other related resources.

2006-12-01

218

Accessible Transportation and Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessible transportation is the passport to independent living for everyone. Mobility means having transport services going where and when one wants to travel; being informed about the services; knowing how to use them; being able to use them; and having the means to pay for them. For people with mobility, sensory, or cognitive impairments—many of whom are elderly—such a goal

S. LING SUEN; C. G. B. MITCHELL

219

Internet 2 Access Grid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

Simco, Greg

2002-01-01

220

Accessibility and Graphical Passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief paper, we explore the issue of accessible au- thentication with respect to click-based graphical passwords. These schemes normally rely on complex visual presenta- tion and ne motor control for pointing. We take the ap- proach of identifying the semantic structure, and show how the same kind of scheme could work with alternative inter- action modalities. In particular,

Sonia Chiasson; Alain Forget; Robert Biddle

221

Access to Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes to education in Australia have seen new government legislations increasing educational pathways so students can more easily enter university, the aim being to increase participation. Now, many domestic students utilise various pathways to access university. Some have undertaken basic Further Education Diplomas, received subject credits,…

Brunken, Anna; Delly, Pamela

2011-01-01

222

Holographic Random Access Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We designed and demonstrated a fully working, large-scale random-access holographic memory. The recording medium is a Fe-doped LiNb03 photorefractive crystal. The storage capacity of the memory is limited by the dynamic range and geometric limitation. The...

D. Psaltis

1997-01-01

223

State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other

Toby Couture; Karlynn Cory

2009-01-01

224

Proposed Modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, Addendum to the Report on Investigation No. 1205-3 (December 1994).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 1, 1994, the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) re-opened investigation No. 1205-3, Proposed Modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, Pursuant to Section 1205 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness...

1994-01-01

225

Just the Facts: Vascular Access  

MedlinePLUS

Why is a vascular access important to me? Your access is your dialysis lifeline. You have only a few sites for vascular access. It is ... last as long as possible . What happens in access surgery? A fistula or graft is most often ...

226

Digital Scholarship and Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

2010-01-01

227

Access control: principle and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with an explanation of access control and its relationship to other securityservices such as authentication, auditing and administration. It then reviews the access matrixmodel and describes different approaches to implementing the access matrix in practical systems.This is followed by a discussion of access control policies which are commonly found in currentsystems. Finally, we briefly consider the administration

Ravi S. Sandhu; Pierangela Samarati

1994-01-01

228

Advanced access control system  

SciTech Connect

A prototype voice verification system has been installed which provides the required positive identification at the main site access control point. This system compares an individual's file voice print with a sample voice print obtained from the individual when an attempt is made to enter the site. The voice system transmits the individual's identity to a central processor. The central processor associates that individual's authorization file with a card-key obtained at the access point. The system generates a record of personnel movement, provides a personnel inventory on a real-time basis, and it can retrieve a record of all prior events. The system installed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is described.

Barnes, L.D.; King, R.W.

1980-02-01

229

Access the CCOP Network  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute has long recognized the problems independent investigators face in accruing adequate numbers of study participants to their federally funded research projects. As a result, the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) has developed guidelines and mechanisms to assist investigators in accessing the Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) network, a nationwide consortium of community hospitals and physicians that participate in NCI-approved cancer treatment, prevention, and control clinical trials.

230

[Complex vascular access].  

PubMed

Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features. PMID:9578652

Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P

1998-03-01

231

Accessing Space Weather Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

2009-12-01

232

Web Accessibility Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web accessibility evaluation is a broad field that combines different disciplines and skills. It encompasses technical aspects such as the assessment of conformance to standards and guidelines, as well as non-technical aspects such as the involvement of end-users during the evaluation process. Since Web accessibility is a qualitative and experiential measure rather than a quantitative and concrete property, the evaluation approaches need to include different techniques and maintain flexibility and adaptability toward different situations. At the same time, evaluation approaches need to be robust and reliable so that they can be effective. This chapter explores some of the techniques and strategies to evaluate the accessibility of Web content for people with disabilities. It highlights some of the common approaches to carry out and manage evaluation processes rather than list out individual steps for evaluating Web content. This chapter also provides an outlook to some of the future directions in which the field seems to be heading, and outlines some opportunities for research and development.

Abou-Zahra, Shadi

233

Broadband access development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In upgrading the access network to be broadband capable, re- use of existing infrastructure is essential to manage the risk associated with this development. FTTCab (fiber to the cabinet) has been proposed as an architecture that can make this development economic to provide 12 Mbit/s to the customer and 2 Mbit/s back into the network. The FTTCab architecture uses an optical fiber overlay to an active node sited at the primary cross-connect point (PCP) in the copper access network. Frequency multiplexing allows the copper pair infrastructure to be re-used without changing the existing narrowband services. FTTCab is at the mid-point of a range of access topologies with respect to the siting of the DSL (digital subscriber loop) technology. The DSL modem can be sited at the home, curb, cabinet, or in the exchange to suit a range of distance/capacity requirements. This enables a simple revolution of the current network to FTTCab, and allows the architecture to be flexed to satisfy particular business needs.

Quayle, Alan; Faulkner, David W.

1996-11-01

234

China: International Trade and WTO Accession  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's increasing integration with the global economy has contributed to sustained growth in international trade. Its exports have become more diversified, and greater penetration of industrial country markets has been accompanied by a surge in China's imports from all regions-especially Asia, where China plays an increasingly central role in regional specialization. Tariff reforms have been implemented in China since the

Nicolas R. Blancher; Thomas Rumbaugh

2004-01-01

235

Social accessibility: achieving accessibility through collaborative metadata authoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web content is under the control of site owners, and therefore the site owners have the responsibility to make their content accessible. This is a basic assumption of Web accessibility. Users who want access to inaccessible content must ask the site owners for help. However, the process is slow and too often the need is mooted before the content becomes

Hironobu Takagi; Shinya Kawanaka; Masatomo Kobayashi; Takashi Itoh; Chieko Asakawa

2008-01-01

236

Chemists, Access, Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our IP-number access. Current subscriptions can be upgraded to IP-number access at little additional cost. We are pleased to be able to offer to institutions and libraries this convenient mode of access to subscriber only resources at JCE Online. JCE Online Usage Statistics We are continually amazed by the activity at JCE Online. So far, the year 2000 has shown a marked increase. Given the phenomenal overall growth of the Internet, perhaps our surprise is not warranted. However, during the months of January and February 2000, over 38,000 visitors requested over 275,000 pages. This is a monthly increase of over 33% from the October-December 1999 levels. It is good to know that people are visiting, but we would very much like to know what you would most like to see at JCE Online. Please send your suggestions to JCEOnline@chem.wisc.edu. For those who are interested, JCE Online year-to-date statistics are available. Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists: Mission Statement Feature Editor: Barbara Burke Chemistry Department, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona, Pomona, CA 91768 phone: 909/869-3664 fax: 909/869-4616 email: baburke@csupomona.edu The primary goal of this JCE Internet column is to provide information about chemists who have made important contributions to chemistry. For each chemist, there is a short biographical "snapshot" that provides basic information about the person's chemical work, gender, ethnicity, and cultural background. Each snapshot includes links to related websites and to a biobibliographic database. The database provides references for the individual and can be searched through key words listed at the end of each snapshot. All students, not just science majors, need to understand science as it really is: an exciting, challenging, human, and creative way of learning about our natural world. Investigating the life experiences of chemists can provide a means for students to gain a more realistic view of chemistry. In addition students, especially women and minorities, need more scientist role models. When teache

Holmes, Jon L.

2000-06-01

237

Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verification of entanglement is an important tool to characterize sources and devices for use in quantum computing and communication applications. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses (EWs) are used in order to prove the presence of entanglement in a quantum state. EWs can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require a reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography), which is especially valuable for high-dimensional systems. We provide a method to construct accessible nonlinear EWs, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve on linear EWs in the sense that each nonlinear EW detects more entangled states than its linear counterpart and therefore allows the verification of entanglement without critical dependence on having found the “right” linear witness. Second, they can be evaluated using exactly the same data as for the evaluation of the original linear witness. This allows a reanalysis of published experimental data to strengthen statements about entanglement verification without the requirement to perform additional measurements. These particular properties make the accessible nonlinear EWs attractive for the implementations in current experiments, for they can also enhance the statistical significance of the entanglement verification.

Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Gittsovich, Oleg; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

2012-06-01

238

Free-Access Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the degree of accessibility of all higher education institutions in the country and to estimate the proportion of various populations living within commuting distance of those colleges judged easily accessible or free-access institutions. The main idea was to put together an analysis of educational…

Willingham, Warren W.

239

Access control for collaborative environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access control is an indispensable part of any informa- tion sharing system. Collaborative environments introduce new requirements for access control, which cannot be met by using existing models developed for non-collaborative domains. We have developed a new access control model for meeting these requirements. The model is based on a generalized editing model of collaboration, which assumes that users interact

HongHai Shen; Prasun Dewan

1992-01-01

240

Role-Based Access Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access c ontrol is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a

David F. Ferraiolo; D. Richard Kuhn

2009-01-01

241

Teen Motherhood and Abortion Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, the authors find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to

Thomas J Kane; Douglas Staiger

1996-01-01

242

Access Control in Distributed Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Treatments of access control and authorization typically focus on individual mechanisms (access control lists, capabilities) or types of policies. This module seeks to isolate the basic concepts underlying many types of authorization in distributed systems, and then to show how this perspective can lead to more flexible and sound access-control implementations.

Reiter, Mike

2009-02-22

243

Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

244

Ad*Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Duke University Libraries has an extensive physical and online collection of advertisements that appeared in magazines and newspapers in the U.S. and Canada from 1911-1955. The Ad*Access collection focuses on advertisements in five main subject areas: Radio, Television, Transportation, Beauty and Hygiene, and World War II. Visitors should read the "About Us" section to learn about why the collection was created and its importance for research. Visitors can "browse" the collection by the aforementioned categories, product, year, and company. For example, "War Bonds" are listed under "Product", and visitors will find that the messages in war bond advertisements are quite frank, and insistent, that people should help the war effort. Visitors should check out the following ads found when browsing war bonds: "I'm Saving to go to Ag College...And Buying Bullets for Pete!", "Avenge Pearl Harbor! Buy Bonds! Give Bonds!", and "Your Bond Purchase Makes These Nazis Shiver".

245

Access Excellence Classic Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another good resource from AccessExcellence.org is the Activities Exchange Classic Collection Web site. The page presents links that focus on a single person or event by putting it into historical context and relating it to current science. Each contains a set of references, classroom activities, graphics, background information, and more. Some of the titles of the activities include The Discovery Of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age; Radioactivity: Historical Figures; How We See: The First Steps of Human Vision; Discovery, Chance, and the Scientific Method; DNA Structure; and Development of Polio Vaccines. The pages and activities are well designed and offer educators some interesting and unique lessons for their students.

246

Accessing SDO Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools.

Hourcle, Joseph; solar physics data community, The

2011-05-01

247

Technical Barriers to Trade of Leather and Shoes: Potential Impacts and Challenges to the Brazilian Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyse both the current and potential non-tariff barriers imposed by the international market to Brazilian leather products. These barriers are bureaucratic restrictions to trade due to concerns on both environmental and consumers' protection. They are legal, administrative and technical in nature, but this paper focuses only on technical barriers related to the EEC

MauroSilva Ruiz; Alexandre Bos; Regina Nagamine; E. L. Machado; Aline Kodaira

2007-01-01

248

Global status of commercialization of and developments on international trade in irradiated food  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international organizations have paid particular attention to the use of food irradiation as a method to reduce postharvest food losses, to ensure hygienic quality of foods-especially those of animal origin, and to overcome certain non-tariff barriers to trade for the following reasons: (1) The increasingly strict standards for quality and quarantine in food trade. (2) The increasingly restrictions

Paisan Loaharanu

1996-01-01

249

Impact of EU organic product certification legislation on Chile organic exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies have underlined the importance of technical trade barriers in the agricultural sector. For organic food products, national differences in standards and certification systems could act as a major non-tariff barrier for exporting countries, particularly developing countries, which could eventually fail to benefit from the increasing market opportunities for organic products in developed countries. This paper presents the results

Marian Garcia Martinez; Felipe Bañados

2004-01-01

250

Quantifying the Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the policy debate and methodological issues surrounding product standards and technical barriers to trade. There has been a rising use of technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in unilateral, regional, and global trade contexts. These non-tariff barriers are of particular concern to developing countries, which may bear additional costs in meeting such

Keith E. Maskus; John S. Wilson; Tsunehiro Otsuki

251

Do Technical Barriers to Trade Promote or Restrict Trade? Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of technical barriers to trade (TBT) is widespread and has increasing impact on international trade. In contrast to most other trade measures, TBT have both trade promotion and trade restriction effects. Due to their theoretical complexity and data scarcity, TBT have been considered as one of the most difficult non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to quantify. In this paper, we

Xiaohua Bao; Larry D. Qiu

2010-01-01

252

Quantitative Policy Analysis of Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys and analyses existing methodologies to model and quantify non-tariff trade barriers (NTBs) in the agricultural and food sectors. The analysis centers on sanitary, phytosanitary, and technical regulations that can have an impact on trade. The paper stresses methods that provide some quantitative estimates of the impact of such barriers on market equilibrium, trade flows, economic efficiency, and

John C. Beghin; Jean-Christophe Bureau

2001-01-01

253

Quantifying the Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade: A Review of Past Attempts and the New Policy Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the policy debate and methodological issues surrounding product standards and technical barriers to trade. There has been a rising use of technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in unilateral, regional, and global trade contexts. These non-tariff barriers are of particular concern to developing countries, which may bear additional costs in meeting such mandatory

Keith E. Maskus; John S. Wilson

254

Measurements of Agricultural Productivity and Efficiency Gains from NAFTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to empirically determine whether North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has contributed to increased agricultural productivity in any of its member countries. Implementation of the NAFTA began on January 1, 1994. This agreement removed most barriers to trade and investment among the United States, Canada, and Mexico, in which all non-tariff barriers to

Osei-Agyeman Yeboah; Cihat Gunden; Saleem Shaik; Albert J. Allen; Tongzhe Li

2011-01-01

255

Quantification of Sanitary, Phytosanitary, and Technical Barriers to Trade for Trade Policy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents promising methodologies for modeling and quantifying non-tariff barriers (NTB) to trade in the agricultural and food sectors. We limit the analysis to sanitary, phytosanitary, and technical regulations that can have an impact on trade and to methods that provide some quantitative estimates of the impact of such barriers on market equilibrium, trade flows, economic efficiency, and welfare.

John C. Beghin; Jean-Christophe Bureau

2001-01-01

256

Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

Jambor, Paul Z.

2012-01-01

257

The political economy of the European customs classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customs classification is an important element in a country's trade policy. How a good is classified can affect the rate of duty that applies, the coverage of non-tariff barriers, and the formulation and application of rules of origin. Reclassifications can occur because of the introduction of a new product, but also because of protectionist motives. This paper is the first

Samia Costa Tavares

2006-01-01

258

Green Barriers from the Standpoint of Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green barriers are one kind of non?tariff barrier (NTB). This paper points out that green barriers evolved from sustainable development theory and environmental protection, but are compatible with true comparative advantage. The best way to surmount green barriers for Chinese enterprises is to implement circular production processes and clean production techniques.

Wang Yujing; Liu Huihuang

2007-01-01

259

The impact of the European Novel Food Regulation on trade and food innovation based on traditional plant foods from developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stringent food safety assessment for novel foods required by the European Union’s Novel Food Regulation (NFR) places a high burden of proof on those bringing traditional food products to the EU market not consumed in the EU prior 1997. The regulation has emerged as a non-tariff trade barrier for heritage foods from developing countries that are viewed as “exotic”

Michael Hermann

2009-01-01

260

Institutions and Deep Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explains why institutions matter for a deep integration process, as illustrated by the liberalization of Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) in Europe. We argue that deep trade liberalization requires supranational institutions of deeper integration that permit enforcement, surveillance, and adjudication. To support the claim, we develop a simple model showing why mutual recognition of norms and testing procedures, coupled with

Alberto Amurgo Pacheco

2006-01-01

261

Enteral nutrition access devices.  

PubMed

The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such situations, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the ASGE Governing Board. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through August 2009 for articles related to endoscopy in patients requiring enteral feeding access by using the keywords "endoscopy," "percutaneous," "gastrostomy," "jejunostomy," "nasogastric," "nasoenteric," "nasojejunal," "transnasal," "feeding tube," "enteric," and "button." Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. PMID:20541746

Kwon, Richard S; Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M

2010-08-01

262

Vietnam's Trade Liberalization and International Economic Integration: Evolution, Problems, and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This paper deals with the evolution and problems of Vietnam's trade liberalization and international economic integration during 1990-2004. First, the paper overviews the changes in Vietnam's trade regime, especially in recent years, in terms of trading rights, tariff and non-tariff barrier structure, and incentives for export promotion. Second, the commitments under the CEPT\\/AFTA and Vietnam-U.S. Bilateral Trade Agreement and the

Tri Thanh Vo

2005-01-01

263

Making Astronomy Accessible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

Grice, Noreen A.

2011-05-01

264

Nonvolatile random access memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

265

Remote direct memory access  

DOEpatents

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

266

Public Access Space Suit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the role a Public Access Space Suit (PASS) could have in the certification of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) for use in space tourism and other non-government activities. Two distinct classes of hazards are highlighted. The first class involve hazards which are common with civil aircraft but where the RLV exacerbates the safety issue. The second class of hazard are those unique to RLVs. From consideration of these hazards a specification for the PASS is derived. Also the additional roles the PASS could have on a space station are considered both as a continuation of the safety role and a means by which tourists could experience recreational “spacewalks”. It is shown no significant additional requirements are generated to perform these extra roles. A feasibility design for a PASS is presented showing how these requirements could be met. The PASS concept derived in this paper is intended to be an input into the overall evaluation of costs and approaches to space tourism with the objective of exploring whether it is the best route, not only to meet safety requirements, but also to enhance the marketability of any space tourism venture.

Hempsell, C. M.

267

Mobile access control vestibule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

Depoy, Jennifer M.

1998-12-01

268

Remote Data Access with IDL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

Galloy, Michael

2013-01-01

269

Access, Stents, and Urinary Drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ureteral access is necessary in many endourological procedures including ureteroscopy and ureteral stenting. Technologies\\u000a such as ureteral access sheaths, balloon dilators, and coaxial dilators may be helpful in facilitating ureteral access in\\u000a difficult cases. This chapter describes a stenting technique that relies on fluoroscopic guidance once the initial guidewire\\u000a is placed and the cystoscope is removed.

Ben H. Chew; John D. Denstedt

270

Vascular Access Monitoring Improves Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular access monitoring can identify patients at increased risk of future access thrombosis. When coupled with a program of elective stenosis correction, access thrombosis rates decline approximately 50–75%. This results in arteriovenous (AV) fistula thrombosis rates of 0.1–0.2\\/patient year (vs. 0.2–0.4 at baseline) and AV graft thrombosis rates <0.5\\/patient year (vs. 0.8–1.2 thromboses\\/patient year at baseline). Evaluating the long-term impact

Jeffrey J. Sands

2005-01-01

271

Information Center on Accessible Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different legal bases such as the Federal Discrimination Act on People with Disabilities and the eGovernment law show the\\u000a importance of web accessibility and it is well known that technical accessibility is not compre-hensive without an adequate\\u000a usability. Nevertheless, from the point of view regarding a comprehensive accessibility of information this will be too little\\u000a especially with regard to people

Kerstin Matausch; Birgit Peböck

2008-01-01

272

Early identification of access requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early identification of access and platform requirements can prevent cost penalties due to drawing changes and revision of orders for long-lead components. The identification method involves quantifying operational and maintenance access frequencies to position components and allocate access resources; the technique utilizes failure rates, preventive maintenance requirements, and the system operational scenario. Finally, the design specifications are prepared for door locations, sizes, latching mechanisms, and work platform areas.

Silva, J. P.

273

Vehicle barrier with access delay  

DOEpatents

An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

2013-09-03

274

Is Your Church Accessible? Houses of Worship: Physical Accessibility Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This checklist is intended to help churches evaluate the accessibility of their facilities to those with physical disabilities. Categories covered are: basic accessibility, parking lots, walks, ramps, entrances/exits, doors and doorways, stairs and steps, floors, worship space, rest rooms, controls, water fountains, identification, warning…

Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

1991-01-01

275

Self-Access Centers: Maximizing Learners' Access to Center Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some students have discovered how to use self-access centers effectively, the majority appear to be unaware of available resources. A website and database of materials were created to help students locate materials and use the Self-Access Study Center (SASC) at Brigham Young University's English Language Center (ELC) more effectively.…

McMurry, Benjamin L.; Tanner, Mark W.; Anderson, Neil J.

2009-01-01

276

Frequency Hopping Code Division Multiple Access for Wireless Local Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the suitability of Slow FrequencyHopping Code Division Multiple Access (SFHCDMA) isevaluated for wireless local access applications.Investigations of the wireless channel indicate that frequency hopping mitigates the poorpropagation characteristics associated with low mobilitycommon to fixed wireless applications. Employingstatistical analysis and simulation models, it is shownthat the frequency hopped channel displays inherentfrequency diversity. Consequently, an FH architecture isresilient to

M. P. Fitton; A. R. Nix; M. A. Beach

1999-01-01

277

Internet Access to Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

278

Digital Image Representation and Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature relating to the development and application of modern imaging technology between 1987 and 1993. Highlights include image representation, including image data, compression, and image formats; and image access, including indexing and modeling, user interface design, and distributed access. (143 references) (LRW)

Mostafa, Javed

1994-01-01

279

400. PUBLIC ACCESS IN THE  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish continuous public access along the Metro Bay shoreline is one of the overall objectives of the Urban Coastal Greenway (UCG) policy. Per the R.I. Coastal Resources Management Program (Section 335 of the Redbook), CRMC is responsible for ensuring that public access to the shore is protected, maintained and, where possible, enhanced for the benefit of all. The following

URBAN COASTAL GREENWAY

280

Accessible Web Design. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the widespread availability of Web-based information resources, it is difficult for some people who rely on assistive technology to access and process these materials. Web designers can play an active role in facilitating access by formatting resources so that they are compatible with these technologies. This can be accomplished by…

Sprague, Carolyn Ann

281

Accessibility on the Hudson River  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

Exceptional Parent, 2010

2010-01-01

282

Internet Accessibility in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the problems that prohibit expanded Internet access and possible solutions to these problems, particularly with respect to the country of Chile. The three main problems that block Internet usage in Latin America are high demand and poor infrastructure; high costs for Internet access; and high preliminary costs for computers, modems, and…

Haymond, Ruel

1998-01-01

283

Perceptions of Cable Public Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Members of the local community should be aware of public access channels on cable television systems, yet large segments of the public are unaware that they exist. To determine how the medium was perceived in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area, a study surveyed 226 individuals by telephone, asking if they were aware of public or community access on…

Banks, Mark J.; Porter, Gregory S.

284

Accessing the Internet Via Satellite.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of satellite technology as an option for public schools to access the Internet. Examines costs and available technology. Presents two examples of school-satellite usage, including its use by the Navajo Nation to provide Internet access for its students who are spread out across 26,000 square miles. (GR)

Jackson, Lisa M.

1998-01-01

285

Minority Access to Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

Jackson, Nathaniel

2012-01-01

286

Accessibility for the Mobility Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights important legislation and architectural standards that have reflected and fostered changes in the public's attitude toward accessibility for the mobility impaired. Describes a project by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to assess accessibility of public or commercial buildings in Blacksburg, Virginia. (JOW)

London, Jeffrey W.; And Others

1988-01-01

287

Three essays on access pricing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of access pricing with congestion and in which investments in infrastructure are lumpy. To fix ideas, the model is formulated in the context of airport infrastructure investments, which captures both the element of congestion and the lumpiness involved in infrastructure investments. The optimal investment program suggests how many units of capacity should be installed and at which times. Because time is continuous in the model, the discounted cost -- despite the lumpiness of capacity additions -- can be made to vary continuously by varying the time a capacity addition is made. The main results that emerge from the analysis can be described as follows: First, the global demand for air travel rises with time and experiences an upward jump whenever a capacity addition is made. Second, the access price is constant and stays at the basic level when the system is not congested. When the system is congested, a congestion surcharge is imposed on top of the basic level, and the congestion surcharge rises with the level of congestion until the next capacity addition is made at which time the access price takes a downward jump. Third, the individual demand for air travel is constant before congestion sets in and after the last capacity addition takes place. During a time interval in which congestion rises, the individual demand for travel is below the level that prevails when there is no congestion and declines as congestion worsens. The third essay contains a model of access pricing for natural gas transmission pipelines, both when pipeline operators are regulated and when they behave strategically. The high sunk costs involved in building a pipeline network constitute a serious barrier of entry, and competitive behaviour in the transmission pipeline sector cannot be expected. Most of the economic analyses of access pricing for natural gas transmission pipelines are carried out from the regulatory perspective, and the access price paid by shippers are cost-based. The model formalized is intended to capture some essential characteristics of networks in which components inte

Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

288

Mozambique: International Customs Tariffs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The journal gives, in respect of each article listed in the nomenclature, the duties and taxes to be levied by the Customs on the imports and exports, and the restrictions and prohibitions applicable.

1967-01-01

289

Surinam: International Customs Tariffs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents authoritative information for exporters, importers, investors, manufacturers, and those concerned with international trade. It contains the schedules of duties and exemptions applicable to goods imported into or exported from the count...

1971-01-01

290

Infrastructure Operations Tool Access (IOTA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Infrastructure Operations Tools Access (IOTA) effort is to accomplish development of an advanced architecture for ISR information management. The architecture will be based on a software component framework for information dissemination. Th...

S. Barth J. Muller

2004-01-01

291

National Alliance for Accessible Golf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the aim of creating a more inclusive environment on golf courses, the National Alliance for Accessible Golf website provides a variety of online resources. Of especial interest are two PDF toolkits which help guide golf course owners, operators and players through the specifics of making golf more accessible to people with disabilities. Project GAIN (Golf: Accessible and Inclusive Networks) is a national research project and a key component in the Alliance's strategy to help make golf more accessible - a basic outline of the project is provided on the site as well as a video which outlines the aims of the GAIN. Also provided for users is a list of links to other online resources related to golf and disability issues as well as information about how to get involved with both the Alliance and Project GAIN.

2007-02-04

292

Disbributed Biometric Access Control Testbed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and implementation of a testbed for demonstrating a distributed, multimodal biometric authentication system for access control applications in buildings. The testbed includes a number of different biometric readers, a...

S. J. Treado S. C. Cook M. Galler

2004-01-01

293

Managing Information Resources for Accessibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General Services Administration's (GSA's) Information Resources Management (IRM) Service is working with other agencies to provide information environments that are accessible by people with disabilities. The handbook discusses how to integrate informatio...

1991-01-01

294

Information Security Course: Access Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Material covering Access Control: Authentication and authorization, password-based security, ACLs and capabilities, multilevel and multilateral security, covert channels and inference control, BLP and Biba's models, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems

Segura, Eduardo

2007-04-16

295

Maori access to information technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of Internet access is a key indicator of the Maori people’s ability to use information technologies for social, e-commerce and e-government communication. The key findings from national surveys of Internet use during 2000 and 2001, together with census data, provide an indication of Internet access amongst Maori. The results show there is a substantial “digital divide” between Maori

Brett Parker

2003-01-01

296

Channel-Hopping Multiple Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medium-access control (MAC) protocols for wireless networks proposed or implemented to date based on collision-avoidance handshakes between sender and receiver either require carrier sensing or the assignment of unique codes to nodes to ensure that intended receivers hear data packets without interference from hidden sources. We present and analyze a protocol that we call channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) for

Asimakis Tzamaloukas; J. J. Garcia-luna-aceves

2000-01-01

297

Holistic Approaches to E-Learning Accessibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of accessibility to digital e-learning resources is widely acknowledged. The World Wide Web Consortium Web Accessibility Initiative has played a leading role in promoting the importance of accessibility and developing guidelines that can help when developing accessible web resources. The accessibility of e-learning resources…

Phipps, Lawrie; Kelly, Brian

2006-01-01

298

78 FR 20255 - Leased Commercial Access  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...07-42; FCC 07-208] Leased Commercial Access AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...revised rules concerning Leased Commercial Access. Some of the revised rules contained...Register reflect the Leased Commercial Access rules that have remained in effect...

2013-04-04

299

77 FR 26213 - Access Authorization Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3150-AJ00 [NRC-2011-0161] Access Authorization Fees AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Commission) is proposing to amend its access authorization fees charged to licensees for work performed under the Material Access Authorization Program (MAAP) and...

2012-05-03

300

77 FR 46257 - Access Authorization Fees; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0161] RIN 3150-AJ00 Access Authorization Fees; Correction AGENCY...direct final rule amended the NRC's access authorization fees charged to licensees for work performed under the Material Access Authorization Program (MAAP) and...

2012-08-03

301

Promises and Fault-Tolerant Database Access.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper studies the power of access, especially fault-tolerant access, to probabilistic databases and to unambiguous databases . We study fault-tolerant access to probabilistic computation, and completely characterize the complexity classes R and ZPP i...

J. Cai L. A. Hemachandra J. Vyskoc

1993-01-01

302

75 FR 76729 - Market Access Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION Market Access Agreement AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration...amendment to the amended and restated market access agreement...amendment to the Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement (MAA) proposed to be...

2010-12-09

303

77 FR 37553 - Access Authorization Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0161] RIN 3150-AJ00 Access Authorization Fees AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...direct final rule amended the NRC's access authorization fees charged to licensees for work performed under the Material Access Authorization Program (MAAP) and...

2012-06-22

304

76 FR 67440 - Market Access Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION Market Access Agreement AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration...Draft Second Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement; request for comments...Draft Second Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement (Draft Second Restated...

2011-11-01

305

Access to Space Interactive Design Web Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Access To Space (ATS) Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) supports the science and technology community at GSFC by facilitating frequent and affordable opportunities for access to space. Through partnerships established with access mode...

J. Leon W. Cutlip M. Hametz

2000-01-01

306

40 CFR 258.25 - Access requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access requirements. 258.25 Section...Operating Criteria § 258.25 Access requirements. Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must control public access and prevent unauthorized...

2013-07-01

307

10 CFR 1017.19 - Access limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...has been granted routine access by an Authorized Individual (see § 1017.20) or limited access by the DOE Program Secretarial...additional administrative controls concerning the granting of routine or limited access to UCNI to a person who...

2014-01-01

308

A Terminal Access Control System for FLEETSAT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lincoln Laboratory's Terminal Access Control System (TACS) provides demand assigned time division multiple access TDMA to GAPSAT or FLEETSAT 25 kHz channels. TACS is centrally controlled by a multiple access controller (MAC), nominally located at a shore ...

J. D. Bridwell

1976-01-01

309

Bibliography on transmission access issues  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a bibliography on issues related to transmission access in electric power systems. There are 233 citations referenced in this bibliography. This bibliography presents a collection of selected literature on issues related to transmission access. It does not contain all of the material available on this subject or the categories contained herein. Some readers may feel that citations within this bibliography should be strictly limited to transmission system issues and not include energy pricing or reliability issues. However, it was the decision of the Subcommittee of the IEEE Task Force on Transmission Access and Nonutility Generation that selected entries relating to reliability and energy pricing, most relevant to transmission access, should be included. This decision was made because certain issues relating to reliability, transmission and energy pricing are perceived by the industry to be critical in the discussion of transmission access. The bibliography has been divided into the following sections or sub-sections: 2.0 Operational (Engineering) Issues, 3.0 Planning, 4.0 Reliability, 5.1 Economics: Costing, 5.2(a) Economics: Location-Differentiated Pricing, 5.2(b) Economics: Time-Differentiated Pricing, 5.3 Economics: Brokering, Bidding, and Auctioning, 6.0 Regulatory, and 7.0 General. Although the content of many publications spanned two or more of these sections, the desire to limit document length required that all publications be placed in the single most appropriate section. Publications are sorted according to author or publication resource.

Lankford, C.B. [Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)] [Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); McCalley, J.D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Saini, N.K. [Entergy Services Corp., Metairie, LA (United States)] [Entergy Services Corp., Metairie, LA (United States)

1996-02-01

310

15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected locations, and the role of...ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.1 Complementary access:...

2010-01-01

311

15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected locations, and the role of...ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.1 Complementary access:...

2009-01-01

312

7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. 54.13 Section... Regulations Service § 54.13 Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments....

2010-01-01

313

7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. 54.13 Section... Regulations Service § 54.13 Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments....

2011-01-01

314

Navy Commercial Access Control System Did Not Effectively Mitigate Access Control Risks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objective: We determined whether the Navy Commercial Access Control System (NCACS) was mitigating access control risks for Navy installations. Findings: NCACS did not effectively mitigate access control risks associated with contractor installation access...

2013-01-01

315

Role-Based Access Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this module is to teach the concept of Role-Based Access Control to chemical engineering students in a senior capstone course. This module makes use of anchored learning and the legacy cycle in particular as a pedagogical tool to engage students in learning. The module approaches Role-Based Access Control from an analytical and design perspective and asks students to consider the subject from both of these standpoints. Assessment can be performed by examining the students' notes and responses to questions. The entire module is available online and is implemented using CAPE interactive web software and the eLMS learning platform.

Lee, Christina

2009-02-17

316

ACCESSING HDF DATA VIA OPENDAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HDF is a set of data formats and software libraries for storing scientific data with an emphasis on standards, storage, and I/O efficiency. The HDF-EOS version 2 (HDF-EOS2) profile and library, built on top of HDF version 4 (HDF4), define and implement the standard data format for the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS). Since the launch of Terra in 1999, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has produced more than three terabytes of EOS earth science data daily. More than five hundred data products in NASA data centers are stored in HDF4. HDF5 is a newer data format. It has been embraced as an important data format for Earth science, HDF-EOS5, which is built on top of HDF5, is the primary data format for data from the Aura satellite. HDF5 is being used as the data format for data products produced from the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The newer version of netCDF, netCDF-4, is built on top of HDF5. The OPeNDAP Data Access Protocol (DAP) and its related software (servers and clients) have emerged as important components of the earth science data system infrastructure. The OPeNDAP protocol is widely used to remotely access earth science data. Several third-party visualization and analysis tools that can read data from OPeNDAP servers, such as IDV, GrADS, Ferret, NCL, MATLAB, and IDL, are widely used by many earth scientists, researchers, and educators to access HDF earth science data. Ensuring easy access to HDF4, HDF5 and HDF-EOS data via the above tools through OPeNDAP will reduce the time for HDF users to visualize the data in their favorite way and improve their working efficiencies accordingly. In the past two years, under the support of NASA ESDIS and ACCESS projects, The HDF Group implemented the HDF5-OPeNDAP data handler so that some NASA HDF-EOS5 Aura Swath and Grid data can be accessed by widely used visualization and analysis tools such as IDV, GrADS, Ferret, NCL and IDL via OPeNDAP. The HDF Group is also in the process of enhancing HDF-OPeNDAP data handler so that some NASA HDF-EOS2 AIRS and MODIS Swath and Grid data can also be accessed by visualization tools such as IDV and GrADS via OPeNDAP. We will use this poster to demonstrate several examples on how visualization tools can access NASA HDF-EOS data via OPeNDAP.

Yang, M.; Lee, H.; Folk, M. J.

2009-12-01

317

VO Access to BASECOL Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basecol is a combination of a website (using PHP and HTML) and a MySQL database concerning molecular ro-vibrational transitions induced by collisions with atoms or molecules. This database has been created in view of the scientific preparation of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO). Basecol offers an access to numerical and bibliographic data through various output methods such as ASCII, HTML or VOTable (which is a first step towards a VO compliant system). A web service using Apache Axis has been developed in order to provide a direct access to data for external applications.

Moreau, N.; Dubernet, M. L.

2006-07-01

318

Access Routes for Nutritional Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition (EN) and total\\u000a parenteral nutrition (TPN) may provide life-sustaining therapy for\\u000a surgical patients. The duration of nutritional therapy (enteral or\\u000a parenteral) implies distinct access routes. We review the main aspects\\u000a related to access routes for nutrient delivery. The enteral route,\\u000a whenever feasible, is preferred. For EN lasting less than 6 weeks,\\u000a nasoenteric tubes are the route of choice.

2000-01-01

319

Issues in Transparent File Access.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For a computer system attached to a network, the network provides connectivity to many other systems whose file systems may be very different from the local file system. However, there is no standard way for an application to 'transparently' access files ...

K. Olsen J. Barkley

1991-01-01

320

Accessing Students' Reasoning for Disengagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines what students can tell us about their strategic decision to engage or disengage from learning. A means of accessing student knowledge and experience about teaching and learning is explicated, along with a discussion of student reasoning for making an investment in learning. It is argued that disengagement is a reasoned decision…

Deed, Craig

2011-01-01

321

Magnetospheric Data Discovery and Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetospheric data are provided by a variety of diverse sources and the data is generally not provided in the same format, nor with the same level of documentation. The Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO), a joint effort of scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and UCLA, aims to provide the scientific community with an integrated access to well documented data

J. Merka; T. A. King; T. W. Narock; R. J. Walker; S. P. Joy

2007-01-01

322

NASA's access to space study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA study to identify and assess the major alternatives for a long range direction for space transportation is summarized. The scope of this 'access to space' study was to support all U.S. needs for space transportation for several decades into the future, including civilian, commercial, and defense needs.

Aldrich, Arnold D.

1994-01-01

323

Securing America's access to space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We

M. Rendine; L. Wood

1990-01-01

324

Parallelism in random access machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of computation based on random access machines operating in parallel and sharing a common memory is presented. The computational power of this model is related to that of traditional models. In particular, deterministic parallel RAM's can accept in polynomial time exactly the sets accepted by polynomial tape bounded Turing machines; nondeterministic RAM's can accept in polynomial time exactly

Steven Fortune; James Wyllie

1978-01-01

325

Postoperative assessment of vascular access.  

PubMed

Vascular access problems lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Autologous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are preferred over grafts. An increase in utilization of AVFs results in an increased incidence of early AVF failure and nonmaturation. A thorough evaluation of a new AVF after 4-6 weeks after creation should be considered mandatory. Experienced persons can examine AVF and predict its utility as a dialysis access. Detailed physical examination of the access performed by educated and trained staff can provide, in most cases, adequate information about the main causes for AVF dysfunction in case of nonmaturation or in case of late access complications. Physical examination has been shown to be very accurate in assessing fistula and is not difficult to learn. Doppler ultrasound (DU) is an additional diagnostic method to predict the ultimate maturation of newly created AVFs and is also very useful in further defining problems that have been detected by physical examination. DU also provides additional information that is of the utmost importance for the surgical or interventional treatment.In this review, basic principles of physical examination and of DU examination of early and late AVF/graft complications are shown. PMID:24817448

Malovrh, Marko

2014-05-01

326

Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer…

Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart

1990-01-01

327

Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

Darling, Richard L.

1979-01-01

328

Analyzing web access control policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

XACML has emerged as a popular access control language on the Web, but because of its rich expressiveness, it has proved dicult to analyze in an automated fashion. In this paper, we present a formalization of XACML using descrip- tion logics (DL), which are a decidable fragment of First- Order logic. This formalization allows us to cover a more expressive

Vladimir Kolovski; James A. Hendler; Bijan Parsia

2007-01-01

329

Plated wire random access memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

Gouldin, L. D.

1975-01-01

330

Measuring Access to Learning Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the continued relevance and adequacy of the Elementary and Secondary School Civil Rights Compliance Report (E&S Survey) as a tool for enforcing civil rights laws in education, monitoring quality of access to learning opportunities, and research on other current issues of educational policy and practice. The Committee on…

Hawley, Willis D., Ed.; Ready, Timothy, Ed.

331

Ballistic representation for kinematic access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

Alfano, Salvatore

2011-01-01

332

Organization-Based Access Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

None of the classical access control models such as DAC, MAC, RBAC, TBAC or TMAC is fully satisfactory to model security policies that are not restricted to static permissions but also include contextual rules related to permissions, prohibitions, obligations and recommendations. This is typically the case of security policies that apply to the health care domain. In this paper, we

Anas Abou El Kalam; Salem Benferhat; Alexandre Miège; Rania El Baida; Frédéric Cuppens; Claire Saurel; Philippe Balbiani; Yves Deswarte; Gilles Trouessin

2003-01-01

333

RAPID ACCESS INFORMATION SYSTEM (RAINS)  

EPA Science Inventory

RAINS has been designed to provide you fast, easy, flexible access to the Region's vast stores of environmental, programmatic, and administrative data and information. RAINS will allow users to approach and interact with this information in an integrated, multi-dimensional contex...

334

Who Needs an Accessible Classroom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most faculty members design their courses for the average student. When a student with a disability enrolls, the disability services office typically helps the professor accommodate the student. Materials might be created in formats such as Braille, note takers might be provided, or the course might be moved to an accessible location. However,…

Burgstahler, Sheryl

2007-01-01

335

Access to innovation: is there a difference in the use of expensive anticancer drugs between French hospitals?  

PubMed

In DRG-based hospital payment systems, expensive drugs are often funded separately. In France, specific expensive drugs (including a large proportion of anticancer drugs) are fully reimbursed up to national reimbursement tariffs to ensure equity of access. Our objective was to analyse the use of expensive anticancer drugs in public and private hospitals, and between regions. We had access to sales per anticancer drug and per hospital in the year 2008. We used a multilevel model to study the variation in the mean expenditure of expensive anticancer drugs per course of chemotherapy and per hospital. The mean expenditure per course of chemotherapy was €922 [95% CI: 890-954]. At the hospital level, specialisation in chemotherapies for breast cancers was associated with a higher expenditure of anticancer drugs per course for those hospitals with the highest proportion of cancers at this site. There were no differences in the use of expensive drugs between the private and the public hospital sector after controlling for case mix. There were no differences between the mean expenditures per region. The absence of disparities in the use of expensive anticancer drugs between hospitals and regions may indicate that exempting chemotherapies from DRG-based payments and providing additional reimbursement for these drugs has been successful at ensuring equal access to care. PMID:24314625

Bonastre, Julia; Chevalier, Julie; Van der Laan, Chantal; Delibes, Michel; De Pouvourville, Gerard

2014-06-01

336

Automated Computer Access Request System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

Snook, Bryan E.

2010-01-01

337

Educational Access in Bangladesh. Country Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schooling in Bangladesh. It outlines types of educational provision and provides some basic statistics on access, vulnerability and exclusion, as well as insights into the characteristics of those denied access. It is based on findings from the "Country Analytic Review on Access to…

Ahmed, Manzoor

2008-01-01

338

Educational Access in Ghana. Country Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…

Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.

2008-01-01

339

Standardized Definitions for Hemodialysis Vascular Access  

PubMed Central

Vascular access dysfunction is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among end-stage renal disease patients 1,2. Vascular access dysfunction exists in all 3 types of available accesses: arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous grafts, and tunneled catheters. In order to improve clinical research and outcomes in hemodialysis access dysfunction, the development of a multidisciplinary network of collaborative investigators with various areas of expertise, and common standards for terminology and classification in all vascular access types is required. The North American Vascular Access Consortium (NAVAC) is a newly formed multidisciplinary and multicenter network of experts in the area of hemodialysis vascular access, who include nephrologists and interventional nephrologists from the United States and Canada with: (1) a primary clinical and research focus in hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, (2) national and internationally recognized experts in vascular access, and (3) a history of productivity measured by peer-reviewed publications and funding among members of this consortium. The consortium’s mission is to improve the quality and efficiency in vascular access research, and impact the research in the area of hemodialysis vascular access by conducting observational studies and randomized controlled trials. The purpose of the consortium’s initial manuscript is to provide working and standard vascular access definitions relating to (1) epidemiology, (2) vascular access function, (3) vascular access patency, and (4) complications in vascular accesses relating to each of the vascular access types.

Lee, Timmy; Mokrzycki, Michele; Moist, Louise; Maya, Ivan; Vazquez, Miguel; Lok, Charmaine

2014-01-01

340

Assessment of long-run marginal costs for designing electricity tariffs based on analysis of electric power least-cost expansion programs  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of long-run marginal cost (LRMC) for electrical generation are an important ingredient in designing economically efficient tariffs. An approach that relies on results from a widely accepted generation planning model for estimation of LRMC has been developed and applied in recent years. The model, the Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III), is supported and distributed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For estimation of marginal energy cost and other important planning information, the Model for Investigation of Costs and Reliability for Utility Systems (ICARUS) is used together with the least-cost expansion plan determined by WASP-III. An overview of the methodology and models is provided.

Buehring, W.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.

1987-01-01

341

Quantitative Effectiveness Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Policies, Introduction of Socio-Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) and its Implementation in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the main energy issues in developing countries are high dependence on non-renewable energy sources, low energy efficiency levels and as a result of this high amount of CO2 emissions. Besides, a common problem of many countries including developing countries is economic inequality problem. In the study, solar photovoltaic policies of Germany, Japan and the USA is analyzed through a quantitative analysis and a new renewable energy support mechanism called Socio Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) is formed based on the analysis results to address the mentioned issues of developing countries as well as economic inequality problem by using energy savings as a funding source for renewable energy systems. The applicability of the mechanism is solidified by the calculations in case of an implementation of the mechanism in Turkey.

Mustafaoglu, Mustafa Sinan

342

Selective access and editing in a database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

343

Remote access to mathematical software.  

SciTech Connect

The network-oriented application services paradigm is becoming increasingly common for scientific computing. The popularity of this approach can be attributed to the numerous advantages to both user and developer provided by network-enabled mathematical software. The burden of installing and maintaining complex systems is lifted from the user, while enabling developers to provide frequent updates without disrupting service. Access to software with similar functionality can be unified under the same interface. Remote servers can utilize potentially more powerful computing resources than may be available locally. We discuss some of the application services developed by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, including the Network Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) Server and the Automatic Differentiation of C (ADIC) Server, as well as preliminary work on Web access to the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc). We also provide a brief survey of related work.

Dolan, E.; Hovland, P.; More, J.; Norris, B.; Smith, B.

2001-08-22

344

[Temporary vascular access in Reunion].  

PubMed

The high proportion of diabetic patients is partly responsible for the high frequency of chronic renal failure in Reunion. The confection and maintenance of an arterio-venous fistule is a major problem in those patients. We report herein our experience with temporary vascular access by internal jugular vein catherization with subcutaneous tunnelization using silastic catheters. The mean duration of utilisation of these accesses is 107 days for diabetic patients and 98 days for nondiabetic patients. The major complication observed is sepsis (18.36%). Diabetes mellitus which represent a traditional risk factor does not seem to be responsible here, the climatic and hygienic conditions prevailing in this part of the world could be a contributing factor. Nevertheless, we find the utilisation of these catheters a suitable solution during the waiting period because it is an easy operation, of the good quality of the material used and the comfort brought to the patient. PMID:8047207

Finielz, P; Chuet, C; Gendoo, Z; Guiserix, J

1994-01-01

345

Accessing opportunistic resources with Bosco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bosco is a software project developed by the Open Science Grid to help scientists better utilize their on-campus computing resources. Instead of submitting jobs through a dedicated gatekeeper, as most remote submission mechanisms use, it uses the built-in SSH protocol to gain access to the cluster. By using a common access method, SSH, we are able to simplify the interaction with the cluster, making the submission process more user friendly. Additionally, it does not add any extra software to be installed on the cluster making Bosco an attractive option for the cluster administrator. In this paper, we will describe Bosco, the personal supercomputing assistant, and how Bosco is used by researchers across the U.S. to manage their computing workflows. In addition, we will also talk about how researchers are using it, including an unique use of Bosco to submit CMS reconstruction jobs to an opportunistic XSEDE resource.

Weitzel, D.; Sfiligoi, I.; Bockelman, B.; Frey, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Fraser, D.; Swanson, D.

2014-06-01

346

Accessing SDO Data : The Poster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools. This poster serves as a supplement to the oral presentation as a place to distribute information about the various interfaces and to collect feedback about any unmet needs for data access.

Hourcle, Joseph; Addison, K.; Bogart, R.; Chamberlin, P.; Freeland, S.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Maddox, M.; Mueller, D.; Somani, A.; Sommers, J.; Thompson, B.; solar physics data community, The

2011-05-01

347

Accessing the VO with Python  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce two products for accessing the VO from Python: PyVO and VOClient. PyVO is built on the widely-used Astropy package and is well suited for integrating automated access to astronomical data into highly customizable scripts and applications for data analysis in Python. VOClient is built on a collection of C-libraries and is well suited for integrating with multi-language analysis packages. It also provides a framework for integrating legacy software into the Python environment. In this demo, we will run through several examples demonstrate basic data discovery and retrieval of data. This includes finding archives containing data of interest (VO registry), retrieving datasets (SIA, SSA), and exploring (Cone Search, SLAP). VOClient features some extended capabilities including the ability to communicate to other desktop applications from a script using the SAMP protocol.

Plante, R.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Young, W.

2014-05-01

348

Securing America's access to space  

SciTech Connect

We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We devote considerable attention to the prospect of creating an interim heavy-lift space launch vehicle of at least 100,000 pound payload-orbiting capacity to serve National needs during the next dozen years, suggesting that such a capability can be demonstrated within 5 years for less than $1 B. Such capability will apparently be essential for meeting the first-phase goals of the President's Space Exploration Initiative. Some other high-leverage aspects of securing American access to space are also noted briefly, emphasizing unconventional technological approaches of presently high promise.

Rendine, M.; Wood, L.

1990-05-23

349

Fast Access Data Acquisition System  

SciTech Connect

Our goal in this program is to develop Fast Access Data Acquisition System (FADAS) by combining the flexibility of Multilink's GaAs and InP electronics and electro-optics with an extremely high data rate for the efficient handling and transfer of collider experimental data. This novel solution is based on Multilink's and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) unique components and technologies for extremely fast data transfer, storage, and processing.

Dr. Vladimir Katsman

1998-03-17

350

Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

2014-05-01

351

Fuzzy querying for Microsoft Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy querying system for Microsoft Access, a Windows-based database management system, is presented. It is based on the authors' FQUERY, already implemented for XBase, which allows the user to employ queries with fuzzy values and relations in the conditions, and also fuzzy linguistic quantifiers (e.g. almost all, most, etc.) to determine how many conditions (e.g. most) are to be

J. Kacprzyk; S. Zadrozny

1994-01-01

352

Computer-Access-Code Matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1990-01-01

353

Enteral Access and Enteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition is the route of choice in patients with a functioning gastrointestinal tract. Early enteral nutrition has\\u000a been shown to improve outcomes in a variety of critically ill patient populations. Enteral nutritional support is indicated\\u000a for patients with poor volitional intake, neurological impairment, oropharyngeal dysfunction, short gut syndrome, and major\\u000a trauma or burns. A~number of enteral access options are

Christopher R. Lynch; John C. Fang; Stephen A. McClave

354

Spatial Accessibility to Pediatric Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess spatial accessibility (SA) to pediatric healthcare services at hospitals in Chiba\\u000a Prefecture, Japan in 2006. We considered the distribution of general pediatricians and neonatologists relative to the geographical\\u000a distribution of children using the two-step floating catchment area method, which accounts for the pediatrician-to-children\\u000a ratios within catchment areas with defined travel distance (TD)

Fabiana Cervigni; Yoichi Suzuki; Takuma Ishii; Akira Hata

2008-01-01

355

NASA's UAS NAS Access Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for this Project is limited ($150M over the five years), the focus is on reducing the technical barriers where NASA has unique capabilities. As a result, technical areas, such as Sense and Avoid (SAA) and beyond line of sight command and control will not be addressed. While these are critical barriers to UAS access, currently, there is a great deal of global effort being exercised to address these challenge areas. Instead, specific technology development in areas where there is certainty that NASA can advance the research to high technology readiness levels will be the Project's focus. Specific sub-projects include Separation Assurance, Human Systems Integration, Communications, Certification, and Integrated Test and Evaluation. Each sub-project will transfer technologies to relevant key stakeholders and decision makers through research transition teams, technology forums, or through other analogous means.

Johnson, Charles W.

2011-01-01

356

The Relative Importance of Global Agricultural Subsidies and Market Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim by global trade modelers that the potential contribution to global economic welfare of removing agricultural subsidies is less than one-tenth of that from removing agricultural tariffs puzzles many observers. To help explain that result, this paper first compares the OECD and model-based estimates of the extent of the producer distortions (leaving aside consumer distortions), and shows that 75

Kym Anderson; William J. Martin; Ernesto Valenzuela

2006-01-01

357

Expanding drug access in Brazil: lessons for Latin America and Canada.  

PubMed

This paper discusses Brazil's efforts to provide essential medicines for its population while meeting international trade obligations. In the 1950s and 1960s, Brazil's pharmaceutical industry was largely overtaken by foreign companies. To counteract this, Brazil enacted a law in 1971 that allowed the production of patented drugs in order to provide affordable medicines, encourage research and development, and reduce dependency on imports. Eventually, pressure from the United States government (through tariffs and sanctions) drove Brazil to introduce pharmaceutical patent laws. Local interests prevailed, however, through Brazil's liberal interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement, which included a provision that pharmaceutical products must be "worked" or manufactured locally or the government could turn to the use of compulsory licensing. Brazil's willingness to use the threat of compulsory licensing compelled drug companies to lower HIV/AIDS drug prices substantially. Finally, the paper discusses how Canada can facilitate improving drug access in Latin America through helping Brazil expand its role as a manufacturer and providing medicines to countries without manufacturing capabilities. PMID:17203728

Cohen, Jillian Clare

2006-01-01

358

Access to bird population data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Access to bird population data is critical for effective conservation planning and implementation. Although a tremendous volume of baseline data exists, it is often diffusely distributed and inaccessible to the resource manager and decision maker. A mechanism that facilitates assembly, documentation and delivery of avian data in a user-friendly manner is needed in order to integrate bird-related information resources across agencies and organizations. To address this fundamental need, the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is developing a web-based interactive system that will focus on access to bird population and habitat data used in bird management and conservation. This system, known as the NBII Bird Conservation Node, will support planning and evaluation of bird conservation activities within the context of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI), a framework for collaboration among organizations interested in bird conservation across North America. Initial development of the NBII Bird Conservation Node will focus on creating a prototype mapping application that will provide interactive access to data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the Colonial Waterbird Survey, the Breeding Waterfowl Population and Habitat Survey, and the Atlantic Flyway Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey. This prototype mapping application, to be available on-line at http://www.nbii.gov by Sep 2001, will lay the foundation for establishment of a Migratory Bird Data Center at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, and will provide an opportunity for linking to and establishing partnerships with other sources of bird population and habitat data available over the Internet.

Martin, E.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Koneff, M.D.

2001-01-01

359

HRP Data Accessibility Current Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overview of talk: a) Content of Human Life Science data; b) Data archive structure; c) Applicable legal documents and policies; and d) Methods for data access. Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) contains research data from NASA-funded experiments, primarily data from flight experiments and ground analog data collected at NASA facilities. Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) contains electronic health records (medical data) of all astronauts, including mission data. Data are collected for clinical purposes. Clinical data are analyzed by LSAH epidemiologists to identify trends in crew health and implement changes in pre-, in-, or post-flight medical care.

Sams, Clarence

2009-01-01

360

Improving clause access in Prolog  

SciTech Connect

One of the weakest aspects of Prolog is in its access to clauses. This weakness is lamentable as it makes one of Prolog's greatest strengths, its ability to treat programs as data and data as programs, difficult to exploit. This paper proposes modifications to Prolog and shows how they circumvent important problems in Prolog programming in a practical way. For example, the proposed modifications permit Prolog programs that perform efficient database query (join) processing, coroutining, and abstract machine interpretation. These modifications have been used successfully at UCLA, and should be easy to implement within any existing Prolog system.

Parker, D.S.; Page, T.W.; Muntz, R.

1988-01-01

361

Interpretation of duplex ultrasound dialysis access testing.  

PubMed

Conditions producing dialysis access dysfunction include failure of access maturation, cannulation injury to the conduit wall, thrombosis, low-volume flow, and aneurysmal degeneration. Duplex ultrasound is an accurate diagnostic technique to assess dialysis access anatomy and function, including the obligatory criteria for maturation, eg, volume flow >800 mL/min, conduit depth 0.6 cm from skin surface, and adequate (>5 mm) conduit diameter for cannulation. Measurement of access volume flow from the brachial artery or access conduit is prognostic for effective dialysis and conduit patency; including the determination of whether access maturation has occurred or when to intervene for a duplex-identified access stenosis. The application of duplex surveillance after autogenous vein or prosthetic bridge dialysis access construction has the potential to improve patency and function in the patient whose life is dependent on effective hemodialysis. PMID:24636609

Bandyk, Dennis F

2013-01-01

362

Guidelines for Making Pedestrian Crossing Structures Accessible.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In designing and locating pedestrian over- and undercrossing structures, accessibility for handicapped persons is an important consideration. Features needed to provide accessibility should be incorporated into the structures unless it is shown that it is...

R. A. Richter C. L. King

1984-01-01

363

36 CFR 910.51 - Access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.51 Access. Access, when used in reference to parking or loading, means both ingress and...

2013-07-01

364

EZHPC: Easy Access to High Performance Computing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EZHPC is a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)-based Web service that represents an Application Programming Interface (API) for securely accessing and manipulating high performance computing (HPC) resources. This service was created to make it 'easy' for...

K. Rappold P. Duett W. Monceaux

2004-01-01

365

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1982-01-01

366

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1985-01-01

367

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1988-01-01

368

Accessible non-linear witnesses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verification of entanglement is an important tool to characterize sources and devices for use in quantum computing and communication applications. Evaluation of entanglement witnesses are an especially valuable tool, especially for higher-dimensional systems, as they do not require a full reconstruction of the underlying quantum state (tomography). Linear witnesses can be extended to series of non-linear witnesses [1, 2] so that each element of this family detects a strictly larger set of entangled states than the previous one. In our contribution we show that one can construct series of accessible non-linear witnesses that can be evaluated using exactly the same data as for the evaluation of the original linear witness. This allows a reanalysis of published experimental data to strengthen statements about entanglement verification without the requirement to perform additional measurements. Accessible non-linear witnesses allow the verification of entanglement without critical dependence on having found the ``right'' linear witness. They can also enhance the statistical significance of the entanglement verification. [4pt] [1] O. G"uhne and N. L"utkenhaus, PRL 96, 170502 (2006)[0pt] [2] T. Moroder, O. G"uhne, and N. L"utkenhaus, PRA 78, 032326 (2008)

Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Gittsovich, Oleg; Arrazola, Juan Miguel

2012-06-01

369

Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility  

SciTech Connect

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared by subjecting dilute slurries of cellulose fibers to repeated high-pressure homogenizing action. A highly microfibrillated product will have a gel-like appearance at 2% concentration in water. Such gels have pseudoplastic viscosity properties and are very fluid when stirred at high shear rate. The relative viscosity of 2% MFC dispersions may be used as a measure of the degree of homogenization or microfibrillation of a given wood cellulose pulp. The water retention value of an MFC product can also be used as an indicator for degree of homogenization. Structurally, MFC appears to be a web of interconnected fibrils and microfibrils, the latter having diameters in the range 10-100 nm as observed in scanning and transmission electron micrographs. Chemical studies have revealed that MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC toward chemical reagents is greatly increased. Higher reactivity was demonstrated in dilute cupriethylenediamine solubility, triphenylmethylation, acetylation, periodate oxidation, and mineral acid and cellulase enzyme hydrolysis rates. 16 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

Herrick, F.W.; Casebier, R.L.; Hamilton, J.K.; Sandberg, K.R.

1983-01-01

370

Integrating accessibility into the computer science curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, making Web sites and software programs that are accessible to the disabled has received attention. Several computer science educators have begun to include accessibility issues into their existing courses. This paper, using an approach followed at many universities to integrate ethics and social responsibility topics into the CS curriculum, identifies courses and strategies to integrate accessibility topics

Ed Gellenbeck

2005-01-01

371

Subject Access Points in Electronic Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of subject access points in databases concentrates on the broader theoretical perspective. Topics include technology-driven stages in the development of subject access points; a taxonomy of subject access points; document titles; abstracts; references and citations; full text; and descriptors, identifiers, classification codes, and…

Hjorland, Birger; Nielsen, Lykke Kyllesbech

2001-01-01

372

Five Steps to an Accessible Classroom Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When teachers or technology coordinators publish a website, they are providing a product for a diverse group of people. That's why website design should follow accessibility guidelines. Websites should be accessible to those with visual, hearing, movement, cognitive, and speech disabilities. Good design means greater accessibility for all. This…

Amundson, Linda

2009-01-01

373

Net Neutrality and Consumer Access to Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net Neutrality' is a very heated and contested United States policy principle regarding access for content providers to the Internet end-user, and potential discrimination in that access where the end-user's ISP (or another ISP) blocks that access in part or whole. The suggestion is that the problem can be resolved by either introducing greater competition, as for instance in certain

Christopher T Marsden

2007-01-01

374

Overriding of Access Control in XACML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most access control mechanisms focus on how to define the rights of users in a precise way to prevent any violation of the access control policy of an organization. However, in many cases it is hard to predefine all access needs, or even to express them in machine readable form. One example of such a situation is an emergency case

Ja'far Alqatawna; Erik Rissanen; Babak Sadighi Firozabadi

2007-01-01

375

Improving Web Accessibility in a University Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving Web accessibility for disabled users visiting a university's Web site is explored following the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) guidelines and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act rules for Web page designers to ensure accessibility. The literature supports the view that accessibility is sorely lacking, not only in the USA, but also…

Olive, Geoffrey C.

2010-01-01

376

University Access, Inclusion and Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University access programmes inherently and inevitably provide students with a "label". Firstly, students are generally segregated and stigmatised as they are treated as a separate group that accessed university somewhat "illegitimately". Access programmes generally place more emphasis on academic development and in so doing seem to undermine the…

Hlalele, D.; Alexander, G.

2012-01-01

377

Addressing interoperability issues in access control models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access control models need to be interoperable when administra- tive domains with heterogeneous access control models need to collaborate. Even, collaboration among homogeneous access con- trol models is not straight-forward due to the different sec urity or- derings they might employ. In this paper, we briefly put forwa rd an overlay formation mechanism based on chameleon hash func- tions. The

Vishwas Patil; Alessandro Mei; Luigi V. Mancini

2007-01-01

378

Rail Station Access – an assessment of options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rail is a critical component of public transport systems in major cities, but the effectiveness of rail is fundamentally determined by the quality of passenger access to stations. Planning for access to rail stations is generally not well-developed as a discipline in Australia or the USA, and many of the variables that affect quality of station access are not widely

Conor Semler; Chris Hale

2010-01-01

379

Improvement of coordinate measuring machine probing accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the probe accessibility of coordinate measuring machines (CMM) in dimensional inspection is studied. Based on the previous methods of the accessibility map, the influence of the actual configuration of the probe on the accessibility is analyzed in detail. A method, which takes the effects of the probe length and volume into account, is proposed so that the

Yongqing Wu; Shugui Liu; Guoxiong Zhang

2004-01-01

380

An algebra for composing access control policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable advancements in the area of access control and authorization languages, current approaches to enforcing access control are all based on monolithic and complete specifications. This assumption is too restrictive when access control restrictions to be enforced come from the combination of different policy specifications, each possibly under the control of independent authorities, and where the specifics of some

Piero A. Bonatti; Sabrina De Capitani di Vimercati; Pierangela Samarati

2002-01-01

381

Access regulation and strategic transfer pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access price regulation is used in telecommunications to prevent a vertically integrated firm, which controls an essential input, from raising the rivals’ costs. When the authorities remove the access price as a strategic tool, it becomes optimal for the regulated firm to use the transfer price as an alternative strategic device. Ironically, the tools authorities use to implement access price

Kenneth Fjell; Øystein Foros

2008-01-01

382

Access to Land in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

May 1999Access to land is deeply important in rural India, where the incidence of poverty is highly correlated with lack of access to land. The author provides a framework for assessing alternative approaches to improving access to land by India's rural poor. He considers India's record implementing land reform and identifies an approach that includes incremental reforms in public land

Robin Mearns

1999-01-01

383

Hemodialysis access failure: A call to action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysis access failure: A call to action. Recent evidence suggests that the cost as well as the morbidity associated with the maintenance of hemodialysis access is increasing rapidly; currently, the cost exceeds 1 billion dollars and access related hospitalization accounts for 25% of all hospital admissions in the U.S.A. This increase in cost and morbidity has been associated with several

Raymond Hakim; Jonathan Himmelfarb

1998-01-01

384

Integrating Mobile Agents into Network Access Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network access control with intrusion detection system capabilities is currently being used to monitor and protect networks from malicious activities. In this paper, we propose a 3-tier architecture of a network access control that uses mobile agents to help reduce the shortcomings of currently available network access control devices. Our idea is to make use of the inherent characteristics of

Khalil Challita; Hikmat Farhat; Khaldoun Khaldi

2010-01-01

385

Universal data access with OLE DB  

Microsoft Academic Search

OLE DB is Microsoft's new data access API designed to enable access to all kinds of data sources, both database and non database, regardless of format or location. OLE DB builds on Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM), which is the foundation for OLE and ActiveX. OLE DB is core to Microsoft's Universal Access strategy. OLE DB aims at providing an

Jose A. Blakeley

1997-01-01

386

Designing Accessible Web-based Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the existing Web accessibility guidelines under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, reviews current laws and court cases involving Web accessibility issues, and discusses ways in which Web pages can be modified to meet the needs of all students. Includes online resources to help design accessible Web pages. (Author/LRW)

Hricko, Mary

2000-01-01

387

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996

1996-01-01

388

A Survey of Dynamic Spectrum Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compounding the confusion is the use of the broad term cognitive radio as a synonym for dynamic spectrum access. As an initial attempt at unifying the terminology, the taxonomy of dynamic spectrum access is provided. In this article, an overview of challenges and recent developments in both technological and regulatory aspects of opportunistic spectrum access (OSA). The three basic components

Qing Zhao; Brian M. Sadler

2007-01-01

389

Cytogenetic data for Paspalum notatum Flügge accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of the genus Paspalum L. are important forages, due to quality, productivity and tolerance to environmental stresses. Chromosome numbers, meiotic configurations and pollen fertility were evaluated in a collection of 85 accessions of Paspalum notatum Flügge and in seven accessions of Pensacola (P. notatum var saurae). All P. notatum accessions were tetraploid, with 2n = 4x = 40,

Nair Dahmer; Maria Teresa Schifino-Wittmann; Miguel Dall'Agnol; Biane de Castro

2008-01-01

390

Open access intrapartum CTG database  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiotocography (CTG) is a monitoring of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Since 1960 it is routinely used by obstetricians to assess fetal well-being. Many attempts to introduce methods of automatic signal processing and evaluation have appeared during the last 20 years, however still no significant progress similar to that in the domain of adult heart rate variability, where open access databases are available (e.g. MIT-BIH), is visible. Based on a thorough review of the relevant publications, presented in this paper, the shortcomings of the current state are obvious. A lack of common ground for clinicians and technicians in the field hinders clinically usable progress. Our open access database of digital intrapartum cardiotocographic recordings aims to change that. Description The intrapartum CTG database consists in total of 552 intrapartum recordings, which were acquired between April 2010 and August 2012 at the obstetrics ward of the University Hospital in Brno, Czech Republic. All recordings were stored in electronic form in the OB TraceVue®;system. The recordings were selected from 9164 intrapartum recordings with clinical as well as technical considerations in mind. All recordings are at most 90 minutes long and start a maximum of 90 minutes before delivery. The time relation of CTG to delivery is known as well as the length of the second stage of labor which does not exceed 30 minutes. The majority of recordings (all but 46 cesarean sections) is – on purpose – from vaginal deliveries. All recordings have available biochemical markers as well as some more general clinical features. Full description of the database and reasoning behind selection of the parameters is presented in the paper. Conclusion A new open-access CTG database is introduced which should give the research community common ground for comparison of results on reasonably large database. We anticipate that after reading the paper, the reader will understand the context of the field from clinical and technical perspectives which will enable him/her to use the database and also understand its limitations.

2014-01-01

391

Key technologies for evolving optical access networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FTTH based on Gigabit Ether Passive Optical Networks(G-EPONs) has been spreading steadily in Japan. The focus of the near term developments in optical access technology will shift to support the migration from working PON systems to next generation access (NGA) systems. New technologies for 10 Gbit/s TDM access and WDM access are being extensively investigated to realize higher capacity and/or new services cost effectively on the existing PON fiber infrastructure while customers continue to receive legacy services. This paper describes the key technologies being investigated for such future optical access systems that can be installed seamlessly over working PONs.

Imai, Takamasa

2007-12-01

392

Direct access to working memory contents.  

PubMed

In two experiments participants held in working memory (WM) three digits in three different colors, and updated individual digits with the results of arithmetic equations presented in one of the colors. In the memory-access condition, a digit from WM had to be used as the first number in the equation; in the no-access condition, complete equations were presented so that no information from WM had to be accessed for the computation. Updating a digit not updated in the preceding step took longer than updating the same digit as in the preceding step, a time difference referred to as object-switch costs. Object-switch costs were equal in access and no-access equations, implying that they did not reflect the time to retrieve a new digit from WM. Access equations were completed as fast as no-access equations, implying that access to information in WM is as fast as reading the same information. No-access equations were slowed by a mismatch between the first digit of the presented equation and the to-be-updated digit in WM, showing that this digit is automatically accessed even when not needed. It is concluded that contents and their contexts form composites in WM that are necessarily accessed together. PMID:20178938

Bialkova, Svetlana; Oberauer, Klaus

2010-01-01

393

Efficient access of compressed data  

SciTech Connect

A compression technique is presented that allows a high degree of compression but requires only logarithmic access time. The technique is a constant suppression scheme, and is most applicable to stable databases whose distribution of constants is fairly clustered. Furthermore, the repeated use of the technique permits the suppression of a multiple number of different constants. Of particular interest is the application of the constant suppression technique to databases the composite key of which is made up of an incomplete cross product of several attribute domains. The scheme for compressing the full cross product composite key is well known. This paper, however, also handles the general, incomplete case by applying the constant suppression technique in conjunction with a composite key suppression scheme.

Eggers, S.J.; Shoshani, A.

1980-06-01

394

SLAC All Access: Laser Labs  

ScienceCinema

From supermarket checkouts to video game consoles, lasers are ubiquitous in our lives. Here at SLAC, high-power lasers are critical to the cutting-edge research conducted at the laboratory. But, despite what you might imagine, SLAC's research lasers bear little resemblance to the blasters and phasers of science fiction. In this edition of All Access we put on our safety goggles for a peek at what goes on inside some of SLAC's many laser labs. LCLS staff scientist Mike Minitti and SLAC laser safety officer Mike Woods detail how these lasers are used to study the behavior of subatomic particles, broaden our understanding of cosmic rays and even unlock the mysteries of photosynthesis.

Minitti, Mike; Woods Mike

2014-06-03

395

SLAC All Access: Laser Labs  

SciTech Connect

From supermarket checkouts to video game consoles, lasers are ubiquitous in our lives. Here at SLAC, high-power lasers are critical to the cutting-edge research conducted at the laboratory. But, despite what you might imagine, SLAC's research lasers bear little resemblance to the blasters and phasers of science fiction. In this edition of All Access we put on our safety goggles for a peek at what goes on inside some of SLAC's many laser labs. LCLS staff scientist Mike Minitti and SLAC laser safety officer Mike Woods detail how these lasers are used to study the behavior of subatomic particles, broaden our understanding of cosmic rays and even unlock the mysteries of photosynthesis.

Minitti, Mike; Woods Mike

2013-03-01

396

Widening Access to Higher Education: An Evaluative Case Study of a Foundation Year Alternative to Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities are encouraged to widen access to a broad range of applicants, including mature students taking Access qualifications. Admissions tutors can find it difficult to compare and choose between Access and A-level applications, and Access applicants for popular courses may be disadvantaged relative to students with good A-levels. In this…

Reddy, Peter A.; Moores, Elisabeth

2008-01-01

397

[Hospital pharmacist has a rule for best practice use and French hospital activity tariffs. Example of a pharmaceutical quality control for drugs reimbursed in addition of DRGs].  

PubMed

The best practice contract has given a new objective to the hospital pharmacists for the reimbursement in addition to Diagnosis Related Groups' (DRGs) tariffs. We built our pharmaceutical quality control for the administration traceability follow-up regarding the DRGs and the cost of care, for two reasons: the nominal drugs dispensation in link with the prescription made by pharmacist and the important expenditure of these drugs. Our organization depends on the development level of the informatized drugs circuit and minimizes the risk of financial shortfalls or wrong benefits, possible causes of economic penalties for our hospital. On the basis of this follow-up, we highlighted our activity and identified problems of management and drugs circuit organization. The quality of the administration traceability impacts directly on the quality of the medical records and the reimbursements of the expensive drugs. A better knowledge of prescription software is also required for a better quality and security of the medical data used in the medical informatic systems. The drugs management and the personal treatment in and between the care units need to be improved too. We have to continue and improve our organization with the future financial model for ATU drugs and the FIDES project. The health personnel awareness and the development of best informatic tools are also required. PMID:22818260

Hedoux, S; Dode, X; Pivot, C; Couray-Targe, S; Aulagner, G

2012-07-01

398

Accessibility tradeoffs in public transit planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial accessibility is a critical consideration in the provision of services, both public and private. In public transit planning, accessibility is comprised of access and geographic coverage. Interestingly, these two considerations are somewhat at odds with each other. Access is important because it is the process associated with getting to and departing from the service. Such access is typically perceived of in spatial terms as the physical proximity to transit stops or stations. Additional stops along a route usually mean greater access, because a stop is more likely to be within an acceptable walking/driving standard for a larger number of people. On the other hand, more stops and greater access slow transit travel speeds, thereby decreasing the area of service reachable given a travel time budget. More stops along a route translate to greater service interruption and longer travel times. The faster the travel time, the more desirable the service. Further, if travel times become excessive, then user demand for service will decrease. All of this means that stop spacing along a route is central to accessibility, as it is a tradeoff of access (more stops) and geographic coverage (service efficiency through less stops). This paper details modeling approaches for addressing accessibility concerns in an integrated fashion. Bus-based transit service in Columbus, Ohio will be utilized to illustrate the usefulness of these approaches in transit planning.

Murray, Alan T.; Wu, Xiaolan

399

Access to care save lives.  

PubMed

Emergency treatment of such major complications of pregnancy as obstructed labor, hemorrhage, infection, hypertension disorders, and the effects of unsafe abortion, helps ameliorate morbidity and prevent mortality. Access to life-saving treatment (e.g., antibiotics, Cesarean sections, and blood transfusions) in developing countries is limited. Maternal mortality in one area of The Gambia, for example, is 2200 per 100,000 births. Improving access to care depends upon the availability of these services in communities, trained health personnel, service improvements, transportation provision, and community education. Detection of complications and early referral to an appropriate facility with a supportive and professional environment is key to saving lives. Political will and public pressure are needed before improvement in services can be successfully accomplished; politicians may ignore women with low status. Barriers to care are physical, cultural, technical, and economic. Cost or distance from home may prevent women from seeking care. Infection, hemorrhage, and uterine injury are frequently related to unsafe abortions, particularly among teenage women. Hospitals must be equipped with a reliable management system, surgical facilities, and clinical services. The WHO recommends upgrading community health centers with trained personnel, adequate supervision, and equipment. In Uganda, midwives are specially trained in advanced skills for use in remote areas: administration of oxytocin to evacuate the uterus and reduce bleeding, use of antibiotics for infections, and surgical repair of vaginal tears. Nurses in Zaire are trained to do Cesarean sections. In Sierra Leone and Nigeria, doctors are encouraged to receive training in obstetrics and to be posted in rural areas. In Sierra Leone, young men are trained to bring pregnant women in to care on stretchers. Maternity waiting homes near hospitals are another means to save lives. Lack of permission from a male relative may prevent use of medical care. Time, money, and women's place in society determine whether a woman receives care. Superstitions, such as difficult labor being blamed on the woman's unfaithfulness, interfere. Women with knowledge of complications may not have available services. Cost of care may discourage or delay decisions. Governments must support maternal health policies. PMID:12287502

Blaney, C L

1994-02-01

400

Optical multiple access intersatellite links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of an optical implementation of a multiple access medium data rate data relay service on the timescale of Euro-DRS was assessed. The service requirements for the feasibility study are based on the service which, in existing or planned systems, is implemented at S band. The system should communicate simultaneously with up to 8 LEO users in orbits of radii up to 7400 km providing 8 independently agile links. On each link, it should communicate at up to 2Mb/sec, at bit error rates of 10 to the minus 6th power in the return direction (LEO to GEO). A design concept for the GEO central node was produced. Mass and power estimates were evaluated and a preliminary spacecraft accommodation study performed. The system weighs 130 kg and has a power consumption of 300 W. The optical subsystem occupies a 75 x 75 x 30 cm volume on the top floor of the spacecraft. A number of trade-offs were identified and performed in reaching the final system configuration. The system should have 1 telescope system per user, a periscope mirror configuration for coarse pointing, a single telescope for both transmit and receive, and the use of both 0.8 micron for the LEO-GEO link and 1.3 micron for GEO-LEO.

Grant, M. A.; Matthews, N. F.; Robson, D.

1988-03-01

401

Perilous terra incognita-open-access journals.  

PubMed

The author focuses on a new rapidly spreading practice of publication in open-access journals. The pros and cons of open-access journals are discussed. Publishing in these journals may be cost prohibitive for educators and junior faculty members. Some authors may be lured by the ease of publishing in open-access journals (and their, at times, inflated self-description, e.g., "international", "scientific"), and their possibly valuable contributions will escape the attention of Academic Psychiatry readership in the vast sea of open-access journals. The readership may be flooded with a large number of low-quality articles (maybe not even properly peer-reviewed) from open-access journals. It may take some time to sort out what is and what is not relevant and useful. Open-access publishing represents a problematic and controversial practice and may be associated with a conflict of interest for the editors and publishers of these journals. PMID:24519801

Balon, Richard

2014-04-01

402

Vascular Access Infections: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection is the most challenging and life-threatening complication of vascular access and causes significant morbidity, loss\\u000a of access, and mortality. The aims of this review are to determine the magnitude of the infection problem, identify possible\\u000a factors, and provide an update on the management of vascular access infections. Infections account for approximately 15% to 36% of all deaths in dialysis

Jacob A. Akoh

2011-01-01

403

Mobile Agents for WWW Distributed Database Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of Web as a universal access mechanism for network information has created the need for developing web- based DBMS client\\/server applications. However, the current commercial applet-based methodologies for accessing database systems offer limited flexibility, scalability and robustness. In this paper, we propose a new framework for Web-based distributed access to database systems based on Java-based mobile agents. The

Stavros Papastavrou; George Samaras; Evaggelia Pitoura

1999-01-01

404

Optimizing noncontiguous accesses in MPI-IO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The I\\/O access patterns of many parallel applications consist of accesses to a large number of small, noncontiguous pieces of data. If an application' s I\\/O needs are met by making many small, distinct I\\/O requests, however, the I\\/O performance degrades drastically. To avoid this problem, MPI-IO allows users to access noncontiguous data with a single I\\/O function call, unlike

Rajeev Thakur; William Gropp; Ewing L. Lusk

2002-01-01

405

Specifying Access Control Policies on Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many data stream processing systems are increasingly being used to support applications that handle sensitive information,\\u000a such as credit card numbers and locations of soldiers in battleground [1,2,3,6]. These data have to be protected from unauthorized\\u000a accesses. However, existing access control models and mechanisms cannot be adequately adopted on data streams. In this paper,\\u000a we propose a novel access control

Barbara Carminati; Elena Ferrari; Kian-lee Tan

2007-01-01

406

Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

Dischinger, Portia

2005-01-01

407

Accessibility of near-Earth asteroids, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous research which analyzed the accessibility of all known near-Earth asteroids is updated. Since then, many new near-Earth asteroids have been discovered, and 1928 DB, the most accessible asteroid at that time, has been recovered. Many of these recently discovered near-Earth asteroids have promising orbital characteristics. In addition to accessibility (as defined by minimum global delta v), ideal rendezvous opportunities are identified.

Hulkower, Neal D.; Child, Jack B.

1991-01-01

408

Small Satellite Access of the Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small satellites have been perceived as having limited access to NASA's Space Network (SN). The potential for satellite access of the space network when the design utilizes a fixed antenna configuration and low-power, coded transmission is analyzed. From the analysis, satellites using this configuration in high-inclination orbits are shown to have a daily data throughput in the 100 to 1000 Mbit range using the multiple access communications service.

Horan, Stephen; Minnix, Timothy O.; Vigil, J. S.

1999-01-01

409

MY NASA DATA Live Access Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. The Live Access Server provide visualization and subsetting of multi-dimensional scientific data for Web users. LAS enables the Web user to visualize data with on-the-fly graphics, request and download custom subsets of variables in a choice of file formats, and compare (difference) variables from distributed locations. The Live Access Server can be used to generate ascii micosets of real NASA data that can be incorporated into classroom lessons and activities.

410

Access to Scientific Publications: The Scientist's Perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research – an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. Methods and Findings We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1) a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords “HIV vaccine” and 2) a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80%) of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online). Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. Conclusions While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However, subscriptions do not provide access to the full range of HIV vaccine research literature. Access to papers through subscriptions is complemented by a variety of other means, including emailing corresponding authors, joint affiliations, use of someone else's login information and posting requests on message boards. This complex picture makes it difficult to assess the real ability of scientists to access literature, but the observed differences in access levels between institutions suggest an unlevel playing field, in which some researchers have to spend more efforts than others to obtain the same information.

Voronin, Yegor; Myrzahmetov, Askar; Bernstein, Alan

2011-01-01

411

Open access: changing global science publishing  

PubMed Central

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

2013-01-01

412

Effective access to health care in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012. Results In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level. Conclusions Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico.

2014-01-01

413

Implementation of Flexible Access System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the architecture, operation, and the implementation of a prototype system, flexible access system (FAS), developed by CHT T.L. for FITL applications. FAS adopts fiber to the curb (FTTC) topology and provides POTS, ISDN BRA, and T1 services. The system consists of three main parts, namely, fiber central office terminal (FCOT) at switch side, fiber nodes (FN) at customer side, and a monitor station. FCOT and FNs are connected through an STM-1 fiber distribution ring. The hardware structure and the operation principle for each module are described. FAS contains the mux-demux module, POTS, ISDN, and T1 central office/customer service modules, operation modules, and power module. In the design, each central office service module in FCOT simulates as a CPE to terminate signals from switch, and will separate the data and signaling and map them into DS1 format. Mux/demux module will add/drop these DS1, put the operation information in data communication channel (DCC), and convert them to STM-1 optical link. Each customer service module in FN simulates switch line cart to regenerate the signal for customers. The prototype system implementation confirms the benefits of introducing SDH add/drop technologies to FITL system to provide basic telecommunication services. The design experience reveals that the clock synchronization method and noise reduction technique can significantly influence the performance in such a system. The test results that demonstrate and verify the designed functionality and the service quality of the prototype system will be presented.

Wu, Chen-Hsiang; Peng, Jan-Wen; Shao, Shou-Kuo; Chen, Tzooming E.; Chen, Shih Chang; Lee, Meng-Shu; Yen, K.-Y.; Chen, Tsung-Mao; Wang, Ching Sheu; Tu, Yuan-Kuang

1998-07-01

414

A Flexible and Distributed Architecture to Enforce Dynamic Access Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avoiding unauthorized access in an information system usually means enforcing access control mechanisms. Traditional access control only aims at de- ciding if an access can be granted or not. Dynamic access control goes further as it aims at controlling also if an ongoing access is still authorized while it is running. Rights Expression Languages, such as MPEG-REL, take into account

Thierry Sans; Frédéric Cuppens; Nora Cuppens-boulahia

2006-01-01

415

A multidisciplinary approach to hemodialysis access: Prospective evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary approach to hemodialysis access: Prospective evaluation. Dialysis access procedures and complications represent a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization and cost for chronic dialysis patients. To improve outcomes and reduce the cost of hemodialysis access procedures we developed a multidisciplinary approach, involving nephrologists, access surgeons, and radiologists. A full-time dialysis access coordinator scheduled all access procedures with the surgeons

Michael Allon; Robert Bailey; Robert Ballard; Mark H Deierhoi; Kay Hamrick; Rachel Oser; V Keith Rhynes; Michelle L Robbin; Souheil Saddekni; Stephen T Zeigler

1998-01-01

416

On proxy agents, mobility, and web access  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emerging need for ubiquitous access to information, web access from mobile clients is gaining increasing importance. Unfortunately, the underlying protocols of the web are not designed to support operations from a resource poor platform in a low bandwidth, disconnection prone environment. Efforts to create systems to support mobile browsing have typically been proxy-based. However, such solutions have recently

Anupam Joshi

2000-01-01

417

Web site accessibility: an online sector analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), companies must provide customers with disabilities access to their “physical” stores. With the advent of the pure Web store, some wonder if the ADA will extend into “cyberspace”. So, are companies ready? This study assesses Web sites to determine their readiness. Results reveal that only 9 percent of the sites have accessible home

Eleanor T. Loiacono; Scott Mccoy

2004-01-01

418

Steps Toward Creating Fully Accessible Reading Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP) have been conducting research and engaging in other activities to pull together a full view of the issues and potential solutions for developing reading assessments that are fully accessible and produce valid results for students with disabilities. To introduce this topic, the assumptions and theoretical bases for NARAP's work are explained. A description

Martha L. Thurlow

2010-01-01

419

Steps toward Creating Fully Accessible Reading Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP) have been conducting research and engaging in other activities to pull together a full view of the issues and potential solutions for developing reading assessments that are fully accessible and produce valid results for students with disabilities. To introduce this topic, the assumptions…

Thurlow, Martha L.

2010-01-01

420

Next-Generation Optical Access Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main bandwidth bottleneck in today's networks is in the access segment. To address that bottleneck, broadband fiber access technologies such as passive optical networks (PONs) are an indispensable solution. The industry has selected time-division multiplexing (TDM) for current PON deployments. To satisfy future bandwidth demands, however, next-generation PON systems are being investigated to provide even higher performance. In this

Leonid G. Kazovsky; Wei-Tao Shaw; David Gutierrez; Ning Cheng; Shing-Wa Wong

2007-01-01

421

Public Access: Evolution of the Citizen Agreement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines public access by focusing attention on development of the citizen intervenor role and development of the citizen agreement concept, and by discussing the future role of agreements as viable elements of public access. Examined are such topics as the history of citizen intervention, the history of citizen agreements,…

Garay, Ronald

422

Facilitating greater access to ETDs through CONTENTdm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to describe several stages in a university library's approach to providing access to theses and dissertations, culminating in a decision to use CONTENTdm and its Dublin Core-based metadata along with our ability to provide even wider access in the future through OCLC. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The university's treatment of theses and dissertations, from

Rachel I. Howard; Tyler Goldberg

2011-01-01

423

78 FR 45454 - Patient Access to Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulation governing disclosure of information to veterans and other beneficiaries. The current regulation provides for a special procedure for evaluating sensitive records and determining whether an individual may gain access to his or her own records. The special procedure allows VA to prevent an individual's access to his or her own records if......

2013-07-29

424

myWIFIzone Internet Access Blocker 4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's important to remain vigilant about potential wifi freeloaders, as some persons will do anything to access an open network. This application will help users do just that, as it will prevent unscrupulous persons from accessing your Internet connection. This particular version will function properly with computers running Windows 2000 and XP.

2006-01-01

425

Enhancing Mobile Web Access Using Intelligent Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Web recommendations derived from frequent user Web-access patterns can help typical mobile users efficiently navigate standard Web sites. To facilitate mobile Web access, mobile clients' display resolution must gradually increase. Additionally, servers need a simple and elegant solution for displaying content effectively on mobile devices. We propose an implicit server-side approach using intelligent Web recommendations that can significantly enhance

Baoyao Zhou; Siu Cheung Hui; Kuiyu Chang

2006-01-01

426

Has Internet Access Taxation Affected Internet Use?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most arguments in favor of the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA) assume that taxing Internet access would reduce Internet use. The authors investigate this possibility empirically, making use of panel data covering all U.S. states for the years 1998, 2000, and 2001. Statutory variation in the taxation of Internet access occurs because 10 states were permitted to continue their existing

Donald Bruce; John Deskins; William F. Fox

2004-01-01

427

Remote Access Laboratories in Australia and Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments…

Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

2011-01-01

428

Synthesising verified access control systems in XACML  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) was proposed by the OASIS committee to be used as a standard language in e-business [6]. However, policy files written in XACML are hard to read and analyse directly. In this paper, we present a tool which generates verified XACML scripts from access control system descriptions in simple but expressive language proposed in

Nan Zhang; Mark Ryan; Dimitar P. Guelev

2004-01-01

429

Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

Zuccala, Alesia

2010-01-01

430

Towards an Accessible Learning Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most consistent problems with modern learning management systems is their failure to comply with international standards for accessibility. Accessibility guidelines ensure that students can use educational websites, regardless of physical disability. When compliance is not met, students with disabilities may be excluded from online learning. This is a problem, not only because of the clear moral obligation

Tristan Kalnins-Cole; Dorian Peters

2006-01-01

431

Access and accounting schemes of wireless broadband  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes were introduced. There are some differences in the client and the access router module between them. In one scheme, Secure Shell (SSH) protocol is used in the access system. The SSH server makes the authentication based on private key cryptography. The advantage of this scheme is the security of the user's information, and we have sophisticated access control. In the other scheme, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol is used the access system. It uses the technology of public privacy key. Nowadays, web browser generally combines HTTP and SSL protocol and we use the SSL protocol to implement the encryption of the data between the clients and the access route. The schemes are same in the radius sever part. Remote Authentication Dial in User Service (RADIUS), as a security protocol in the form of Client/Sever, is becoming an authentication/accounting protocol for standard access to the Internet. It will be explained in a flow chart. In our scheme, the access router serves as the client to the radius server.

Zhang, Jian; Huang, Benxiong; Wang, Yan; Yu, Xing

2004-04-01

432

Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's author…

Ovadia, Steven

2011-01-01

433

Easy Access: Auditing the System Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's electronic learning environment, access to appropriate systems and data is of the utmost importance to students, faculty, and staff. Without proper access to the school's internal systems, teachers could be prevented from logging on to an online learning system and students might be unable to submit course work to an online…

Wiech, Dean

2013-01-01

434

Correlates of Access to Business Research Databases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines potential correlates of business research database access through academic libraries serving top business programs in the United States. Results indicate that greater access to research databases is related to enrollment in graduate business programs, but not to overall enrollment or status as a public or private institution.…

Gottfried, John C.

2010-01-01

435

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

1976-01-01

436

Our Foundation: Understanding and Promoting Youth Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how libraries can encourage and increase youth access to information. Discusses the role of the school library media center; law, illegal information, and censorship; parental rights; information policy; and promoting youth access before a challenge occurs in the library. (AEF)

Gardner, Carrie

2001-01-01

437

Internet Access in School Library Media Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Internet resources available for elementary school children and discusses why Internet access should be provided through school library media centers. Highlights include appropriate Web sites, a case study, equity of access, censorship, integrating Internet resources into the curriculum, Internet usage guidelines, and identification and…

Everhart, Nancy

1997-01-01

438

MATCH: MULTIMODAL ACCESS TO CITY HELP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfaces to mobile information access devices need to allow users to interact using whichever mode or combination of modes are most appropriate, given their user preference, task at hand, and physical and social environment. This paper describes a multimodal applica- tion architecture which facilitates rapid prototyping of flexible next- generation multimodal interfaces. Our sample application MATCH (Multimodal Access To City

Michael Johnston; Srinivas Bangalore; Gunaranjan Vasireddy

439

Multimodal language processing for mobile information access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfaces for mobile information access need to allow users flexi- bility in their choice of modes and interaction style in accordance with their preferences, the task at hand, and their physical and social environment. This paper describes the approach to mul- timodal language processing in MATCH (Multimodal Access To City Help), a mobile multimodal speech-pen interface to restaurant and subway

Michael Johnston; Srinivas Bangalore; Amanda Stent; Gunaranjan Vasireddy; Patrick Ehlen

2002-01-01

440

MATCH: multimodal access to city help  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfaces to mobile information access devices need to allow users to interact using whichever mode or combination of modes are most appropriate, given their user preference, task at hand, and physical and social environment. This paper describes a multimodal application architecture which facilitates rapid prototyping of flexible next-generation multimodal interfaces. Our sample application MATCH (Multimodal Access To City Help) provides

Michael Johnston; Srinivas Bangalore; Gunaranjan Vasireddy

2001-01-01

441

Decomate: Unified Access to Globally Distributed Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Decomate project enables mutual access to heterogeneous, dis- tributed, and pooled digital resources of consortium members. Using a mediator architecture with a Broker and several back-end servers, a scalable and flexible system has been developed that is going in production in major European univer- sities. Ongoing work focuses on access improvements using graphical browsing and thesaurus integration.

Jeroen Hoppenbrouwers

2000-01-01

442

Students' Motivation to Access Academic Advising Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interrelationships between motivation for choosing a program of study, intention to access academic advisors, academic difficulty, and actual appointments with academic advisors were based on student self-reports of motivation and intentions. In addition, academic achievement measures and data on student access to academic advisors were…

Henning, Marcus A.

2009-01-01

443

Open Access Data Takes Center Stage  

Cancer.gov

Posted on February 08, 2012 NCI’s Cancer Bulletin highlight a recent conversation with Drs. Henry Rodriguez and Christopher Kinsinger of OCCPR focusing on Open Data Access in Proteomics. Click here to link to the article. Print This Page Open Access

444

Subscriptions Are Us: Content, Access, & Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of increasingly digital distribution, challenging questions arise regarding what people own, what they want to access to, and how they develop and maintain collections. What considerations influence their decision making, as individuals and libraries shift toward more subscription-oriented content? Digital access to e-books and…

Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

2012-01-01

445

Optimistic security: a new access control paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the best efforts of security researchers, sometime s the static nature of authorisation can cause unexpected risks for user s work- ing in a dynamically changing environment. Disasters, medical emergencies or time-critical events can all lead to situati ons where the ability to relax normal access rules can become critical ly impor- tant. This paper presents an optimistic access

Dean Povey

1999-01-01

446

Open access to the scientific journal literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: None of the advantages of traditional scientific journals need be sacrificed in order to provide free online access to scientific journal articles. Objections that open access to scientific journal literature requires the sacrifice of peer-review, revenue, copyright protection, or other strengths of traditional journals, are based on misunderstandings.

Peter Suber

2002-01-01

447

Accessing data cubes along complex dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a data warehouse, data cubes are accessed through their dimensions. If dimensions are numerical, because numerical data can be clustered or sorted, fast access methods such as binary search or B+ trees can be applied. However, complex attributes such as keyword sets of document contents are not easily sorted or clustered. Although it is highly desirable that documents can

Yuping Yang; Mukesh Singhal

1999-01-01

448

Dynamic Access Ordering for Streamed Computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory bandwidth is rapidly becoming the limiting performance factor for many applications, particularly for streaming computations such as scientific vector processing or multimedia (de)compression. Although these computations lack the temporal locality of reference that makes traditional caching schemes effective, they have predictable access patterns. Since most modern DRAM components support modes that make it possible to perform some access sequences

Sally A. Mckee; William A. Wulf; James H. Aylor; Robert H. Klenke; Maximo H. Salinas; Sung I. Hong; Dee A. B. Weikle

2000-01-01

449

Guidelines for Access Control System Evaluation Metrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nearly all applications include some form of access control (AC). AC is concerned with determining the allowed activities of legitimate users, mediating every attempt by a user to access a resource in the system. AC systems come with a wide variety of fea...

K. Scarfone V. C. Hu

2012-01-01

450

Flexible support for multiple access control policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several access control policies can be devised for controlling access to information, all existing authorization models, and the corresponding enforcement mechanisms, are based on a specific policy (usually the closed policy). As a consequence, although different policy choices are possible in theory, in practice only a specific policy can actually be applied within a given system. In this paper,

Sushil Jajodia; Pierangela Samarati; Maria Luisa Sapino; V. S. Subrahmanian

2001-01-01

451

Validating access control policies with Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two projects that are being developed in our research group. The first is on inconsistency detection in XACML policies. The second one develops a novel access control paradigm, process-based access control, and has inconsistency de- tection as part of its goal. The model analyzer All oy is being used in both projects. 1. Background and motivation The old

Waël Hassan; Luigi Logrippo; Mahdi Mankai

452

AccessComputing: Building Capacity for Veterans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of activities have been undertaken to increase the participation of veterans with disabilities in computing and information technology (IT) postsecondary education and career fields. These activities were coordinated by the Alliance for Access to Computing Careers ("AccessComputing"), led by the Department of Computer Science and…

DO-IT, 2009

2009-01-01

453

Accessibility from active and fulfilled goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In six studies participants searched for a target stimulus among other stimuli. Lexical decision and Stroop measures of accessibility showed that accessibility of target-related words was enhanced prior to finding the target and reduced after finding it, relative to both a preceding stage, relative to a control, no-goal condition and relative to a condition in which the goal was not

Jens Förster; Nira Liberman; E. Tory Higgins

2005-01-01

454

Learning Web Accessibility with ASP.NET  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was based on anecdotal evidence that students often do not make the connection between practical web development and accessibility issues that they have learned in other modules. As part of this project, an e-learning website in which the teaching of accessibility issues is a natural and integral part of instruction of practical ASP.NET programming has been designed, implemented

Mariana Lilley

455

Access Technology for Network Information Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the technical access barriers that inhibit the effective use of the information resources available on higher education networks; the emerging information server technology that promises to alleviate many access problems; and the growing popularity of the Z39.50 protocol, including questions about this information retrieval…

Lynch, Clifford A.

1990-01-01

456

Adapting Historic Campus Structures for Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issues involved in making accessibility modifications to buildings of historic value, architectural significance, or traditional interest are reviewed in this publication. A related document, ED 175 080, "Creating an Accessible Campus," contains information and design recommendations applicable to all buildings. The first part of the document…

Milner, Margaret

457

Community College Access: Barriers and Bridges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines challenges to educational access at the community-college level related to college mission, funding, assessment, academic placement, staff development, articulation/transfer, college-school relations, and student support services. Considers public policy influences on access. Describes four Maricopa County Community College District…

Cardenas, Raul; Warren, Elizabeth

1991-01-01

458

Accessible Technology in the Workplace: Roundtable Dialogue on the Future of Accessible Workplace Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Roundtable Dialogue on the Future of Accessible Workplace Technology was organized by the Collaborative on Accessible Workplace Technologies to facilitate an information exchange among thought leaders, identify challenges and barriers to providing acc...

2010-01-01

459

Walkyourplace - Evaluating Neighbourhood Accessibility at Street Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The popularity of a neighbourhood is often explained by its perceived "higher" quality of life. Good access to shops, restaurants, parks, etc., is seen as an indicator that reflects improved quality of life. We present a web-based tool for assessment of accessibility to such services. The system evaluates in real time an area that is accessible using pedestrian, transit, and cycling infrastructure. The accessible area is evaluated using "quality of life" indicators, such as the number of grocery stores, shopping and recreation facilities, and local crime within that area. This tool sets itself apart from pre-computed and neighbourhood-level walkability indices, because it makes use of detailed street-level data, rather than block-level generalizations. It uses real network travel time, and, when transit data are provided, permits the creation and evaluation of accessibility areas for a combination of travel modes such as walking with transit use.

Steiniger, S.; Poorazizi, M. E.; Hunter, A. J. S.

2013-05-01

460

Accessibility Analyst: an integrated GIS tool for accessibility analysis in urban transportation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an integrated GIS tool, Accessibility Analyst, for accessibility analysis in urban transportation planning, built as an extension to the desktop GIS software package, ArcView. Accessibility Analyst incorporates a number of accessibility measures, ranging from catchment profile analysis to cumulative-opportunity measures, gravity-type measures, and utility-based measures, contains several travel-impedance measurement tools for estimating the travel distance, time, or

Suxia Liu; Xuan Zhu

2004-01-01

461

Occupational Home Economics. Access Skills. Vocational Readiness Skills. Missouri LINC. Accessing Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains home economics occupations-related materials to help teachers and parents teach access skills to Missouri junior high and high school special needs students who want to pursue a vocational program in child care, custom sewing, or food service. Access skills are defined as those skills needed to access vocational education…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Practical Arts and Vocational-Technical Education.

462

Access control, reverse access control and replication control in a world wide distributed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine several access control problems that occur in an object-based distributed system that permits objects to be replicated on mul- tiple machines. First, there is the classical access control problem, which relates to which users can ex- ecute which methods. Second, we identified a reverse access control problem, which concerns which repli- cas can execute which

Bogdan C. Popescu; Chandana Gamage; Andrew S. Tanenbaum

2002-01-01

463

Design of the Dialysis Access Consortium (DAC) Aggrenox prevention of access stenosis trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Surgically created arteriovenous (AV) grafts are the most common type of hemodialysis vascular access in the United States, but fail frequently due to the development of venous stenosis. The Dialysis Access Consortium (DAC) Aggrenox Prevention of Access Stenosis Trial tests the hypothesis that Aggrenox (containing dipyridamole and aspirin) can prevent stenosis and prolong survival of arteriovenous grafts.Methods This is

Bradley S Dixon; Gerald J Beck; Laura M Dember; Thomas A Depner; Jennifer J Gassman; Tom Greene; Jonathan Himmelfarb; Lawrence G Hunsicker; James S Kaufman; Jeffrey H Lawson; Catherine M Meyers; John P Middleton; Milena Radeva; Steve J Schwab; James F Whiting; Harold I Feldman

2005-01-01

464

Access and Ensuring Accessibility in the Regional Museum of Natural History (RMNH), Bhopal, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies five types of museum accessibility: (1) physical; (2) socio-cultural; (3) economic; (4) sensory; and (5) intelligence/learning accessibility. Considers ways to coordinate museum services to ensure accessibility for potential museum patrons who are disabled. Describes various programs launched by the National Museum of Natural History in…

Venugopal, B.

1999-01-01

465

Capability-Based Egress Network Access Control for Transferring Access Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional egress network access control (NAC) using access control lists (ACLs), modifying ACLs is a heavy task for administrators. To enable rapid configuration without a large amount of effort by administrators, we introduce capabilities to egress NAC. In our egress NAC, a user can transfer his\\/her access rights (capabilities) to other persons without asking administrators. To realize capability-based egress

Shinichi Suzuki; Yasushi Shinjo; Toshio Hirotsu; Kozo Itano; Kazuhiko Kato

2005-01-01

466

Rising Expectations: Access to Biomedical Information  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To provide an overview of the expansion in public access to electronic biomedical information over the past two decades, with an emphasis on developments to which the U.S. National Library of Medicine contributed. Methods Review of the increasingly broad spectrum of web-accessible genomic data, biomedical literature, consumer health information, clinical trials data, and images. Results The amount of publicly available electronic biomedical information has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. Rising expectations regarding access to biomedical information were stimulated by the spread of the Internet, the World Wide Web, advanced searching and linking techniques. These informatics advances simplified and improved access to electronic information and reduced costs, which enabled inter-organizational collaborations to build and maintain large international information resources and also aided outreach and education efforts The demonstrated benefits of free access to electronic biomedical information encouraged the development of public policies that further increase the amount of information available. Conclusions Continuing rapid growth of publicly accessible electronic biomedical information presents tremendous opportunities and challenges, including the need to ensure uninterrupted access during disasters or emergencies and to manage digital resources so they remain available for future generations.

Lindberg, D. A. B.; Humphreys, B. L.

2008-01-01

467

[Central vascular access: rational and results].  

PubMed

Central venous catheterization for hemodialysis using double cannula has become the preferred central vascular form in acute cases. Moreover, in chronic cases, this form of vascular access has replaced the internal arterio-venous fistula whenever the latter is difficult to realize, or when patient's cardio-circulatory condition would discourage its creation. The central vascular access presents frequent complications, compromising their efficiency and duration. Tesio's central venous catheters were thoroughly studied and manufactured to overcome these complications, allowing a long life span of the vascular access. In this study 108 patients with Tesio's internal jugular central venous catheters were followed-up in the period 1990 to 1994. All patients underwent hemodialysis in Pordenone Center. Central venous access survival fluctuated between 93% and 82% in the first year and the fifth year respectively. However, access survival dropped to 32% after seven years. The accurate choice of the catheters' manufacturing material as well as the correct technical positioning has determined a significant increase in the vascular access survival, thanks to the important decrease in prevalence and seriousness of complications. We believe that the decreased accuracy in catheter management over time is the major cause of delayed loss of the central vascular access. PMID:12851918

Tesio, F; Panarello, G; De Baz, H; Canzi, M; De Mattia, T; Pasut, R

2003-01-01

468

A Dynamic Mandatory Access Control Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mandatory access control has traditionally been employed as a robust security mechanism in critical environments like military ones. As computing technology becomes more pervasive and mobile services are deployed, applications will need flexible access control mechanisms. Aggregating mandatory models with context-awareness would provide us with essential means to define dynamic policies needed in critical environments. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic context-aware mandatory access control model which enables us to specify dynamic confidentiality and integrity policies using contextual constraints.

Jafarian, Jafar Haadi; Amini, Morteza; Jalili, Rasool

469

47 CFR 52.107 - Hoarding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...b) Tariff Provision . The following provision shall be included in the Service Management System tariff and in the local exchange carriers' toll free database access tariffs: [T]he Federal Communications Commission (âFCCâ)...

2013-10-01

470

34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that access or opportunity or discriminate for reasons including the membership or leadership criteria or oath of allegiance to God and country of the Boy Scouts or of the Title 36 youth group. (b) Specific requirements â(1) Meetings. Any...

2013-07-01

471

Enhancing Access to Space Science Literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By participating in the Name Authority Program Component and Subject Authority Cooperative Program of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging of the Library of Congress even the smallest libraries can enhance access to the space science literature.

Bigwood, D. P.

2006-03-01

472

Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

2003-02-25

473

Equal Access Newsletter Vol. 1, Issue 1  

Cancer.gov

Equal Access The Newsletter of the Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities Spring 2004 ? Vol 4 Closing the Gap between Discovery and Delivery By Neil Swan, Staff Writer The concept of patient navigators or advocates to help guide cancer

474

Accessing and visualizing scientific spatiotemporal data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses work done by JPL's Parallel Applications Technologies Group in helping scientists access and visualize very large data sets through the use of multiple computing resources, such as parallel supercomputers, clusters, and grids.

Katz, Daniel S.; Bergou, Attila; Berriman, G. Bruce; Block, Gary L.; Collier, Jim; Curkendall, David W.; Good, John; Husman, Laura; Jacob, Joseph C.; Laity, Anastasia; Li, P. Peggy; Miller, Craig; Prince, Tom; Siegel, Herb; Williams, Roy

2004-01-01

475

ACCESS: Design and Sub-System Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. ACCESS, "Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars", is a series of rocket-borne sub-orb...

A. G. Reiss B. E. Woodgate B. J. Rasucher D. B. Mott D. J. Benford D. J. Sahnow D. M. Kahle E. L. Wright H. Wen H. W. Moos J. P. Gardner J. S. Gum J. W. Kruk M. Hart M. A. Quijada M. E. Kaiser M. J. Morris P. D. Feldman R. Bohlin R. Foltz R. Pelton R. A. Kimble S. E. Deustua S. R. McCandliss W. V. Dixon

2012-01-01

476

Public-Access Information System Terminal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates generally to information retrieval systems, and is particularly concerned with a computer-linked remote terminal unit for providing public access to electronically stored route and schedule information at airports, bus terminals, rai...

L. Frenkel M. Gorstein

1980-01-01

477

28 CFR 16.70 - limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the Attorney General System--limited access. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...and (g): (1) General Files System of the Office of the Attorney...subject individual would present a serious impediment...

2009-07-01

478

28 CFR 16.74 - limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sec. 16.74 Exemption of National Security Division Systems - limited access... Sec. 16.74 Exemption of National Security Division Systems JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION... Sec. 16.74 Exemption of National Security Division...

2009-07-01

479

Accessibility of Emergency Information on Television  

MedlinePLUS

... may be impossible to provide accessible emergency information. Filing a Complaint If you have a complaint about ... welcome but not required. What Happens After I File a Complaint? The FCC will notify the video ...

480

Intercity Transportation Effectiveness Access/Assignment Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Intercity Transportation Effectiveness- Access/Assignment Model is a planning tool designed to evaluate the alternatives available for increasing the capacity of groundside passenger handling facilities to accomodate the expected increase in air trave...

J. H. Batchelder D. E. Ward

1971-01-01

481

Mass Diagram in Timber Access Road Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the damage caused by timber access roads result from sidecasting of surplus material, a construction practice that has caused stream sedimentation, road failures, and mass soil movements. Recent restrictions on the use of sidecasting require end h...

D. Burke

1974-01-01

482

Wavelength-agile optical access networking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce our Home2015 project - wavelength-agile optical access networking system. We propose a multi-wavelength access network to offer higher system capacities for next-generation optical access. Our proposed concept of virtual PON (VPON) is introduced to realize dynamic ONU re-grouping functionality. Optical network units (ONUs) in the PON system can dynamically form different TDM-PON by using a different downlink and uplink wavelength channel. Novel photonic silicon chip integration techniques are introduced to reduce size and cost of the ONUs. We also introduce our works on live 3D hologram video transmission platform design and live 3D hologram video transmission via the 10-Gb/s wavelength-agile optical access network. Our demostration shows that our system has good transmission performances.

Cheng, Xiaofei; Yeo, Yong-Kee; Li, Chao; Xu, Xuewu

2011-11-01

483

Access transport network for IPTV video distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a case study where gigabit Ethernet interfaces are combined with SONET and\\/or fiber infrastructure to offer better network economics for IPTV video delivery by service providers in the access network.

M. El-Sayed; Ying Hu; S. Kulkarni; N. Wilson

2006-01-01

484

28 CFR 16.100 - limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION] [Chapter I - DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE] [Part 16 - PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE...Sec. 16.100 Exemption of Office of Justice Programs - limited access.] 28 JUDICIAL... Sec. 16.100 Exemption of Office of Justice Programs JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION...

2009-07-01

485

Accessing Hurricane-Produced Mudflat BSC  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mudflats (open water in background) derived via erosion and habitat conversion from former mangrove forests often have a band of mangroves adjacent to the creek bank.  Here a researcher accesses a mudflat at high tide to make measurements....

2010-08-13

486

Accessibility Programme and School Restoration in Lisbon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City of Lisbon, Portugal, is working to better integrate children with disabilities at primary school level. It recently has undertaken an accessible school programme and has restored an historic building as part of this effort.

de Gouveia, Pedro Homem; Morais, Nuno; Miranda, Antonio

2006-01-01

487

28 CFR 16.96 - limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...96 Exemption of Federal Bureau of Investigation Systems - limited access.] 28...96 Exemption of Federal Bureau of Investigation Systems JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION...96 Exemption of Federal Bureau of Investigation Systems--limited...

2009-07-01

488

A Tariff for Reactive Power  

SciTech Connect

Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

2008-07-01

489

Nondialysis uses for vascular access procedures.  

PubMed

Chemotherapeutic agents, blood products and hyperalimentation solutions have been administered and recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis has been treated via vascular access procedures in 13 patients during the period from 1972 through 1977. Bovine heterograft, saphenous vein graft and the direct arteriovenous fistulae have been successfully utilized in the construction of arteriovenous fistulae in patients requiring vascular access for nonhemodialysis purposes. Operative techniques and therapeutic usefulness are discussed. PMID:111635

Guba, A M; Collins, G J; Rich, N M; Kozloff, L; McDonald, P T

1979-07-01

490

On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories  

PubMed Central

Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category 𝒞 are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of 𝒞, called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover.

2013-01-01

491

Market Access in Global and Regional Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a method to measure difficulties in market access over a large set of countries (both developing and developed) and industries, during the period 1980-2006. We use a micro-founded heterogeneous-consumers model to estimate the impact of national borders on global and regional trade flows. Results show that difficulties faced by developing countries’ exporters in accessing developed markets are

Jose de Sousa; Thierry Mayer; Soledad Zignago

2012-01-01

492

An Algorithm for Testing Random Access Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This correspondence presents an optimal algorithm to detect any single stuck-at-1 (s-a-1), stuck-at-0 (s-a-0) fault in a random access memory using only the n-bit memory address register input and m-bit memory buffer register input and output lines. It is shown that this algorithm requires 4 X 2nmemory accesses.

John Knaizuk Jr.; Carlos R. P. Hartmann

1977-01-01

493

Broadband Internet: Net Neutrality versus Open Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Network neutrality” and “open access” are two policies designed to preserve openness on the Internet. Open access mandates openness of conduits (e.g. television cable and DSL) to service providers (e.g. America Online), while network neutrality mandates openness to advanced content (streaming video, interactive e-commerce, etc.). We develop a systems model with free entry and competition in all three industry segments

Christiaan Hogendorn

2006-01-01

494

Broadband Internet: net neutrality versus open access  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Network neutrality” and “open access” are two policies designed to preserve openness on the Internet. Open access mandates\\u000a openness of conduits (e.g. television cable and DSL) to intermediaries (e.g. America Online), while network neutrality mandates\\u000a openness to advanced content (streaming video, interactive e-commerce, etc.). We develop a systems model with free entry and\\u000a competition in all three industry segments (conduits,

Christiaan Hogendorn

2007-01-01

495

Accessing Google Docs via Screen Reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Groupware systems allow remote collaboration via computer in a simple, economic and efficient way. However, to be universally\\u000a valuable, groupware systems must be accessible and usable for all, including the differently-abled. In this paper we discuss\\u000a the results of testing the accessibility and usability of Google Docs (http:\\/\\/docs.google.com) when using a screen reader\\u000a and a voice synthesizer, and suggest some

Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini; Giulio Mori; Victor M. Ruiz Penichet

2010-01-01

496

Controlling access to pervasive information in the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive-computing infrastructures necessarily collect a lot of con- text information to disseminate to their context-aware applications. Due to the personal or proprietary nature of much of this context information, however, the infrastructure must limit access to context information to authorized persons. In this paper we propose a new access-control mechanism for event-based context- distribution infrastructures. The core of our approach

Kazuhiro Minami; David Kotz

497

Access to preventive care by immigrant populations  

PubMed Central

Many immigrant populations lack access to primary health care. A recently published study on cholesterol screening among immigrant populations in the US found disparities in cholesterol screening in those originating from Mexico, largely due to limited access to healthcare. This inverse care affects immigrants in many destination countries despite their greater health need. Please see related article: http://www.equityhealthj.com/content/11/1/22

2012-01-01

498

Multi-Radio Access in Ambient Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient Networks is a new networking concept that targets forthcoming dynamic communication environments; characterized by presence of a multitude of different wireless devices, radio access technologies and network operators that can form instant inter-network agreements with each other. In order to facilitate such dynamically composed networks a Multi-radio Access (MRA) architecture has been devised consisting of Multi-Radio Resource Management (MRRM)

R. Karimi

499

Floor acquisition multiple access with collision resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collision avoidance and resolution multiple access(CARMA) protocols are presented and analyzed. Theseprotocols use a floor acquisition multiple access strategybased on carrier sensing, together with collision resolutionof floor requests (RTS) based on a tree-splitting algorithm.For analytical purposes, an upper bound is derived for theaverage costs of resolving collisions of floor requests usingthe tree-splitting algorithm. This bound is then applied tothe computation

Rodrigo Garcés; J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves

1996-01-01

500

Security Patterns for Physical Access Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical security has received increased attention after 9\\/11. However, access control to physical units has not been explored\\u000a much. On the other hand, there is a rich literature on access control to information. These two areas appear converging as\\u000a seen by recent products and studies. However, use of different notations and implementation details make this convergence\\u000a harder. We need to

Eduardo B. Fernández; Jose Ballesteros; Ana C. Desouza-doucet; Maria M. Larrondo-petrie

2007-01-01