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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

The importance of EU15 borders for CEECs agri-food exports: The role of tariffs and non-tariff measures in the pre-accession period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the evolution of the EU-15 market access for the agri-food products, originating from CEECs. A gravity model technique has been used to assess the overall trade resistance (border effect), and to weight its various components such as tariff and non-tariff measures (sanitary and phytosanitary standards, other quality measures) in the pre-accession period (1999–2004). The findings reveal, despite

Emmanuelle Chevassus-Lozza; Karine Latouche; Darja Majkovi?; Manuela Unguru

2008-01-01

2

Rules of Origin and Non-Tariff Barriers in Agricultural Trade: Perspectives from Bangladesh and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developed and developing countries have been offering special schemes to benefit least developed countries (LDCs) from trade through increased market access. However, effective utilization of market access opportunities by the LDCs may be constrained by the rules of origin (RoO) criteria and non-tariff measures (NTMs) applied by the preference-giving countries. This report deals with RoO applied and non-tariff barriers

Uttam Kumar Deb

2006-01-01

3

Non-Tariff Measures and Indian Textiles and Clothing Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides some important indicators of non-tariff measures in Indian textiles and clothing exports. The paper identifies major trading partners and HS codes to study the impact of Non Taiff Measures (NTMs) on Indian exports. First, using count measures i.e. frequency and coverage ratios, suggests that more than 60% of export value is affected by the NTMs in USA,

Gordhan K. Saini

2009-01-01

4

78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry...increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI...non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports of...

2013-03-07

5

75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry...increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI...non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports of...

2010-02-24

6

Case Studies of Costs and Benefits of Non-Tariff Measures: Cheese, Shrimp and Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report applies a cost-benefit analysis to quantify the economic effects of non-tariff measures in the agri-food sector. Three case studies are presented to demonstrate how such analysis can help identify least-cost solutions of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) designed to ensure that imported products meet domestic requirements. The present analysis examines benefits and costs for the different domestic and foreign stakeholders

Frank van Tongeren; Anne-Célia Disdier; Joanna Komorowska; Stéphane Marette; Martin von Lampe

2010-01-01

7

New Data and Analysis on Non-tariff Measures in Agri-food Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline new data on non-tariff measures (NTMs) in agricultural trade collected as part of the NTM-Impact project. The data cover product and process standards, conformity assessment measures, and country requirements for the EU and 10 other countries. We create a Heterogeneity Index of Trade (HIT) regulations to aggregate data on different measures, and estimate the impact of regulatory heterogeneity

Jean-Philippe Gervais; Bruno Larue; Tsunehiro Otsuki; Marie-Luise Rau; Karl Shutes; Christine Wieck; Niven Winchester

2011-01-01

8

Pervasiveness and Patterns of Non-tariff Measures Affecting EU Agri-food Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the importance of non-tariff measures (NTMs) remains a major challenge. This paper reports evidence on the prevalence of NTMs in the agri-food sector based on an EU inventory of business complaints. This data source has the advantage of drawing on experiences of economic agents that are directly involved in trading activities, of containing information on domestic governance issues, and

Peter Walkenhorst

2004-01-01

9

How Important Are Non-Tariff Barriers to Agricultural Trade within ECOWAS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that the countries of Africa trade relatively little with the outside world, and among themselves, despite an extensive network of regional trade agreements. We examine this proposition by focusing on agricultural trade. Specifically, we ask whether non-tariff barriers (NTBs) are stunting agricultural trade within ECOWAS, a grouping of 15 countries in West Africa that has removed

Abdoulaye Seck; Lassana Cissokho; Kossi Makpayo; Jonathan Haughton

2010-01-01

10

Preference Erosion, Government Revenues and Non-tariff Trade Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries benefiting from developed country unilateral trade preferences fear that Doha Round tariff cuts will erode the value of those preferences. That these programmes confer significant benefits, however, is not clear. Studies indicate that the impact of preference erosion would be minimal for most developing countries. But for a small subset of middle-income and least-developed countries, concern may be

Bob Fisher

2006-01-01

11

Measuring Costs And Benefits Of Non-Tariff Measures In Agri-Food Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a systematic welfare-based approach to analyze the impact of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on trade and welfare in presence of market imperfections. We focus on standard-like measures such as technical barriers and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations. The approach overcomes the shortcomings of the mainstream approach based on the analysis of forgone trade caused by trade costs. The latter

John C. Beghin; Anne-Celia Disdier; Stephan Marette; Frank van Tongeren

2011-01-01

12

Assessment of non-tariff measures for selected agri-food exports from Africa to the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-tariff measures (NTMs) gain in importance in view of tariff reductions, by multilateral and bilateral agreements. African agri-food exports have benefited from considerable tariff reduction by the European Union (EU), but the share in EU imports has not risen. This paper describes possible methodologies to assess NTMs and an exporter survey conducted in 2009 in five African countries: Côte d'Ivoire,

Stephan Hubertus Gay; Aida Gonzalez Mellado; Robert MBarek

2010-01-01

13

Domestic support and tariff reductions in the presence of non-tariff barriers: A gravity model for primary and processed agricultural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural trade liberalization negotiations are currently at a crossroads. Progress was made to eliminate export subsidies, but small open economies’ demand for lower domestic support and tariffs on agricultural goods do not find much support among large policy active countries. Many non-tariff barriers still also impede agricultural trade. This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a gravity model to explain

Lota Tamini; Pascal Ghazalian; Jean-Philippe Gervais; Bruno Larue

2006-01-01

14

Domestic Support and Tariff Reductions in the Presence of Non-Tariff Barriers: A Gravity Model for Primary and Processed Agricultural Products1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural trade liberalization negotiations are currently at a crossroads. Progress was made to eliminate export subsidies, but small open economies' demand for lower domestic support and tariffs on agricultural goods do not find much support among large policy active countries. Many non-tariff barriers still also impede agricultural trade. This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a gravity model to explain

Lota D. Tamini; Pascal L. Ghazalian; Jean-Philippe Gervais; Bruno Larue

15

Implications of non-tariff measures on international business operations: a case of India's textiles and clothing firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper attempts to examine the implications of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on firms' international business operations through a survey of India's textiles and clothing exporting firms. The main objectives of the study are to identify and assess the impact of NTMs, and analyze the cost incurred in complying with them. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is based on the

Gordhan K. Saini

2011-01-01

16

A Cost-Benefit Framework for the Assessment of Non-Tariff Measures in Agro-Food Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report develops a conceptual framework for the assessment of costs and benefits associated with non-tariff measures that allows an evidence-based comparative assessment of alternative regulatory approaches. It was prepared by Frank van Tongeren (OECD Secretariat), John Beghin (Iowa State University), and St?phan Marette (INRA).

Frank van Tongeren; John C. Beghin; Stéphane Marette

2009-01-01

17

THE IMPACT OF EU AND US AGRO-FOOD NON TARIFF MEASURES ON EXPORTS FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the paper is to appraise the impact of EU and US non tariff measures on agro-food exports from African, Asian and South-American developing countries. After an inventory description of these measures, a gravity model is estimated. The results offer a measure of the impact of the different type of technical (i.e. labeling and standard requirement for both safety

Michele Nardella; Stefano Boccaletti

2004-01-01

18

Non-Tariff Measures in Agri-Food Trade: What Do the Data Tell Us? Evidence from a Cluster Analysis on OECD Imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-tariff measures (NTMs) play an increasing role in the international trade of agri-food products. Although well-recognized, this role has not been extensively analyzed at a disaggregated level. This paper focuses on NTMs enacted by member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for 777 products. Using a cluster-analysis, the paper identifies the correlation between the occurrence of NTMs,

Anne-Célia Disdier; Frank van Tongeren

2010-01-01

19

Non-Tariff Measures in Agri-Food Trade: What Does the Data Tell Us? Evidence from a Cluster Analysis on OECD Imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-tariff measures (NTMs) are playing an increasing role in international trade of agri-food trade. Although well-recognized, this aspect has not been extensively analysed at a disaggregated product level. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the trade incidence of NTMs notified by OECD countries on 777 products and clusters these products according to three trade indicators. While the ‘protection for

Anne-Celia Disdier; Frank W. van Tongeren

2009-01-01

20

Open access transmission tariff, (Bonneville Power Administration).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document defines the open access transmission tariff for the Bonneville Power Administration. The contents of the document include common service provisions, definitions, ancillary services, open access same-time information system (OASIS), reciproci...

1998-01-01

21

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. 35.28...35.28 Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. (a) Applicability... (c) Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariffs....

2012-04-01

22

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. 35.28 Section 35.28... Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. (a) Applicability. ...or operates facilities used for the transmission of electric energy in...

2013-04-01

23

Technical Barriers, Import Licenses And Tariffs As Means Of Limiting Market Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff

Jan G. JØrgensen; Philipp J. H. Schrodery

2004-01-01

24

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of proof to show why service under the open access tariff is not sufficient and why a section 211 or...access tariff, for good cause shown. An...public utility that is required to have...Interconnection for Wind Energy), and the...

2010-04-01

25

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of proof to show why service under the open access tariff is not sufficient and why a section 211 or...access tariff, for good cause shown. An...public utility that is required to have...Interconnection for Wind Energy), and the...

2009-04-01

26

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) Activities 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the activities and progress reports of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) committees related to: Action related to the 1982 GATT Ministerial Work Program; Quantitative restrictions and other non-tariff measures; GATT rules a...

1985-01-01

27

How Much do Non-Tariff Measures Explain the Border Effect at Entry to the EU Market? The CEECs Agri-Food Exports to EU in the Pre-Accession Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Single European Market (SEM) has been established, the free movement of goods has been facilitated not only by removing border formalities, but also by the technical harmonisation of national legislation in each member state. For the agri-food sector a particular concern is to guarantee the safety and integrity of products. In this respect, the European Commission has developed

Emmanuelle Chevassus-Lozza; Karine Latouche; Darja Majkovic

2007-01-01

28

The Precautionary Principle and Other Non-Tariff Barriers to Free and Fair International Food Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food

John R. Lupien

2002-01-01

29

Tariff Peaks in the Quad and Least Developed Country Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although average tariffs in Quad markets are very low, tariff peaks and tariff escalation have a disproportional effect on exports from least developed countries (LDCs). Tariff peak products tend to be heavily concentrated in agriculture and food products and in labour-intensive sectors such as apparel and footwear. Full duty and quota free access for LDCs in the Quad for tariff

Bernard Hoekman; Francis Ng; Marcelo Olarreaga

2001-01-01

30

Non-tariff Trade Barriers and Consumers' Information: The Case of the EU-US Trade Dispute over Beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on the empirical case of the EU-US trade dispute on hormone-treated beef an analytical framework, where consumers are imperfectly informed about the quality of imports, is used to investigate the welfare effect of trade liberalisation in the case of a credence good. Opening the domestic market to foreign products that are perceived to be of lower quality than domestic

Jean-Christophe Bureau; Stephan Marette; Alessandra Schiavina

1998-01-01

31

47 CFR 61.39 - Optional supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...lines in a given study area that are described as...access lines in a study area as determined under...National Exchange Carrier Association pool. (ii) For...National Exchange Carrier Association for the most recent...in an adjacent serving area are deemed...

2011-10-01

32

47 CFR 61.39 - Optional supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...lines in a given study area that are described as...access lines in a study area as determined under...National Exchange Carrier Association pool. (ii) For...National Exchange Carrier Association for the most recent...in an adjacent serving area are deemed...

2012-10-01

33

Access to European dairy product markets: A Computable Partial Equilibrium analysis to assess Argentine exporters surplus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial equilibrium model is used to quantify price differentials not explained by tax policy and efficiency cost in the international trade of dairy products between Argentina and some countries of European Union (EU). Prices of imports of EU from Argentina and European producer of the domestic variety welfare fall when liberalization of non-tariff barriers are reduced or eliminated as

Sonia M. León; Mauricio E. Roitman; Carlos A. Romero

2008-01-01

34

Rain, food and tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine whether and how rainfall shocks affect tariff setting in the agricultural sector. In a model of international oligopoly, we show that the impact of a negative rainfall shock on optimal import tariffs is generally ambiguous, depending on the weight placed by the domestic policy maker on tariff revenue, profi ts and the consumer surplus. The more weight placed

Paulo Bastos; Odd Rune Straume; Jaime A. Urrego

2012-01-01

35

Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade on Prices, Employment, and Imports: The Case of the Swedish Textile and Clothing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work in progress is part of an inquiry being undertaken by the World Bank in conjunction with scholars from twelve industrial countries into the penetration of the markets of industrial countries by exports of manufactures from developing countries. ...

C. Hamilton

1980-01-01

36

NON-TARIFF BARRIERS AND POLITICAL SOLUTIONS TO TRADE DISPUTES: A CASE STUDY OF U.S. POULTRY EXPORTS TO RUSSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the recent U.S.-Russian trade dispute over poultry meats exports. Russia embargoed U.S. poultry on February 16, 1996, alleging that the U.S. inspection system did not meet Russian standards. An agreement signed on March 25, 1996, establishing an inspection criteria for exports to Russia and a testing protocol for salmonella and residues, resolved the trade dispute. Analysis indicates

Glenn C. W. Ames

1997-01-01

37

China and the WTO: Tariff offers, exemptions, and welfare implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and the WTO: Tariff Offers, Exemptions, and Welfare Implications. — Trade reforms have opened the Chinese economy and\\u000a the reforms offered for WTO accession involve further liberalization. To assess the implications of these offers, the authors\\u000a take into account the tariff exemptions that are especially important in China’s trade regime, and the reductions in the variability\\u000a of tariffs at

Christian F. Bach; Will Martin; Jennifer A. Stevens

1996-01-01

38

Eliminating Excessive Tariffs on Exports of Least Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

May 2001Average most-favored-nation tariffs in the ?Quad? (Canada, the European Union, Japan, and the United States) have fallen to about 5 percent. But tariffs more than three times the average most-favored-nation duty are not uncommon in the Quad and have a disproportionate effect on exports of least developed countries. Giving the poorest countries duty-free access for peak-tariff products would increase

Bernard Hoekman; Marcelo Olarreaga; Francis Ng

1999-01-01

39

14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maintenance and security of the on-line tariff database. (b) No carrier or agent shall...printers connected to its on-line tariff database. The filer shall be responsible for...public access to its on-line tariff database, at Departmental headquarters,...

2013-01-01

40

Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments  

SciTech Connect

As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

2012-11-15

41

Modeling tariff rate quotas in the South African livestock industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Uruguay Round of trade negotiations resulted in three main areas of trade liberalization in agriculture, namely market access, domestic support, and export subsidies. In terms of market access, the introduction of tariff rate quotas (TRQs) was one of the main tools to facilitate greater market access. After the liberalization of the agricultural sector and phasing out of past protection

Olubukola Ayodeju Oyewumi

2005-01-01

42

Income taxes as reciprocal tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows the equivalence between tariffs on international trade and income taxation. Traditionally, income taxes have been seen as lowering society's output through the household's labor-leisure trade-off. Income taxes also reduce the degree to which individuals specialize in market activity, which is similar to the way countries respond to tariffs in international trade. Income taxes discourage individuals from specializing

W. Michael Cox; David M. Gould; Roy J. Ruffin

1998-01-01

43

14 CFR 221.91 - Delivering tariff publications to Department.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Delivering tariff publications to Department. 221.91 Section...REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing Tariff Publications With Department § 221.91 Delivering tariff publications to Department. Tariff...

2013-01-01

44

PROFILES OF TARIFFS IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

High protection for agricultural commodities in the form of tariffs continues to be the major factor restricting world trade. The large differences in average tariffs across countries make it possible for farmers in one country to benefit from tariff protection while farmers in other countries lose income because of lower prices resulting from those tariffs. This report provides the first

Paul R. Gibson; John Wainio; Daniel B. Whitley; Mary Bohman

2001-01-01

45

MARKET ACCESS FOR HIGH-VALUE FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market access remains a major impediment for expansion of global trade in high-value foods, particularly processed foods. Countries use tariffs and other measures that effectively stimulate imports of relatively unprocessed agricultural commodities at the expense of processed products. Tariff escalation, in which tariffs rise with the level of processing, discourages trade in high-value foods, and trade remedy measures, such as

Anita Regmi; Mark J. Gehlhar; John Wainio; Thomas L. Vollrath; Paul Johnston; Nitin Kathuria

2005-01-01

46

Accessibility  

Cancer.gov

The National Institutes of Health, NIH is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let

47

49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6 Section 1310.6 Transportation...1310.6 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Copies of tariffs, specific...charges for furnishing copies of tariff publications to interested persons. If a...

2012-10-01

48

49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6 Section 1310.6 Transportation...1310.6 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Copies of tariffs, specific...charges for furnishing copies of tariff publications to interested persons. If a...

2011-10-01

49

18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341.13 Conservation...341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed tariff publications. A proposed tariff publication...

2013-04-01

50

Optimal foreign aid and tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the optimal choice of foreign aid when trade policies are decided in a non-cooperative fashion. Three alternative scenarios, depending on the timing of the actions and on whether aid is tied, are analyzed. It is shown that, in the case where aid is decided before tariffs, untied aid can lead to the reduction of the recipient's optimal

Sajal Lahiri; Pascalis Raimondos-Møller; Kar-yiu Wong; Alan D. Woodland

2002-01-01

51

British American Tobacco's tactics during China's accession to the World Trade Organization  

PubMed Central

Background China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 after years of negotiations. As a WTO member, China had to reduce tariffs on imported cigarettes and remove non?tariff barriers to allow foreign cigarettes to be more competitive in the Chinese market. Among foreign tobacco companies, British American Tobacco (BAT) was the most active lobbyist during China's WTO negotiations. Objective To review and analyse BAT's tactics and activities relating to China's entry into the WTO. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents were reviewed and are featured here. Industry documents were searched mainly on the website of BAT's Guildford Depository and other documents' websites. 528 documents were evaluated and 142 were determined to be relevant to China's entry into the WTO. Results BAT was extremely active during the progress of China's entry into the WTO. The company focused its lobbying efforts on two main players in the negotiations: the European Union (EU) and the US. Because of the negative moral and health issues related to tobacco, BAT did not seek public support from officials associated with the WTO negotiations. Instead, BAT lobbyists suggested that officials protect the interests of BAT by presenting the company's needs as similar to those of all European companies. During the negotiation process, BAT officials repeatedly spoke favourably of China's accession into the WTO, with the aim of presenting BAT as a facilitator in this process and of gaining preferential treatment from their Chinese competitor. Conclusions BAT's activities clearly suggest that tobacco companies place their own interests above public health interests. Today, China struggles with issues of tobacco control that are aggravated by the aggressive practices of transnational tobacco companies, tobacco?tariff reductions and the huge number of smokers. For the tobacco?control movement to progress in China, health advocates must understand how foreign tobacco companies have undermined anti?tobacco activities by taking advantage of trade liberalisation policies. China should attach importance to public health and comprehensive tobacco?control policies and guarantee strong protection measures from national and international tobacco interests supported by international trade agreements.

Zhong, Fei; Yano, Eiji

2007-01-01

52

14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...any case where new or changed matter is filed to meet competition...identify the competing tariff matter which the tariff purports to...justification or attachment shall state whether the new or changed matter is identical to the...

2013-01-01

53

49 CFR 1312.13 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1312.13 Section 1312.13...SERVICE TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR...13 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Definitions....

2011-10-01

54

49 CFR 1312.13 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1312.13 Section 1312.13...SERVICE TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR...13 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Definitions....

2012-10-01

55

Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable

Wang Yu; Gerald B. Sheblé; Joao A. Peças Lopes; Manuel António Matos

2006-01-01

56

Industry sector analysis: The profile of the market for water and wastewater pollution control systems (the Philippines). Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the water and wastewater pollution control systems market in the Philippines. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Philippine consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Miranda, A.L.

1990-11-01

57

Automotive parts/accessories/supplies-automotive service equipment set (Chile). Catalytic convertors, July 1992. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the catalytic converter market in Chile. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chilean consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Not Available

1992-07-01

58

Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Electric power distribution equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the electric power distribution equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Sihombing, P.

1991-08-20

59

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Electric power distribution equipment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The market survey covers the electric power distribution equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Not Available

1991-08-01

60

Optimal Tariff Analysis of India's Apple Import Restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

When government policy makers, particularly in a developing country, impose a tariff on imports, they generally select an arbitrary tariff rate or a rate proposed by domestic interest groups such as producers. Such a tariff rate generally does not maximize welfare gain or minimize welfare loss, that is, it is not an optimal tariff. In this study we investigate whether

Stephen Devadoss

2007-01-01

61

Guidance for Industry: Harmonized Tariff Schedule Codes ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) codes listed in the table apply to prior notice submitted via the US Customs and Border Protection's (CBP's ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

62

Tariff and Tariff Rate Quota Liberalization in the South African Livestock Industry: Approaches to Welfare Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liberalization of the agricultural sector and phasing out of past protection mechanisms in South Africa saw the introduction of a process of tariff reform. Furthermore, a system of tariff rate quotas was introduced in compliance with WTO regulations. This study uses a partial equilibrium comparative static model to measure the welfare effects of further liberalization in the livestock industry

Olubukola Ayodeju Oyewumi; Andre Jooste; Wolfgang Britz; Herman D. van Schalkwyk

2007-01-01

63

14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 221.300 Discontinuation of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or...changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior to such date...

2013-01-01

64

47 CFR 61.28 - International dominant carrier tariff filing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International dominant carrier tariff filing requirements... TARIFFS General Tariff Rules for International Dominant Carriers § 61.28 International dominant carrier tariff filing...

2011-10-01

65

73 FR 57515 - Electronic Tariff Filings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...tariff filings; and provides automatic e-mail notification to an applicant of receipt...the filing, as well as additional e-mail notifications of potential problems...Receipt will be e-mailed to both the e-mail address of the Filer and to the...

2008-10-03

66

“Buy Domestic” Campaigns and Optimal Tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to analyze the strategic use of optimal tariffs and to examine the effects of national bias on the optimal trade policy and social welfare in a two-country, two-good, price competition model derived from Neven et al. (1991). The major findings are as follows. (1) If all consumers prefer the domestic good, then “buy domestic” campaigns will decrease

Jiunn-Rong Chiou; Jin-Li Hu; Yan-Shu Lin

2003-01-01

67

Tax Britannica: Nineteenth Century Tariffs And British National Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on British economic history presumes that Britain was a free trader after the repeal of the Corn Laws. Thus her tariff levels were below those which were optimal for maximizing utility. Presumably, if the optimal British tariff was positive and greater than the levels established by mid-century, a reduction to zero of all tariffs that remained would have

Sami F. Dakhlia; John V. C. Nye

2001-01-01

68

14 CFR 221.500 - Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers...Filed Tariffs § 221.500 Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers...any subscriber to the on-line tariff database, including...transactions made to its on-line tariff database. The...

2013-01-01

69

18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials. 341... § 341.11 Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials. (a... The Commission may reject tariff publications or any other material...

2013-04-01

70

14 CFR 221.108 - Transmission of tariff filings to subscribers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transmission of tariff filings to subscribers. 221.108 Section...Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.108 Transmission of tariff filings to subscribers. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

71

14 CFR 221.163 - Agents' and other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption. 221.163 Section 221.163 Aeronautics... ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change...other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption. If the former carrier is...

2013-01-01

72

The Consumer Tax Equivalent of a Tariff with Imperfect Substitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In estimating the Consumer Tax Equivalent (CTE) and Producer Subsidy Equivalent (PSE) of a tariff it is often assumed that the imported good is a perfect substitute for the relevant locally made good. However, in evaluating the economy-wide effects of a change in tariff using general equilibrium models, it is common to assume that the imported good is an imperfect

John Salerian; Lee Davis; Patrick Jomini

1999-01-01

73

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2010-01-01

74

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2009-01-01

75

47 CFR 61.87 - Cancellation of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...except for the canceling Title Page or first page. (1) If the existing service...must revise the Title Page or the first page of its tariff indicating that the...provided must revise the Title Page or first page of the tariff to be...

2010-10-01

76

47 CFR 61.87 - Cancellation of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...except for the canceling Title Page or first page. (1) If the existing service...must revise the Title Page or the first page of its tariff indicating that the...provided must revise the Title Page or first page of the tariff to be...

2009-10-01

77

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2007-01-01

78

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2006-01-01

79

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2013-01-01

80

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2011-01-01

81

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2008-01-01

82

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2012-01-01

83

Bound Tariffs, Unused Protection, and Agricultural Trade Liberalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Many quantitative assessments of the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation have relied on the assumption that trade policy reforms directly reduce applied tariffs in WTO member countries. However, in this paper it is argued that consideration of policy reforms applying to tariffs bound in Uruguay Round schedules rather than to the often much,lower applied rates can have important consequences,for

Peter Walkenhorst; Nora Dihel

2002-01-01

84

Industry sector analysis: The market for renewable energy resources (the Philippines). Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market survey covers the renewable energy resources market in the Philippines. Sub-sectors covered include biomass, solar energy, photovoltaic cells, windmills, and mini-hydro systems. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Philippine consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key

E. Cannon; A. L. Miranda

1990-01-01

85

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Air pollution instruments, equipment, and services, September 1990. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) for air pollution instruments, equipment, and services contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation (Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors), and market access (Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, and distribution channels). The ISA also contains key contact information.

Not Available

1990-09-01

86

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Water pollution instruments, equipment, and services, September 1990. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) for water pollution instruments, equipment, and services contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation (Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors), and market access (Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, and distribution channels). The ISA also contains key contact information.

Not Available

1990-09-01

87

A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-11-01

88

Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

2008-03-28

89

Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

Evans, Meredydd

2007-04-01

90

47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...symbols used in tariffs are reserved for the purposes indicated below: Rto signify reduction. Ito signify increase. Cto signify changed regulation. Tto signify a change in text but no change in rate or regulation. Sto signify reissued...

2010-10-01

91

76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...permission applications. For example, Sprint argues that it would be confusing for...examining such tariffs. In its comments, Sprint argues that certain of the Sec. 61...for nondominant carriers. For example, Sprint argues that nondominant carriers...

2011-07-20

92

Food Supply Management and Tariffication: A Game Theoretic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the current Canadian supply management regime in which producers and importers benefit from rent-seeking activities that set production quota and import quota levels with those under a tariff, in which producers partakes in rent-seeking activities in order to induce the government to introduce a favorable tariff regime. We explore two different quota-setting games: (1) the import quota and

Troy G. Schmitz; Andrew Schmitz

2002-01-01

93

Desirable role in an international duopoly model with tariffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study an international market model in which the home government imposes a tariff on the imported goods. The model has two stages. In the first stage, the home government chooses an import tariff to maximize a function that cares about the home firm's profit and the total revenue. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot or in a Stackelberg competition. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

2012-09-01

94

Tax Britannica: Nineteenth Century Tariffs and British National Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on British economic history presumes thatBritain was a free trader after the repeal of the Corn Lawsand that her tariff levels were thus below those which wereoptimal for maximizing utility. Presumably, if the optimalBritish tariffs had been positive and greater than the levelsestablished by mid-century, a reduction to zero of all tariffsthat remained would have lowered British welfare

Sami Dakhlia; John V. C. Nye

2004-01-01

95

Illegal Immigration and Second-best Import Tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractA version of the small-union Meade model is presented to analyze the illegal immigration problem in the context of import tariffs. Two possible host nation objectives are considered: (i) to control the level of illegal immigration to a given target; or (ii) to choose an illegal immigration level that maximizes national welfare. Available policy instruments are import tariffs\\/subsidies, border, and

Subhayu Bandyopadhyay

2006-01-01

96

61 FR 65336 - 800 Data Base Access Tariffs and the 800 Service Management System Tariff; Provision of 800 Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Costs (a). Because the central data base is used solely to provide 800 data base service and does not provide routing for message telephone traffic or support other...Therefore, we will allow the regional data base operators to treat the...

1996-12-12

97

THE LEVEL AND VARIATION OF TARIFF RATES: AN ANALYSIS OF NOMINAL AND EFFECTIVE TARIFF RATES IN SOUTH AFRICA FOR THE YEARS 2000 AND 2001 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note presents a first cut at analysing the tariff schedule that is applied to South African imports. The aim is to show various ways in which tariffs on South African imports can be analysed such that DTI can develop in-house capacity to undertake such analysis on an on-going basis. A cursory comparison with earlier analysis suggests that tariffs have

Dirk Ernst van Seventer

2001-01-01

98

WTO Accession and China's Agricultural Trade Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accession to the WTO will be a critical turning point for agricultural trade policies in China. Trade policies will become much more transparent, and will be subject to strong disciplines as a result of the tariff bindings and the commitments on rules included in the agreement. While WTO rules will allow continued use of state trading, subject to constraints on

Will Martin

99

19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A...

2013-04-01

100

14 CFR 221.161 - Notice of adoption to be filed in former carrier's tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Notice of adoption to be filed in former carrier's tariffs... ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change...Operating Control § 221.161 Notice of adoption to be filed in former carrier's...

2013-01-01

101

47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cm) diskette, or a 5 inch CD-ROM, formatted in an IBM-compatible form using either WordPerfect 5.1, Microsoft Word 6, or Microsoft Word 97 software. No diskettes shall contain more than one tariff. The diskette or CD-ROM must be...

2009-10-01

102

47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cm) diskette, or a 5 inch CD-ROM, formatted in an IBM-compatible form using either WordPerfect 5.1, Microsoft Word 6, or Microsoft Word 97 software. No diskettes shall contain more than one tariff. The diskette or CD-ROM must be...

2010-10-01

103

Gas demand forecasting and transmission and distribution tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABARE project 1653 Natural gas demand forecasts are used by regulatory bodies when setting transmission and distribution tariffs. Reviews of current forecasting method- ology used by gas companies indicate that the current approaches may be inappropriate for forecasting gas demand. The modeling methodology for gas demand forecasting and the implications of the results for the regulation of transmission and distribution

Julie Harman; Jane Anderson

104

The Cost of Shoulder Arthroscopy: A Comparison with National Tariff  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION ‘Payment by results’ was introduced with the aim of providing each trust with a transparent and fair remuneration for the work done. Hospitals are paid a tariff for each Healthcare Resource Group (HRG). The tariff is calculated at a national level, by means of a complex manipulation of historic financial data. However, the financial viability of a hospital relies on these payments and so accuracy is vital. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a cost analysis of shoulder arthroscopic procedures carried out at an elective orthopaedic unit. This unit is self contained and well audited, providing an unique opportunity to make a more accurate cost analysis. We calculated the cost of the facility, consumables/implants, anaesthetics and staff pay. This was then compared with the amount paid to the trust. RESULTS All arthroscopic operations performed at our institution attract a tariff of £1780. Our cost of a subacromial decompression was £1307, a profit of £473. A rotator cuff repair was £2672, a loss of £892. CONCLUSIONS The tariff is inaccurate. The arthroscopic HRG is too general and fails to address the extra time and expense of equipment some procedures utilise. We found cost was very sensitive to length of operation. Delays and even teaching can make a ‘profitable operation’ lose money for the trust.

Hearnden, Anthony; Tennent, Duncan

2008-01-01

105

New and larger costs of monopoly and tariffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight years ago, Harberger (1954) estimated that the costs of monopoly, which resulted from misallocation of resources across industries, were trivial. Others showed the same was true for tariffs. This research soon led to the consensus that monopoly costs are of little significance—a consensus that persists to this day. ; This paper reports on a new literature that takes a

James A. Schmitz Jr.

2012-01-01

106

76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar for entry through November 30, 2011...tariff-rate quota for imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2011-10-04

107

19 CFR 132.15 - Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota. 132...Quotas § 132.15 Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota. (a...claim the in-quota tariff rate of duty on beef, defined in 15 CFR...

2013-04-01

108

The Economics of U.S. Ethanol Import Tariffs with a Consumption Mandate and Tax Credit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of an ethanol import tariff in conjunction with a consumption mandate and tax credit. A tax credit alone acts as a subsidy to ethanol producers, equally benefiting exporters like Brazil. If an import tariff is imposed to offset the tax credit, world prices of ethanol decline by less than the tariff (unless oil prices are

Harry de Gorter; David R. Just

2007-01-01

109

The economics of U.S. ethanol import tariffs with a consumption mandate and tax credit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of an ethanol import tariff in conjunction with a consumption mandate and tax credit. A tax credit alone acts as a subsidy to ethanol producers, equally benefiting exporters like Brazil. If an import tariff is imposed to offset the tax credit, world prices of ethanol decline by less than the tariff (unless oil prices are

Harry de Gorter; David R. Just

2007-01-01

110

Pricing for scarcity? An efficiency analysis of increasing block tariffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water pricing schedules often contain significant nonlinearities, such as the increasing block tariff (IBT) structure that is abundantly applied for residential users. The IBT is frequently supported as a good tool for achieving the goals of equity, water conservation, and revenue neutrality but seldom has been grounded on efficiency justifications. In particular, existing literature on water pricing establishes that although efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristics, IBT cannot usually be recommended. In this paper, we consider whether the explicit inclusion of scarcity considerations can strengthen the appeal of IBT. Results show that when both demand and costs react to climate factors, increasing marginal prices may come about as a response to a combination of water scarcity and customer heterogeneity. We derive testable conditions and then illustrate their application through an estimation of Portuguese residential water demand. We show that the recommended tariff schedule hinges crucially on the choice of functional form for demand.

Monteiro, Henrique; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

2011-06-01

111

Tariffs and Growth: An Empirical Exploration of Contingent Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of empirical research indicates that countries with low policy-induced trade barriers tend to enjoy rapid growth, ceteris paribus. In contrast, alternative theoretical models suggest that the relationship between trade barriers and growth may be contingent on the level of development. Employing a direct trade-barrier measure-ad valorem tariff rates-we find evidence of such a contingency: the marginal effect

David N. DeJong; Marla Ripoll

2006-01-01

112

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs  

SciTech Connect

The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2007-05-01

113

The Socially Optimal Import Tariff and Tax Credit for Ethanol with Farm Subsidies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine how the U.S. ethanol tax credit and import tariff affect the corn-ethanol-gasoline markets and how farm subsidies interact with these policies. We show how the ethanol tax credit and import tariff each uniquely affect the ethanol and gasoline prices. The ethanol import tariff alone increases the terms of trade in ethanol imports and corn exports, but decreases the

Harry de Gorter; David R. Just; Qinwen Tan

2009-01-01

114

Biased Tariff Choices: Exploring Role Effects in B to B Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The authors examine whether motivational and cognitive causes that explain tariff choice biases in business-to-consumer (B2C) settings also hold in business-to-business (B2B) markets. Opposed to prior B2C research that is dominated by individual decision making, the study proposes role effects in buying centers influence the exploration of tariff choice and tariff choice biases in B2B settings.Originality: A rich body

Klaus Backhaus; Matthias Koch; Susanne Stingel

2011-01-01

115

Dual-tariff PV energy system — An alternative to PV energy system in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-tariff PV energy system was introduced to maneuver the lower tariff rate at off-peak period and to reduce the capital installation cost of PV energy system. In this paper, the system configuration, architecture and operation of the dual-tariff PV energy system are described and discussed. A 2.4 kW prototype system has been developed and run 24-hours to supply the load.

I. R. Ibrahim; N. S. Damanhuri; N. A. Othman; R. Radzali; M. N. Mohd; M. K. Hamzah

2011-01-01

116

Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

2013-10-01

117

THE IMPACT OF EU-ACCESSION ON THE ESTONIAN TRADE WITH FOOD PRODUCTS – PARTIAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the impact of EU-accession on the Estonian food sector from the point of view of potential changes in foreign trade. Estonia has followed radical macroeconomic reforms in the 1990’s and is well known by its extremely liberal trade policy including the complete absence of tariffs and quantitative restrictions. Therefore the accession to

Urmas Varblane; Kristina Toming; Rena Selliov

2002-01-01

118

Economic Interdependence and International Interactions: The Relationship Between Trade, Foreign Aid, and Tariff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trade-conflict model claimed that trade reduces conflict. This paper extends the trade-conflict model to incorporate the foreign aid and tariff effects. The theoretical propositions supported by proofs are as follows: trade and foreign aid reduce conflict and tariff increases conflict. The empirical tests show that trade reduces conflict between states and the causality from trade to conflict remains. Foreign

Yuan-Ching Chang

119

The Impact of the Tariff-Rate Quota on Sugar Imports on the US Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the impact of the sugar tariff-rate import quota programme on the United States economy. Uses a computable general equilibrium model composed of 14 producing sectors, 14 consuming sectors, six household categories classified by fincome, and a government. Examines the effects of abolishing the tariff-rate import quota on sugar prices and quantities. Suggests that a complete elimination of the sugar

Noel D. Uri; Roy Boyd

1994-01-01

120

THE COMMON EXTERNAL TARIFF IN A CUSTOMS UNION: VOTING, LOGROLLING, AND NATIONAL GOVERNMENT INTERESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missing from the analysis of customs unions has been a consideration of collective decision-making by countries regarding the union's common trade policy. In the case of the common European external tariff, how governments voted was not public information. This paper uses a unique dataset to derive member states' tariff preferences, which are then used to establish the decision rule before

SAMIA COSTA TAVARES

2007-01-01

121

The Common External Tariff in a Customs Union: Voting, Logrolling, and National Government Interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missing from the analysis of customs unions has been a consideration of collective decisionmaking by countries regarding the union’s common trade policy. In the case of the common European external tariff, how governments voted was not public information. This paper uses a unique dataset to derive member states’ tariff preferences, which are then used to establish the decision rule before

Samia Tavares

2006-01-01

122

Implications of Tariff Rate Quotas Liberalization in the South African Livestock Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock farming is an important facet of agriculture and livelihood in South Africa. It forms the essence of rural agriculture contributing food, socio-economic stability, employment and income. After the liberalization of the agricultural sector and phasing out of past protection mechanisms South Africa introduced a process of tariff reform. Furthermore, a system of tariff rate quotas was introduced in compliance

Olubukola Ayodeju Oyewumi; Andre Jooste; Herman D. van Schalkwyk; Wolfgang Britz

2006-01-01

123

The Economic and Environmental Effects of Eliminating the U.S. Tariff on Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U. S. ethanol industry has grown dramatically over the last ten years to be a major supplier of liquid fuels and an even larger user of corn. However, a tariff and subsidy give the domestic ethanol industry a substantial advantage over its major competitor, Brazil. This thesis analyzes the effect of eliminating the tariff on imports of Brazilian ethanol

Alexander Slaski

2008-01-01

124

Implicit Tariffs on Imported Dairy Product Components in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the dairy products imported by the United States are intermediate products used in food processing. As such, they are demanded for their components such as milk fat and protein. The implications of the U.S. tariff structure for import demand must be viewed in terms of the tariff's effects upon the relative prices of imported milk components. In

Isin Tellioglu; Kenneth W. Bailey; David Blandford

2007-01-01

125

AT GMA BRIEFING, USTR, USDA OUTLINE TARIFF REDUCTION PLAN FOR APEC NATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The federal government is actively pushing plans for lower trade tariffs on American food products sold in Asia, said Ambassador Peter Scher, U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) for Agriculture, at a briefing for GMA mem- ber company representatives sponsored by USTR and USDA. Ambassador Scher described the various actions USTR is taking to ensure food tariffs are reduced or eliminated at

U PDATE; CAPITOL HILL EDITION

1998-01-01

126

General Equilibrium Model of Agricultural Trade: An Intertemporal Optimizing Approach with Implications for Tariffication, A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a theoretical model such that the performance of the macroeconomy is consistent with optimizing the behavior of rational individuals. It demonstrates that, in principle, it is possible to convert existing trade barriers into tariffs by using the price-gap method. In practice, however, tariff and nontariff barriers are not equivalent; replacing policies that result in a price gap

Walter Enders

1991-01-01

127

Tariff or quota protection-a case study of the Norwegian apple market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tariffs and quotas are alternative trade instruments. In most cases it has been shown that the use of tariffs results in a higher national welfare than the use of quotas. Most of the research in this field has been purely theoretical. This paper aims to give an empirical contribution. Referring to the Norwegian apple market, we analyse the effects of

Ivar Gaasland; Erling Vardal

1998-01-01

128

78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program...SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program...Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import Programs and Export...

2013-02-06

129

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Biotechnology equipment. Export Trade Information  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A) for biotechnology equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for biotechnology equipment.

Kelsey, T.

1989-06-01

130

Industry sector analysis Canada: Natural gas pipeline development. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The analysis focuses on the Canadian natural gas pipeline industry and covers all inputs to natural gas pipeline construction and expansion projects: pipe, compressors, engineering services, tools, miscellaneous industrial supplies, and equipment rental. The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

Stark, T.

1992-08-01

131

76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of Entry...

2011-08-02

132

76 FR 1402 - Notice of allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: International...Notice of allocation of 2011 worsted wool fabric tariff rate quota...2011 of imports of certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established...

2011-01-10

133

78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: International...Notice of allocation of 2013 worsted wool fabric tariff rate quota...2013 of imports of certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established...

2013-01-28

134

78 FR 46565 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2013-08-01

135

75 FR 53271 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2010-08-31

136

77 FR 51751 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2012-08-27

137

76 FR 60801 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff- Rate...authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate...INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import...

2011-09-30

138

Comportamento dos sistemas de medicao em funcao da tarifa horosazonal - THS. (Measure systems behaviour based in season custom tariff).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The different measure systems are evaluated, based in the season custom tariff establishment, resulting in the load modulation and load reduction, during peak hour. Comparative analysis of the load curves are elaborated before and after the new tariff int...

S. Yshimaru A. A. Castro

1992-01-01

139

77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...notice that the tariff-rate quota for sugar established by the United States-Colombia...establishes a tariff-rate quota for imports of sugar from Colombia. USTR is providing...

2012-04-25

140

77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...notice that the tariff-rate quotas for sugar established by the United States-Panama...three tariff-rate quotas for imports of sugar from Panama. USTR is providing...

2012-10-26

141

19 CFR Appendix B to Part 113 - Bond To Indemnify Complainant Under Section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended...Section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended...Trade Commission case/investigation...section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended...and surety shall pay to the complainant an amount equal to the face...

2013-04-01

142

60 FR 52960 - Filing and Reporting Requirements for Interstate Natural Gas Company Rate Schedules and Tariffs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...18 CFR Part 154, et al. Natural Gas Companies (Natural Gas Act): Rate Schedule and Tariff...of products extracted from natural gas and other activities reported...others, incidental gasoline and oil sales, rents from gas...

1995-10-11

143

19 CFR 10.410 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.410 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon...

2013-04-01

144

76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate...Sugar AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice...e-mail to angel.f.gonzalez@fas.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A...

2011-10-03

145

18 CFR 35.47 - Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets. 35.47 Section 35.47...Credit Practices In Organized Wholesale Electric Markets § 35.47 Tariff provisions...credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets. Each organized...

2013-04-01

146

Feed-in tariffs for wind energy in Portugal: Current status and prospective future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question about how wind energy can be remunerated after the end of feed-in tariff schemes still remains unanswered in Portugal. Presently, the majority of wind energy promoters are connected through a point of common coupling, with a defined capacity attribution. In return, these promoters are rewarded with a premium rate (i.e., a feed-in tariff) for a limited amount of

Jose Barros; Helder Leite

2011-01-01

147

Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture, export volume effects, and African LDCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Import-weighted aggregated tariffs are often used in analyzing issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used import-weighted tariffs under-estimate the true level of protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, especially the African least developed countries (LDC)s (ALDCs). The theoretical discussion of this paper suggests that when used in numerical simulations of preference erosion and expansion

Wusheng Yu

2009-01-01

148

The death of Canadian manufacturing plants: heterogeneous responses to changes in tariffs and real exchange rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine simultaneously the effects of real-exchange-rate movements and tariff reductions on plant death in Canadian manufacturing\\u000a industries between 1979 and 1996. Consistent with the implications of recent international trade models with heterogeneous\\u000a firms, we find that the impact of exchange-rate movements and tariff cuts on exit is heterogeneous—particularly pronounced\\u000a among least efficient plants. Our results further reveal multi-dimensional heterogeneity

John R. Baldwin; Beiling Yan

2011-01-01

149

Comparison of feed-in tariff, quota and auction mechanisms to support wind power development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of support schemes for market-based deployment of renewable energy in the UK and Germany shows that the feed-in tariff reduces costs to consumers and results in larger deployment. A survey among project developers suggests two explanations: (1) Site selection presents the biggest obstacle under the feed-in tariff. Uncertain financing of other schemes reduces efforts at initial project stages

Lucy Butler; Karsten Neuhoff

2008-01-01

150

An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff\\u000a charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce\\u000a peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power\\u000a prices,

Andreas V. Stokke; Gerard L. Doorman; Torgeir Ericson

2010-01-01

151

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-06-01

152

Library Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper addresses issues in libraries' architectural accessibility for disabled students. A history of awareness regarding accessibility is recounted and the increased acknowledgement of need for services for disabled persons is underlined. The author points out steps that may be undertaken to provide accessibility in ways other than major…

Wilson, Betty Ruth

153

Open access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open-access journals are publishing at a pace that is not much faster than some recently launched subscription-based journals. The swiftest and surest route to full open-access publishing is then for funders, institutions and publishers to agree on the conditions for self-archiving in publicly accessible repositories.

2012-05-01

154

Access Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent library innovations, such as integrated library systems, access to electronic resources, emphasis on patrons' information needs in all formats, renewed interest in quality library services, and the expanded responsibilities of circulation departments have resulted in the merging of certain library functions into a new unit called access services. For this paper, access services is defined as those library functions

Joyce K. Thornton; Carolyn Warmann

2002-01-01

155

How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?  

PubMed

One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1). How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2). How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases. PMID:12481212

Simon, Jonathon L; Larson, Bruce A; Zusman, Alexander; Rosen, Sydney

2002-12-03

156

Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

2009-01-01

157

GATT and the Cold War: Accession Debates, Institutional Development, and the Western Alliance, 19471959  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical accounts of the Cold War usually relegate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to footnotes, if they acknowledge the GATT at all. This article examines the impact of the Cold War on the institutional development of GATT, showing how geopolitical considerations influenced decisions about whether to grant membership in GATT to Communist and non-aligned countries. The accession

Francine McKenzie

2008-01-01

158

GATT and the Cold War: Accession Debates, Institutional Development, and the Western Alliance, 1947“1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical accounts of the Cold War usually relegate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to footnotes, if they acknowledge the GATT at all. This article examines the impact of the Cold War on the institutional development of GATT, showing how geopolitical considerations influenced decisions about whether to grant membership in GATT to Communist and non-aligned countries. The accession

Francine McKenzie

2008-01-01

159

Site Accessibility  

Cancer.gov

The National Institutes of Health, NIH is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let us know.

160

Access Denied  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make…

Villano, Matt

2008-01-01

161

Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

Suber, Peter

2012-01-01

162

Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

2006-06-01

163

Equal Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)|

De Patta, Joe

2003-01-01

164

Accessing Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be truly useful, an embedded device must be able to interface with hardware components. This chapter describes how you\\u000a can access general purpose input\\/output (GPIO) ports, transfer data with the RS232 serial port, and interface with devices\\u000a on the inter-integrated circuit (I2C) and serial peripheral interface (SPI) busses. Further, you will learn how to access files on mass storage

Jens Kühner

165

75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under...

2010-08-05

166

19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate...Quotas § 132.17 Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. For sugar-containing products...

2013-04-01

167

75 FR 54598 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Cut and Sew Men's and...tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric to persons who cut and sew men's and...tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric. Interested persons must submit an...

2010-09-08

168

78 FR 56657 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Cut and Sew Men's and...tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric to persons who cut and sew men's and...tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric. Interested persons must submit an...

2013-09-13

169

77 FR 58524 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Cut and Sew Men's and...tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric to persons who cut and sew men's and...tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric. Interested persons must submit an...

2012-09-21

170

76 FR 58465 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Cut and Sew Men's and...tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric to persons who cut and sew men's and...tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric. Interested persons must submit an...

2011-09-21

171

76 FR 63538 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy product import licenses permanently...

2011-10-13

172

78 FR 46491 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy product import licenses permanently...

2013-08-01

173

75 FR 53565 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy product import licenses permanently...

2010-09-01

174

40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of Part...From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances...

2012-07-01

175

Access charges; MTS and WATS market structure--Federal Communications Commission. Final rule.  

PubMed

FCC, pursuant to the Fourth Supplemental Notice of Inquiry and Proposed Rulemaking published on June 21, 1982, at 47 FR 26668, adopts rules for the computation and assessment of end user and carrier's carrier access charges and the creation of an exchange carrier association to prepare access charge tariffs and distribute pooled access charge revenues. The Commission concluded that this action was necessary because existing methods of access compensation produced unlawful discrimination and preferences in interstate rates. These rules were designed to eliminate such unlawful discrimination and preferences. PMID:10259818

1983-03-11

176

76 FR 80866 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption...extension to foreign- based non-vessel-operating...negotiated rate arrangement'' (NRA).\\1...written and binding arrangement between a shipper...Negotiated Rate Arrangements--Response to NOI...describes the nature and extent of the...

2011-12-27

177

78 FR 13011 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-vessel-operating common carriers, Ocean transportation...unlicensed non-vessel-operating common carrier to provide NVOCC services...the tariff, that it has no knowledge of the identity of the ocean...exempt non-vessel-operating common carriers (NVOCCs) from...

2013-02-26

178

78 FR 42886 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-vessel-operating common carriers, Ocean transportation...unlicensed non-vessel-operating common carrier to provide NVOCC services...the tariff, that it has no knowledge of the identity of the ocean...exempt non-vessel-operating common carriers (NVOCCs) from...

2013-07-18

179

Electricity tariffs in Hong Kong: what went wrong and what can we do about it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hong Kong economy has undergone radical changes over the past two decades and as a result profoundly affected the electricity supply industry. The level of excess capacity maintained by the two vertically integrated utilities and the tariffs they charged are both one of the highest among all developed countries, and they are the adverse results of the Scheme of

Stephen Luk

2005-01-01

180

Uniform Two-Part Tariffs and below Marginal Cost Prices: Disneyland Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper completely characterizes the demand and cost parameters that induce a constant cost monopolist charging a uniform two-part tariff to choose a marginal price less than marginal cost when selling to two types of consumers with different linear demands. It also provides a quantitative assessment of the potential significance of such pricing. Pricing below marginal cost maximizes profits in

Steven P. Cassou; John C. Hause

1999-01-01

181

Closed Jaguar, Open Dragon: Comparing Tariffs in Latin America and Asia before World War II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an enormous literature that has analyzed the comparative experiences of Latin America and Asia in post-World War II trade policy, almost no attention has been paid to the comparative experience prior to the wars. Even a cursory look at the best available empirical evidence reveals tremendous contrasts between the two regions. Latin America had the highest tariff barriers on

Michael A. Clemens; Jeffrey G. Williamson

2002-01-01

182

Estimation and comparison of ostomy appliance costs with tariffs in Belgium.  

PubMed

This study estimated costs of production and distribution of ostomy appliances, and compared cost estimates with tariffs in Belgium. The cost model took into account manufacturing costs, overhead, R&D, warehousing, profits, and distribution margins. Data were derived from manufacturers, a decomposition of finished products, and interviews with stakeholders. The cost model generated estimated retail prices of euro 2.96 for one-piece appliances, euro 1.62 for two-piece pouches, and euro 2.06 for two-piece flanges. Production and distribution costs accounted for 40 and 60% of retail prices, respectively. Estimated retail prices corresponded well with tariffs for one-piece appliances and for two-piece pouches. For two-piece regular flanges, a substantial difference was observed between the calculated price of euro 2.06 and the tariffs of euro 6.05. In the absence of publicly disclosed information on the cost structure of appliances, estimating ostomy appliance costs is valuable to reimbursement agencies when setting tariffs. PMID:17180385

Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Ramaekers, Dirk

2006-12-16

183

Risk constrained operation planning model for a genco in Availability Based Tariff regime in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a risk constrained expected profit maximization model for a generating station operating under Availability Based Tariff (ABT) regime in India. The decision strategy of the generator is to optimize the availability target trajectory for a yearly time span in appropriate time intervals. The model considers stochastic behaviour of generating units' outage, Unscheduled Interchange (UI) and load Schedule

N. Vaitheeswaran; R. Balasubramanian

2010-01-01

184

19 CFR 10.233 - Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED...Trade Partnership Act Non-Textile Articles Under the United States-Caribbean...

2013-04-01

185

19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference...they are wholly formed in the U.S. or Chile regardless of the origin of the yarn used...they are wholly formed in the U.S. or Chile regardless of the origin of the...

2013-04-01

186

78 FR 45597 - Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain Cheeses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 1, 2007, Bulgaria and Romania acceded to the European Union...EU-27''). At that time, Bulgaria and Romania withdrew their tariff schedules...EU-27. To recognize the membership of Bulgaria and Romania in the EU-27, the...

2013-07-29

187

Thailand: Agricultural Situation. Soybean Meal Tariff Reduced 2008. GAIN Report Number TH8198.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On November 25, 2008, the Thai Cabinet approved a reduction in the tariff for soybean meal from 4 percent to 2 percent, effective January 1 to December 31, 2009. The Royal Thai Government continues its domestic absorption policy for soybean meal imports. ...

M. Kunasirirat

2008-01-01

188

Feed-in Tariffs for Renewable Energies in Germany: An efficient Instrument to promote Economic Development *?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energies have become more and more important for electricity production in Germany. They contributed 15.1 percent to Germany's electricity supply in 2008. The system of feed-in tariffs which provides de facto subsidies for producers of electricity from renewable sources is responsible for this development. Mitigation of greenhouse gases and higher independence of energy imports have been the main reasons

Hubertus Bardt; Thorsten Lang

189

Forest sector market impacts of changed roundwood export tariffs and investment climate in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federation is the world's largest net exporter of roundwood. To encourage shift in exports from roundwood to value-added industrial products, Russia has set large tariffs on its roundwood exports, and announced that even higher ones would be introduced in the future. Using a global forest sector model, the EFI-GTM, we analyse how the Russian and global forest product

Birger Solberg; Alexander Moiseyev; A. Maarit I. Kallio; Anne Toppinen

2010-01-01

190

Prospect of domestic grid connected PV systems under existing tariff conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of natural fossil fuel resources in Australia adds a new dimension to the obstacles to be overcome when introducing photovoltaics (PV) into the electric utility market. Regulations are been considered to enforce a form of penalty unto nonenvironmentally friendly energy producers. Electric utilities are required to offer a purchase tariff and structure to private producers of electricity. Under

Kame Khouzam

1997-01-01

191

19 CFR 162.76 - Prepenalty notice for violations of sections 466 or 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prepenalty notice for violations of sections 466 or 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930...Prepenalty notice for violations of sections 466 or 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930...cause to believe that a violation of section 466 or 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of...

2013-04-01

192

19 CFR 162.72 - Penalties and forfeitures under sections 466 and 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Penalties and forfeitures under sections 466 and 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930...Penalties and forfeitures under sections 466 and 584(a)(1), Tariff Act of 1930...cause to believe that a violation of section 466, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended...

2013-04-01

193

Expanding Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

Roach, Ronald

2007-01-01

194

2011 Report on Technical Barriers to Trade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was created to respond to the concerns of U.S. companies, farmers, ranchers and manufacturers, which increasingly encounter non-tariff trade barriers in the form of product standards, testing requirements, and other technical requirements as t...

R. Kirk

2011-01-01

195

The Political Economy of Used Automobile Protection in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

N the wake of the debt crises of the early 1980s, Latin America embarked upon a process of trade liberalisation. The levels of both average tariffs and tariff dispersions fell throughout the region, as did the coverage of non-tariff barriers.1 In the case of used automobiles, however, this liberalisation has not, in general, taken place. Many Latin American countries retain

Danilo Pelletiere; Kenneth A

2002-01-01

196

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

2009-03-01

197

Agriculture in the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade): An Analysis of Alternative Approaches to Reform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an overview of agriculture in the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, establishes criteria for judging alternative trade reforms, and, after using these criteria to analyze various reform elements, suggests a compr...

J. Zietz A. Valdes

1988-01-01

198

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

199

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

200

77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2012-09-17

201

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

202

78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2013-09-18

203

47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.307 Tariffs, reports, and other material required to...

2011-10-01

204

77 FR 58525 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rate Quotas on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Weave Such Fabrics in the United States AGENCY: International Trade...2013 tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric to persons who weave such fabrics in the...

2012-09-21

205

48 CFR 27.204-2 - Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.204-2 Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade...

2011-10-01

206

48 CFR 27.204-2 - Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.204-2 Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade...

2012-10-01

207

Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, t...

C. Elefant K. Cory K. Porter S. Hempling

2010-01-01

208

Reducing U.S. oil-import dependence: a tariff, subsidy, or gasoline tax?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low oil prices and rising oil imports have caused growing concern about U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply shocks. Mine K. Yucel and Carol Dahl devise a measure of vulnerability and use it to compare three policies that have been proposed to reduce U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply disruptions: a 25-percent oil-import tariff, a $5-per-barrel subsidy to domestic oil producers, and an increase

Mine K. Yücel; Carol Dahl

1990-01-01

209

Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests, albeit tentatively, that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are more effective than alternative support schemes in promoting renewable energy technologies (RETs). FITs provide long-term financial stability for investors in RETs, which, at the prevailing market price of electricity, are not currently cost-efficient enough to compete with traditional fossil fuel technologies. On the other hand, if not properly designed, FITs can

Jonathan A. Lesser; Xuejuan Su

2008-01-01

210

An Assessment of the Impact of Rice Tariff Policy in Indonesia; A Multi-Market Model Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is of key importance to Indonesia’s national and household level food security. The choice of tariff policy has important implications for consumers and producers with policy makers having to decide between the trade-offs implied for the various stakeholders. In this study we use a multi-market model to assess the impact of hypothetical rice tariff changes on household welfare and

Bambang Sayaka; Sumaryanto; André Croppenstedt; Stefania DiGiuseppe

2007-01-01

211

The Economics of the U.S. Ethanol Import Tariff with a Blend Mandate and Tax Credit  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. import tariffs on ethanol are designed to offset a tax credit that benefits U.S. and foreign producers alike. The tax credit is an ethanol consumption subsidy but ethanol market prices increase by almost the full amount of the credit as the impact on world oil prices is small. Therefore, removing the tariff has a small impact on U.S. ethanol

Harry de Gorter; David R. Just

2008-01-01

212

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

Vogl, Matthias

2012-08-30

213

Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions  

SciTech Connect

State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

2010-01-01

214

'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market  

PubMed Central

Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard employment, the company's regional reorganisation involved the loss of hundreds of jobs. Conclusions Regional integration organisations and their member states should be aware of the capacity of TTCs to act in a coordinated transnational manner to influence policy in their own interests, and coordinate their own public health and tax policies in a similarly effective way.

2011-01-01

215

Assessing the effects of tariff reform on U.S. food manufacturing industries: the role of imperfect competition and intermediate inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work indicates that the joint effects of intermediate input and final output tariff reforms on equilibrium in the differentiated final products sector are analytically ambiguous. This issue is addressed empirically for disaggregate, imperfectly competitive U.S. food manufacturing industries. The input tariff effect dominates in most industries, leading to increases in the number of U.S. firms and total industry output

D. Kent Lanclos; Thomas W. Hertel; Stephen Devadoss

1996-01-01

216

46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission...shipments. (c) Weight or measurement, container size, and number...application, i.e., the error, failure to publish,...

2011-10-01

217

46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission...shipments. (c) Weight or measurement, container size, and number...application, i.e., the error, failure to publish,...

2012-10-01

218

75 FR 39613 - Request for Proposals To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This notice requests that interested persons submit proposals seeking accelerated tariff elimination under the USCFTA and describes the procedures for filing proposals. This notice also requests proposals on appropriate changes that the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) should consider for liberalizing the USCFTA's rules of...

2010-07-09

219

Promoting Renewable Electricity Generation through Guaranteed Feed-in Tariffs vs Tradable Certificates: An Ecological Economics Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a variety of reasons it can be argued that the share of electricity generated from renewable energy sources should be increased. However, many of the new renewable energy technologies cannot yet successfully compete against conventional ones, and therefore support schemes are needed. A common approach, at least within the European Union, is the provision of guaranteed feed-in tariffs. More

Reinhard Madlener; Sigrid Stagl

220

The Impact of the Tariff-Rate Quota on Imports of Sugar of the United States Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of the sugar tariff-rate import quota program on the United States economy. The analytical approach used in the study consists of a computable general equilibrium model composed of fourteen producing sectors, fourteen consuming sectors, six household categories classified by income and a government. A complete elimination of the sugar program will result in lower output

Roy Boyd; Noel D. Uri

1995-01-01

221

75 FR 54599 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rate Quotas on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Weave Such Fabrics in the United States AGENCY: Department of Commerce...2011 tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric to persons who weave such fabrics in the...

2010-09-08

222

76 FR 58465 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rate Quotas on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Weave Such Fabrics in the United States AGENCY: Department of Commerce...2012 tariff rate quotas on certain worsted wool fabric to persons who weave such fabrics in the...

2011-09-21

223

Strength analysis of international Feed-in Tariff promotion of clean energy applications for greenhouse gas emission mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emissions from power generations are grave concerns around the world. Clean energy technologies such as Solar Photovoltaic, Wind, etc. have been recognized as viable solutions to greenhouse gas emission mitigation. Due to the high cost of clean energy electricity, various financial incentives such as Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) are available throughout the world to promote the applications of clean energy

Qiang Zhai; Samuel Alberts; Huajun Cao; Sean Zhao; Chris Yuan

2010-01-01

224

3 CFR 8228 - Proclamation 8228 of March 28, 2008. To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically...to the President such modifications to the HTS as the Commission considers necessary...Commission recommended modifications to the HTS pursuant to section 1205 of the 1988...

2009-01-01

225

Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

2010-10-01

226

Wireless Internet access using anonymous access methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessing the Internet from a mobile computer can currently be done by opening a circuit switched call to the ISP (Internet service provider). New packet based services are now being introduced, such as the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) for the GSM system. The solution described gives a simpler access to the Internet, at the same time providing complete user

Petri Jokela

1999-01-01

227

World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

Washington Univ., Seattle.

228

International harmonization of product standards and firm heterogeneity in international trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

As free trade areas have proliferated and statutory tariffs have been dramatically reduced in recent decades, non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to international trade have risen in importance. Destination-specific product standards are oneof the major types of NTBs as they impose additional costs on exporters and increase the time required to bring a product to market. This paper examines the response of

Jose-Daniel Reyes

2011-01-01

229

Analysis of environmental effects of prospective trade agreements: the forest products ATL as a case study in the science–policy interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few decades, the interaction between commodity trade and environmental conditions in both exporting and importing countries has received increasing attention. Recognition of accumulating and expanding environmental consequences of economic activity coincides with an increase in the absolute value and relative importance of trade in the global economy. Therefore, efforts to further reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to

David J. Brooks

2003-01-01

230

Do Real Exchange Rates Follow a Non-Linear Mean Reverting Process in Developing Countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to fight relatively high inflation, many developing countries try to manage their nominal exchange rates through official intervention. In addition, developing countries tend to have high transportation costs, tariffs and non-tariff barriers. These factors are among the sources of generating nonlinearity in real exchange rates and hence some nonlinear adjustment towards purchasing power parity (PPP) in developing

Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee; Ali M. Kutan; Su Zhou

231

Food Safety in Agricultural International Trade: The Spanish experience in Mediterranean products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food international trade between developed and developing countries is increasing as a consequence of the worldwide liberalization movement. Tariffs and technical barriers are decreasing and many exporters in developing countries are ready to supply to developed markets. However there are non-tariff barriers, some of them related to food safety. The goal of this paper is to analyse how some food

Julian Briz; Isabel de Felipe; Marian Garca

2007-01-01

232

Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

Cornell, Peter M.

233

Bias Phenomena Attendant to the Marketing of Foreign Goods in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

When entering foreign markets, sellers face quotas, tariffs, and non-tariff barriers. In addition, they may face an intangible barrier in the form of consumer bias on the basis of product origin. Since 1965 several articles have appeared dealing with bias phenomena and with the efficacy of marketing strategies designed to avoid, accommodate, or circumvent consumers' negative predispositions.© 1971 JIBS. Journal

Robert Schooler

1971-01-01

234

Norway: Exporter Guide. Annual, 2007. GAIN Report Number NO7007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to climatic reasons, Norway has a high need for imported products which cannot be produced in the country. However, for products which can be produced domestically, Norway remains a highly protected market, through tariff and non-tariff barriers. Norw...

B. Dahlbacka

2007-01-01

235

Shallow versus Deep Integration between Mediterranean Countries and the EU and within the Mediterranean Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims at assessing the specific impact of shallow versus deep integration between Mediterranean (MED) countries1 and their partners in the European Union (EU) as well as between the MED countries themselves. It relies on dataset developed for this project concerning tariffs (as a proxy for shallow integration) and Non Tariff Measures (NTMs)2 (as a proxy for deep integration).

Ahmed Farouk Ghoneim; Javier Lopez Gonzalez; Maximiliano Mendez Parra; Nicolas Peridy

2011-01-01

236

Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California  

SciTech Connect

Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

Fujita, K. Sydny

2011-06-23

237

AccessWatch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

AccessWatch, provided by David Maher, is a shareware utility that provides a regularly updated summary of WWW server hits and accesses, and gives a graphical representation of available statistics. It generates statistics for hourly server load, page demand, accesses by domain, and accesses by host. AccessWatch can run on Unix or Windows NT servers. The AccessWatch page provides sample output, a FAQ, installation instructions, and the Perl script that makes the product work. It is free for government, non-commercial home, and academic use. See the license agreement for more information.

238

Access: Diabetes Research  

MedlinePLUS

... more information, Please visit www.diabetes.org News & Research Research Research Database Research Discoveries Support Our Research ... News & Research > Research > Access: Diabetes Research Access: Diabetes Research Listen patientINFORM is a program that provides patients ...

239

UFAS Accessibility Checklist.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this workbook is to enable people to survey buildings for compliance with the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS). UFAS defines environments which are safe, accessible and usable by people of all ages and abilities. This survey c...

1990-01-01

240

Open access and beyond  

PubMed Central

Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature.

Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

2006-01-01

241

Cancer Data Access System  

Cancer.gov

The Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) is a web portal that facilitates access to PLCO data. Investigators can register with CDAS and request access to data collected through December 31, 2009 for the first 13 years of participation for each subject in the PLCO trial. Newly diagnosed cancers and deaths continue to be collected and will be available in the future.

242

Open Access and beyond.  

PubMed

Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

2006-09-06

243

Exploring reactive access control  

Microsoft Academic Search

As users store and share more digital content at home, effective access control becomes increasingly important. One promising mechanism for helping non-expert users create accurate access policies is reactive policy creation, in which users can update their policy dynamically in response to access requests that cannot otherwise succeed. An earlier study suggested that reactive policy creation may be a good

Richard Shay; Michelle L. Mazurek; Peter F. Klemperer; Hassan Takabi

2010-01-01

244

Reflective Database Access Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

Olson, Lars E.

2009-01-01

245

Measuring public transport accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction This paper sets out a review of issues connected with measuring accessibility, particularly in appraisal of transport or development schemes. Accessibility in this context is taken to mean ease of access to transport in order to reach key destinations and services. This is an area that has assumed greater importance in overall policy making in recent years; indeed,

Andy Poole

2003-01-01

246

"Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).  

PubMed

The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating. PMID:23417345

Foley, E C; Bird, H A

2013-02-16

247

A Discrete Choice Experiment to Obtain a Tariff for Valuing Informal Care Situations Measured with the CarerQol Instrument.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: / OBJECTIVE: Economic evaluations adopting a societal perspective need to include informal care whenever relevant. However, in practice, informal care is often neglected, because there are few validated instruments to measure and value informal care for inclusion in economic evaluations. The CarerQol, which is such an instrument, measures the impact of informal care on 7 important burden dimensions (CarerQol-7D) and values this in terms of general quality of life (CarerQol-VAS). The objective of the study was to calculate utility scores based on relative utility weights for the CarerQol-7D. These tariffs will facilitate inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations. METHODS: The CarerQol-7D tariff was derived with a discrete choice experiment conducted as an Internet survey among the general adult population in the Netherlands (N = 992). The choice set contained 2 unlabeled alternatives described in terms of the 7 CarerQol-7D dimensions (level range: "no,"some," and "a lot"). An efficient experimental design with priors obtained from a pilot study (N = 104) was used. Data were analyzed with a panel mixed multinomial parameter model including main and interaction effects of the attributes. RESULTS: The utility attached to informal care situations was significantly higher when this situation was more attractive in terms of fewer problems and more fulfillment or support. The interaction term between the CarerQol-7D dimensions physical health and mental health problems also significantly explained this utility. The tariff was constructed by adding up the relative utility weights per category of all CarerQol-7D dimensions and the interaction term. CONCLUSIONS: We obtained a tariff providing standard utility scores for caring situations described with the CarerQol-7D. This facilitates the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations. PMID:23771881

Hoefman, Renske J; van Exel, Job; Rose, John M; van de Wetering, E J; Brouwer, Werner B F

2013-06-14

248

Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)

None

1977-12-01

249

Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)

Not Available

1977-06-30

250

Semantic Annotation for Accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visually impaired users are hindered in their efforts to access the largest repository of electronic information in the world\\u000a – the World Wide Web (Web). The web is visually-centric with regard to presentation and information order \\/ layout, this can\\u000a (and does) hinder users who need presentation-agnostic access to information. Transcoding can help to make information more\\u000a accessible via a

Sean Bechhofer; Simon Harper; Darren Lunn

2006-01-01

251

Web Accessibility and Guidelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

252

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-06-01

253

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-05-01

254

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

2005-04-01

255

Access to Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

2006-01-01

256

Access Pricing: a Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The access price is the charge that a network manager charges to other firms to carry traffic (whether it initiates it or finalizes it) through the network. This charge has gained importance as the regulation of formerly vertically integrated monopolies in some industries has opened them, at least in non-network segments, to competition. The access price is the key instrument

C. E. Hyde; J.-L. Negrin

2000-01-01

257

Solar oven access door  

SciTech Connect

An improved access door is disclosed for a solar oven. The access door's inner surface, which holds a disposable food tray, is provided with a depressed area below the food tray to permit deformation of the tray bottom when the thickness of food in the tray exceeds the depth of the food tray.

Steinberg, H.A.

1983-11-29

258

Solar oven access door  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved access door is disclosed for a solar oven. The access door's inner surface, which holds a disposable food tray, is provided with a depressed area below the food tray to permit deformation of the tray bottom when the thickness of food in the tray exceeds the depth of the food tray.

Steinberg

1983-01-01

259

Understanding Web Accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Web is providing unprecedented access to information and interaction for people with disabilities. It provides opportunities to participate in society in ways otherwise not available. With accessible websites, people with disabilities can do ordinary things:children can learn, teenagers can flirt, adults can make a living, seniors can read about their grand- children, and so on. With the Web, people

Shawn Lawton Henry

260

Granting Each Equal Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

Walling, Linda Lucas

1992-01-01

261

Lexical access and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical access, the time required to recover the meaning of a word, was measured in 12 young (mean age 24 yrs) and 12 old (mean age 73 yrs) Ss. Access time was unaffected by age, and a word-naming task. The facilitative effect of semantic associations between words was also comparable in young and old Ss. These results were obtained both

John Cerella; James L. Fozard

1984-01-01

262

Diffusionism and open access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to explore the geographic distribution of open access practices in the world from a diffusionist perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article applies a tempo-spatial analysis to examine the diffusion movement of open access practices from the West to the entire world during the past several decades. Both maps and tables are used to support the analysis.

Jingfeng Xia

2012-01-01

263

Airport access control standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper cover a major airport security focus since the tragic events of 9\\/11; namely employee access to secure areas, and the application of new technologies (biometrics and smart cards) to enhance airport security. The significance of access controls systems to airport security is apparent by several recent studies made by US federal oversight entities, which identified \\

Christer Wilkinson; Ed Rao

2003-01-01

264

ACCESS pointing control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronagraph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009 [14, 15]. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronagraph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Patrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spittler, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

2010-07-01

265

Improving School Access Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

266

Live Access Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. LAS enables users to view data with on-the-fly graphics, request custom subsets of variables in a variety of file formats, and compare variables from distributed locations. LAS enables the data provider to unify access to multiple types of data in a single interface, create thematic data servers from distributed data sources (through the use of DODS/OPenDAP), offer derived products on the fly, and offer unique products (e.g. visualization styles specialized for the data).

Hankin, Steve

2002-09-09

267

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

Background

With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

Scope of Contributions

This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
  • Optical access network architectures and protocols
  • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
  • Active optical networks
  • Multiple access control
  • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
  • Network survivability
  • Field trials and standards
  • Performance modeling and analysis

Manuscript Submission

To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-01-01

268

Farmers' Access to Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many forces in the modern industrial age interact to make farmer access to buyers more difficult. The nature and dimensions of the problems do not remain the same under the continuous march of technology, changing market requirements, changing business pr...

A. B. Paul R. W. Bohall G. E. Plato

1980-01-01

269

Factors Influencing Army Accessions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of this thesis is accessions and the factors influencing a potential recruit's decision to join the Army. Six types of analysis were performed: regression analysis, data base profile analysis through SPSS Frequencies and Crosstabs, factor anal...

K. M. Kalinich D. C. Wenzel

1982-01-01

270

Social Security: Telephone Accessibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fact sheet contains information testing accessibility to the Social Security Administration (SSA) by telephone. Specifically, it measured the extent to which telephone calls to SSA's local offices and teleservice centers during a single workweek were ...

1987-01-01

271

United States Access Board  

MedlinePLUS

... access to buildings and sites nationwide in new construction and alterations. Similar standards apply to building and ... parks and other federal outdoor sites in new construction and alterations. Board News Board Issues Final Guidelines ...

272

Equal Access to All.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Section 508 amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that directs the use of technology. Describes guidelines for online training accessibility with which vendors hoping for government business must fully comply. (JOW)

Schettler, Joel

2002-01-01

273

URC based accessible TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new architecture to make TV sets accessible for all. Our proposal is based on the ISO\\/IEC 24752 Universal Remote Console Framework standard. This standard defines an abstract user interface layer called the \\

Gorka Epelde; Eduardo Carrasco; Gottfried Zimmermann; Jürgen Bund; Markus Dubielzig; Jan Alexandersson

2009-01-01

274

Remote Access Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Remote Access Astronomy Project, a computerized optical telescope and dial-in data distribution system that places high-quality images and image processing techniques into computer workstations in junior and high school classrooms. (PR)|

O'Connor, Erin

1994-01-01

275

Access to Investigational Drugs  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... That access has allowed tens of thousands of patients with HIV/AIDS, cancer, and other conditions to receive promising therapies when no ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/investigationalnewdrugindordeviceexemptionideprocess

276

Dialysis Access Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysis is one of the main modalities for renal replacement therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease. Successful\\u000a hemodialysis is contingent upon the creation of proper vascular access. Chronic vascular access was first established in 1960\\u000a by Scribner and colleagues when they created a shunt between the radial artery and the cephalic vein using an external Silastic\\u000a device. However, this

Khalid O. Khwaja

277

The Open Access Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study published today in PLoS Biology provides robust evidence that open-access articles are more immediately recognized and cited than non-OA articles. This editorial provides some additional follow up data from the most recent analysis of the same cohort in April 2006, 17 to 21 months after publication. These data suggest that the citation gap between open access and non-open

Gunther Eysenbach

2006-01-01

278

Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

2005-11-14

279

Vascular Access in Children  

SciTech Connect

Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

Krishnamurthy, Ganesh, E-mail: krishnamurthy@email.chop.edu; Keller, Marc S. [Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology (United States)

2011-02-15

280

Accessing the Rigid Pavement Database Through Microsoft Access.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the preparation, contents, and use of a database prepared using the Microsoft Access database software commonly installed on personal computers. MS Access databases can be accessed from many popular analysis software titles, includin...

T. Dossey B. F. McCullough

2004-01-01

281

Enterprise Dynamic Access Control (EDAC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Enterprise Access Control (EDAC) represents an access control model that adheres to the basic principles of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) standard published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The EDAC accommodates complex...

R. Fernandez

2005-01-01

282

Radiosonde Database Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The radiosonde real-time archive is comprised of all North American Global Telecommunications Service (GTS) observations primarily from Northern and Central American civilian and some military radiosonde sites not yet available on CD-ROM (currently 1997 thru 1999). Since late 1998, the archive has been upgraded to include all international observations transmitted via GTS. These data undergo extensive gross error and hydrostatic consistency checks before being incorporated into a randomly accessible compressed data archive developed at the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL). Data is stored in the same randomly accessible compressed data format, and is customizable in terms of input dates and source stations.

2006-01-12

283

Accessible Digital Media Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Wide Web is a tool that has a myriad of uses for any type of person, so it should be accessible to everyone. In order to help Web designers and software authors accommodate people with disabilities, this site offers a series of guidelines that explains how to effectively serve these types of users. Following a discussion of different disabilities, assistive technologies, and general accessibility tips, ten main guideline topics are addressed in depth. Techniques for using images, multimedia applications, and mathematics illustrations, among others, are given to create a more universally useable online experience.

Freed, Geoff; Rothberg, Madeleine

2007-07-18

284

Migrants' access to healthcare.  

PubMed

There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare. PMID:21975158

Norredam, Marie

2011-10-01

285

78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...2014) in-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV)....

2013-09-13

286

Time-of-use rates vs. Hopkinson tariffs redux: An analysis of the choice of rate structures in a regulated electricity distribution company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent proposals to restructure the electricity industry in North America may effect the disintegration of a vertically integrated company into several smaller entities, including distribution companies (DISCOs). We explore whether time-of-use (TOU) pricing or a Hopkinson tariff would be more suitable for a regulated DISCO. Focusing on the economic efficiency of these alternative rate structures, we argue that a Hopkinson

Dewey Seeto; C. K. Woo; Ira Horowitz

1997-01-01

287

Accessibility and Graphical Passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief paper, we explore the issue of accessible au- thentication with respect to click-based graphical passwords. These schemes normally rely on complex visual presenta- tion and ne motor control for pointing. We take the ap- proach of identifying the semantic structure, and show how the same kind of scheme could work with alternative inter- action modalities. In particular,

Sonia Chiasson; Alain Forget; Robert Biddle

288

Serving up Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

Rich, Sarah

2011-01-01

289

Access to Chemical Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDENTS of chemistry so often complain of the extreme difficulty of obtaining access to chemical works that it may be well to bear in mind that the universities and technical schools of the United Kingdom have perhaps a remedy for what is a serious obstacle to a proper study of chemistry. The amount of chemicals now consumed in educational laboratories

Chemist

1908-01-01

290

Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

Jones, Michael A.

291

Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents uniform standards for facility accessibility by physically handicapped persons for Federal and federally funded facilities. The standards are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and facilities to the extent required by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended. Technical…

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

292

Scattering Division Multiple Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new way of multiplexing digital communication over cable networks. The system is innovative in three ways. Firstly, the way the multiple access scheme is achieved. Actually, most of current cable multiplexing systems use TDMA. Other well known techniques -especially in wireless domain -use FDMA, CDMA or SDMA. The proposed system uses the scattering properties of the

Luc Haumonte; L. Deneire

2007-01-01

293

RLIN Research Access Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability of computerized information sources and networking capabilities, along with the proliferation of microcomputers in faculty homes and offices, has led to increased demands for direct access to databases. The librarian's role as online search intermediary appears to be changing from performing searches directly to aiding users in doing their own searching. The Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN),

Barbara J. Via

1991-01-01

294

Unique Access to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television…

Goble, Don

2009-01-01

295

Accessibility: Long term perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social beneëts throughout recorded history. ?e paper will reìect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction

KW Axhausen

2007-01-01

296

Access with flexible cannulae.  

PubMed

Flexible access cannulae maintain a readily accessible tract for the efficient introduction and withdrawal of both straight and curved endoscopic instruments from skin to the parietes. Their main advantage is their capacity to deform, allowing the passage of curved instruments. Several designs of flexible access cannulae are currently available. The most practical design makes use of tightly coiled springs as tubes with or without silicone coating. A modification of this design uses wire woven into a tubular form and coated with silicone. Gas seal valves for these cannulae are currently primitive. The capacity of flexible access cannulae for deformation along the longitudinal and transverse axes could potentially be exploited for retrieval of small organs. Clinically, flexible cannulae have been used whenever curved instruments were needed. Coaxial curved and bayonet instruments have been used extensively in both thoracoscopic and laparoscopic operations. These instruments will allow an additional degree of freedom, that of the pre-formed curve of the instrument. In clinical terms this will facilitate the dissection, retraction and encirclement of tubular structures. In addition, the creation of intra-corporeal surgical knots is more efficient using curved needle holders. PMID:7757440

Shimi, S M

1995-02-01

297

Indiana Youth Access Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indiana Youth Access Project (IYAP) is supported by the Special Projects of National Significance Program, Human Immunodeficiency Virus\\/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration. The IYAP is a model HIV care program being developed at the Indiana Youth Group, Inc. (IYG) in conjunction with the Indiana State Department of Health and Indiana University. Previous studies indicate

Eric R Wright; Christopher Gonzalez; Jeffrey N Werner; Steven Thad Laughner; Michael Wallace

1998-01-01

298

The Moving Finger "Accesses."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Evanston (Illinois) Public Library has become the nation's first library to provide a touch-sensitive, online alternative to the card catalog. Library patrons have quickly embraced the Public Access Catalog (PAC) which was introduced on October 6, 1980. (LLS)|

Cherry, Susan Spaeth

1981-01-01

299

Collection Access Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on cataloging operations contingent upon public catalog usage, this article identifies necessary components of a collection access policy, discusses representative samples of policies that can be adapted to individual library practices, and provides guidelines for the development and implementation of a statement useful for planning…

Fiste, David A.

300

Bibliographic Access in Pennsylvania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Pennsylvania 375 public, academic, and special libraries were surveyed in an effort to gather information concerning their interlibrary loan activity during April, 1978; personal discussions with librarians across the state were also conducted. Both sources were used in the development of recommendations for improving bibliographic access. The…

Strasser, Alexander

301

Collection Access Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on cataloging operations contingent upon public catalog usage, this article identifies necessary components of a collection access policy, discusses representative samples of policies that can be adapted to individual library practices, and provides guidelines for the development and implementation of a statement useful for planning…

Fiste, David A.

302

Intelligent Hub Access System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A means for high capacity communication between commanders and soldiers in the field is required. The system should be low cost, rapidly deployable, compact, and provide the ability to transmit and receive high resolution video, video-teleconference (VTC), digital maps and command and control information. A system called the Intelligent Hub Access System (IHAS) is described to suit this requirement. The

S. Thompson

2000-01-01

303

Object Access Level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system for regulating access to information of different levels of sensitivity includes an input configured to receive authentication information from a user, and a processor configured to: produce a first token key; encrypt a read-write portion of a fi...

E. L. Domangue F. J. Adamouski G. D. Kimmel J. G. Lightburn W. R. Kimmel

2005-01-01

304

Serving up Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

Rich, Sarah

2011-01-01

305

Digital Scholarship and Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

2010-01-01

306

Managing Information Resources for Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook presents guidance for federal managers and other personnel who are unfamiliar with the policy and practice of information accessibility to accommodate users with disabilities and to provide for their effective access to information resources. It addresses federal requirements for accessibility, adopting accessibility as a sound…

General Services Administration, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Computer Accommodation.

307

Digital Scholarship and Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

2010-01-01

308

Access control: principle and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with an explanation of access control and its relationship to other securityservices such as authentication, auditing and administration. It then reviews the access matrixmodel and describes different approaches to implementing the access matrix in practical systems.This is followed by a discussion of access control policies which are commonly found in currentsystems. Finally, we briefly consider the administration

Ravi S. Sandhu; Pierangela Samarati

1994-01-01

309

Role-Based Access Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure militaryapplications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meetingthe security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper arguesthat reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriatefor many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paperdescribes a type of non-discretionary access control -

David Ferraiolo; Richard Kuhn

1992-01-01

310

Equal Access Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The work of public librarians is tremendously important, and it also comes with a unique set of challenges. In order to address some of these challenges, Libraries for the Future launched the Equal Access professional development program in 2003. They also took the time to create this website, which brings together a wide set of resources designed to assist public librarians. Specifically, the program is interested in exploring new uses of technology and serving an aging population more effectively and efficiently.

311

Access the CCOP Network  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute has long recognized the problems independent investigators face in accruing adequate numbers of study participants to their federally funded research projects. As a result, the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) has developed guidelines and mechanisms to assist investigators in accessing the Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) network, a nationwide consortium of community hospitals and physicians that participate in NCI-approved cancer treatment, prevention, and control clinical trials.

312

Section 508: Accessibility Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Information Technology:  Any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information. The term information technology includes computers, ancillary equipment, software, firmware and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources. ( 1194.4)   From Section 508: Accessibility Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing information technology

2013-09-03

313

ChinaInternational Trade and WTO Accession  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's increasing integration with the global economy has contributed to sustained growth in international trade. Its exports have become more diversified, and greater penetration of industrial country markets has been accompanied by a surge in China's imports from all regions—especially Asia, where China plays an increasingly central role in regional specialization. Tariff reforms have been implemented in China since the

Thomas Rumbaugh; Nicolas Blancher

2004-01-01

314

Supporting relationships in access control using role based access control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Role Based Access Control (RBAC) model and mechanism have proven to be useful and effective. T his is clear from the many RBAC implementations in commercial products. However, there are many common examples where access decisions must include other factors, in particular, relationships between entities, such as , the user, the object to be accessed, and the subject of

John F. Barkley; Konstantin Beznosov; Jinny Uppal

1999-01-01

315

Chemists, Access, Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our IP-number access. Current subscriptions can be upgraded to IP-number access at little additional cost. We are pleased to be able to offer to institutions and libraries this convenient mode of access to subscriber only resources at JCE Online. JCE Online Usage Statistics We are continually amazed by the activity at JCE Online. So far, the year 2000 has shown a marked increase. Given the phenomenal overall growth of the Internet, perhaps our surprise is not warranted. However, during the months of January and February 2000, over 38,000 visitors requested over 275,000 pages. This is a monthly increase of over 33% from the October-December 1999 levels. It is good to know that people are visiting, but we would very much like to know what you would most like to see at JCE Online. Please send your suggestions to JCEOnline@chem.wisc.edu. For those who are interested, JCE Online year-to-date statistics are available. Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists: Mission Statement Feature Editor: Barbara Burke Chemistry Department, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona, Pomona, CA 91768 phone: 909/869-3664 fax: 909/869-4616 email: baburke@csupomona.edu The primary goal of this JCE Internet column is to provide information about chemists who have made important contributions to chemistry. For each chemist, there is a short biographical "snapshot" that provides basic information about the person's chemical work, gender, ethnicity, and cultural background. Each snapshot includes links to related websites and to a biobibliographic database. The database provides references for the individual and can be searched through key words listed at the end of each snapshot. All students, not just science majors, need to understand science as it really is: an exciting, challenging, human, and creative way of learning about our natural world. Investigating the life experiences of chemists can provide a means for students to gain a more realistic view of chemistry. In addition students, especially women and minorities, need more scientist role models. When teache

Holmes, Jon L.

2000-06-01

316

Access Excellence: Food Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This immunological lesson plan was written for Access Excellence by Michael Grupe, a high school biology teacher from St. Louis. The inquiry-based lesson introduces students to the immune system and focuses on "the specificity of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen." The lesson, which spans four, 50-minute class periods, leads students through experiments designed to solve a food-related illness mystery. The concise lesson plan contains the mystery story, experiment instructions, a list of needed materials, background information, and an abstract.

317

Controlled access ATM switch  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switch in which access to a switchcore matrix is monitored and controlled through the logic and buffering functions of switchports connected thereto. The switchcore is greatly simplified by moving the logic and buffering functions to the switchports. The switchcore matrix comprises a plurality of rows, columns, and crosspoints thereof, providing routing paths for the routing of information cells from input points to output points on the matrix. Single-cell buffers in the switchcore matrix enable temporary storage and hand-off of individual information cells as they pass through the matrix. The simplicity of the switchcore matrix enables it to be constructed on a single integrated circuit.

Petersen; Lars-Goran (Tumba, SE)

1995-11-14

318

Robotic transanal access surgery.  

PubMed

Transanal use of laparoscopic instrumentation has been described in several case reports as an alternative to transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). Both of these techniques have significant technical limitations due to anatomical constrictions. Robotic technology with articulating instruments has been effectively used in many areas with anatomic limitations similar to the intraluminal use within the rectum. We present the technique of a full-thickness transanal resection of a rectal polyp with endorectal suturing using a robotic platform. Larger case series and trials are needed to compare outcome and cost with TEM. Alternative robotic platforms and instrumentation may be further developed for different and more advanced indications of transanal access surgery. PMID:23239290

Bardakcioglu, Ovunc

2012-12-13

319

South Florida Information Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) is part of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) place-based studies program. The program enables the USGS to assist resource managers in resolving environmental problems in ecosystem sites. This website provides the latest news, fact sheets, reports, poster presentations, a data exchange, and science forum regarding South Florida ecosystems. Florida time scales and geologic maps are provided for background information. The site is searchable, or can be browsed by region, program, or subject such as wildlife, ecosystem information, hydrology, and geochemistry.

320

AccessSTEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Washington's award-winning DO-IT Center (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology) collaborates with AccessSTEM, which has been funded by the National Science Foundation since 2002. AccessSTEM, aims to "broaden participation in STEM fields and improve those fields with the perspectives and expertise of people with disabilities." Visitors to the site who are disabled students, faculty, employees, or just the interested public will find much to peruse or read in-depth. There is the longitudinal transition study link in the "For Faculty and Employees" section that tracks the college and career paths of students with disabilities who used the DO-IT program. Visitors will find the "Promising Practices" section, also in the Faculty and Employees section, to be filled with useful articles and innovations. There is "A Smart Board in the Classroom: A Promising Practice for Engaging Students", which addresses how the use of a Smart Board can aid students with attention deficits, visual impairments, and other disabling conditions without bringing the whole class' attention to them.

321

Access to legal abortion.  

PubMed

Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

1993-10-01

322

Teen Motherhood and Abortion Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the effect of abortion access on teen birthrates using county-level panel data. Past research suggested that prohibiting abortion led to higher teen birthrates. Perhaps surprisingly, the authors find that more recent restrictions in abortion access, including the closing of abortion clinics and restrictions on Medicaid funding, had the opposite effect. Small declines in access were related to

Thomas J Kane; Douglas Staiger

1996-01-01

323

Access control for collaborative environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access control is an indispensable part of any informa- tion sharing system. Collaborative environments introduce new requirements for access control, which cannot be met by using existing models developed for non-collaborative domains. We have developed a new access control model for meeting these requirements. The model is based on a generalized editing model of collaboration, which assumes that users interact

HongHai Shen; Prasun Dewan

1992-01-01

324

Role-Based Access Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access c ontrol is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a

David F. Ferraiolo; D. Richard Kuhn

2009-01-01

325

Construct accessibility and electoral choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic accessibility refers to a long-term bias to notice, process, and have available for recall certain types of information across a variety of different stimulus objects in a variety of different situations. This paper illustrates the usefulness of studying the chronic accessibility of political constructs in the field of political behavior. The chronic accessibility of four generic political constructs are

Richard R. Lau

1989-01-01

326

Food safety regulation and trade in food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nations are becoming increasingly dependent upon internationally traded food products, often at the expense of traditional agricultural commodities. As the focus shifts to high value-added imports and exports, regulations targeting the food safety attributes of these products are increasingly cited as a source of potential non-tariff barriers to trade. To counter such concerns, various bilateral and multilateral efforts to demonstrate

Neal H. Hooker

1999-01-01

327

The Role of Public and Private Standards in Regulating International Food Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much of the focus of the economics literature has been on the role of public food safety and quality standards both as policy instruments and as non-tariff barriers to trade, it is evident that private standards are playing an increasing role in the governance of agricultural and food supply chain. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of

Spencer Henson

328

The impact of the European Novel Food Regulation on trade and food innovation based on traditional plant foods from developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stringent food safety assessment for novel foods required by the European Union’s Novel Food Regulation (NFR) places a high burden of proof on those bringing traditional food products to the EU market not consumed in the EU prior 1997. The regulation has emerged as a non-tariff trade barrier for heritage foods from developing countries that are viewed as “exotic”

Michael Hermann

2009-01-01

329

Impacts of services trade barriers: a study of the insurance industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barriers, especially non-tariff barriers (NTBs), have been shown to have an important impact upon international trade in services. Foreign direct investment and market entry strategy theory do not adequately address the importance of NTBs in the decision-making process. Previous studies indicate that service firms need to establish local presence to be successful in a foreign market. Where firms are unable

Alan Zimmerman

1999-01-01

330

Anti-dumping, Trade Barriers and Japanese Direct Investment in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract During the 1980s and early 1990s when Japanese FDI in the UK grew rapidly, a range of non- tariff and natural barriers fragmented ,the European ,market ,and ,reliance on contingent protection measures ,increased markedly ,over this period. This paper explores which ,factors influence the distribution of Japanese inward investment across UK sectors, and the level of FDI in those

Sourafel Girma; David Greenaway; Katharine Wakelin

331

A Comparative Study of the Trade Barriers in Vietnam and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the issues of trade barriers have been discussed extensively in the existing economic literature, little evidence has been documented regarding the structures, characteristics, and trends of the trade barriers, including non-tariff barriers, in Vietnam and Thailand from a comparative perspective. This study analyzes how Vietnam and Thailand balance their needs to protect domestic industries and compliance with regional and

Nguyen Khanh Doanh; Yoon Heo

2007-01-01

332

A Comparative Study of the Trade Barriers in Vietnam and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the issues of trade barriers have been discussed extensively in the existing economic literature, little evidence has been documented regarding the structures, characteristics, and trends of the trade barriers, including non-tariff barriers, in Vietnam and Thailand from a comparative perspective. This study analyzes how Vietnam and Thailand balance their needs to protect domestic industries and compliance with regional and

Nguyen Khanh Doanh

333

Global status of commercialization of and developments on international trade in irradiated food  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international organizations have paid particular attention to the use of food irradiation as a method to reduce postharvest food losses, to ensure hygienic quality of foods-especially those of animal origin, and to overcome certain non-tariff barriers to trade for the following reasons: (1) The increasingly strict standards for quality and quarantine in food trade. (2) The increasingly restrictions

Paisan Loaharanu

1996-01-01

334

Food miles: Do UK consumers actually care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food miles concept, originating in the UK and given much prominence in the news media, has been used to imply that importing food from distant countries is inherently more wasteful than growing and consuming local produce. What impact is this potential non-tariff barrier having on consumer buying behaviour in UK supermarkets? Revealed preference surveys in four supermarkets show only

Katherine Kemp; Andrea Insch; David K. Holdsworth; John G. Knight

2010-01-01

335

Examining the India, Brazil and South African (IBSA) Triangular Trading Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

India, Brazil and South Africa\\/SACU (IBSA). We have ignored the political complication of Brazil also belonging to a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and we have not modelled the estimation and removal of non-tariff barriers, services trade or some of the more sophisticated but speculative gains from technological change or other dynamic effects. Recent research, some of which is cited in

Ron Sandrey; Hans Jensen

336

Designing for routine space access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's space access needs which reflect the changing security environment are considered. National security space access requirements include responsive space access any time and anywhere; multiple basing, security, and flexibility; costs to enable routine operation; and infrastructure expansion. The Delta Clipper SSTO system (MDC-1) meets the fundamental national space access requirements, providing low-cost reliable, responsive transportation to and from LEO. It meets the needs of routine space access and could be developed for initial operational use before the turn of the century.

Gaubatz, William A.

337

Explaining National Border Effects in the QUAD Food Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a 'structural' gravity-like model, this paper first provides estimates of bilateral 'border effects' in food trade among the QUAD countries (the US, Canada, Japan and the EU) at the ISIC (International Standard Industrial Classification) four-digit level (18 food sectors). It then investigates the underlying reasons for border effect, assessing the role played by policy barriers (tariffs, non-tariff barriers to

Alessandro Olper; Valentina Raimondi

2008-01-01

338

Border Barriers in Agricultural Trade and the Impact of their Elimination: Evidence from East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of a GTAP based-CGE model, we investigate the impact of the elimination of import tariffs and non-tariff policy barriers (NTPBs) on agricultural trade towards East Asian FTAs. To do that, we first measure the NTPBs by employing a widely-used method derived from the literature on border effects. Next, by adding into the GTAP database our estimates on the

Kazunobu Hayakawa; Kuo-I Chang

2008-01-01

339

Ad*Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Duke University Libraries has an extensive physical and online collection of advertisements that appeared in magazines and newspapers in the U.S. and Canada from 1911-1955. The Ad*Access collection focuses on advertisements in five main subject areas: Radio, Television, Transportation, Beauty and Hygiene, and World War II. Visitors should read the "About Us" section to learn about why the collection was created and its importance for research. Visitors can "browse" the collection by the aforementioned categories, product, year, and company. For example, "War Bonds" are listed under "Product", and visitors will find that the messages in war bond advertisements are quite frank, and insistent, that people should help the war effort. Visitors should check out the following ads found when browsing war bonds: "I'm Saving to go to Ag College...And Buying Bullets for Pete!", "Avenge Pearl Harbor! Buy Bonds! Give Bonds!", and "Your Bond Purchase Makes These Nazis Shiver".

340

Accessing SDO Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools.

Hourcle, Joseph; solar physics data community, The

2011-05-01

341

Access Excellence Classic Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another good resource from AccessExcellence.org is the Activities Exchange Classic Collection Web site. The page presents links that focus on a single person or event by putting it into historical context and relating it to current science. Each contains a set of references, classroom activities, graphics, background information, and more. Some of the titles of the activities include The Discovery Of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age; Radioactivity: Historical Figures; How We See: The First Steps of Human Vision; Discovery, Chance, and the Scientific Method; DNA Structure; and Development of Polio Vaccines. The pages and activities are well designed and offer educators some interesting and unique lessons for their students.

342

Accessibility and conservation  

PubMed Central

Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are a class of structural RNAs that often regulate mRNA targets via post-transcriptional base pair interactions. We determined features that discriminate functional from non-functional interactions and assessed the influence of these features on genome-wide target predictions. For this purpose, we compiled a set of 71 experimentally verified sRNA–target pairs from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Furthermore, we collected full-length 5? untranslated regions by using genome-wide experimentally verified transcription start sites.   Only interaction sites in sRNAs, but not in targets, show significant sequence conservation. In addition to this observation, we found that the base pairing between sRNAs and their targets is not conserved in general across more distantly related species. A closer inspection of RybB and RyhB sRNAs and their targets revealed that the base pairing complementarity is only conserved in a small subset of the targets. In contrast to conservation, accessibility of functional interaction sites is significantly higher in both sRNAs and targets in comparison to non-functional sites. Based on the above observations, we successfully used the following constraints to improve the specificity of genome-wide target predictions: the region of interaction initiation must be located in (1) highly accessible regions in both interaction partners or (2) unstructured conserved sRNA regions derived from reliability profiles of multiple sRNA alignments. Aligned sequences of homologous sRNAs, functional and non-functional targets, and a sup document with sup tables, figures and references are available at www.bioinf.uni-freiburg.de/Supplements/srna-interact-feat/.

Richter, Andreas S.; Backofen, Rolf

2012-01-01

343

Controlling Access to RDF Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the current barriers towards realizing the huge potential of Future Internet is the protection of sensitive information, i.e., the ability to selectively expose (or hide) information to (from) users depending on their access privileges. Given that RDF has established itself as the de facto standard for data representation over the Web, our work focuses on controlling access to RDF data. We present a high-level access control specification language that allows fine-grained specification of access control permissions (at triple level) and formally define its semantics. We adopt an annotation-based enforcement model, where a user can explicitly associate data items with annotations specifying whether the item is accessible or not. In addition, we discuss the implementation of our framework, propose a set of dimensions that should be considered when defining a benchmark to evaluate the different access control enforcement models and present the results of our experiments conducted on different Semantic Web platforms.

Flouris, Giorgos; Fundulaki, Irini; Michou, Maria; Antoniou, Grigoris

344

ACCESS: Detector Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Foltz, R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R. S.; Wright, E. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

2013-01-01

345

Education in vascular access.  

PubMed

The successful creation and use of an arteriovenous vascular access (VA) requires a coordinated, educated multidisciplinary team to ensure an optimal VA for each patient. Patient education programs on VA are associated with increased arteriovenous VA use at dialysis initiation. Education should be tailored to patient goals and preferences with the understanding that experiential education from patient to patient is far more influential than that provided by the healthcare professional. VA education for the nephrologist should focus on addressing the systematic and patient-level barriers in achieving a functional VA, with specific components relating to VA creation, maturation, and cannulation that consider patient goals and preferences. A deficit in nursing skills in the area of assessment and cannulation can have devastating consequences for hemodialysis patients. Delivery of an integrated education program increases nurses' knowledge of VA and development of simulation programs or constructs to assist in cannulation of the VA will greatly facilitate the much needed skill transfer. Adequate VA surgical training and experience are critical to the creation and outcomes of VA. Simulations can benefit nephrologists, dialysis nurses surgeons, and interventionalists though aiding in surgical creation, understanding of the physiology and anatomy of a dysfunctional VA, and practicing cannulation techniques. All future educational initiatives must emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary care to attain successful VA outcomes. PMID:23432319

Moist, Louise M; Lee, Timmy C; Lok, Charmaine E; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; Xi, Wang; Campbell, Vern; Graham, Janet; Wilson, Barb; Vachharajani, Tushar J

2013-02-25

346

Remote direct memory access  

SciTech Connect

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

347

Mobile access control vestibule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

Depoy, Jennifer M.

1998-12-01

348

Ferroelectric random access memories.  

PubMed

Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is a nonvolatile memory, in which data are stored using hysteretic P-E (polarization vs. electric field) characteristics in a ferroelectric film. In this review, history and characteristics of FeRAMs are first introduced. It is described that there are two types of FeRAMs, capacitor-type and FET-type, and that only the capacitor-type FeRAM is now commercially available. In chapter 2, properties of ferroelectric films are discussed from a viewpoint of FeRAM application, in which particular attention is paid to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, SrBi2Ta2O9, and BiFeO3. Then, cell structures and operation principle of the capacitor-type FeRAMs are discussed in chapter 3. It is described that the stacked technology of ferroelectric capacitors and development of new materials with large remanent polarization are important for fabricating high-density memories. Finally, in chapter 4, the optimized gate structure in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors is discussed and experimental results showing excellent data retention characteristics are presented. PMID:23421123

Ishiwara, Hiroshi

2012-10-01

349

First Monday: Open Access Publishing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The peer-reviewed Internet journal, First Monday (discussed in the August 23, 1996 Scout Report), presents a dreary picture for open access publishing and research. The author of this article, Joseph J. Esposito, comments on The Unexpected Future of Open Access Publishing. Esposito is skeptical of the idea that the age of the Internet and online publishing will bring access to the world's research publications free for everyone, "by shifting the costs to other places in the value chain and disintermediating publishers." Instead, he argues that Open Access will come about at the cost of authors and their proxies. The author details his argument regarding these unanticipated outcomes in this article.

350

Is Your Church Accessible? Houses of Worship: Physical Accessibility Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This checklist is intended to help churches evaluate the accessibility of their facilities to those with physical disabilities. Categories covered are: basic accessibility, parking lots, walks, ramps, entrances/exits, doors and doorways, stairs and steps, floors, worship space, rest rooms, controls, water fountains, identification, warning…

Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

1991-01-01

351

Designing for auditory web access: accessibility and cellphone users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-end mobile phones are becoming generally available throughout the world and the main window onto the Web. A large constituency for Web access is being created whose experience Web designers are not familiar with, particularly because of the central role of auditory, rather than visual access. This is analogous to problems faced by visually impaired users, where again Web designers

Shari Trewin; Rachel K. E. Bellamy; John C. Thomas; Jonathan P. Brezin; John T. Richards; Calvin Swart; Bonnie E. John

2010-01-01

352

JENNE FARM FROM ACCESS ROAD LOOKING WEST. (The access road ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

JENNE FARM FROM ACCESS ROAD LOOKING WEST. (The access road runs between the cattle pastures. The granary, garage/workshop, house, barn, and remains of the orchard can be seen. Also visible in the distance is Ebey?s Prairie and the bluff. Note the Holstein bulls and freemartins grazing.) - Jenne Farm, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

353

Rethinking Access with RDA (Resource Description and Access)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over a decade, the cataloging community has been rethinking how it provides bibliographic access to resources in an increasingly digital environment. This rethinking has led to the development of Resource Description and Access (RDA) and its launch as an online product in June 2010. Grounded in a new conceptual framework, RDA differs from AACR2 in terms of its organization,

Chamya P. Kincy; Michael A. Wood

2012-01-01

354

PUBLIC ACCESS TELEVISION: ALTERNATIVE VIEWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid expansion of public access television in recent years provides new possibilities for progressive individuals and groups to produce video programming that cuts against the conservative programming that dominates mainstream television in the United States. Progressive access programming is now being cablecast regularly in such places as New York, Los Angeles, Boston, Chicago, Atlanta, Madison, Urbana, Austin, and perhaps

Douglas Kellner; Frantz Fanon

355

Open access and medicinal chemistry  

PubMed Central

Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

Swain, Chris

2007-01-01

356

"Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

Taylor, Yvette

2011-01-01

357

Joint Operational Access Concept (JOAC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper proposes a concept for how joint forces will achieve operational access in the face of armed opposition by a variety of potential enemies and under a variety of conditions, as part of a broader national approach. Operational access is the abili...

2012-01-01

358

Accessibility on the Hudson River  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

Exceptional Parent, 2010

2010-01-01

359

Accessibility on the Hudson River  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

Exceptional Parent, 2010

2010-01-01

360

Interactive multimedia satellite access communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in satellite technology are making possible the development of broadband satellite access (BSA) systems for two-way access to multimedia Internet services. This article provides an overview of BSA systems with an emphasis on resource management and interworking techniques to support IP-based multimedia services. The article draws on collaborative research performed over the past few years as part of

Tho Le-Ngoc; Victor Leung; Peter Takats; Peter Garland

2003-01-01

361

"Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

Taylor, Yvette

2011-01-01

362

Rural Access. AACC Project Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) provides funds and technical assistance to targeted community colleges in an effort to improve educational access and foster economic development in distressed rural areas of the United States. This project brief describes RCCI's attempts to increase access by implementing an approach more holistic…

Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Garza, Hector; Barnett, Lynn

363

Enhancing Airport Access Control Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the use of biometric features in contactless smart cards (CSC) to enhance airport access control security. It looks at biometric features like the user's fingerprint, face or iris to provide verification of the person presenting the card for access to a facility, or use of an application. The paper also suggests possible use of device features like

M. W. David

2002-01-01

364

Electronic Information: Options for Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses three electronic information formats: CD-ROM, tape loads, and online hosts; reviews some of the hardware platforms used for accessing information in these formats; and discusses some of the issues involved in interconnecting computer systems to increase access to electronic collections. (Author)|

Pesch, Oliver

1994-01-01

365

Metadata-driven multimedia access  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing ubiquity and mobility of multimedia-enabled devices, universal multimedia access (UMA) is emerging as one of the important components for the next generation of multimedia applications. The basic concept underlying UMA is universal or seamless access to multimedia content, by automatic selection and adaptation of content based on the user's environment. UMA promises an integration of these different

P. van Beek; J. R. Smith; T. Ebrahimi; T. Suzuki; J. Askelof

2003-01-01

366

NCI Web 508 Accessibility Comment  

Cancer.gov

The Web sites at the National Cancer Institute have been designed to be accessible to all users, compliant with the 508 standards, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users with disabilities may encounter problems accessing some pages.

367

Data access performance through parallelization and vectored access. Some results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Energy Physics data processing and analysis applications typically deal with the problem of accessing and processing data at high speed. Recent studies, development and test work have shown that the latencies due to data access can often be hidden by parallelizing them with the data processing, thus giving the ability to have applications which process remote data with a high level of efficiency. Techniques and algorithms able to reach this result have been implemented in the client side of the Scalla/xrootd system, and in this contribution we describe the results of some tests done in order to compare their performance and characteristics. These techniques, if used together with multiple streams data access, can also be effective in allowing to efficiently and transparently deal with data repositories accessible via a Wide Area Network.

Furano, F.; Hanushevsky, A.

2008-07-01

368

Evolutionary Accessibility of Mutational Pathways  

PubMed Central

Functional effects of different mutations are known to combine to the total effect in highly nontrivial ways. For the trait under evolutionary selection (‘fitness’), measured values over all possible combinations of a set of mutations yield a fitness landscape that determines which mutational states can be reached from a given initial genotype. Understanding the accessibility properties of fitness landscapes is conceptually important in answering questions about the predictability and repeatability of evolutionary adaptation. Here we theoretically investigate accessibility of the globally optimal state on a wide variety of model landscapes, including landscapes with tunable ruggedness as well as neutral ‘holey’ landscapes. We define a mutational pathway to be accessible if it contains the minimal number of mutations required to reach the target genotype, and if fitness increases in each mutational step. Under this definition accessibility is high, in the sense that at least one accessible pathway exists with a substantial probability that approaches unity as the dimensionality of the fitness landscape (set by the number of mutational loci) becomes large. At the same time the number of alternative accessible pathways grows without bounds. We test the model predictions against an empirical 8-locus fitness landscape obtained for the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. By analyzing subgraphs of the full landscape containing different subsets of mutations, we are able to probe the mutational distance scale in the empirical data. The predicted effect of high accessibility is supported by the empirical data and is very robust, which we argue reflects the generic topology of sequence spaces. Together with the restrictive assumptions that lie in our definition of accessibility, this implies that the globally optimal configuration should be accessible to genome wide evolution, but the repeatability of evolutionary trajectories is limited owing to the presence of a large number of alternative mutational pathways.

Franke, Jasper; Klozer, Alexander; de Visser, J. Arjan G. M.; Krug, Joachim

2011-01-01

369

Database Access Integration Services (DAIS)  

SciTech Connect

The Database Access Integration Services (DAIS) is a collection of services that facilitate access to data among diverse data systems in an electric utility communications network. DAIS provides access to data in distributed, heterogeneous data systems that include relational database management systems, other database management systems, control systems, file systems, and application systems. It also provides a common method for describing data, common data access operations and essential support services including a data dictionary, a data directory and distributed data access management capabilities. The DAIS project has developed specifications intended for vendor and third-party implementation. The software developed is only to implement a data access integration demonstration. These specifications can serve as a basis for influencing industry standards development. One important consequence of this strategy is that most actual software development will be performed by vendors, not utilities. DAIS is a tool to support data access. It is policy neutral regarding issues such as local or central administration of data or standardization of information model contents (e.g., EPRI Plant Information Network). As a tool, it can be used to help realize such policies. The DAIS does not provide data storage facilities, schema integration, distributed query processing, distributed applications or cooperative processing. Rather, DAIS is complementary to these functions and can be used with other software that does provide these functions. This project documented the requirements for the DAIS. These requirements are the basis for design of the DAIS specifications. The key requirements for a DAIS are: Uniform access to heterogeneous utility data systems, remote update; coexistence with local data systems; local autonomy ; Security and access restriction enforcement; OSI compatibility; open architecture and extensibility; and operating platform independence.

Mitchell, P. (Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Sensor and System Development Center); Nordell, D. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States))

1992-12-01

370

Greece: International Customs Tariffs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents authoritative information for exporters, importers, investors, manufacturers, and those concerned with international trade. It contains the schedules of duties and exemptions applicable to goods imported into or exported from the count...

1971-01-01

371

Infrastructure Operations Tool Access (IOTA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Infrastructure Operations Tools Access (IOTA) effort is to accomplish development of an advanced architecture for ISR information management. The architecture will be based on a software component framework for information dissemination. Th...

S. Barth J. Muller

2004-01-01

372

Monroe County Urban Accessibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study were to survey primary ambulatory health services in Monroe County, N.Y., and to estimate the accessibility of these services to the county's population. Community group meetings were used to collect information on organizatio...

1975-01-01

373

Open Access Publishing in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

2012-08-01

374

Is Random Access Memory Random.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor ...

P. J. Denning

1986-01-01

375

Economic Impacts of Access Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Access management has been widely defined as the planning, design, and implementation of land use and transportation strategies that control the flow of traffic between roads and surrounding land. Management and control of vehicular, pedestrian, bicycle, ...

P. Vu V. Shankar S. Chayanan

2002-01-01

376

HRP Data Accessibility Current Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Overview of talk: a) Content of Human Life Science data; b) Data archive structure; c) Applicable legal documents and policies; and d) Methods for data access. Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) contains research data from NASA-funded experiments, primarily...

C. Sams

2009-01-01

377

National Alliance for Accessible Golf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the aim of creating a more inclusive environment on golf courses, the National Alliance for Accessible Golf website provides a variety of online resources. Of especial interest are two PDF toolkits which help guide golf course owners, operators and players through the specifics of making golf more accessible to people with disabilities. Project GAIN (Golf: Accessible and Inclusive Networks) is a national research project and a key component in the Alliance's strategy to help make golf more accessible - a basic outline of the project is provided on the site as well as a video which outlines the aims of the GAIN. Also provided for users is a list of links to other online resources related to golf and disability issues as well as information about how to get involved with both the Alliance and Project GAIN.

2007-02-04

378

Access Methods for Multiversion Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an access method designed to provide a single integrated index structure for a versioned times- tamped database with a non-deletion policy. Histori- cal data (superceded versions) is stored separately from current data. Our access method is called the Time- Split B-tree. It is an index structure based on Malcolm Easton's Write Once B-tree. The Write Once B-tree was

David B. Lomet; Betty Salzberg

1989-01-01

379

Multiple access caches: Energy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we model and evaluate the energy consumption of three different multiple access cache architectures that target the reduction of access latencies of associative caches. Further, we compare their energy consumption with that of traditional direct-mapped and set-associative caches. Among all the cache architectures, the most recently used cache is found to be most energy-efficient for all studied

H. S. Kim; N. Vijaykrishnan; M. Kandemir; M. J. Irwin

2000-01-01

380

[The concepts of health access].  

PubMed

This article describes four dimensions of health access-availability, acceptability, ability to pay and information-correlating these dimensions to indicators and discussing the complexity of the concept of access. For a study of these four dimensions, searches were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and World Health Organization Library & Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS) databases. Large-circulation media vehicles, such as The Economist, The Washington Post, and the BBC network were also searched. The concept of health access has become more complex with time. The first analyses, carried out in the 1970s, suggested a strong emphasis on geographical (availability) and financial (ability to pay) aspects. More recently, the literature has focused on less tangible aspects, such as cultural, educational, and socioeconomic issues, incorporating the element of acceptability into the notion of health access. The literature also shows that information provides the starting point for access to health, in association with health empowerment and literacy for health care decision-making. The study concludes that improvements in access to health and the guarantee of equity will not be achieved by initiatives focusing on health care systems alone, but rather will depend on intersectoral actions and social and economic policies aimed at eliminating income and education differences. PMID:22569702

Sanchez, Raquel Maia; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

2012-03-01

381

Practical Role-Based Access Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents access control from a general and a role-based perspective. The article's focus is role based Access Control from a practical vice a theoretical perspective. The article starts with some access control definitions and two secure access control models. Access control is then presented in context of an abstract model, as preface to an in-depth assessment of Role

Victoria Galante

2009-01-01

382

The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access  

SciTech Connect

The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

Zhuang, Kun Da, E-mail: zkunda@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore); Tan, Seck Guan [Singapore General Hospital, Department of General Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore)

2012-08-15

383

The "SAFARI" technique using retrograde access via peroneal artery access.  

PubMed

The "SAFARI" technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs. PMID:22131120

Zhuang, Kun Da; Tan, Seck Guan; Tay, Kiang Hiong

2011-12-01

384

National Council on Disability: The Accessible Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Executive summary; Introductin and Overview; A Brief History of Information and Technology Accessibility; The legal framework of information technology access rights; Current status of accessibility implementation and enforcement; Findings; Reco...

2001-01-01

385

77 FR 26213 - Access Authorization Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...make a routine adjustment to the access authorization fees and are of...FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL 1...Application for special nuclear material access authorization. * * * * *...

2012-05-03

386

10 CFR 1017.19 - Access limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...has been granted routine access by an Authorized Individual (see § 1017.20) or limited access by the DOE Program Secretarial...additional administrative controls concerning the granting of routine or limited access to UCNI to a person who...

2013-01-01

387

32 CFR 2400.25 - Access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...duties require possession of or access to any element or item of...possession, knowledge, or control of the information and not...Technology Policy may create special access programs to control access, distribution, and...

2013-07-01

388

40 CFR 258.25 - Access requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access requirements. 258.25 Section...Operating Criteria § 258.25 Access requirements. Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must control public access and prevent unauthorized...

2013-07-01

389

77 FR 37553 - Access Authorization Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management System (ADAMS): You may access publicly available documents online...for Determining Eligibility for Access to or Control Over Special Nuclear Material,'' and 10 CFR part 25, ``Access Authorization.'' The NRC...

2012-06-22

390

Access block and ED overcrowding.  

PubMed

Prospective and retrospective access block hospital intervention studies from 1998 to 2008 were reviewed to assess the evidence for interventions around access block and ED overcrowding, including over 220 documents reported in Medline and data extracted from The State of our Public Hospitals Reports. There is an estimated 20-30% increased mortality rate due to access block and ED overcrowding. The main causes are major increases in hospital admissions and ED presentations, with almost no increase in the capacity of hospitals to meet this demand. The rate of available beds in Australia reduced from 2.6 beds per 1000 (1998-1999) to 2.4 beds per 1000 (2002-2007) in 2002, and has remained steady at between 2.5-2.6 beds per 1000. In the same period, the number of ED visits increased over 77% from 3.8 million to 6.74 million. Similarly, the number of public hospital admissions increased at an average rate of 3.4% per year from 3.7 to 4.7 million. Compared with 1998-1999 rates, the number of available beds in 2006-2007 is thus similar (2.65 vs 2.6 beds per 1000), but the number of ED presentations has almost doubled. All patient groups are affected by access block. Access block interventions may temporarily reduce some of the symptoms of access block, but many measures are not sustainable. The root cause of the problem will remain unless hospital capacity is addressed in an integrated approach at both national and state levels. PMID:20534047

Forero, Roberto; Hillman, Kenneth M; McCarthy, Sally; Fatovich, Daniel M; Joseph, Anthony P; Richardson, Drew B

2010-04-01

391

Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the computer application that provides community access to atmosphere measurements derived from backscatter ultraviolet sources. It is funded by NASA's Advance Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS), and is devoted to Measurements of Atmospheric Chemistry in the Ultraviolet (MACUV). The purpose is to provide "one-stop shopping" for data and information of interest to the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) community. It is built from the well-used, highly successful Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) website and is being evolved into a broader focus for the BUV community. This application supports NASA's evolutionary step toward science measurement processing and analysis systems and enables the BUV community to easily access information and expertise from multiple sources over a nearly 30 year history of space based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It facilitates finding and comparing data, algorithms, and scientific results from different parts of the BUV science community as well as from different instruments and missions. It provides the means to manage and access the products of the Ozone Community Oriented Measurement-based Processing System (ComPS). The MACUV application contains components that store and manage data, manage user access to that data, provide multi-dimensional views of the data and other information, serve data based on user criteria, and facilitate on-line collaboration. The web site hosts Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents for each data product, quality assessment of those products, published papers, instrument descriptions, access to mission information, reports and assessments of events and issues, problem reporting and tracking, a moderated forum, and a user collaboration area. Visitors to the MACUV web site fall into several categories: the general public; students, educators and researchers outside the BUV community; members of the BUV community who validate the measurements; members of the community who develop algorithms and software. Access to the information, data, and tools hosted on the site is managed based on the category of each visitor. The general public may view and download only information and data approved by NASA for public availability. Other visitors may establish a userid and select a category to gain access to components with restricted distribution.

Durbin, P. B.; Tilmes, C. A.; Parris, F. E.; Martin, A. T.; Soika, V.; Bichali, L.; Higgins, P. H.

2006-12-01

392

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)  

SciTech Connect

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations.

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15

393

Future planetary optical access links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical planetary access links to return information from surface assets on Mars to orbiting spacecraft for subsequent relay back to Earth will be discussed. The capabilities that can be realized using such links will be presented for a presumed concept of operations at Mars. Autonomous acquisition and tracking using low-complexity optical terminals will also be discussed. Keywords-optical planetary acces; proximity

Abhijit Biswas; Joseph Kovalik; Martin W. Regehr

2011-01-01

394

Schematic Diagrams, XML and Accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work in progress at Oxford Brookes University. The aim of the project is to define a higher-level diagram description language for the World Wide Web, which captures the structure and the semantics of a diagram and enables the generation of accessible presentations in different modalities such as speech, text, graphic, etc. This project, called Graphical Structure Semantic

Zaineb Ben Fredj; David A. Duce

2003-01-01

395

Memory access buffering in multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In highly-pipelined machines, instructions and data are prefetched and buffered in both the processor and the cache. This is done to reduce the average memory access latency and to take advantage of memory interleaving. Lock-up free caches are designed to avoid processor blocking on a cache miss. Write buffers are often included in a pipelined machine to avoid processor waiting

Michel Dubois; Christoph Scheurich; Faye A. Briggs

1986-01-01

396

RNA Accessibility in cubic time  

PubMed Central

Background The accessibility of RNA binding motifs controls the efficacy of many biological processes. Examples are the binding of miRNA, siRNA or bacterial sRNA to their respective targets. Similarly, the accessibility of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence is essential for translation to start in prokaryotes. Furthermore, many classes of RNA binding proteins require the binding site to be single-stranded. Results We introduce a way to compute the accessibility of all intervals within an RNA sequence in (n3) time. This improves on previous implementations where only intervals of one defined length were computed in the same time. While the algorithm is in the same efficiency class as sampling approaches, the results, especially if the probabilities get small, are much more exact. Conclusions Our algorithm significantly speeds up methods for the prediction of RNA-RNA interactions and other applications that require the accessibility of RNA molecules. The algorithm is already available in the program RNAplfold of the ViennaRNA package.

2011-01-01

397

Accessing ITP: Accommodating the Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Information Technology Project (ITP) at Clayton College & State University (CCSU) (Georgia) focuses on information technology as a central part of teaching and learning, primarily through Universal Personal Information Technology Access (UPITA). UPITA equips each student and faculty member with a powerful multimedia notebook computer with…

Stewart, R. Wayne

398

AccessSTEM: Building Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute" ("CBI") in April 2009; share…

DO-IT, 2009

2009-01-01

399

Modelling open access train services  

Microsoft Academic Search

EC policy is to encourage competition in the rail industry, and directives require governments to facilitate competition for freight and certain passenger services. In Great Britain, such competition was envisaged during privatisation in 1994. Here, most passenger rail services are run by franchised operators but open access passenger services are also permitted subject to certain conditions. In 2002, Hull Trains

Martin Prior; James Vickers; John Segal

2011-01-01

400

Joint Replacement Access in 2016  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for primary and revision arthroplasty is expected to double in 10 years. Coincident with this is a decreased interest in arthroplasty by residents. Retirement of arthroplasty surgeons further threatens access. This study determines if supply will meet demand. Survey data were used to calculate the 2016 workforce. Demand in 2016 was estimated using the Nationwide Inpatients Sample. Between 2008

Thomas K. Fehring; Susan M. Odum; Jennifer L. Troyer; Richard Iorio; Steven M. Kurtz; Edmund C. Lau

2010-01-01

401

Measuring Access to Learning Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the continued relevance and adequacy of the Elementary and Secondary School Civil Rights Compliance Report (E&S Survey) as a tool for enforcing civil rights laws in education, monitoring quality of access to learning opportunities, and research on other current issues of educational policy and practice. The Committee on…

Hawley, Willis D., Ed.; Ready, Timothy, Ed.

402

Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations…

Smyser, Michael

2003-01-01

403

A New Age of Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains federal standards that libraries can use to make Web sites accessible to users with disabilities. Describes Section 508 standards from the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; types of disabilities to consider, including vision, hearing, mobility, cognitive impairments, and seizure disorders; graphics; and conflicting interpretations of the law.…

Hudson, Laura

2002-01-01

404

Data Access System for Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., Hydrologic Information System), the CUAHSI HIS team has developed Data Access System for Hydrology or DASH. DASH is based on commercial off the shelf technology, which has been developed in conjunction with a commercial partner, ESRI. DASH is a web-based user interface, developed in

T. Whitenack; I. Zaslavsky; D. Valentine; D. Djokic

2007-01-01

405

Access: The Wildcard in EMW.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anti-access threat of sea-based mines must be neutralized if the United States is to conduct Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare (EMW). As the overseas bases of the United States continue to close, Naval expeditionary forces carry the burden of providing r...

L. A. Whalen

2001-01-01

406

Ballistic representation for kinematic access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

Alfano, Salvatore

2011-01-01

407

Minorities Access to Research Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minorities Access to Research Careers (MARC) program at Hunter College, New York is designed to provide an in-depth 2-year research training experience for minority students in order to prepare them for graduate school and eventual research careers in alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health fields. The target groups include Blacks, Hispanics,…

American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

408

Accessibility: a Web engineering approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the vast majority of web sites do not support accessibility for visually impaired users. Usually, these users have to rely on screen readers: applications that sequentially read the content of a web page in audio. Unfortunately, screen readers are not able to detect the meaning of the different page objects, and thus the implicit semantic knowledge conveyed in the

Peter Plessers; Sven Casteleyn; Yeliz Yesilada; Olga De Troyer; Robert Stevens; Simon Harper; Carole A. Goble

2005-01-01

409

Towards Trusted Network Access Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network Access Control (NAC) solutions promise to significantly increase the security level of modern networks. In short, they allow to measure the integrity state of an endpoint that tries to get access to the network. Based upon the measurement results, which are compared to a defined NAC policy, access to the network can be allowed or denied. One problem of all currently available NAC solutions is referred to as the “lying endpoint” problem. Normally, special software components are responsible for gathering the relevant integrity information on the endpoint. If an attacker modifies those software components, an endpoint can lie about its current integrity state. Therefore, endpoints which are not compliant to the defined NAC policy can get access to the network. Those endpoints must be considered as potential threat. This paper summarizes a possible solution for the lying endpoint problem based upon the specifications of the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) and the results of the two research projects TNC@ FHH and Turaya. The goal is to develop an open source, TNC compatible NAC solution with full TPM support within a new research project: tNAC.

Bente, Ingo; von Helden, Josef

410

Organization-Based Access Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

None of the classical access control models such as DAC, MAC, RBAC, TBAC or TMAC is fully satisfactory to model security policies that are not restricted to static permissions but also include contextual rules related to permissions, prohibitions, obligations and recommendations. This is typically the case of security policies that apply to the health care domain. In this paper, we

Anas Abou El Kalam; Salem Benferhat; Alexandre Miège; Rania El Baida; Frédéric Cuppens; Claire Saurel; Philippe Balbiani; Yves Deswarte; Gilles Trouessin

2003-01-01

411

Card Access Know-How.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides tips for expanding a school's card access system and making it more productive for all concerned. Tips include the use of electronic locks for better security; the need for state-of-the-art card reader system to save money in the long run; selecting vendors to one that manufactures, installs, and supports the card system; and having…

College Planning & Management, 2000

2000-01-01

412

LANSCE personnel access control system  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

1997-01-01

413

Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster provides an overview of the computer system that provides community access to atmosphere measurements derived from backscatter ultraviolet sources. It is funded by NASA's Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS), and is devoted to Measurements of Atmospheric Composition in the Ultraviolet. The purpose is to provide "one-stop shopping" for data and information of interested to the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) community. It is built from the well-used, highly successful Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) web site, and is being evolved into a broader focus for the BUV community. This effort supports NASA's evolutionary step toward science measurement processing and analysis systems, and enables the BUV community to easily access information and expertise from multiple sources over a nearly 30 year history of space-based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It facilitates finding algorithms and scientific results from different parts of the BUV science community as well as from different instruments and missions. It provides the means to access the products of the Ozone Community Oriented Measurement-based Processing System (ComPS). The system contains components that store and manage data, manage user access to that data, provide multi-dimensional views of the data and other information, serve data based on user criteria, and facilitate on-line collaboration. The web site hosts Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents, quality assessment of data products, published papers, instrument descriptions, access to mission information, reports and assessments of events and issues, problem reporting and tracking, a moderated forum, and a user collaboration area. Visitors to the web site fall into several categories: the general public; students, educators, and researchers outside the BUV community; members of the BUV community who validate the measurements; members of the community who develop algorithms and software. Access to the information, data, and tools hosted on the site is managed based on the category of each visitor. The general public may view and download only information and data approved by NASA for public release.

Marshall, J. J.; Batluck, G. R.; Durbin, P. B.; Gerard, R.; Larko, D. E.; Martin, A.; Tilmes, C. A.

2007-05-01

414

Production Sharing: Use of U.S. Components and Materials in Foreign Assembly Operations, 1992-1995 (U.S. Imports Under Production-Sharing Provisions of Harmonized Tariff Schedule Heading 9802). Investigation No. 332-237.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report annually monitors developments in the use of U.S. production-sharing tariff provisions, focusing on shifts in trade and product mix, and analyzing recent trends by principal source countries and industry groups. Although incentives to use thes...

1997-01-01

415

Access to emergency number services.  

PubMed

Access to emergency services is mandated by Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Department of Justice oversees the accessibility of public safety answering points (PSAPs), popularly called 9-1-1 centers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has at least two roles in emergency number access: (1) as regulator of the ADA's Title IV on telecommunications access, and (2) as regulator of communications companies with regard to support of and interconnection with PSAPs. The rules of both agencies contributed significantly to the improvement during the 1990s of access to 9-1-1 for people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or speech disabled. However, as new technologies for text wireless communications and relay services have moved quickly to Internet protocol (IP)-based technologies over the past 5-8 years, the use of traditional wireline telephones and text telephones among deaf, hard of hearing, and speech-disabled people has declined. PSAPs cannot be contacted via the newer forms of telecommunications, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and IP-based forms of relay services, including video relay services. The gap between the technology supported by policy and the technologies currently being used by deaf and hard of hearing people has become a serious problem that is difficult to solve because of the separate jurisdictions of the two agencies, the need for coordination within the FCC, technological challenges, and funding issues. In this article, the key policy and technology challenges will be analyzed and recommendations made for short-and long-term solutions to this dilemma. PMID:18751576

Harkins, Judith E; Strauss, Karen Peltz

2008-01-01

416

Controlling Access to Suicide Means  

PubMed Central

Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

2011-01-01

417

Data Mining of Web Access Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Analysis of web visitors access patterns can lead to benets in a wide range of areas such as decision support and website restructuring. Data mining techniques can be used to nd access patterns hidden inside huge volumes of web access data. The goal of this thesis is to determine whether there are any such patterns in the web access

Anand S. Lalani

2003-01-01

418

Using AAC Technology to Access the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the monumental shift in the nature of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) access that has occurred over the past three decades. In its earliest days AAC technology was directed at enabling interpersonal face-to-face interactions mainly for persons with physical impairment. Contemporary AAC access attempts to mirror the access needs of a broader population. Accordingly AAC access to

Howard C. Shane; Sarah Blackstone; Gregg Vanderheiden; Michael Williams; Frank DeRuyter

2012-01-01

419

RFID access authorization by face recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFID identification has been widely adopted in access control. This kind of card or tag based approaches has a major drawback that anyone could get access with the card. In this work, we propose a neural network based face recognition system as the second access control to make sure the person granted access matches the ID on the RFID card.

Bing-Zhong Jing; DANIEL S. YEUNG; WING W. Y. NG; Hai-Lan Ding; Dong-Liang Wu; Qian-Cheng Wang; Jin-Cheng Li

2009-01-01

420

Research into open access science publishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some issues and controversies surrounding arguments for research into open access. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper begins with a brief investigation of some background on library, research into open access, questions and then considers three major public definitions of open access, types of open access journals currently available,

Joseph Welfare Irivwieri

2009-01-01

421

A lightweight methodology to improve web accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a methodology to improve the accessibility of websites with the use of free so-called automatic tools. The methodology has three iterative phases, namely assessing a website against accessibility guidelines, user testing and creating in-house 'guidelines' to prevent similar mistakes in future versions of the system. Aspects of accessibility addressed include the use of colour, accessibility guidelines and

Mardé Greeff; Paula Kotzé

2009-01-01

422

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

SciTech Connect

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectively use

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15

423

Securing America's access to space  

SciTech Connect

We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We devote considerable attention to the prospect of creating an interim heavy-lift space launch vehicle of at least 100,000 pound payload-orbiting capacity to serve National needs during the next dozen years, suggesting that such a capability can be demonstrated within 5 years for less than $1 B. Such capability will apparently be essential for meeting the first-phase goals of the President's Space Exploration Initiative. Some other high-leverage aspects of securing American access to space are also noted briefly, emphasizing unconventional technological approaches of presently high promise.

Rendine, M.; Wood, L.

1990-05-23

424

Accessing SDO Data : The Poster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools. This poster serves as a supplement to the oral presentation as a place to distribute information about the various interfaces and to collect feedback about any unmet needs for data access.

Hourcle, Joseph; Addison, K.; Bogart, R.; Chamberlin, P.; Freeland, S.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Maddox, M.; Mueller, D.; Somani, A.; Sommers, J.; Thompson, B.; solar physics data community, The

2011-05-01

425

AIDA: Accelerator Integrated Data Access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All Control Systems that grow to any size have a variety of data that are stored in different formats on different nodes in the network. Examples include sensor value and status, archived sensor data, device oriented support data and relationships, message logs, application and machine configurations etc. Each type of data typically has a different programming interface. Higher-level applications need to access a logically related set of data that is in different data stores and may require different processing. AIDA is envisioned to be a distributed service that allows applications access to this wide variety of Control System data in a consistent way that is language and machine independent. It has the additional goal of providing an object-oriented layer for constructing applications on top of multiple existing conventional systems like EPICS or the SLC Control System. Motivation, design overview and current status will be presented.

MacKenzie, R. R.

2002-02-01

426

Directly Accessible Mainstream Graphical Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plain text in well-authored electronic documents of nearly any format is accessible to a blind person who knows how to use\\u000a a computer and screen reader. A great deal of common information is generally not presented as plain text however. Charts,\\u000a diagrams, and graphs are common in business, scientific, and most professional literature. Maps and geographically-oriented\\u000a data such as weather

John A. Gardner; Vladimir L. Bulatov

2004-01-01

427

FAST Copper For Broadband Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an overview of the ongoing FAST Copper project, which is aimed at substantial improvements in rate, reach, reliability, and quality in copper-last-mile broadband access through fiber\\/DSL deployment, engineering innovations, and fundamental research. The project is funded by NSF, and is currently pursued jointly by Princeton University, Stanford University, and Fraser Research Lab. In this article, we out- line

Mung Chiang; Jianwei Huang; Dahai Xu; Yung Yi; Chee Wei Tan; Raphael Cendrillon

428

Data access interoperability within IOOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this presentation we explore two efforts designed to promote interoperability between the OPeNDAP data access protocol and the OGC WFS and WCS protocols. The first is based on MapServer, an open-source development environment for building spatially-enabled Internet applications. Among other things, MapServer may be used as an OGC WFS and WCS server. As part of the effort described in

P. Cornillon; J. Caron; T. Burk; D. Holloway

2005-01-01

429

An Efficient Multiversion Access STructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient multiversion access structure for a transaction-time database is presented. Our method requires optimal storage and query times for several important queries and logarithmic update times. Three version operations}inserts, updates, and deletes}are allowed on the current database, while queries are allowed on any version, present or past. The following query operations are performed in optimal query time: key range

Peter J. Varman; Rakesh M. Verma

1997-01-01

430

Open Access and Bakhtinian Dialogism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores Open Access in the context of recent contributions in communication and public relations theory, notably Bakhtinian dialogism. Increasingly since the 1960s communication and public relations theory have shifted their focus away from one-way, asymmetrical to two-way, symmetrical models, thereby progressing to more equitable and interactive, multi-level conceptual models of dialogic and polyphonic communication (1). It is in

Robert W. Vaagan

2006-01-01

431

SDO Data Access And Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), Event Detection System (EDS), iSolSearch, Panorama, Event Viewer and Control Software (EVACS), and a variety of SolarSoft routines all work together to provide a suite of tools to facilitate access and analysis of SDO data. The HEK, which consists of the Heliophysics Event Registry (HER) and the Heliophysics Coverage Registry (HCR), uses XML formats built

A. Somani; N. E. Hurlburt; C. J. Schrijver; C. Cheung; S. L. Freeland; G. L. Slater; R. Seguin; R. Timmons; S. Green; L. Chang; A. Kobashi; A. Jaffey

2010-01-01

432

Fast Access Data Acquisition System  

SciTech Connect

Our goal in this program is to develop Fast Access Data Acquisition System (FADAS) by combining the flexibility of Multilink's GaAs and InP electronics and electro-optics with an extremely high data rate for the efficient handling and transfer of collider experimental data. This novel solution is based on Multilink's and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) unique components and technologies for extremely fast data transfer, storage, and processing.

Dr. Vladimir Katsman

1998-03-17

433

Enteral Access and Enteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition is the route of choice in patients with a functioning gastrointestinal tract. Early enteral nutrition has\\u000a been shown to improve outcomes in a variety of critically ill patient populations. Enteral nutritional support is indicated\\u000a for patients with poor volitional intake, neurological impairment, oropharyngeal dysfunction, short gut syndrome, and major\\u000a trauma or burns. A~number of enteral access options are

Christopher R. Lynch; John C. Fang; Stephen A. McClave

434

Announced retransmission random access protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new contention-based broadcast multiaccess protocol called announced retransmission random access (ARRA) is introduced and analyzed in this paper. The proposed class of protocols increases the capacity of a slotted random access channel by adding a small amount of potentially useful control information to every message transmission. The proposed protocols provide significant capacity improvements over conventional contention protocols, without sacrificing the simplicity and operational convenience associated with random access. It is shown that with a modest amount of processing and storage at the terminals, capacities in the range of 0.5-0.6 can be achieved, as compared with 0.37 for slotted ALOHA and 0.4-0.5 for the more efficient tree algorithm-based collision resolution algorithms (CRAs). Specifically, the basic ARRA protocol, in which announced retransmissions take place unconditionally, has a capacity of about 0.53. An improved algorithm (called extended ARRA), which involves aborting predictably unsuccessful retransmissions, has a capacity of 0.6. In addition, because of delay considerations, the proposed ARRA protocols are well suited for operation on satellite channels.

Raychaudhuri, D.

1985-11-01

435

Reducing haemodialysis access infection rates.  

PubMed

Infections are the second most common cause of vascular access loss in the long-term haemodialysis patient, and recent years have seen an increase in healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) associated with vascular access (Suhail, 2009). There have been a number of drivers including publication guidelines (Department of Health, 2006; 2007) and local protocols providing evidence-based recommendations that, when implemented, can reduce the risk of these infections. In England, the selection of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a significant clinical outcome has led to a vast amount of work in this area. Root cause analysis of individual infections (by the clinical teams when these occur) in many specialities identified areas where practice could be improved, including practice relating to vascular access within the renal setting. Manufacturers have also supported this work by focusing on developing products that are designed to reduce the likelihood of infections occurring. One product identified and used within the NHS is Chloraprep. PMID:21646994

Dorman, Amanda; Dainton, Marissa

436

Expanding drug access in Brazil: lessons for Latin America and Canada.  

PubMed

This paper discusses Brazil's efforts to provide essential medicines for its population while meeting international trade obligations. In the 1950s and 1960s, Brazil's pharmaceutical industry was largely overtaken by foreign companies. To counteract this, Brazil enacted a law in 1971 that allowed the production of patented drugs in order to provide affordable medicines, encourage research and development, and reduce dependency on imports. Eventually, pressure from the United States government (through tariffs and sanctions) drove Brazil to introduce pharmaceutical patent laws. Local interests prevailed, however, through Brazil's liberal interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement, which included a provision that pharmaceutical products must be "worked" or manufactured locally or the government could turn to the use of compulsory licensing. Brazil's willingness to use the threat of compulsory licensing compelled drug companies to lower HIV/AIDS drug prices substantially. Finally, the paper discusses how Canada can facilitate improving drug access in Latin America through helping Brazil expand its role as a manufacturer and providing medicines to countries without manufacturing capabilities. PMID:17203728

Cohen, Jillian Clare

437

Access Board: A Federal Agency Committed to Accessible Design. FY 2000 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Access Board is an independent Federal agency devoted to accessibility for people with disabilities. Under several different laws, including the landmark Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Board develops and maintains accessibility guidelines ...

2001-01-01

438

Configuring role-based access control to enforce mandatory and discretionary access control policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access control models have traditionally included mandatory access control (or lattice-based access control) and discretionary access control. Subsequently, role-based access control has been introduced, along with claims that its mechanisms are general enough to simulate the traditional methods. In this paper we provide systematic constructions for various common forms of both of the traditional access control paradigms using the role-based

Sylvia L. Osborn; Ravi S. Sandhu; Qamar Munawer

2000-01-01

439

NOAA Enterprise Archive Access Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenge for any consumer of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) environmental data archives is that the disparate nature of these archives makes it difficult for consumers to access data in a unified manner. If it were possible for consumers to have seamless access to these archives, they would be able to better utilize the data and thus maximize the return on investment for NOAA’s archival program. When unified data access is coupled with sophisticated data querying and discovery techniques, it will be possible to provide consumers with access to richer data sets and services that extend the use of key NOAA data. Theoretically, there are two ways that unified archive access may be achieved. The first approach is to develop a single archive or archiving standard that would replace the current NOAA archives. However, the development of such an archive would pose significant technical and administrative challenges. The second approach is to develop a middleware application that would provide seamless access to all existing archives, in effect allowing each archive to exist “as is” but providing a translation service for the consumer. This approach is deemed more feasible from an administrative and technical standpoint; however, it still presents unique technical challenges due to the disparate architectures that exist across NOAA archives. NOAA has begun developing the NEAAT. The purpose of NEAAT is to provide a middleware and a simple standardized API between NOAA archives and data consumers. It is important to note that NEAAT serves two main purposes: 1) To provide a single application programming interface (API) that enables designated consumers to write their own custom applications capable of searching and acquiring data seamlessly from multiple NOAA archives. 2) To allow archive managers to expose their data to consumers in conjunction with other NOAA resources without modifying their archiving systems or way of presenting data. More importantly, NOAA has selected the Accelerated Application Development (XAD) methodology to implement NEAAT. Design, development, and transition into operations of the solution are conducted using the XAD process, and within a shortened development cycle. The XAD process provides a process solution that is useful for rapid application development when processes for routine maintenance or other new development process lifecycles are not appropriate due to nature of the problem at hand: dynamic requirements and dynamic users’ frequent changes. XAD allows user requirements to be implemented and tested in a quick-turnaround cycle including feedback from the user and/or user representative, and also allows the flexibility of multiple system updates within a short turnaround timeframe. The initial phase of the project will define the scope of the project, develop a concept of operations and an initial set of functional requirements, and establish the development and testing environments. Once these are complete, an initial drop (release) of the system will be developed and placed in the test environment for a select group of users to evaluate. This development effort is being managed by the Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) project.

Rank, R. H.; McCormick, S.; Cremidis, C.

2010-12-01

440

Access to bird population data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Access to bird population data is critical for effective conservation planning and implementation. Although a tremendous volume of baseline data exists, it is often diffusely distributed and inaccessible to the resource manager and decision maker. A mechanism that facilitates assembly, documentation and delivery of avian data in a user-friendly manner is needed in order to integrate bird-related information resources across agencies and organizations. To address this fundamental need, the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is developing a web-based interactive system that will focus on access to bird population and habitat data used in bird management and conservation. This system, known as the NBII Bird Conservation Node, will support planning and evaluation of bird conservation activities within the context of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI), a framework for collaboration among organizations interested in bird conservation across North America. Initial development of the NBII Bird Conservation Node will focus on creating a prototype mapping application that will provide interactive access to data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the Colonial Waterbird Survey, the Breeding Waterfowl Population and Habitat Survey, and the Atlantic Flyway Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey. This prototype mapping application, to be available on-line at http://www.nbii.gov by Sep 2001, will lay the foundation for establishment of a Migratory Bird Data Center at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, and will provide an opportunity for linking to and establishing partnerships with other sources of bird population and habitat data available over the Internet.

Martin, E.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Koneff, M.D.

2001-01-01

441

SOFIA: South Florida Information Access  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the US Geological Survey's Ecosystem Programs, the South Florida Ecosystem Program is an intergovernmental effort "to reestablish and maintain the ecosystem of south Florida," including the region's water regime, hydrology, and geochemical and biological processes. To restore south Florida's ecosystems, the Program relies on the collaboration of over a dozen agencies, and information is disseminated via SOFIA, the South Florida Information Access Website. At the site, users will find background information, proposed and current research programs, links to collaborating agencies, publications, and data.

442

Coverage & access. Communities take charge.  

PubMed

Everyone wants to expand health care coverage and access for those who need it, and many providers know what has to be done in their communities to make it happen. But getting there is a challenge because money is tight and much of the low-hanging fruit has already been picked. Even so, some providers, aided by grants to pave the administrative way, are finding creative methods to bring health care to the underserved. Hospitals & Health Networks looks at two such programs--what they hope to accomplish, what they've had to overcome and how they're putting their communities in charge. PMID:11797577

Thrall, T H

2001-12-01

443

Accessibility Testing of Social Websites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no doubt that social websites have become one of the greatest inventions of the twenty-first century. Maintaining social connections, getting new and new friends, online entertainment: these are the very things we expect a good portal to provide. The concept of the social websites is that upon registration users share a desired amount of personal data with other users and after that they build a so called friend network using their acquaintances as building elements. The more acquaintances are present the more information is accessible during a certain period of time.

Lányi, Cecilia Sik

444

Vehicle Access and Search Training Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Vehicle Access and Search Training Manual is intended to assist NRC-licensed organizations and their security personnel in developing vehicle access, control and search operations necessary at nuclear fuel cycle facilities and at reactor facilities. ...

J. E. Obermiller H. J. Wait

1979-01-01

445

41 CFR 101-8.309 - Accessibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Accessibility. 101-8.309 Section 101-8.309 Public Contracts and Property Management...on the Basis of Handicap § 101-8.309 Accessibility...home visits; delivery of health, welfare, or other...

2012-07-01

446

Investigation into optical technologies for access evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the main technical challenges for optical access network deployment. Technological evolution of broadband optical networks is discussed with the need for adapting both metropolitan and access networks to the customer services demand evolution.

P. Chanclou; J.-P. Lanquetin; S. Durel; F. Saliou; B. Landousies; N. Genay; Z. Belfqih

2009-01-01

447

Improved Performance in Mars Sample Access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rover ability to reach samples on Mars can determine the constraints of the mission, improve of suspension and robotic arm should be considered part of an accessibility system where both affect performance in sample access.

Soto, A.

2012-06-01

448

Access Management for Streets and Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Access management is an effective technique for reducing traffic conflicts associated with driveways and intersections. Most highway agencies have a comprehensive access management policy, but current practices show a wide variation in effectiveness. The ...

J. W. Flora K. M. Keitt

1982-01-01

449

CHEMICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT (PUBLIC ACCESS BULLETIN)  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals in the Environment (Public Access Bulletin) is an information product developed to provide the general public, environmental groups, educational organizations, state and local organizations, and other interested parties with access to many of the Office of Pollution Pre...

450

An overview of the Live Access Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the Live Access Server (LAS) has gained recognition as a significant component in the design of data portals to provide access to gridded and non-gridded ocean, climate and atmosphere data. LAS is \\

S. Hankin; J. Callahan; R. Schweitzer; K. O'Brien; J. McLean; Y. Wei; A. Manke

2004-01-01

451

10 CFR 1046.14 - Access authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION OF SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.14 Access authorization. Protective force personnel shall possess current access...organization and approved by the Head of the Field Element. Security police officers...

2013-01-01

452

Floor Acquisition Multiple Access with Collision Resolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Collision avoidance and resolution multiple access (CARMA) protocols are presented and analyzed. These protocols use a floor acquisition multiple access (FAMA) strategy based on carrier sensing, together with collision resolution of floor requests (RTS) b...

J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves R. Garces

1996-01-01

453

77 FR 26149 - Access Authorization Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3150-AJ00 Access Authorization Fees AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...amending the NRC's access authorization fees charged to licensees for work performed...authorization. The NRC's formula for calculating fees remains the same and is based on...

2012-05-03

454

MAP Project, Multimedia Access Prototype (MAP) Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Multimedia Access Project (MAP) project created a user-friendly, multimedia-based prototype that increased accessibility to the government's geographic information databases. The project was a test bed evaluation of distributed and collaborative acces...

D. J. Perry

1996-01-01

455

An ATM access network for multimedia communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ATM customer premises network, there is advantage in having shared access across the one broadband user network interface (UNI). We consider ATM shared access issues based on the generic flow control (GFC) protocols as network support for multimedia communications, and we propose a mechanism for shared-medium access to an ATM\\/B-ISDN network to support multimedia traffic. The access scheme

Martin Soto; Sebastia Sallent

1997-01-01

456

Access to care: Beyond health insurance.  

PubMed

Access to healthcare is derived from a complex mix of personal beliefs, cultural norms, and social structure, combined with available individual and community resources. This article reviews the concept of access to care and its evolution since the 1960s. The difference between potential and realized access and the question of social justice as it relates to access to care also are explored. PMID:24153091

Strand de Oliveira, Justine

2013-11-01

457

Solar access: it's the law  

SciTech Connect

The contents of the California Solar Rights Act and the California Solar Shade Control Act which may have an impact on the way in which development, particularly housing, is designed and constructed in California, are reviewed. The Solar Rights Act establishes the state government of California as supporting and encouraging solar energy implementation at the local level. The law sets parameters for establishing solar easements, amends the Solar Tax Credit to include costs of easements, prohibits ordinances and private covenants which restrict solar systems, and requires communities to consider passive solar and natural heating and cooling opportunities in new construction. The Solar Rights Act is binding on all charter cities, and is thus applicable to all California cities and counties. The Solar Shade Control Act prohibits the blockage of solar radiation by vegetation to solar collectors which meet certain specific qualifications. Owners of property with unlawful vegetation are subject to criminal charges and fines of up to $500 per day of continued infraction. However, cities and counties may elect to exempt themselves from provisions of the Solar Shade Control Act. This manuscript explains solar access concepts, interprets the legal language of the laws for lay readers, and offers specific planning and design guidelines for use by developers, planners, and government officials in reviewing or developing plans to ensure solar access to structures. Twenty-four illustrations, a glossary, and several practical appendices are offered to assist the reader in understanding and complying with the laws.

Thayer, R.L. Jr.

1981-01-01

458

Transcription factor access to chromatin.  

PubMed Central

The question of how sequence-specific transcription factors access their cognate sites in nucleosomally organized DNA is discussed on the basis of genomic footprinting data and chromatin reconstitution experiments. A classification of factors into two categories is proposed: (i) initiator factors which are able to bind their target sequences within regular nucleosomes and initiate events leading to chromatin remodelling and transactivation; (ii) effector factors which are unable to bind regular nucleosomes and depend on initiator factors or on a pre-set nucleosomal structure for accessing their target sequences in chromatin. Studies with the MMTV promoter suggest that the extent and number of protein-DNA contacts determine whether a factor belongs to one or the other category. Initiator factors have only a few DNA contacts clustered on one side of the double helix, whereas effector factors have extensive contacts distributed throughout the whole circumference of the DNA helix. Thus, the nature of DNA recognition confers to sequence-specific factors their specific place in the sequential hierarchy of gene regulatory events.

Beato, M; Eisfeld, K

1997-01-01

459

IMPROVING ACCESSIBILITY IN PENANG STATE, MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past decade the Penang local authority has been improving the accessibility of pedestrian infrastructure, particularly in central George Town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2008 a joint project of the United Nations Development Programme and the Malaysian Government was established to audit the accessibility of public transport in Penang State and advise how accessibility could be improved.

Christopher Mitchell; Judy Wee

2010-01-01

460

Perfect Latin squares and parallel array access  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nonlinear skewing scheme is proposed for parallel array access. We introduce a new Latin square(perfect Latin square) which has several properties useful for parallel array access. A sufficient condition for the existence of perfect Latin squares and a simple construction method for perfect Latin squares are presented. The resulting skewing scheme provides conflict free access to various subsets

Kichul Kim; V. K. Prasanna-Kumar

1989-01-01

461

Net Neutrality and Consumer Access to Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net Neutrality' is a very heated and contested United States policy principle regarding access for content providers to the Internet end-user, and potential discrimination in that access where the end-user's ISP (or another ISP) blocks that access in part or whole. The suggestion is that the problem can be resolved by either introducing greater competition, as for instance in certain

Christopher T Marsden

2007-01-01

462

Open Access and Global Participation in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into the impact of open access journals on subsequent citations confounded open and electronic access and failed to track availability over time. With new data, we separated these effects. We demonstrate that article and journal citations increase more when a journal comes online freely rather than commercially and that free access journals are cited more by scientists in poorer

James A. Evans; Jacob Reimer

2009-01-01

463

Revocable Anonymous Access to the Internet?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Users of telecommunications networks are concerned about privacy, and desire anonymous access, while some organizations are concerned about how this anonymous access might be abused. Proposes a solution for revocable anonymous access to the Internet. Presents some legal background and motivation for such a solution. Indicates some difficulties…

Claessens, Joris; Diaz, Claudia; Goemans, Caroline; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos; Dumortier, Jos

2003-01-01

464

Analyzing Access Timing of Removable Flash Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash memories could be a basis for mass storage with real-time guarantees if a suitable model for access timing could be established. We describe Flanatoo, a suite of benchmarks which extracts relevant timing information from removable flash media such as compact flash (CF) and USB flash drives. We identified three major timing influence factors: the access block size, the accessed

Daniel Parthey; Robert Baumgartl

2007-01-01

465

Personalizable edge services for Web accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web Content Accessibility guidelines by W3C (46) provide several suggestions for Web designers regarding how to author Web pages in order to make them accessible to everyone. In this context, this paper proposes the use of edge services as an efficient and general solution to promote accessibility and breaking down the digital barriers that inhibit users with disabilities to actively

Ugo Erra; Gennaro Iaccarino; Delfina Malandrino; Vittorio Scarano

2007-01-01

466

Creating Accessible Web Sites: An Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces concepts of accessible Web design and describes how Web designers can build sites accessible to people with disabilities. Provides legal and economic rationales, describes principles of universal design and guidelines from the World Wide Web Consortium's Accessibility Initiative, and includes selected resources. (Author/LRW)|

Lilly, Erica B.

2001-01-01

467

Hemodialysis access failure: A call to action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysis access failure: A call to action. Recent evidence suggests that the cost as well as the morbidity associated with the maintenance of hemodialysis access is increasing rapidly; currently, the cost exceeds 1 billion dollars and access related hospitalization accounts for 25% of all hospital admissions in the U.S.A. This increase in cost and morbidity has been associated with several

Raymond Hakim; Jonathan Himmelfarb

1998-01-01

468

Access Points on the Digital River.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers three important things that people need to make meaningful access to the new digital tools and media a reality: having access to the tools, the ability to use those tools, and an access point. Notes a literacy web page, offers questions for further consideration, and includes a glossary of important terms. (SR)|

Bruce, Bertram C.

2000-01-01

469

Privacy leaks in mobile phone internet access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessing the Internet and specifically the World Wide Web from a mobile phone is common today. Especially since the usage fees for packet-data access dropped to a point where anybody who can can afford a mobile phone can afford mobile Internet access. Almost every mobile phone today comes with an integrated web browser that can display HTML web pages and

C. Mulliner

2010-01-01

470

Assessing the Global Accessibility of the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the findings of an investigation into Internet connectivity and use in 19 countries to determine the extent of Internet access and whether it is considered beneficial. Discusses available telecommunications infrastructure, access costs, limitations to access, personal opinions, and results of a Web-based questionnaire. (Author/LRW)

Ngini, Chukwuma U.; Furnell, Steven M.; Ghita, Bogdan V.

2002-01-01

471

Creating Accessible Web Sites: An Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces concepts of accessible Web design and describes how Web designers can build sites accessible to people with disabilities. Provides legal and economic rationales, describes principles of universal design and guidelines from the World Wide Web Consortium's Accessibility Initiative, and includes selected resources. (Author/LRW)

Lilly, Erica B.

2001-01-01

472

Applications of technology in airport access control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airport access control has traditionally been achieved with electronic systems using ID cards (badges) and electrically controlled doors. There are limitations inherent in these systems, particularly the problems of lost badges and unauthorized access by way of piggybacking or tailgating. The FAA is the regulatory agency responsible for monitoring compliance of the airports to prevent unauthorized access to specified security

R. Lazarick

2001-01-01

473

Managing Access Rights for Terminated Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recurring security scenario involves the problem of removing the access rights of an employee upon employee termination. A solution is presented in the form of procedures and an infrastructur e. Operationally , sensors track security-related user operations (e.g. password use and object accesses) to determine the true access rights associated with a user. Security administrators combine that information with

Dennis Heimbigner

2004-01-01

474

Open access initiatives adoption by Nigerian academics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine Nigerian academics' adoption of open access initiatives as authors and readers of scholarly resources. The study was necessitated by the growing need to have the number of Nigerian scholarly publications increased on the internet and accessible to scholars around the world through the use of open access initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Samuel C. Avemaria Utulu; Omolara Bolarinwa

2009-01-01

475

Rural Health: Access to Care and Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of access to quality health care has been a long-standing risk for rural Americans. Multiple factors are emerging that may increase this risk in the future. The National Association for Home Care continuously keeps rural access on the radar and supports legislation that will preserve home care access to vulnerable rural areas. Of special interest are the rural elderly.

Julie A. Nelson; Barbara Stover Gingerich

2010-01-01

476

Open Access Initiatives in India - an Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Developing countries have embraced open access with a view to promote visibility of research done in these regions. Open access initiatives described in this paper are based on interviews with information professionals responsible for creation and maintenance,of online research repositories in the country. Open access journals, e-print archives and e- theses repositories are covered with an emphasis on the

Leila Fernandez

477

25 CFR 43.7 - Access rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access rights. 43.7 Section 43...INTERIOR EDUCATION MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF STUDENT RECORDS IN BUREAU SCHOOLS § 43.7 Access rights. The right of access specified in § 43.5 shall...

2011-04-01

478

10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled...Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized Individual...in his or her possession or control, may determine that another...Individual who may be granted access to the UCNI, subject...

2013-01-01

479

Good visual aesthetics equals good web accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises a doctoral research project titled Empirical Investigation of Visual Aesthetics and Accessibility (EIVAA). The project proposes to investigate the relationship between visual aesthetics and Web accessibility, with the aim of building a framework to guide the development of aesthetic accessible Web content. As a first step, a formative study was conducted to examine the relationship between visual

Grace Mbipom

2009-01-01

480

Improving Web Accessibility in a University Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Improving Web accessibility for disabled users visiting a university's Web site is explored following the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) guidelines and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act rules for Web page designers to ensure accessibility. The literature supports the view that accessibility is sorely lacking, not only in the USA, but also…

Olive, Geoffrey C.

2010-01-01

481

Freedom of the Press vs. Public Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book surveys the implications of freedom of the press for a constitutionally rooted public right of access to electronic and print media. Part one provides general perspectives on access to the media, including discussions of access in relation to the Supreme Court, to First Amendment history and theory, to current perceptions of the press,…

Schmidt, Benno C., Jr.

482

Access to Scientific Publications: The Scientist's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundScientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of

Yegor Voronin; Askar Myrzahmetov; Alan Bernstein

2011-01-01

483

Freedom of the Press vs. Public Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book surveys the implications of freedom of the press for a constitutionally rooted public right of access to electronic and print media. Part one provides general perspectives on access to the media, including discussions of access in relation to the Supreme Court, to First Amendment history and theory, to current perceptions of the press,…

Schmidt, Benno C., Jr.

484

Accessibility designer: visualizing usability for the blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

These days, accessibility-related regulations and guidelines have been accelerating the improvement of Web accessibility. One of the accelerating factors is the development and deployment of accessibility evaluation tools for authoring time and repair time. They mainly focus on creating compliant Web sites by analyzing the HTML syntax of pages, and report that pages are compliant when there are no syntactical

Hironobu Takagi; Chieko Asakawa; Kentarou Fukuda; Junji Maeda

2003-01-01

485

Accessibility designer: visualizing usability for the blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

These days, accessibility-related regulations and guidelines have been accelerating the improvement of Web accessibility. One of the accelerating factors is the development and deployment of accessibility evaluation tools for authoring time and repair time. They mainly focus on creating compliant Web sites by analyzing the HTML syntax of pages, and report that pages are compliant when there are no syntactical

Hironobu Takagi; Chieko Asakawa; Kentarou Fukuda; Junji Maeda

2004-01-01

486

Dual access to semantics in autism: is pictorial access superior to verbal access?  

PubMed

The main aim of the present study was to compare pictures and words with respect to access to semantic systems in autism using a semantic priming paradigm. A word completion task was conducted using both within-modality (word word, WW) and cross-modality (picture word, PW) conditions on a group of high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism (N = 20) and a control group (N = 20) matched on chronological age, mental age, Verbal IQ and Performance IQ. Both groups showed semantic priming effects in both modality conditions. generating significantly more responses for related prime-target pairs than for unrelated pairs. Although the control group performed similarly on both priming tasks, the autistic group performed significantly better on a PW task than on a WW task. These findings suggest the possible advantage of pictures over words in access to semantics in autism. The theoretical implications are discussed in terms of functional asymmetry between verbal and pictorial semantic operations that may be specific to autism. PMID:11079428

Kamio, Y; Toichi, M

2000-10-01

487

Flood vent access door assembly  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A flood vent access door assembly having a frame assembly defining a fluid entrance aperture; a door pivotally mounted in said frame assembly, where in the door includes at least one ventilation opening formed through the door; and at least one latching/release mechanism for releasably maintaining the door in a fixed position relative to the frame assembly if a level of fluid is not above a determined level and releasing the door to pivot relative to the frame assembly if the level of fluid is above the determined level, wherein the at least one latching/release mechanism comprises a float means coupled to an elongate release arm for determining the level of fluid and releasing a latch of the at least one latching/release mechanism.

Hurst; Steven L. (Moon, VA); Higdon; William R. (Moon, VA)

2011-04-19

488

AGU journals need accessible indexes!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On numerous past occasions over many years I have written to the officers of the Union, the editors of some of the journals, the Publications Committee, and Union employees that AGU journals should be more than vanity presses for the authors, no matter how good the published papers are. In particular, the continued lack of provision of easily accessible comprehensive indexes (on CD-ROMS, diskettes, electronically, whatever) for the journals means that the overburdened readers'users of the journals (many of whom are personal subscribers) are really the losers. The users are being told that they don't count. Maybe this is one reason why personal subscriptions are decreasing? It does appear that the Union is only interested in selling a printed page, not in whether it is ever read or looked up in an index.

Lanzerotti, L. J.

489

Delegation of access rights in a privacy preserving access control model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delegation is a process of sharing access rights by users of an access control model. It facilitates the distribution of authorities in the model. It is also useful in collaborative environments. Despite the advantages, delegation may have an impact on the access control model's security. Allowing users to share access rights without the control of an administrator can be used

Ken Barker

2011-01-01

490

Data Access System for Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., Hydrologic Information System), the CUAHSI HIS team has developed Data Access System for Hydrology or DASH. DASH is based on commercial off the shelf technology, which has been developed in conjunction with a commercial partner, ESRI. DASH is a web-based user interface, developed in ASP.NET developed using ESRI ArcGIS Server 9.2 that represents a mapping, querying and data retrieval interface over observation and GIS databases, and web services. This is the front end application for the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System Server. The HIS Server is a software stack that organizes observation databases, geographic data layers, data importing and management tools, and online user interfaces such as the DASH application, into a flexible multi- tier application for serving both national-level and locally-maintained observation data. The user interface of the DASH web application allows online users to query observation networks by location and attributes, selecting stations in a user-specified area where a particular variable was measured during a given time interval. Once one or more stations and variables are selected, the user can retrieve and download the observation data for further off-line analysis. The DASH application is highly configurable. The mapping interface can be configured to display map services from multiple sources in multiple formats, including ArcGIS Server, ArcIMS, and WMS. The observation network data is configured in an XML file where you specify the network's web service location and its corresponding map layer. Upon initial deployment, two national level observation networks (USGS NWIS daily values and USGS NWIS Instantaneous values) are already pre-configured. There is also an optional login page which can be used to restrict access as well as providing a alternative to immediate downloads. For large request, users would be notified via email with a link to their data when it is ready.

Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Djokic, D.

2007-12-01

491

THE IMPACT OF TECHNICAL BARRIERS ON US-EU AGRO-FOOD TRADE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial aspects exist in the current debate on the application of Non Tariff Measures (NTMs) on agro-food trade. This study intends to offer an evaluation of the trade impact of both non-technical and technical NTMs on the US-EU bilateral trade, the two major players in WTO negotiations. The results show two main structural differences between the EU and US borders:

Michele Nardella; Stefano Boccaletti

2003-01-01

492

The amendment of the EU Novel Food Regulation: Opportunity for recognizing the special status of exotic traditional foods. Discussion paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stringent food safety assessment for novel foods required by the EU Novel Food Regulation (NFR) (EU Regulation 258\\/97) places an unreasonably high burden of proof on those bringing traditional food products from the South to the EU market. The regulation has emerged as a non-tariff barrier for trade in food items that are often derived from under-utilized crops and

Michael Hermann

493

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-12-31

494

Accessibility tradeoffs in public transit planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial accessibility is a critical consideration in the provision of services, both public and private. In public transit planning, accessibility is comprised of access and geographic coverage. Interestingly, these two considerations are somewhat at odds with each other. Access is important because it is the process associated with getting to and departing from the service. Such access is typically perceived of in spatial terms as the physical proximity to transit stops or stations. Additional stops along a route usually mean greater access, because a stop is more likely to be within an acceptable walking/driving standard for a larger number of people. On the other hand, more stops and greater access slow transit travel speeds, thereby decreasing the area of service reachable given a travel time budget. More stops along a route translate to greater service interruption and longer travel times. The faster the travel time, the more desirable the service. Further, if travel times become excessive, then user demand for service will decrease. All of this means that stop spacing along a route is central to accessibility, as it is a tradeoff of access (more stops) and geographic coverage (service efficiency through less stops). This paper details modeling approaches for addressing accessibility concerns in an integrated fashion. Bus-based transit service in Columbus, Ohio will be utilized to illustrate the usefulness of these approaches in transit planning.

Murray, Alan T.; Wu, Xiaolan

495

Patients' access to personal health information.  

PubMed

Four physicians comment on an issue paper from the Department of Health and Social Security about provisions of the Data Protection Act that would permit patient access to computerized health records in 1987 unless the Secretary of State rules otherwise. S. Jenkins, a general practitioner, fears that patient access would refocus the record on the doctor's best interests rather than the patient's. C.J. Dickinson, a medical professor, welcomes access as fostering trust. M.A. Heasman, a health administrator, opposes unrestricted access but urges physicians to reveal more to patients. B.W. Ellis, a consultant surgeon, holds that patients have a right to see their records, subject to physician discretion in disclosing information to the patient's general practitioner or other third party. An interprofessional working group's "Statement on subject access to personal health information" rejects unrestricted access lest it inhibit health professionals from recording sensitive data. PMID:3081093

Jenkins, S; Dickinson, C J; Heasman, M A; Ellis, B W

1986-01-25

496

Agriculture: access to technology limited.  

PubMed

From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

1997-01-01

497

Spread spectrum random access networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of code allocation in Code Division Multiple Access is proposed, based on partitioned information 'classes' (CDMA-IC), that is particularly efficient in meeting multicasting needs. Transmitters choose spreading codes based on the types of messages they are transmitting, and receivers listen to codes corresponding to the types of messages they are interested in. The performance of this approach can exceed that of both the traditional receiver-directed codes or broadcast codes in environments where there are several multicast groups (in which a given message is of interest to more than one node), or where it is difficult to know what types of messages (out of a fixed set of message types) a receiver is interested in at any particular time. Performance is further enhanced when receivers can simultaneously attempt to correlate multiple spreading codes. A broad theoretical framework was developed for the CDMA-IC concept and numerical results through simulation were obtained and compared to receiver-directed and broadcasting scenarios.

Sastry, Ambatipudi R.

1993-10-01

498

File access prediction using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most vexing issues in design of a high-speed computer is the wide gap of access times between the memory and the disk. To solve this problem, static file access predictors have been used. In this paper, we propose dynamic file access predictors using neural networks to significantly improve upon the accuracy, success-per-reference, and effective-success-rate-per-reference by using neural-network-based

Prashanta Kumar Patra; Muktikanta Sahu; Subasish Mohapatra; Ronak Kumar Samantray

2010-01-01

499

Optimizing noncontiguous accesses in MPI-IO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The I\\/O access patterns of many parallel applications consist of accesses to a large number of small, noncontiguous pieces of data. If an application' s I\\/O needs are met by making many small, distinct I\\/O requests, however, the I\\/O performance degrades drastically. To avoid this problem, MPI-IO allows users to access noncontiguous data with a single I\\/O function call, unlike

Rajeev Thakur; William Gropp; Ewing L. Lusk

2002-01-01

500

Open access: changing global science publishing.  

PubMed

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

2013-08-28