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1

[Post-operative functional evaluation of accessory nerve reconstruction].  

PubMed

A nerve reconstruction was performed in 20 patients whose spinal accessory nerve was resected during total neck dissection. Re-anastomosis or a cable graft was performed between both cut ends of the accessory nerve in 14 patients (accessory nerve reconstruction group), and between the peripheral cut end of the accessory nerve and the central cut end of the cervical nerve (C2 or C3) in 6 patients (cervical/accessory nerve reconstruction group). There was no difference in the postoperative shoulder functions between the reconstruction groups, and both groups were significantly better than the group without reconstruction (n = 13), although they tended to be poorer than the nerve preservation group (n = 41). PMID:24601096

Asakura, Koji; Honma, Tomo; Keira, Takashi; Nagaya, Tomonori; Himi, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

2

Autonomously functioning nodule arising from accessory mediastinal thyroid tissue  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging using radionuclide Tc99m pertechnetate is routinely used in the evaluation of the problems related to the thyroid gland. Scintiscan has been useful in the visualization of thyroid tissue in ectopic sites due to congenital developmental anomalies. Similarly, the scan helps in establishing the diagnosis of autonomously functioning nodule when the nodule being evaluated appears “hot” with suppression of rest of the gland activity. Here, we present a very rare case of autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma in an ectopic focus of accessory thyroid tissue in the mediastinum. PMID:23326068

Kumaresan, Karuppiah; Rao, N Sudhakar; Mohan, A Ram; Rao, M Sudhakar

2011-01-01

3

Ecdysteroids in vitro promote differentiation in the accessory glands of male mealworm beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Physiological peak doses of 20-hydroxyecdysone were added to organ cultures of young pupal accessory glands of maleTenebrio molitor. During subsequent culture in vitro or in vivo, the glands accumulated adult-specific antigens. Control organ cultures showed no such antigen accumulation. In this system, ecdysteroid controls not only cell cycles but also differentiation.

K. A. Grimnes; G. M. Happ

1987-01-01

4

Prolactin receptor expression in human testis and accessory tissues: localization and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies in animals have established prolactin (PRL) as a progonadal hormone that promotes the function of the testis and reproductive accessory glands. The present study investigated the localization of PRL receptor (PRL-R) expression in the human testis and accessory tissues. Expression of PRL-R was identified in human testis and vas deferens by RT-PCR, and further localized by immunohistochemistry to

W. M. Hair; O. Gubbay; H. N. Jabbour; G. A. Lincoln

2002-01-01

5

Differentially Transcendental Functions  

E-print Network

The aim of this paper is to exhibit a method for proving that certain analytic functions are not solutions of algebraic differential equations. The method is based on model-theoretic properties of differential fields and properties of certain known transcendental differential functions, as of $\\Gamma(x)$. Furthermore, it also determines differential transcendency of solution of some functional equations.

Zarko Mijajlovic; Branko Malesevic

2004-12-17

6

Functional properties of neurons in the cat gracile nucleus that project to the dorsal accessory olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the functional properties of neurons in the gracile nucleus that project to the dorsal accessory portion of the inferior olive (DAO) and compared these with properties of other efferents from the dorsal column nuclei (DCN). Projection neurons were identified in anesthetized cats by microstimulation within DAO. They were further tested to insure that they could not be

H. H. Molinari; J. O. Dostrovsky

1987-01-01

7

Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Possibilities of Computed Tomography in Differentiation From Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of computed tomography (CT) in differentiating between intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET). Methods Eight IPASs and 12 PanNETs in the pancreatic tail were retrospectively evaluated by 2 radiologists. Readers assigned a diagnosis to each examination and evaluated for the presence or absence of 9 CT findings that may aid in the diagnosis. Results Reader 1 had a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 1; reader 2 had a sensitivity of 0.78 and a specificity of 0.86. Three of the 9 CT findings were found to be statistically significant in IPASs: the lesion present along the pancreatic dorsal surface, the lesion demonstrating the same enhancement as the spleen on venous phase, and heterogeneous enhancement during arterial phase. Conclusions CT can be used to differentiate between IPAS and PanNET with good specificity and sensitivity. The IPAS mirrors the spleen’s enhancement and is usually located along the dorsal surface of the pancreas. PMID:24979264

Coquia, Stephanie F.; Kawamoto, Satomi; Zaheer, Atif; Bleich, Karen B.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Fishman, Elliot K.

2015-01-01

8

Functional differentiation of Leydig cells in the testis of the fetal monkey (Macaca fascicularis)  

E-print Network

Functional differentiation of Leydig cells in the testis of the fetal monkey (Macaca fascicularis and accessories. We have only fragmentary data on fetal plasma testo- sterone levels in monkey from 60 days (Resko

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Functional organization of glomerular maps in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The mammalian accessory olfactory system extracts information about species, sex and individual identity from social odors, but its functional organization remains unclear. We imaged presynaptic Ca(2+) signals in vomeronasal inputs to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) during peripheral stimulation using light sheet microscopy. Urine- and steroid-responsive glomeruli densely innervated the anterior AOB. Glomerular activity maps for sexually mature female mouse urine overlapped maps for juvenile and/or gonadectomized urine of both sexes, whereas maps for sexually mature male urine were highly distinct. Further spatial analysis revealed a complicated organization involving selective juxtaposition and dispersal of functionally grouped glomerular classes. Glomeruli that were similarly tuned to urines were often closely associated, whereas more disparately tuned glomeruli were selectively dispersed. Maps to a panel of sulfated steroid odorants identified tightly juxtaposed groups that were disparately tuned and dispersed groups that were similarly tuned. These results reveal a modular, nonchemotopic spatial organization in the AOB. PMID:24880215

Hammen, Gary F; Turaga, Diwakar; Holy, Timothy E; Meeks, Julian P

2014-07-01

10

The main and accessory olfactory systems of female mice are activated differentially by dominant versus subordinate male urinary odors.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that female preferences for male pheromones depend on the female's reproductive condition and the dominance status of the male. However, it is unknown which olfactory system detects the odors that result in a preference for a dominant male. Therefore, in the present study, we asked whether dominant versus subordinate male urinary odors differentially activate the main and accessory olfactory systems in female (C57Bl/6j) mice by monitoring the induction of the immediate early gene, c-fos. A more robust induction of Fos was observed in female mice which had direct nasal contact with dominant male urinary odors in four specific segments of the accessory olfactory system, i.e., the posteroventral part of the medial amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial part of the preoptic nucleus and the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus, compared to females that were exposed to subordinate male urine. This greater activation of the accessory olfactory pathway by dominant male urine suggests that there are differences in the nonvolatile components of dominant versus subordinate male urine that are detected by the vomeronasal organ. By contrast, subordinate male urinary odors induced a greater activation in the piriform cortex which is part of the main olfactory system, suggesting that female mice discriminate between dominant and subordinate male urine using their main olfactory system as well. PMID:21683943

Veyrac, Alexandra; Wang, Guan; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2011-07-21

11

Functional characterisation of a TLR accessory protein, UNC93B1, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are indispensable components of the innate immune system, which recognise conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induce a series of defensive immune responses to protect the host. Biosynthesis, localisation and activation of TLRs are dependent on TLR accessory proteins. In this study, we identified the accessory protein, UNC93B1, from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs aided by the conserved gene synteny of genes flanking UNC93B1 in fish, birds and mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that salmon UNC93B1 grouped with other vertebrate UNC93B1 molecules, and had highest amino acid identity and similarity to zebrafish UNC93B1. The salmon UNC93B1 gene organisation was also similar in structure to mammalian UNC93B1. Our gene expression studies revealed that salmon UNC93B1 was more highly expressed in spleen, liver and gill tissues but was expressed at a lower level in head kidney tissue in post-smolts relative to parr. Moreover, salmon UNC93B1 mRNA transcripts were up-regulated in vivo in spleen tissue from polyI:C treated salmon and in vitro in polyI:C or IFN? stimulated Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cells. Initial studies into the functional role of salmon UNC93B1 in fish TLR signalling found that both wild type salmon UNC93B1 and a molecule with a site-directed mutation (H424R) co-immunoprecipitated with salmon TLR19, TLR20a and TLR20d. Overall, these data illustrate the potential importance of UNC93B1 as an accessory protein in fish TLR signalling. PMID:25576824

Lee, P T; Zou, J; Holland, J W; Martin, S A M; Scott, C J W; Kanellos, T; Secombes, C J

2015-05-01

12

Functional organization of glomerular maps in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

Summary The mammalian accessory olfactory system (AOS) extracts information about species, sex, and individual identity from social odors, but its functional organization remains unclear. We imaged presynaptic Ca2+ signals in vomeronasal inputs to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) during peripheral stimulation using light sheet microscopy. Urine- and steroid-responsive glomeruli densely innervated the anterior AOB. Glomerular activity maps for sexually mature female mouse urine overlapped maps for juvenile and/or gonadectomized urine of both sexes, whereas maps for sexually mature male urine were highly distinct. Further spatial analysis revealed a complicated organization involving selective juxtaposition and dispersal of functionally-grouped glomerular classes. Glomeruli that were similarly tuned to urines were often closely associated, whereas more disparately tuned glomeruli were selectively dispersed. Maps to a panel of sulfated steroid odorants identified tightly-juxtaposed groups that were disparately tuned and dispersed groups that were similarly tuned. These results reveal a modular, non-chemotopic spatial organization in the AOB. PMID:24880215

Hammen, Gary F.; Turaga, Diwakar; Holy, Timothy E.; Meeks, Julian P.

2014-01-01

13

Activity regulates functional connectivity from the vomeronasal organ to the accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The mammalian accessory olfactory system is specialized for the detection of chemicals that identify kin and conspecifics. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) residing in the vomeronasal organ project axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), where they form synapses with principal neurons known as mitral cells. The organization of this projection is quite precise and is believed to be essential for appropriate function of this system. However, how this precise connectivity is established is unknown. We show here that in mice the vomeronasal duct is open at birth, allowing external chemical stimuli access to sensory neurons, and that these sensory neurons are capable of releasing neurotransmitter to downstream neurons as early as the first postnatal day (P). Using major histocompatibility complex class I peptides to activate a selective subset of VSNs during the first few postnatal days of development, we show that increased activity results in exuberant VSN axonal projections and a delay in axonal coalescence into well defined glomeruli in the AOB. Finally, we show that mitral cell dendritic refinement occurs just after the coalescence of presynaptic axons. Such a mechanism may allow the formation of precise connectivity with specific glomeruli that receive input from sensory neurons expressing the same receptor type. PMID:22674266

Hovis, Kenneth R; Ramnath, Rohit; Dahlen, Jeffrey E; Romanova, Anna L; LaRocca, Greg; Bier, Mark E; Urban, Nathaniel N

2012-06-01

14

Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells by Aloe vera gel components.  

PubMed

The active components of Aloe vera gel that can prevent ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells (LC) were purified by activity-guided sequential fractionation followed by in vitro functional assay. The functional assay was based on the fact that exposure of freshly isolated murine epidermal cells (EC) to UVB radiation resulted in impairment of accessory cell function of LC, as measured by their ability to support anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-primed T-cell mitogenesis. This UVB-suppressed LC accessory cell function was prevented by addition of partially purified Aloe gel components to cultures of UVB-irradiated EC. The Aloe gel components appeared to prevent events occurring within the first 24 h after UVB irradiation that lead to the impairment of accessory cell function. The Aloe gel components did not cause proliferation of anti-CD3 mAb-primed T-cells, nor did induce proliferation of normal EC. The activity-guided final purification of Aloe gel components resulted in the isolation of two components. Both of the components were small molecular weight (MW) substances with an apparent MW of less than 1,000 Da but different from each other in net charge characteristics at pH 7.4. These results suggest that Aloe vera gel contains at least two small molecular weight immunomodulators that may prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin. PMID:9403333

Lee, C K; Han, S S; Mo, Y K; Kim, R S; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Lee, S K; Kim, Y S

1997-10-01

15

Ultra violet radiation-induced defects in accessory cell function in the human proliferative response to tetanus.  

PubMed Central

Ultraviolet B radiation (290-320 nm) has been shown to interfere with accessory cell function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the generation of a proliferative response to tetanus. By altering the timing of irradiation of adherent cells and using short pulses of antigen, we have identified a minimum of two u.v. sensitive accessory cell functions. The first involves antigen presentation and is not readily reversible with time in culture after irradiation. The second is demonstrated by the ability of low doses of u.v. radiation given after the tetanus toxoid pulse to inhibit an event(s) occurring independent of antigen processing. Both occur within a range of doses which would penetrate to the vasculature of the skin of humans exposed to the sun or to phototherapy. PMID:6609029

Pretell, J O; Wimberly, J; Parrish, J A

1984-01-01

16

Using Differentials to Differentiate Trigonometric and Exponential Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting from geometric definitions, we show how differentials can be used to differentiate trigonometric and exponential functions without limits, numerical estimates, solutions of differential equations, or integration.

Dray, Tevian

2013-01-01

17

Ultrasonographic evaluation of functioning free muscle transfer: comparison between spinal accessory and intercostal nerve reinnervation.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the application of ultrasonography as a means of measuring the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the transferred muscle and evaluating its force recovery following functioning free muscle transfer. The objective of the study was to compare the CSA of a transferred muscle that is either reinnervated by the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) or the intercostal nerve (ICN), and to evaluate the difference in their force recovery. Ten patients with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus who underwent a double free muscle technique for restoring prehensile function were evaluated. All patients were followed up for at least 1.5 years after the operation. The CSAs of 20 transferred gracilis muscles in 10 patients, reinnervated either by SAN or ICN, were measured by ultrasonography. The CSA was measured at relaxation and at maximal isometric contraction. The force recovery of each muscle was expressed as the contraction rate (CR), calculated by dividing the CSA of the muscle in maximum isometric contraction by the CSA of the muscle in relaxation. The mean CSA of the transferred muscles reinnervated by the SAN was 2.98 +/- 0.723 cm (2) in relaxation and 3.95 +/- 1.296 cm (2) in maximum isometric contraction; thereby a CR of 1.32 +/- 0.174 was obtained. The mean CSA of the transferred muscles reinnervated by the ICN was 2.32 +/- 0.520 cm (2) and 2.69 +/- 0.566 cm (2) in relaxation and maximal isometric contraction, respectively; thus a CR of 1.16 +/- 0.068 was obtained. Results showed that the CR was significantly higher among the transferred muscles reinnervated by the SAN than those by the ICN. This study demonstrated that muscles that are reinnervated by the SAN resulted in stronger recovery than those reinnervated by the ICN, and that ultrasonography has the capacity to evaluate force recovery of each muscle by measuring the CSA during the two phases of muscle activity. PMID:16894486

Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazutera; Ikedu, Keisuke; Kodama, Narihito; Pagsaligan, Jose Miguel

2006-08-01

18

Functional Differential Geometry  

E-print Network

Differential geometry is deceptively simple. It is surprisingly easyto get the right answer with unclear and informal symbol manipulation.To address this problem we use computer programs to communicate aprecise understanding ...

Sussman, Gerald Jay

2005-02-02

19

Shared and differential traits in the accessory olfactory bulb of caviomorph rodents with particular reference to the semiaquatic capybara.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal system is crucial for social and sexual communication in mammals. Two populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons, each expressing G?i2 or G?o proteins, send projections to glomeruli of the rostral or caudal accessory olfactory bulb, rAOB and cAOB, respectively. In rodents, the G?i2- and G?o-expressing vomeronasal pathways have shown differential responses to small/volatile vs. large/non-volatile semiochemicals, respectively. Moreover, early gene expression suggests predominant activation of rAOB and cAOB neurons in sexual vs. aggressive contexts, respectively. We recently described the AOB of Octodon degus, a semiarid-inhabiting diurnal caviomorph. Their AOB has a cell indentation between subdomains and the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB. Moreover, their AOB receives innervation from the lateral aspect, contrasting with the medial innervation of all other mammals examined to date. Aiming to relate AOB anatomy with lifestyle, we performed a morphometric study on the AOB of the capybara, a semiaquatic caviomorph whose lifestyle differs remarkably from that of O. degus. Capybaras mate in water and scent-mark their surroundings with oily deposits, mostly for male-male communication. We found that, similar to O. degus, the AOB of capybaras shows a lateral innervation of the vomeronasal nerve, a cell indentation between subdomains and heterogeneous subdomains, but in contrast to O. degus the caudal portion is larger than the rostral one. We also observed that four other caviomorph species present a lateral AOB innervation and a cell indentation between AOB subdomains, suggesting that those traits could represent apomorphies of the group. We propose that although some AOB traits may be phylogenetically conserved in caviomorphs, ecological specializations may play an important role in shaping the AOB. PMID:21457258

Suárez, Rodrigo; Santibáńez, Rodrigo; Parra, Daniela; Coppi, Antonio A; Abrahăo, Luciana M B; Sasahara, Tais H C; Mpodozis, Jorge

2011-05-01

20

The domain of differentiable functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a domain for differentiable real valued functions of a real variable. The classical C1 functions, equipped with its C1 norm, is embedded into the set of maximal elements of this domain, which is a countably based bounded complete continuous domain. The construction can be generalized to Ck functions and to real valued functions of several variables.

Abbas Edalat

2001-01-01

21

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. PMID:15018183

Mellado, J M; Ramos, A; Salvadó, E; Camins, A; Danús, M; Saurí, A

2003-12-01

22

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. PMID:16440220

Mellado, J M; Ramos, A; Salvadó, E; Camins, A; Danús, M; Saurí, A

2003-12-01

23

Effects of unpolymerized resin components on the function of accessory cells derived from the rat incisor pulp.  

PubMed

Monomeric resin components from dental composites are toxic to fibroblasts in culture and thus may interfere with the local immune system of the pulp, reducing its effective defense potential, either by cytotoxicity or by a more specific immune mechanism. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to observe the cytotoxic effects elicited by certain unpolymerized components of resin composites upon the function of accessory pulp cells in mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Accessory cells from the rat incisor pulp were released following enzymatic digestion with collagenase. The assay included incubation of these cells with purified T-lymphocytes from cervical lymph nodes for 72 h in the presence of different concentrations of the resin components. The proliferative T-lymphocyte response was monitored by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Initially, we conducted experiments on spleen cells to determine the proper concentration intervals for suitable testing of the resin components. To assess the individual susceptibility of accessory cells and T-lymphocytes, we pre-treated each of these cells with some of the test materials prior to assay. At low concentrations, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), bisglycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and bis-phenol A (BPA) increased spleen cell proliferation to concanavalin A (con A). Purified T-lymphocytes stimulated by pulpal cells did not show enhanced responses to UDMA, bis-GMA, glycidyl mehtacrylate (GMA), or N,N,-dihydroxyethyl-p-toluidine (DHEpT). At higher concentrations, all substances except camphoroquinone (CAMP) showed inhibitory effects in both test systems. The in vitro study shows that resin components can evoke either immunosuppression or immunostimulation on mitogen-driven proliferation of purified T-lyumphocytes and spleen cells. PMID:7790593

Jontell, M; Hanks, C T; Bratel, J; Bergenholtz, G

1995-05-01

24

Investigating Differentiability of Piecewise Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in calculus need to be proficient in working with functions in a variety of ways: graphical, numerical, analytic, or verbal, and to understand connections among these representations. This demo provides a set of visualizations designed to help students better understand what it means for a piecewise function to be differentiable at a particular domain value.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2004-10-04

25

Homology modeling, docking studies and functional analysis of various azoreductase accessory interacting proteins of Nostoc sp.PCC7120  

PubMed Central

Azo dyes have become a threat to public health because of its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Azoreductase enzyme plays a pivotal role in the degradation of azodyes released by industrial effluents and other resources. The degradation pathway has to be studied in detail for increasing the activity of azoreductase and for better degradation of azo dyes. But the data available on cyanobacterial azoreductase enzyme and its degradation pathway are still very less. Therefore the present work explored the azoreductase pathway of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 for better understanding of the degradation pathway and the other accessory interacting proteins involved. The accessory interacting proteins of azoreductase from cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 were obtained from STRING database. The proteins do not have a comprehensive three dimensional structure and are hypothetical. The secondary structure and functional analysis indicated that the proteins are all soluble proteins, without disulphide bonds and have alpha helices only. The structural prediction and docking study showed that alr2106, alr1063 and alr2326 have best docking result which tally with the STRING database confidence score and thus these proteins could possibly enhance the azoreductase activity and better dye degradation. These results will pave way for further increase in azoreductase activity and for better understanding of the dye degradation pathway. PMID:22553385

Philem, Priyadarshini Devi; Adhikari, Samrat

2012-01-01

26

Altered accessory cell function of alveolar macrophages: a possible mechanism for induction of Th2 secretory profile in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered accessory cell function of alveolar macrophages: a possible mechanism for induction of Th2 secretory profile in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. H. Furuie, H. Yamasaki, M. Suga, M. Ando. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies have re- vealed a predominance of the

H. Furuie; H. Yamasaki; M. Suga; M. Ando

27

Functions of replication factor C and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen: Functional similarity of DNA polymerase accessory proteins from human cells and bacteriophage T4  

SciTech Connect

The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the replication factors A and C (RF-A and RF-C) are cellular proteins essential for complete elongation of DNA during synthesis from the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication in vitro. All three cooperate to stimulate processive DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase {delta} on a primed single-stranded M13 template DNA and as such can be categorized as DNA polymerase accessory proteins. Biochemical analyses with highly purified RF-C and PCNA have demonstrated functions that are completely analogous to the functions of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase accessory proteins. A primer-template-specific DNA binding activity and a DNA-dependent ATPase activity copurified with the multisubunit protein RF-C and are similar to the functions of the phage T4 gene 44/62 protein complex. Furthermore, PCNA stimulated the RF-C ATPase activity and is, therefore, analogous to the phage T4 gene 45 protein, which stimulates the ATPase function of the gene 44/62 protein complex. Indeed, some primary sequence similarities between human PCNA and the phage T4 gene 45 protein could be detected. These results demonstrate a striking conservation of the DNA replication apparatus in human cells and bacteriophage T4.

Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Stillman, B. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY (USA))

1990-02-01

28

Functions of replication factor C and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen: functional similarity of DNA polymerase accessory proteins from human cells and bacteriophage T4.  

PubMed Central

The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the replication factors A and C (RF-A and RF-C) are cellular proteins essential for complete elongation of DNA during synthesis from the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication in vitro. All three cooperate to stimulate processive DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase delta on a primed single-stranded M13 template DNA and as such can be categorized as DNA polymerase accessory proteins. Biochemical analyses with highly purified RF-C and PCNA have demonstrated functions that are completely analogous to the functions of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase accessory proteins. A primer-template-specific DNA binding activity and a DNA-dependent ATPase activity copurified with the multisubunit protein RF-C and are similar to the functions of the phage T4 gene 44/62 protein complex. Furthermore, PCNA stimulated the RF-C ATPase activity and is, therefore, analogous to the phage T4 gene 45 protein, which stimulates the ATPase function of the gene 44/62 protein complex. Indeed, some primary sequence similarities between human PCNA and the phage T4 gene 45 protein could be detected. These results demonstrate a striking conservation of the DNA replication apparatus in human cells and bacteriophage T4. Images PMID:1967833

Tsurimoto, T; Stillman, B

1990-01-01

29

The UreEF Fusion Protein Provides a Soluble and Functional Form of the UreF Urease Accessory Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four accessory proteins (UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG) are typically required to form the nickel-containing active site in the urease apoprotein (UreABC). Among the accessory proteins, UreD and UreF have been elusive targets for biochemical and structural characterization because they are not overproduced as soluble proteins. Using the best-studied urease system, in which the Klebsiella aerogenes genes are expressed in

Jong Kyong Kim; Scott B. Mulrooney; Robert P. Hausinger

2006-01-01

30

Functional development of sex accessory organs of the male rat. Use of oestradiol benzoate to identify the neonatal period as critical for development of normal protein-synthetic and secretory capabilities.  

PubMed Central

Functional development of the sex accessory tissues was studied in the male rat. Three potentially crucial developmental periods (neonatal, prepubertal and pubertal) were examined, and then the functional integrity of the accessory tissues was investigated in the adult, when the animals would have been expected to display normal function. Four accessory tissues (the seminal vesicles, ventral prostate and caput and cauda epididymides) were used because of their different embryological origins and responses to androgens in the adult. Synthesis and secretion of previously characterized tissue-specific androgen-dependent proteins were taken as indicators of normal function. Development was perturbed by using oestradiol benzoate, since this was known to affect gross development of the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate when given to neonatal rats. Treatment during the first 5 days after birth severely restricted development of the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate. Protein secreted by the former was only 1% of the normal amount, and in many cases several major secretory proteins were essentially missing. Prostatic protein secretion was less than 20% of normal, but all the major proteins were detectable. In both tissues overall protein synthesis per cell was quantitatively normal, but the proportion devoted to specific major secretory proteins was markedly depressed, i.e. the response is differential. In contrast, treatment during the prepubertal period was without noticeable effects. Development of the seminal vesicles and prostate was somewhat inhibited by treatment at puberty, but these changes were minor compared with those after neonatal exposure to oestradiol benzoate. No effects on epididymal protein synthesis or secretory proteins were observed, and epididymal weight and DNA content were only moderately decreased regardless of when oestradiol benzoate was administered during sexual maturation. Hence the neonatal period is not so critical for epididymal development. The substantial changes elicited by oestrogen treatment during neonatal life in seminal-vesicle and prostatic protein synthesis and secretion were compared with those evoked in sexually mature males by either oestrogen treatment or castration. Both these latter treatments resulted in a general decrease in seminal-vesicle protein synthesis and secretion, but the marked differential effects on major proteins after neonatal exposure were absent. Castration did, however, evoke a differential prostatic response, but this was not seen after oestrogen treatment of adults. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7306031

Higgins, S J; Brooks, D E; Fuller, F M; Jackson, P J; Smith, S E

1981-01-01

31

Functional Analysis of the Accessory Protein TapA in Bacillus subtilis Amyloid Fiber Assembly  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation relies on the assembly of a fibrous scaffold formed by the protein TasA. TasA polymerizes into highly stable fibers with biochemical and morphological features of functional amyloids. Previously, we showed that assembly of TasA fibers requires the auxiliary protein TapA. In this study, we investigated the roles of TapA sequences from the C-terminal and N-terminal ends and TapA cysteine residues in its ability to promote the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers. We found that the cysteine residues are not essential for the formation of TasA fibers, as their replacement by alanine residues resulted in only minor defects in biofilm formation. Mutating sequences in the C-terminal half had no effect on biofilm formation. However, we identified a sequence of 8 amino acids in the N terminus that is key for TasA fiber formation. Strains expressing TapA lacking these 8 residues were completely defective in biofilm formation. In addition, this TapA mutant protein exhibited a dominant negative effect on TasA fiber formation. Even in the presence of wild-type TapA, the mutant protein inhibited fiber assembly in vitro and delayed biofilm formation in vivo. We propose that this 8-residue sequence is crucial for the formation of amyloid-like fibers on the cell surface, perhaps by mediating the interaction between TapA or TapA and TasA molecules. PMID:24488317

Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard

2014-01-01

32

Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators.  

PubMed

Social interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected by the sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. These neurons then convey sensory information to the main (MOB) and accessory (AOB) olfactory bulbs, respectively, where they synapse upon mitral cells that project to higher brain areas. Yet, the functional difference between these two chemosensory systems remains unclear. We have previously shown that MOB and AOB mitral cells exhibit very distinct intrinsic biophysical properties leading to different types of information processing. Specifically, we found that unlike MOB mitral cells, AOB neurons display persistent firing responses to strong stimuli. These prolonged responses are mediated by long-lasting calcium-activated non-selective cationic current (Ican). In the current study we further examined the firing characteristics of these cells and their modulation by several neuromodulators. We found that AOB mitral cells display transient depolarizing afterpotentials (DAPs) following moderate firing. These DAPs are not found in MOB mitral cells that show instead robust hyperpolarizing afterpotentials. Unlike Ican, the DAPs of AOB mitral cells are activated by low levels of intracellular calcium and are relatively insensitive to flufenamic acid. Moreover, the cholinergic agonist carbachol exerts opposite effects on the persistent firing and DAPs of AOB mitral cells. We conclude that these phenomena are mediated by distinct biophysical mechanisms that may serve to mediate different types of information processing in the AOB at distinct brain states. PMID:25642164

Shpak, Guy; Zylbertal, Asaph; Wagner, Shlomo

2014-01-01

33

Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators  

PubMed Central

Social interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected by the sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. These neurons then convey sensory information to the main (MOB) and accessory (AOB) olfactory bulbs, respectively, where they synapse upon mitral cells that project to higher brain areas. Yet, the functional difference between these two chemosensory systems remains unclear. We have previously shown that MOB and AOB mitral cells exhibit very distinct intrinsic biophysical properties leading to different types of information processing. Specifically, we found that unlike MOB mitral cells, AOB neurons display persistent firing responses to strong stimuli. These prolonged responses are mediated by long-lasting calcium-activated non-selective cationic current (Ican). In the current study we further examined the firing characteristics of these cells and their modulation by several neuromodulators. We found that AOB mitral cells display transient depolarizing afterpotentials (DAPs) following moderate firing. These DAPs are not found in MOB mitral cells that show instead robust hyperpolarizing afterpotentials. Unlike Ican, the DAPs of AOB mitral cells are activated by low levels of intracellular calcium and are relatively insensitive to flufenamic acid. Moreover, the cholinergic agonist carbachol exerts opposite effects on the persistent firing and DAPs of AOB mitral cells. We conclude that these phenomena are mediated by distinct biophysical mechanisms that may serve to mediate different types of information processing in the AOB at distinct brain states.

Shpak, Guy; Zylbertal, Asaph; Wagner, Shlomo

2015-01-01

34

Large granular lymphocytes provide an accessory function in the in vitro development of influenza A virus-specific cytotoxic T cells.  

PubMed

We report that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) have an accessory function in the development of cytotoxic T cells (Tc) through the production of soluble factor(s). LGL and T cells were separated on Percoll gradients and the ability of the separated and of the recombined LGL and T cells to generate influenza A virus-specific Tc activity was measured. When stimulated by virus-infected, irradiated, adherent cells, neither LGL nor T cells cultured separately produced Tc activity. When they were co-cultured, however, even if separated by a 0.22-micron pore size membrane, Tc responses were readily generated from the small T cell precursors and natural killer activity was maintained in the LGL. Thus, LGL were required as accessory cells for Tc responses to occur and the effect was mediated by a soluble factor(s). alpha-Interferon (IFN) was produced in cultures containing LGL and/or stimulating adherent cells, whereas gamma-IFN was only produced in cultures containing both LGL and T cells. Therefore, neither alpha- nor gamma-IFN appeared to be the LGL produced soluble factor that mediated the accessory effect of LGL on Tc responses. PMID:6202775

Burlington, D B; Djeu, J Y; Wells, M A; Kiley, S C; Quinnan, G V

1984-06-01

35

Effect of sonicated material from Fusobacterium nucleatum on the functional capacity of accessory cells derived from dental pulp.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium nucleatum-derived components were studied for their effect on the ability of accessory pulpal cells to induce T-lymphocyte proliferation. In initial experiments, spleen cells were used to establish concentration ranges at which testing of the effect of the bacterial components would be suitable. At low concentrations, bacterial substances induced a stimulatory effect on the proliferation rate of spleen cells, but not when purified T-lymphocytes were incubated in the presence of concanavalin A and pulpal accessory cells. At increasing concentrations, a dose-dependent reduction was observed. Pretreatment with the bacterial products for 4 h gave a stimulatory effect in the absence of concanavalin A for both spleen cells and T-lymphocytes. Removal of low-molecular weight components (<3.5 kDa) did not influence the inhibitory effect, whereas preheating the bacterial substances to 100 degrees C eliminated the observed inhibition. Findings show that heat-sensitive, high-molecular-weight components of F. nucleatum can evoke a concentration-dependent stimulatory or suppressive effect on the proliferation rate of T-lymphocytes in the presence of accessory cells derived from the dental pulp. PMID:8602332

Yoshida, H; Jontell, M; Sundqvist, G; Bergenholtz, G

1995-08-01

36

Differential Bundle Functioning Using the DFIT Framework: Procedures for Identifying Possible Sources of Differential Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general framework for assessing differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) that was recently proposed is expanded to include differential bundle functioning as a mechanism for identifying sources of differential functioning. The expansion is illustrated with a dataset of 4000 fourth-grade students from a reading comprehension…

Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.; Flowers, Claudia P.; Slinde, Jeffrey A.

1998-01-01

37

Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

Longford, Nicholas T.

2014-01-01

38

Rational Solidarity and Functional Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is based on the idea that the problem of unity or integration of modern society has not yet been solved in sociological theory. The paper attempts a new solution based on a creative synthesis of elements from Talcott Parsons' functionalism, rational choice theory, and Niklas Luhmann's new systems theory. The core idea is that the state and the

Roar Hagen

2000-01-01

39

Structural and functional association between substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerves and accessory cells in the rat dental pulp.  

PubMed

Defense mechanisms of the dentin/pulp complex involve a variety of biological systems in which immunocompetent cells, the nervous system, and the vascular supply play important roles. In the present study, pulpal accessory cells were examined regarding (i) their structural relationship to nerves and (ii) how the functional capacities of these cells were affected by neuropeptides. Micro-anatomic association was investigated in the normal rat molar pulp with the use of double-immunofluorescence staining and dual-channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. Examinations of confocal laser scanning microscopic images from single focal planes revealed the presence of apparent contacts between thin, varicose nerve fibers and immunocompetent cells, indicating proximity between these two structures. The close associations were most frequently observed in the para-odontoblastic region of the coronal pulp, where more than 70% of class II antigen-expressing (OX6+) cells showed proximity to nerve fibers immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide. The corresponding figure for substance P was about 50%. ED2+ macrophages closely associated with nerves were less frequently observed. Functional studies conducted in vitro demonstrated that 10(-9) to 10(-7) mol/L of substance P significantly increased (p < 0.05), while 10(-7) to 10(-6) mol/L of calcitonin gene-related peptide suppressed (p < 0.01) proliferation of purified T-lymphocytes stimulated with sub-optimal concentrations of concanavalin A in the presence of rat incisor pulpal cells as accessory cells. These data suggest that pulpal sensory nerve fibers and their products may have an influence upon the immune defense of the dental pulp. PMID:9390474

Okiji, T; Jontell, M; Belichenko, P; Dahlgren, U; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlström, A

1997-12-01

40

Ramsay-Curve Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test, questionnaire, or interview has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of true group-mean differences on the constructs being measured. This article is focused on item response theory based likelihood ratio testing for DIF (IRT-LR or…

Woods, Carol M.

2011-01-01

41

Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

2009-01-01

42

The painful accessory navicular.  

PubMed

The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heart-shaped. 99mTc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice. PMID:6239377

Lawson, J P; Ogden, J A; Sella, E; Barwick, K W

1984-01-01

43

Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, ?) = { f( t, ?, u)} u?U is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function ? and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

Haddad, Georges

44

IL1-receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1), a protein involved in cognitive functions, regulates N-type Ca2+-channel and neurite elongation.  

PubMed

Null mutations in the IL1-receptor accessory protein-like 1 gene (IL1RAPL1) are responsible for an inherited X-linked form of cognitive impairment. IL1RAPL1 protein physically interacts with neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1), but the functional impact of the IL1RAPL1/NCS-1 interaction remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that stable expression of IL1RAPL1 in PC12 cells induces a specific silencing of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (N-VGCC) activity that explains a secretion deficit observed in these IL1RAPL1 cells. Importantly, this modulation of VGCC activity is mediated by NCS-1. Indeed, a specific loss-of-function of N-VGCC was observed in PC12 cells overexpressing NCS-1, and a total recovery of N-VGCC activity was obtained by a down-regulation of NCS-1 in IL1RAPL1 cells. The functional relevance of the interaction between IL1RAPL1 and NCS-1 was also suggested by the reduction of neurite elongation observed in nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated IL1RAPL1 cells, a phenotype rescued by NCS-1 inactivation. Because both proteins are highly expressed in neurons, these results suggest that IL1RAPL1-related mental retardation could result from a disruption of N-VGCC and/or NCS-1-dependent synaptic and neuronal activities. PMID:17502602

Gambino, Frédéric; Pavlowsky, Alice; Béglé, Aurélie; Dupont, Jean-Luc; Bahi, Nadia; Courjaret, Raphael; Gardette, Robert; Hadjkacem, Hassen; Skala, Henriette; Poulain, Bernard; Chelly, Jamel; Vitale, Nicolas; Humeau, Yann

2007-05-22

45

Stability and control of functional differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the question of stability of systems defined by differential equations which contain nonlinearity and delay. In particular, we analyze the stability of a well-known delayed nonlinear implementation of a certain Internet congestion control protocol. We also describe a generalized methodology for proving stability of time-delay systems through the use of semidefinite programming. In Chapters 4 and 5, we consider an Internet congestion control protocol based on the decentralized gradient projection algorithm. For a certain class of utility function, this algorithm was shown to be globally convergent for some sufficiently small value of a gain parameter. Later work gave an explicit bound on this gain for a linearized version of the system. This thesis proves that this bound also implies stability of the original system. The proof is constructed within a generalized passivity framework. The dynamics of the system are separated into a linear, delayed component and a system defined by a nonlinear differential equation with discontinuity in the dynamics. Frequency-domain analysis is performed on the linear component and time-domain analysis is performed on the nonlinear discontinuous system. In Chapter 7, we describe a general methodology for proving stability of linear time-delay systems by computing solutions to an operator-theoretic version of the Lyapunov inequality via semidefinite programming. The result is stated in terms of a nested sequence of sufficient conditions which are of increasing accuracy. This approach is generalized to the case of parametric uncertainty by considering parameter-dependent Lyapunov functionals. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate convergence of the algorithm. In Chapter 8, this approach is generalized to nonlinear time-delay systems through the use of non-quadratic Lyapunov functionals.

Peet, Matthew Monnig

46

Using differentials to differentiate trigonometric and exponential functions  

E-print Network

, and we also have the (infinitesimal) Pythagorean theorem, ds2 = dx2 + dy2 . Furthermore, from x2 + y2 = r more than their geometric definition, the Pythagorean theorem, and the ability to differentiate simple

47

Robust fractional order differentiators using generalized modulating functions method  

E-print Network

Robust fractional order differentiators using generalized modulating functions method Da-Yan Liua-6900 Thuwal, KSA Abstract This paper aims at designing a fractional order differentiator for a class appropriate modulating functions. Hence, digital fractional order differentiators applicable for on-line appli

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

A new kind of auxiliary heart in insects: functional morphology and neuronal control of the accessory pulsatile organs of the cricket ovipositor  

PubMed Central

Introduction In insects, the pumping of the dorsal heart causes circulation of hemolymph throughout the central body cavity, but not within the interior of long body appendages. Hemolymph exchange in these dead-end structures is accomplished by special flow-guiding structures and/or autonomous pulsatile organs (“auxiliary hearts”). In this paper accessory pulsatile organs for an insect ovipositor are described for the first time. We studied these organs in females of the cricket Acheta domesticus by analyzing their functional morphology, neuroanatomy and physiological control. Results The lumen of the four long ovipositor valves is subdivided by longitudinal septa of connective tissue into efferent and afferent hemolymph sinuses which are confluent distally. The countercurrent flow in these sinuses is effected by pulsatile organs which are located at the bases of the ovipositor valves. Each of the four organs consists of a pumping chamber which is compressed by rhythmically contracting muscles. The morphology of the paired organs is laterally mirrored, and there are differences in some details between the dorsal and ventral organs. The compression of the pumping chambers of each valve pair occurs with a left-right alternating rhythm with a frequency of 0.2 to 0.5 Hz and is synchronized between the dorsal and ventral organs. The more anteriorly located genital chamber shows rhythmical lateral movements simultaneous to those of the ovipositor pulsatile organs and probably supports the hemolymph exchange in the abdominal apex region. The left-right alternating rhythm is produced by a central pattern generator located in the terminal ganglion. It requires no sensory feedback for its output since it persists in the completely isolated ganglion. Rhythm-modulating and rhythm-resetting interneurons are identified in the terminal ganglion. Conclusion The circulatory organs of the cricket ovipositor have a unique functional morphology. The pumping apparatus at the base of each ovipositor valve operates like a bellow. It forces hemolymph via sinuses delimited by thin septa of connective tissue in a countercurrent flow through the valve lumen. The pumping activity is based on neurogenic control by a central pattern generator in the terminal ganglion. PMID:25018774

2014-01-01

49

Computations involving differential operators and their actions on functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The algorithms derived by Grossmann and Larson (1989) are further developed for rewriting expressions involving differential operators. The differential operators involved arise in the local analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems. These algorithms are extended in two different directions: the algorithms are generalized so that they apply to differential operators on groups and the data structures and algorithms are developed to compute symbolically the action of differential operators on functions. Both of these generalizations are needed for applications.

Crouch, Peter E.; Grossman, Robert; Larson, Richard

1991-01-01

50

HIV Accessory Proteins versus Host Restriction Factors  

PubMed Central

Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

Strebel, Klaus

2013-01-01

51

DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

2010-01-01

52

Domain Theory and Differential Calculus (Functions of one Variable)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data-type for differential calculus is introduced, which is based on domain theory. We define the integral and also the derivative of a Scott continuous function on the domain of intervals, and present a domain-theoretic generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus. We then construct a domain for differentiable real valued functions of a real variable. The set of classical

Abbas Edalat; André Lieutier

2002-01-01

53

Deterministic Differential Properties of the Compression Function of BMW  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we give some determinstic differential properties for the compression function of SHA-3 candidate Blue Midnight\\u000a Wish (tweaked version for round 2). The computational complexity is about 20 compression function calls. This applies to security parameters 0\\/16, 1\\/15, and 2\\/14. The efficient differentials can be\\u000a used to find pseudo-preimages of the compression function with marginal gain over brute

Jian Guo; Sřren S. Thomsen

2010-01-01

54

HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

2014-01-01

55

Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

Bacon, C.R.

1989-01-01

56

Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

2009-01-01

57

Functional Automatic Differentiation with Dirac Impulses Henrik Nilsson  

E-print Network

equations into a suitable form for simulation. First, we have added Dirac impulses that allow certain typesFunctional Automatic Differentiation with Dirac Impulses Henrik Nilsson Department of Computer differentiation to the setting of Yampa, and generalized it to work correctly with Dirac impulses. This allows

Nilsson, Henrik

58

Domain theory and differential calculus (functions of one variable)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a domain-theoretic framework for differential calculus. We define the set of primitive maps as well as the derivative of an interval-valued Scott continuous function on the domain of intervals, and show that they are dually related, providing an extension of the classical duality of differentiation and integration as in the fundamental theorem of calculus. It is shown that,

ABBAS E DALAT; E L IEUTIER

2004-01-01

59

Lipschitz stability criteria for functional differential systems of fractional order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a class of fractional functional differential equations is investigated. Using differential inequalities and Lyapunov-like functions, Lipschitz stability, uniform Lipschitz stability, and global uniform Lipschitz stability criteria are proved. Since the problem of Lipschitz stability of dynamic systems is relevant in various contexts, including many inverse and control problem, our results can be applied in the qualitative investigations of many practical problems of diverse interest.

Stamova, Ivanka; Stamov, Gani

2013-04-01

60

Generating functionals and Lagrangian partial differential equations  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this paper is to derive an alternative characterization of the multisymplectic form formula for classical field theories using the geometry of the space of boundary values. We review the concept of Type-I/II generating functionals defined on the space of boundary data of a Lagrangian field theory. On the Lagrangian side, we define an analogue of Jacobi's solution to the Hamilton–Jacobi equation for field theories, and we show that by taking variational derivatives of this functional, we obtain an isotropic submanifold of the space of Cauchy data, described by the so-called multisymplectic form formula. As an example of the latter, we show that Lorentz's reciprocity principle in electromagnetism is a particular instance of the multisymplectic form formula. We also define a Hamiltonian analogue of Jacobi's solution, and we show that this functional is a Type-II generating functional. We finish the paper by defining a similar framework of generating functions for discrete field theories, and we show that for the linear wave equation, we recover the multisymplectic conservation law of Bridges.

Vankerschaver, Joris; Liao, Cuicui; Leok, Melvin [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0112, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0112, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)

2013-08-15

61

Functional implications of differential chromosome banding.  

PubMed Central

Information on DNA content and banding patterns has been utilized in the construction of a novel ideogram of the human complement. Correspondence between certain features of this ideogram and the clinical record of human autosomal imbalance supports the idea that banding patterns reflect structural as well as functional heterogeneity of chromosomes. PMID:51585

Hoehn, H

1975-01-01

62

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2013-01-01

63

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2014-01-01

64

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2010-01-01

65

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2012-01-01

66

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2011-01-01

67

Decisions that Make a Difference in Detecting Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are numerous statistical procedures for detecting items that function differently across subgroups of examinees that take a test or survey. However, in endeavouring to detect items that may function differentially, selection of the statistical method is only one of many important decisions. In this article, we discuss the important decisions…

Sireci, Stephen G.; Rios, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

68

Taming Griffiths' singularities: Infinite differentiability of quenched correlation functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove infinite differentiability of the magnetization and of all quenched correlation functions for disordered spin systems at high temperature or strong magnetic field in the presence of Griffiths' singularities. We also show uniqueness of the Gibbs state and exponential decay of truncated correlation functions with probability one. Our results are obtained through new simple modified high temperature or low

Henrique von Dreifus; Abel Klein; J. Fernando Perez

1995-01-01

69

On univalent function with negative coefficients by using differential operator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new differential operator D?,?,?,?m is introduced and a new subclass of analytic functions with negative coefficients defined by this operator is investigated. Some results on coefficient inequalities, distortion theorems and extreme points of analytic functions belonging to the subclass are obtained.

Alamri, Mohammed; Darus, Maslina

2014-09-01

70

Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nambury S. Raju (1937-2005) developed two model-based indices for differential item functioning (DIF) during his prolific career in psychometrics. Both methods, Raju's area measures (Raju, 1988) and Raju's DFIT (Raju, van der Linden, & Fleer, 1995), are based on quantifying the gap between item characteristic functions (ICFs). This approach…

Oshima, T. C.; Morris, S. B.

2008-01-01

71

The fully-differential quark beam function at NNLO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first calculation of a fully-unintegrated parton distribution (beam function) at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We obtain the fully-differential beam function for quark-initiated processes by matching it onto standard parton distribution functions (PDFs) at two loops. The fully-differential beam function is a universal ingredient in resummed predictions of observables probing both the virtuality as well as the transverse momentum of the incoming quark in addition to its usual longitudinal momentum fraction. For such double-differential observables our result provides the part of the NNLO singular cross section related to collinear initial-state radiation (ISR), and is important for the resummation of large logarithms through N3LL.

Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian

2014-12-01

72

Differentiation and function of Foxp3(+) effector regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for immunological tolerance and homeostasis. Although forkhead box (Fox)p3 is continually required to reinforce the Treg cell program, Treg cells can also undergo stimulus-specific differentiation that is regulated by transcription factors typically associated with the differentiation of conventional CD4(+) T cells. This results in effector Treg (eTreg) cells with unique migratory and functional properties matched to the stimulus that elicited the initial response. Despite this functional and transcriptional heterogeneity, expression of the transcription factor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein (Blimp)-1, a key player in late B cell and conventional T cell differentiation, is common to all eTreg cells. Here, we discuss the factors that control the differentiation of eTreg cells and their importance in disease settings. PMID:23219401

Cretney, Erika; Kallies, Axel; Nutt, Stephen L

2013-02-01

73

Macrophage differentiation and function in atherosclerosis; opportunities for therapeutic intervention?  

PubMed Central

The macrophage is exquisitely sensitive to its microenvironment, as demonstrated primarily through in vitro study. Changes in macrophage phenotype and function within the atherosclerotic plaque have profound consequences for plaque biology, including rupture and arterial thrombosis leading to clinical events such as myocardial infarction. We review the evidence for dynamic changes in macrophage numbers and macrophage differentiation within the atherosclerotic plaque microenvironment and discuss potential approaches to target macrophage differentiation for therapeutic benefit in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22572544

Williams, Howell J.; Fisher, Edward A.; Greaves, David R.

2013-01-01

74

Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

Micallef, Ken

2007-01-01

75

Electrical recordings from the accessory olfactory bulb in VNO-AOB ex vivo preparations.  

PubMed

Electrical recordings from individual accessory olfactory bulb neurons allow exploration of the functional properties of this important pheromonal processing circuit. Several approaches to performing such recordings have been used. Here, we describe ex vivo methods that we have found useful for recording from accessory olfactory bulb neurons using simple extracellular glass electrodes. PMID:24014366

Meeks, Julian P; Holy, Timothy E

2013-01-01

76

The extensive set of accessory Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic components.  

PubMed

Up to 20% of the chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA belong to the so-called accessory genome. Its elements are specific for subgroups or even single strains and are likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Similarities of the accessory genomic elements to DNA from other bacterial species, mainly the DNA of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, indicate a role of interspecies HGT. In this study, we analysed the expression of the accessory genome in 150 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates as uncovered by transcriptome sequencing and the presence of accessory genes in eleven additional isolates. Remarkably, despite the large number of P. aeruginosa strains that have been sequenced to date, we found new strain-specific compositions of accessory genomic elements and a high portion (10-20%) of genes without P. aeruginosa homologues. Although some genes were detected to be expressed/present in several isolates, individual patterns regarding the genes, their functions and the possible origin of the DNA were widespread among the tested strains. Our results demonstrate the unaltered potential to discover new traits within the P. aeruginosa population and underline that the P. aeruginosa pangenome is likely to increase with increasing sequence information. PMID:24766399

Pohl, Sarah; Klockgether, Jens; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Chouvarine, Philippe; Tümmler, Burkhard; Häussler, Susanne

2014-07-01

77

Differentiable but exact formulation of density-functional theory.  

PubMed

The universal density functional F of density-functional theory is a complicated and ill-behaved function of the density-in particular, F is not differentiable, making many formal manipulations more complicated. While F has been well characterized in terms of convex analysis as forming a conjugate pair (E, F) with the ground-state energy E via the Hohenberg-Kohn and Lieb variation principles, F is nondifferentiable and subdifferentiable only on a small (but dense) subset of its domain. In this article, we apply a tool from convex analysis, Moreau-Yosida regularization, to construct, for any ? > 0, pairs of conjugate functionals ((?)E, (?)F) that converge to (E, F) pointwise everywhere as ? ? 0(+), and such that (?)F is (Fréchet) differentiable. For technical reasons, we limit our attention to molecular electronic systems in a finite but large box. It is noteworthy that no information is lost in the Moreau-Yosida regularization: the physical ground-state energy E(v) is exactly recoverable from the regularized ground-state energy (?)E(v) in a simple way. All concepts and results pertaining to the original (E, F) pair have direct counterparts in results for ((?)E, (?)F). The Moreau-Yosida regularization therefore allows for an exact, differentiable formulation of density-functional theory. In particular, taking advantage of the differentiability of (?)F, a rigorous formulation of Kohn-Sham theory is presented that does not suffer from the noninteracting representability problem in standard Kohn-Sham theory. PMID:24832326

Kvaal, Simen; Ekström, Ulf; Teale, Andrew M; Helgaker, Trygve

2014-05-14

78

Heritability and Control of Differentiated Function in Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

An established tissue culture cell line which retains a differentiated function in vitro is described. The cell line is of connective tissue origin, and its characteristic property is the synthesis and secretion of acid mucopolysaccharides, mainly hyaluronic acid. This differentiated cell function, the activity of which depends on continuous gene action, was found to be possessed by each of eleven clonal substrains, and is therefore a genetically heritable cell character. Rate of acid mucopolysaccharide biosynthesis falls sharply under the influence of the environmental conditions existing in crowded cultures, and this rate also declines if protein synthesis is directly inhibited with puromycin. Environmental modification of a differentiated product of gene action is thus illustrated in this study. PMID:14025353

Davidson, E. H.

1963-01-01

79

MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

2010-01-01

80

Explanatory Secondary Dimension Modeling of Latent Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The models used in this article are secondary dimension mixture models with the potential to explain differential item functioning (DIF) between latent classes, called latent DIF. The focus is on models with a secondary dimension that is at the same time specific to the DIF latent class and linked to an item property. A description of the models…

De Boeck, Paul; Cho, Sun-Joo; Wilson, Mark

2011-01-01

81

The epigenetic landscape of mammary gland development and functional differentiation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most of the development and functional differentiation in the mammary gland occur after birth. Epigenetics is defined as the stable alterations in gene expression potential that arise during development and proliferation. Epigenetic changes are mediated at the biochemical level by the chromatin conf...

82

Assessing and Explaining Differential Item Functioning Using Logistic Mixed Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although differential item functioning (DIF) theory traditionally focuses on the behavior of individual items in two (or a few) specific groups, in educational measurement contexts, it is often plausible to regard the set of items as a random sample from a broader category. This article presents logistic mixed models that can be used to model…

Van den Noortgate, Wim; De Boeck, Paul

2005-01-01

83

Generalized Mantel-Haenszel Methods for Differential Item Functioning Detection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mantel-Haenszel methods comprise a highly flexible methodology for assessing the degree of association between two categorical variables, whether they are nominal or ordinal, while controlling for other variables. The versatility of Mantel-Haenszel analytical approaches has made them very popular in the assessment of the differential functioning

Fidalgo, Angel M.; Madeira, Jaqueline M.

2008-01-01

84

Differentiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The derivative refers to the rate of change, or slope, of a function. Differentiation refers to the calculation of a derivative. Derivatives are used throughout applied mathematics and science. The derivative of a function is the instantaneous rate of change of a function evaluated at each point.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

85

Differentiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the five parts of this video, we define the derivative and then build a cribsheet of rules for expressing the slopes of simple functions and combinations of functions. These include the power rule, the chain rule, the product and quotient rules, and the rules for differentiating sinusoidal functions.

2013-06-21

86

Betaglycan: a multifunctional accessory.  

PubMed

Betaglycan is a co-receptor for the TGF? superfamily, particularly important in establishing the potency of its ligands on their target cells. In recent years, new insights have been gained into the structure and function of betaglycan, expanding its role from that of a simple co-receptor to include additional ligand-dependent and ligand-independent roles. This review focuses on recent advances in the betaglycan field, with a particular emphasis on its newly discovered actions in mediating the trafficking of TGF? superfamily receptors and as a determinant of the functional output of TGF? superfamily signalling. In addition, this review encompasses a discussion of the emerging roles of the betaglycan/inhibin pathway in reproductive cancers and disease. PMID:21550381

Bilandzic, Maree; Stenvers, Kaye L

2011-06-01

87

Liouville theory, {N} = 2 gauge theories and accessory parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the {N} = 2 (?-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theories is used to calculate the unknown accessory parameter of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere. The computation is based on the saddle point method. This allows to find an analytic expression for the N f = 4, U(2) instanton twisted superpotential and, in turn, to sum up the 4-point classical block. It is well known that the critical value of the Liouville action functional is the generating function of the accessory parameters. This statement and the factorization property of the 4-point action allow to express the unknown accessory parameter as the derivative of the 4-point classical block with respect to the modular parameter of the 4-punctured sphere. It has been found that this accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called 'critical' Young diagram extremizing the instanton 'free energy'. It is shown that the sum over the 'critical' column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions closely related to the ordinary Gamma function.

Ferrari, Franco; Piatek, Marcin

2012-05-01

88

RESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner  

E-print Network

and detectable frequency ranges (for an overview see [1-4]). This structural and functional di- versity far exceeds that observed in amniotes and renders teleost fishes an interesting group to study adaptationsRESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from

Ladich, Friedrich

89

HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction (HYPERDIRE): MATHEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions: FD and FS Horn-type hypergeometric functions of three variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: the first one, FdFunction, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions FD of r variables; and the second one, FsFunction, for manipulations with Lauricella-Saran hypergeometric functions FS of three variables. Both functions are related with one-loop Feynman diagrams.

Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Moch, Sven-Olaf

2014-11-01

90

Differentiable but exact formulation of density-functional theory  

SciTech Connect

The universal density functional F of density-functional theory is a complicated and ill-behaved function of the density—in particular, F is not differentiable, making many formal manipulations more complicated. While F has been well characterized in terms of convex analysis as forming a conjugate pair (E, F) with the ground-state energy E via the Hohenberg–Kohn and Lieb variation principles, F is nondifferentiable and subdifferentiable only on a small (but dense) subset of its domain. In this article, we apply a tool from convex analysis, Moreau–Yosida regularization, to construct, for any ? > 0, pairs of conjugate functionals ({sup ?}E, {sup ?}F) that converge to (E, F) pointwise everywhere as ? ? 0{sup +}, and such that {sup ?}F is (Fréchet) differentiable. For technical reasons, we limit our attention to molecular electronic systems in a finite but large box. It is noteworthy that no information is lost in the Moreau–Yosida regularization: the physical ground-state energy E(v) is exactly recoverable from the regularized ground-state energy {sup ?}E(v) in a simple way. All concepts and results pertaining to the original (E, F) pair have direct counterparts in results for ({sup ?}E, {sup ?}F). The Moreau–Yosida regularization therefore allows for an exact, differentiable formulation of density-functional theory. In particular, taking advantage of the differentiability of {sup ?}F, a rigorous formulation of Kohn–Sham theory is presented that does not suffer from the noninteracting representability problem in standard Kohn–Sham theory.

Kvaal, Simen, E-mail: simen.kvaal@kjemi.uio.no; Ekström, Ulf; Helgaker, Trygve [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)] [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Teale, Andrew M. [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway) [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2014-05-14

91

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2013-04-01

92

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2014-04-01

93

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2011-04-01

94

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2010-04-01

95

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2012-04-01

96

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

97

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

98

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

99

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

100

Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells  

SciTech Connect

Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-? and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 ?M) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-? and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ? Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ? Arsenite (> 1 ?M) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by inducing necrosis ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) slightly reduces endocytotic activity of immature DCs ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) represses expression of IL-12p70 and IL-23 in activated DCs ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) reduces the ability of DCs to activate human T lymphocytes.

Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)] [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France) [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)] [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

2013-01-15

101

Exp-Function Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations  

PubMed Central

We extend the Exp-function method to fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative based on nonlinear fractional complex transformation. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the space-time fractional Fokas equation and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established. PMID:23818823

2013-01-01

102

Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation, and functions.  

PubMed

The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The "Warburg effect" originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here, we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1?. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases. PMID:25657648

Palmer, Clovis S; Ostrowski, Matias; Balderson, Brad; Christian, Nicole; Crowe, Suzanne M

2015-01-01

103

Glucose Metabolism Regulates T Cell Activation, Differentiation, and Functions  

PubMed Central

The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The “Warburg effect” originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here, we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1?. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases. PMID:25657648

Palmer, Clovis S.; Ostrowski, Matias; Balderson, Brad; Christian, Nicole; Crowe, Suzanne M.

2014-01-01

104

Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

Marlino, L.D.

2010-06-15

105

A study of continuous non-differentiable functions  

E-print Network

great deal of work has been done in this area. Hobson [9] gives many references on the sub]ect. We devote the bulk of this paper to a discussion of functions of the form C(x) = ) a cos b vx and S(x) = ( a sin b pfx. A n n n . n significant work... in this area is that of Hardy [7] who proves that the continuous function given by Weierstrass, C(x) = $ a cos b vx, 0 & a & 1, and b an odd integer is also n n non-differentiable whenever 0 & a & 1, and ab & 1. This work is important not only for its...

Nichols, Detta Kaye

2012-06-07

106

Osteoclast differentiation and function in aquaglyceroporin AQP9 null mice  

PubMed Central

Background Information Osteoclasts are cells specialized for bone resorption and play important roles in bone growth and calcium homeostasis. Differentiation of osteoclasts involves fusion of bone marrow macrophage mononuclear precursors in response to extracellular signals. A dramatic increase in osteoclast cell volume occurs during osteoclast biogenesis and is believed to be mediated by Aquaporin 9 (AQP9), a membrane protein that can rapidly transport water and other small neutral solutes across cell membranes. Results Here we report an increase in expression of AQP9 during differentiation of a mouse macrophage cell line into osteoclasts. Bone marrow macrophages from wild type and AQP9 null mice differentiate into osteoclasts that have similar morphology, contain comparable numbers of nuclei, and digest synthetic bone to the same extent. Bones from wild type and AQP9 null mice contain similar numbers of osteoclasts and have comparable density and structure as measured by X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography. Conclusions Our data confirm that AQP9 expression rises during osteoclast biogenesis but indicate that AQP9 is not essential for osteoclast function or differentiation under normal physiological conditions. PMID:18666888

Liu, Yangjian; Song, Linhua; Wang, Yiding; Rojek, Aleksandra; Nielsen, Sřren; Agre, Peter; Carbrey, Jennifer M.

2008-01-01

107

Accessory cells in the immune defense of the dental pulp.  

PubMed

This communication focuses on the participation of accessory cells in the initial recognition and processing of antigenic substances in the dental pulp. Immunohistochemical analyses have demonstrated the presence of two types of accessory cells--one with a dendritic morphology located in the periphery of the pulp and one with a macrophage-like appearance located more centrally. Functional studies in vitro have provided evidence for the dendritic cells being the most significant of the two cells regarding their capacity to induce T-cell proliferation. Studies on ontogeny have revealed that the appearance of pulp accessory cells is delayed compared to other peripheral tissues. In experimentally induced pulp lesions a rapid increase of cells with morphologic and phenotypic features similar to normally occurring accessory cells was found. These data demonstrate that the dental pulp contains the necessary cellular constituents to mount an immunologic defense reaction. Future studies should focus on elucidating possible interactions between these immune cells and the neurovascular system of the pulp. PMID:1508890

Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G

1992-01-01

108

The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

2013-01-01

109

Control of functional differential equations to target sets in function space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal control of systems governed by functional differential equations of retarded and neutral type is considered. Problems with function space initial and terminal manifolds are investigated. Existence of optimal controls, regularity, and bang-bang properties are discussed. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived, and several solved examples which illustrate the theory are presented.

Banks, H. T.; Kent, G. A.

1971-01-01

110

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876... Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a...

2010-04-01

111

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2011-04-01

112

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2014-04-01

113

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2012-04-01

114

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

115

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2013-04-01

116

Epigenetic regulation of NK cell differentiation and effector functions  

PubMed Central

Upon maturation, natural killer (NK) cells acquire effector functions and regulatory receptors. New insights suggest a considerable functional heterogeneity and dynamic regulation of receptor expression in mature human NK cell subsets based on different developmental axes. Such processes include acquisition of lytic granules as well as regulation of cytokine production in response to exogenous cytokine stimulation or target cell interactions. One axis is regulated by expression of inhibitory receptors for self-MHC class I molecules, whereas other axes are less well defined but likely are driven by different activating receptor engagements or cytokines. Moreover, the recent identification of long-lived NK cell subsets in mice that are able to expand and respond rapidly following a secondary viral challenge suggest previously unappreciated plasticity in the programming of NK cell differentiation. Here, we review advances in our understanding of mature NK cell development and plasticity with regards to regulation of cellular function. Furthermore, we highlight some of the major questions that remain pertaining to the epigenetic changes that underlie the differentiation and functional specialization of NK cells and the regulation of their responses. PMID:23450696

Cichocki, Frank; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Stephen K.; Bryceson, Yenan T.

2013-01-01

117

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

118

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

119

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

120

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

121

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

122

About differentiability of order one of quasiconvex functions on r /sub N/  

SciTech Connect

This paper is devoted to the study of the different kinds of differentiability of quasiconvex functions on R /sub n/ For these functions, we show that Gateaux-differentiability and Frechet-differentiability are equivalent; we study the properties of the directional derivatives; and we show that if, for a quasiconvex function, the directional derivatives at CHI are all finite and two-sided, the function is differentiable at chi.

Crouzeix, J.P.

1982-03-01

123

Reduced Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to Vancomycin and Platelet Microbicidal Protein Correlates with Defective Autolysis and Loss of Accessory Gene Regulator (agr) Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of agr function, vancomycin exposure, and abnormal autolysis have been linked with both development of the GISA phenotype and low-level resistance in vitro to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins (tPMPs). We examined the potential in vitro interrelationships among these parameters in well-characterized, isogenic laboratory-derived and clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The laboratory-derived S. aureus strains included RN6607 (agrII-positive parent) and RN6607V

George Sakoulas; George M. Eliopoulos; Vance G. Fowler; R. C. Moellering; R. P. Novick; N. Lucindo; M. R. Yeaman; A. S. Bayer

2005-01-01

124

Role of PPAR? in the Differentiation and Function of Neurons  

PubMed Central

Neuronal processes (neurites and axons) have an important role in brain cells communication and, generally, they are damaged in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence has showed that the activation of PPAR? pathway promoted neuronal differentiation and axon polarity. In addition, activation of PPAR? using thiazolidinediones (TZDs) prevented neurodegeneration by reducing neuronal death, improving mitochondrial function, and decreasing neuroinflammation in neuropathic pain. In this review, we will discuss important evidence that supports a possible role of PPAR? in neuronal development, improvement of neuronal health, and pain signaling. Therefore, activation of PPAR? is a potential target with therapeutic applications against neurodegenerative disorders, brain injury, and pain regulation. PMID:25246934

Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Utreras, Elias; Cabezas-Opazo, Fabián A.

2014-01-01

125

Exploration of the Validity of Gender Differences in Mathematics Assessment Using Differential Bundle Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are (a) to examine the sources of differential functioning by gender via differential bundle functioning (DBF) in mathematics assessment and (b) to use DBF to explore whether the differential functioning displayed is construct-relevant or construct-irrelevant. Three qualitatively different areas, namely curriculum domains, test modality, and problem presentation, were investigated using the Roussos and Stout (1996)

Yoke Mooi Ong; Julian Scott Williams; Iasonas Lamprianou

2011-01-01

126

Exploration of the Validity of Gender Differences in Mathematics Assessment Using Differential Bundle Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study are (a) to examine the sources of differential functioning by gender via differential bundle functioning (DBF) in mathematics assessment and (b) to use DBF to explore whether the differential functioning displayed is construct-relevant or construct-irrelevant. Three qualitatively different areas, namely curriculum domains,…

Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian Scott; Lamprianou, Iasonas

2011-01-01

127

YlxM Is a Newly Identified Accessory Protein That Influences the Function of Signal Recognition Particle Pathway Components in Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic oral pathogen whose virulence is determined largely by its membrane composition. The signal recognition particle (SRP) protein-targeting pathway plays a pivotal role in membrane biogenesis. S. mutans SRP pathway mutants demonstrate growth defects, cannot contend with environmental stress, and exhibit multiple changes in membrane composition. This study sought to define a role for ylxM, which in S. mutans and numerous other bacteria resides directly upstream of the ffh gene, encoding a major functional element of the bacterial SRP. YlxM was observed as a produced protein in S. mutans. Its predicted helix-turn-helix motif suggested that it has a role as a transcriptional regulator of components within the SRP pathway; however, no evidence of transcriptional regulation was found. Instead, capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), affinity chromatography, and bio-layer interferometry (BLI) demonstrated that S. mutans YlxM interacts with the SRP components Ffh and small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA) but not with the SRP receptor FtsY. In the absence of FtsY, YlxM increased the GTP hydrolysis activity of Ffh alone and in complex with scRNA. However, in the presence of FtsY, YlxM caused an overall diminution of net GTPase activity. Thus, YlxM appears to modulate GTP hydrolysis, a process necessary for proper recycling of SRP pathway components. The presence of YlxM conferred a significant competitive growth advantage under nonstress and acid stress conditions when wild-type and ylxM mutant strains were cultured together. Our results identify YlxM as a component of the S. mutans SRP and suggest a regulatory function affecting GTPase activity. PMID:24659773

Williams, Matthew L.; Crowley, Paula J.; Hasona, Adnan

2014-01-01

128

Requirement for functional BK channels in maintaining oscillation in venomotor tone revealed by species differences in expression of the ?1 accessory subunits  

PubMed Central

We determined the possible role of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in regulation of venous tone in small capacitance veins and blood pressure. In rat mesenteric venous smooth muscle cells (MV SMC), BK channel ?- and ?1-subunits were co-expressed, unitary BK currents were detected, and single channel currents were sensitive to voltage and [Ca2+]i. Rat MV SMCs displayed Ca2+ sparks and iberiotoxin (IBTX)-sensitive spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs). Under resting conditions in vitro, rat MV exhibited nifedipine-sensitive spontaneous oscillatory constrictions. Blockade of BK channels by paxilline and Ca2+ sparks by ryanodine constricted rat MV. Nifedipine caused venodilation and blocked paxilline-, KCl (20 mM) and BayK 8644-induced contraction. Acute inhibition of BK channels with IBTX in vivo increased blood pressure and reduced venous capacitance, measured as an increase in mean circulatory filling pressure in conscious rats. BK channel ?-subunits and L-type Ca2+ channel ?1-C subunits are expressed in murine MV. However, these channels are not functional as murine MV lacked nifedipine-sensitive basal tone and rhythmic constrictions. Murine MV were also insensitive to paxilline, ryanodine, KCl and BayK8644, consistent with our previous studies showing that murine MV do not have BK ?1-subunits. These data show that not only there are species-dependent properties in ion channel control of venomotor tone, but also that BK channels are required for rhythmic oscillations in venous tone. PMID:21885988

Xu, Hui; Kandlikar, Sachin S; Westcott, Erika B; Fink, Gregory D; Galligan, James J

2011-01-01

129

Differential Functioning of Items and Tests versus the Mantel-Haenszel Technique for Detecting Differential Item Functioning in a Translated Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a 50-item translated test used for certification were used to assess the percentage and type of agreement between the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) and Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT) techniques for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). The DFIT procedure flagged 10 of 30 items as exhibiting significant DIF…

Price, Larry R.

130

Defining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC Differentiation  

EPA Science Inventory

Defining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC DifferentiationDefining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC Differentiation Differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) undergo mitochondrial maturation leading to a switch from a system dependent upon glycolysis to a re...

131

One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation.  

PubMed

The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromones. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture. PMID:23162438

Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Caretta, Antonio

2012-01-01

132

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2010-01-01

133

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2013-01-01

134

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2011-01-01

135

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2014-01-01

136

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2011-01-01

137

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2012-01-01

138

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2014-01-01

139

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2010-01-01

140

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2012-01-01

141

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2013-01-01

142

Accessory mitral papillary muscle causing severe aortic insufficiency.  

PubMed

Accessory mitral papillary muscle originating from the interventricular septum is a rare congenital anomaly. A 20-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of exertional dyspnea. On cardiac examination, a grade 3/4 diastolic murmur was heard over the right upper parasternal area, and the apical pulsations were easily palpable over the precordium. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation, dilatation of the left ventricle, and an accessory papillary muscle with its chordae, extending from the interventricular septum to the anterior mitral leaflet in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). There was no mitral regurgitation. Color Doppler imaging showed turbulence set up by the abnormal mitral attachment and an associated mild pressure gradient of 20 mmHg across the LVOT. At surgery for aortic valve replacement, degenerative changes in the aortic leaflets were noted. The accessory papillary muscle was spared to maintain mitral valve functions and an aortic bileaflet mechanical prosthetic valve was implanted. During eight months of follow-up, he was well without any signs of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and mitral regurgitation, with a functioning prosthetic valve. PMID:21248456

Ucak, Alper; Onan, Burak; Alp, Ibrahim; Y?lmaz, Ahmet Turan

2010-12-01

143

Differential item functioning analysis by applying multiple comparison procedures.  

PubMed

Analysis within a Rasch measurement framework aims at development of valid and objective test score. One requirement of both validity and objectivity is that items do not show evidence of differential item functioning (DIF). A number of procedures exist for the assessment of DIF including those based on analysis of contingency tables by Mantel-Haenszel tests and partial gamma coefficients. The aim of this paper is to illustrate Multiple Comparison Procedures (MCP) for analysis of DIF relative to a variable defining a very large number of groups, with an unclear ordering with respect to the DIF effect. We propose a single step procedure controlling the false discovery rate for DIF detection. The procedure applies for both dichotomous and polytomous items. In addition to providing evidence against a hypothesis of no DIF, the procedure also provides information on subset of groups that are homogeneous with respect to the DIF effect. A stepwise MCP procedure for this purpose is also introduced. PMID:25562333

Eusebi, Paolo; Kreiner, Svend

2015-01-01

144

Differential association between chronic cannabis use and brain function deficits.  

PubMed

To summarize, 12 objective tests that generated 16 test variables were administered to 850 male regular cannabis users and 839 nonusers. The tests were designed to assess various modalities, including speed of psychomotor performance, distance estimation, time estimation, immediate memory, and visuomotor coordination. Most of the test variables differentiated significantly between consumers and controls. At the same time, a significant second-order interaction emerged in most cases. This interaction meant that, under certain conditions that relate to the two dimensions "literacy-illiteracy" and/or "urbanism-ruralism," the superiority of controls over cannabis users became impressive, whereas under other conditions it almost disappeared. To account for this complex pattern of results, a working hypothesis was presented to the effect that "other conditions being equal, the lower the nondrug level of proficiency on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance the smaller the size of function deficit associated with drug usage." For an empirical examination of the hypothesis, six predictions were formulated. Three predictions defined specific relationships between level of performance, on one hand, and each of three organismic variables, on the other: literacy, urbanism, and age. The remaining predictions delineated relationships to be expected between size of function deficit and the three organismic variables. All our predictions were confirmed, showing less function impairment to be contingent with cannabis usage among the illiterates, rurals, and older subjects. Level of cortical arousal was suggested as the central process associated with the three organismic variables. Because the version of our working hypothesis was formulated with reference to chronic material, the possibility of a transposition of the paradign to research on the acute effects of the drug was discussed. The suggestion was made that our working hypothesis, in either version, is capable of establishing genuine integration between reports that present conflicting results on possible function deficits contingent with cannabis consumption. PMID:1071386

Soueif, M I

1976-01-01

145

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

2014-01-01

146

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.  

PubMed

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

2014-01-01

147

DIFFERENTIAL FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS OF BIOMATERIALS ON DENDRITIC CELL MATURATION  

PubMed Central

The immunological outcome of dendritic cell (DC) treatment with different biomaterials was assessed to demonstrate the range of DC phenotypes induced by biomaterials commonly used in combination products. Immature DCs (iDCs) were derived from human peripheral blood monocytes, and treated with different biomaterial films of alginate, agarose, chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA), or 75:25 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a comprehensive cadre of phenotypic functional outcomes were assessed. Differential levels of functional changes of DC phenotype were observed depending on the type of biomaterial films used to treat DCs. Treatment of DCs with PLGA or chitosan films supported DC maturation with higher levels of DC allostimulatory capacity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, HLA-DQ and CD44 expression as compared to iDCs, and endocytic ability at a level lower compared to iDCs. Alginate film induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release from DCs at levels higher than iDCs,. Dendritic cells treated with HA film expressed lower levels of CD40, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR as compared to iDCs. They also exhibited endocytic ability and CD44 expression at levels lower than iDCs, possibly due to an insolublized (cross-linked) form with high molecular weight HA. Interestingly, treatment of DCs with agarose film maintained a DC functional phenotype at levels similar to iDCs except for CD44 expression which was lower than expression levels for iDCs. Taken together, these results can provide selection criteria for biomaterials to be used in immunomodulating applications and can inform potential outcomes of biomaterials within combination products on associated immune responses as desired by the application. PMID:22705044

Park, Jaehyung; Babensee, Julia E.

2012-01-01

148

[Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].  

PubMed

Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland tumors, the possibility of malignancy (especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) should be considered when resecting accessory parotid gland tumors, even if the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicate that the tumor is benign. PMID:24558945

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

2013-12-01

149

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Is a Type I Interferon Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory infection with as yet unclear epidemiology. We previously showed that MERS-CoV counteracts parts of the innate immune response in human bronchiolar cells. Here we analyzed accessory proteins 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 for their abilities to inhibit the type I interferon response. Accessory protein 4a was found to block interferon induction at the level of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) activation presumably by direct interaction with double-stranded RNA. PMID:24027320

Niemeyer, Daniela; Zillinger, Thomas; Muth, Doreen; Zielecki, Florian; Horvath, Gabor; Suliman, Tasnim; Barchet, Winfried; Weber, Friedemann

2013-01-01

150

The Epsilon Expansion via Hypergeometric Functions and Differential S.A. Yost and M. Kalmykov  

E-print Network

of hypergeometric functions about rational values of the parameters. Outline: · Integration-by-parts (IBPThe Epsilon Expansion via Hypergeometric Functions and Differential Reduction S.A. Yost and M.A. Yost Epsilon Expansion via Hypergeometric Functions and Differential Reduction DPF Meeting, Providence

Yost, Scott

151

Introduction to Differential Equations A differential equation is an equation for an unknown function that involves the derivative  

E-print Network

is a differential equation for an unknown function, y(x). This particular equation is said to be a first order of the unkown function. · It is a first order equation because the highest order derivative that appears is the first order derivative. · It is a linear equation because y and its derivatives appear only to the power

Feldman, Joel

152

Testing for differential item functioning within the EQ-5D.  

PubMed

We test for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in the EQ-5D health-related quality-of-life instrument, using data from a large clinical trial in acute stroke (ISRCTN 99414122). DIF occurs when subjects in different subsets of a sample respond differently to items in a measurement instrument, despite possessing the same latent traits. The data comprised 1462 patient records. We analyzed DIF specifically with respect to responses obtained from different geographical regions and responses obtained from proxies as opposed to the patients themselves. We mapped clinical outcome measures (scores from the modified Rankin Scale, the Barthel Index, and the Zung Depression scale) onto EQ-5D index scores and included dummy variables for proxy responses and for region of treatment (United Kingdom, Asia, rest of world). We predicted the level of problem severity reported on each of the EQ-5D's five constituent dimensions from the clinical measures and the dummy variables. For given clinical characteristics, proxies were more likely to report health problems than were the patients themselves, although the divergences were not sufficiently large to result in any significant difference in mean index scores between patient and proxy reports. However, the distributions of reported levels of problems for similar clinical states diverged significantly by region, and these translated into different index scores. The mean index score for UK responses was significantly higher than the mean index scores from Asia and the rest of the world. PMID:23184462

Whynes, David K; Sprigg, Nikola; Selby, James; Berge, Eivind; Bath, Philip M

2013-02-01

153

Post-splenectomy intrapancreatic accessory spleen mimicking endocrine tumor of the pancreas  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an uncommon congenital abnormality of the spleen with no indication for surgical intervention. Among the few cases reported, IPAS coexisted with a normal spleen. We here report the first case of IPAS arising a couple years after splenectomy with the appearance of an endocrine tumor of the pancreas. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 62-year-old female presented with a one-week history of left upper quadrant discomfort. She had splenectomy for the treatment of hypersplenism caused by cirrhotic portal hypertension two years before this admission. Her physical examination was unremarkable and laboratory data was within the normal range. Both the ultrasonography and magnetic resonance image revealed a small oval-shaped mass in the tail of her pancreas with the diameter 2 cm or less. A distal pancreatectomy was performed for the suspection of malignant neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. An intrapancreatic accessory spleen was confirmed by the pathologic examination. DISCUSSION Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is one kind of congenital ectopic spleen without indication for operative intervention. We present the case to support that intrapancreatic accessory spleen may enlarge through a compensatory mechanism, and raise the awareness of this intrapacreatic entity to avoid unnecessary surgical operation. CONCLUSION IPAS should be highly considered as a differential diagnosis while the lesion is no more than 2.5 cm in diameter and/or other accessory spleens show around the splenic hilum. PMID:25437661

Zhu, Hong-xu; Lou, Wen-hui; Kuang, Tian-tao; Wang, Dan-song

2014-01-01

154

Differential-algebraic approach to constructing representations of commuting differentiations in functional spaces and its application to nonlinear integrable dynamical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is developed a differential-algebraic approach to studying the representations of commuting differentiations in functional differential rings under nonlinear differential constraints. An example of the differential ideal with the only one conserved quantity is analyzed in detail, the corresponding Lax type representations of differentiations are constructed for an infinite hierarchy of nonlinear dynamical systems of the Burgers and Korteweg-de Vries type. A related infinite bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy of Lax type dynamical systems is constructed.

Prykarpatski, Anatolij K.; Soltanov, Kamal N.; Özça?, Emin

2014-05-01

155

Existence results for fractional order functional differential equations with infinite delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Banach fixed point theorem and the nonlinear alternative of Leray–Schauder type are used to investigate the existence of solutions for fractional order functional and neutral functional differential equations with infinite delay.

M. Benchohra; J. Henderson; S. K. Ntouyas; A. Ouahab

2008-01-01

156

Carcinoma origin dictates differential skewing of monocyte function  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are versatile cells, which phenotype is profoundly influenced by their environment. Pro-inflammatory classically activated or M1 macrophages, and anti-inflammatory alternatively-activated or M2 macrophages represent two extremes of a continuum of functional states. Consequently, macrophages that are present in tumors can exert tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity, depending on the tumor milieu. In this study we investigated how human monocytes—the precursors of macrophages—are influenced by carcinoma cells of different origin. We demonstrate that monocytes, stimulated with breast cancer supernatant, showed increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-8 and chemokines CCL17 and CCL22, which are associated with an alternatively-activated phenotype. By contrast, monocytes that were cultured in supernatants of colon cancer cells produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12 and TNF?) and reactive oxygen species. Secretome analysis revealed differential secretion of proteins by colon and breast cancer cell lines, of which the proteoglycan versican was exclusively secreted by colon carcinoma cell lines. Reducing active versican by blocking with monoclonal antibodies or shRNA diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. Thus, colon carcinoma cells polarize monocytes toward a more classically-activated anti-tumorigenic phenotype, whereas breast carcinomas predispose monocytes toward an alternatively activated phenotype. Interestingly, presence of macrophages in breast or colon carcinomas correlates with poor or good prognosis in patients, respectively. The observed discrepancy in macrophage activation by either colon or breast carcinoma cells may therefore explain the dichotomy between patient prognosis and macrophage presence in these different tumors. Designing new therapies, directing development of monocytes toward M1 activated tumor macrophages in cancer patients, may have great clinical benefits. PMID:23162747

Bögels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Nijland, Philip G.; Gül, Nuray; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Fijneman, Remond J.A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Beelen, Robert H.J.; van Egmond, Marjolein

2012-01-01

157

Quasi-Newton methods for parameter estimation in functional differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state-space approach to parameter estimation in linear functional differential equations is developed using the theory of linear evolution equations. A locally convergent quasi-Newton type algorithm is applied to distributed systems with particular emphasis on parameters that induce unbounded perturbations of the state. The algorithm is computationally implemented on several functional differential equations, including coefficient and delay estimation in linear delay-differential equations.

Brewer, Dennis W.

1988-01-01

158

The Impact of Multidimensionality on the Detection of Differential Bundle Functioning Using Simultaneous Item Bias Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Douglas, Roussos, and Stout introduced the concept of differential bundle functioning (DBF) for identifying the underlying causes of differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, reference group was simulated to have higher mean ability than the focal group on a nuisance dimension, resulting in DIF for each of the multidimensional items…

Furlow, Carolyn F.; Ross, Terris Raiford; Gagne, Phill

2009-01-01

159

The Item Parameter Replication Method for Detecting Differential Functioning in the Polytomous DFIT Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent study of Oshima, Raju, and Nanda proposes the item parameter replication (IPR) method for assessing statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index within the differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) framework. Previous Monte Carlo simulations have found that the appropriate cutoff…

Raju, Nambury S.; Fortmann-Johnson, Kristen A.; Kim, Wonsuk; Morris, Scott B.; Nering, Michael L.; Oshima, T. C.

2009-01-01

160

Establishing Effect Size Guidelines for Interpreting the Results of Differential Bundle Functioning Analyses Using SIBTEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this simulation study was to establish general effect size guidelines for interpreting the results of differential bundle functioning (DBF) analyses using simultaneous item bias test (SIBTEST). Three factors were manipulated: number of items in a bundle, test length, and magnitude of uniform differential item functioning (DIF) against the focal group in each item in a bundle. A

Cindy M. Walker; Bo Zhang; Kathleen Banks; Kevin Cappaert

2012-01-01

161

A Comparison of Function-Based Differential Reinforcement Interventions for Children Engaging in Disruptive Classroom Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a direct comparison of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement\\u000a of alternative behavior (DRA). Participants included three children in center-based classrooms referred for functional assessments\\u000a due to disruptive classroom behavior. Functional assessments included interviews and brief functional analyses. An alternating\\u000a treatments design was used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of function-based DRO and DRA

Matthew W. LeGrayBrad; Brad A. Dufrene; Heather Sterling-Turner; D. Joe Olmi; Katherine Bellone

2010-01-01

162

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2010-01-01

163

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2010-04-01

164

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2013-04-01

165

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2014-04-01

166

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2011-04-01

167

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2012-04-01

168

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

169

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

170

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

171

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

172

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

173

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

2014-04-01

174

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2012-01-01

175

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2011-01-01

176

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2010-01-01

177

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2013-01-01

178

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2014-01-01

179

Appendix D: Equipment ELECTROSTATIC PAPER AND ACCESSORIES  

E-print Network

D - 1 Appendix D: Equipment ELECTROSTATIC PAPER AND ACCESSORIES: To investigate electric fields with the electrostatic paper, you need to do the following: · Lay the electrostatic paper flat. . · Distribute the pieces. · You may wish to place a wooden block on top of the brass rods to increase contact pressure

Minnesota, University of

180

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2013-04-01

181

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2012-04-01

182

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2011-04-01

183

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2010-04-01

184

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2014-04-01

185

Existence results and approximation methods for functional ordinary differential equations with singular diffusion-type differential operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive sufficient conditions for the existence of extremal solutions for a second-order singular functional differential equation subject to initial data. The type of equations that we study here can be regarded as stationary and one-dimensional models for diffusion processes in which the diffusion coefficient is not a constant. We have also tried to relax the regularity assumptions as far

A. Cabada; J. A. Cid; R. L. Pouso

2002-01-01

186

Approximation, integration and differentiation of time functions using a set of orthogonal hybrid functions (HF) and their application to solution of first order differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential equations of different types and orders are of utmost importance for mathematical modeling of control system problems. State variable method uses the concept of expressing n number of first order differential equations in vector matrix form to model and analyze\\/synthesize control systems.The present work proposes a new set of orthogonal hybrid functions (HF) which evolved from synthesis of sample-and-hold

Anish Deb; Gautam Sarkar; Anindita Ganguly; Amitava Biswas

187

Identification of a novel function for the chromatin remodeling protein ING2 in muscle differentiation.  

PubMed

The inhibitor of growth (ING) family of zinc-finger plant homeodomain (PHD)-containing chromatin remodeling protein controls gene expression and has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and death. However, the role of ING proteins in cell differentiation remains largely unexplored. Here, we identify an essential function for ING2 in muscle differentiation. We find that knockdown of ING2 by RNA interference (RNAi) blocks the differentiation of C2C12 cells into myotubes, suggesting that ING2 regulates the myogenic differentiation program. We also characterize a mechanism by which ING2 drives muscle differentiation. In structure-function analyses, we find that the leucine zipper motif of ING2 contributes to ING2-dependent muscle differentiation. By contrast, the PHD domain, which recognizes the histone H3K4me3 epigenetic mark, inhibits the ability of ING2 to induce muscle differentiation. We also find that the Sin3A-HDAC1 chromatin remodeling complex, which interacts with ING2, plays a critical role in ING2-dependent muscle differentiation. These findings define a novel function for ING2 in muscle differentiation and bear significant implications for our understanding of the role of the ING protein family in cell differentiation and tumor suppression. PMID:22808232

Eapen, Shawn A; Netherton, Stuart J; Sarker, Krishna P; Deng, Lili; Chan, Angela; Riabowol, Karl; Bonni, Shirin

2012-01-01

188

HYPERDIRE, HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction: MATHEMATICA-based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions pF,F1,F2,F3,F4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica-based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: one, pfq, is relevant for manipulations of hypergeometric functions pFp, and the other, AppellF1F4, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F1,F2,F3,F4 of two variables.

Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A.

2013-10-01

189

Solutions of linear ordinary differential equations in terms of special functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new algorithm for computing special function solutions of the form y(x) = m(x)F(?(x)) of second order linear ordinary differential equations, where m(x) is an arbitrary Liouvillian function, ?(x) is an arbitrary rational function, and F satisfies a given second order linear ordinary differential equation. Our algorithm, which is based on finding an appropriate point transformation between the

Manuel Bronstein; Sébastien Lafaille

2002-01-01

190

Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in accessory lobe neurons of the chick.  

PubMed

Birds have ten pairs of protrusions, "accessory lobes", on the lateral sides of the lumbosacral spinal cord. It has been proposed that accessory lobes act as a sensory organ of equilibrium and neurons in accessory lobes transmit sensory information to the motor center. We have reported that cells in chick accessory lobes express functional voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels and generate action potentials. In this study, we examined properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs). The amplitude of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel currents carried by Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) increased gradually during 10 min rather than showing the usual run-down. The current-voltage relationship of Ba(2+) currents was consistent with that of the high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel. The proportion of Ba(2+) currents inhibited by ?-conotoxin GVIA was larger than 80%, indicating that the major subtype is N type. Amplitudes of tail currents of Ca(2+) currents evoked by repetitive pulses at 50 Hz are stable for 1 s. If the major subtype of VGCCs at synaptic terminals is also N type, this property may contribute to the establishment of stable synaptic connections between accessory lobe neurons, which are reported to fire at frequencies higher than 15 Hz, and postsynaptic neurons in the spinal cord. PMID:24842482

Suzuki, Yuki; Kitamura, Naoki; Yamanaka, Yuko; Shibuya, Izumi

2014-08-01

191

Forming functional fat: a growing understanding of adipocyte differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipose tissue, which is primarily composed of adipocytes, is crucial for maintaining energy and metabolic homeostasis. Adipogenesis is thought to occur in two stages: commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to a preadipocyte fate and terminal differentiation. Cell shape and extracellular matrix remodelling have recently been found to regulate preadipocyte commitment and competency by modulating WNT and RHO-family GTPase signalling cascades.

Ana G. Cristancho; Mitchell A. Lazar

2011-01-01

192

Identification and functional analysis of differentially expressed genes related to obesity using DNA microarray.  

PubMed

We looked for differentially expressed genes at different stages of preadipocyte differentiation and examined their functions, based on DNA microarrays of preadipocytes obtained from healthy subjects undergoing cosmetic liposuction. We downloaded gene expression profile GSE25910 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and identified the differentially expressed genes with packages in R language. The selected differentially expressed genes were further analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Comparing gene expression at different stages of preadipocytes differentiation, we found that expression of 668 and 1007 genes were altered in middle and late stages compared with the early stage, respectively. Function analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly related to fatty acid metabolic processes in the former two stages. PMID:24446288

Du, J Y; Yang, H; Tian, D R; Wang, Q M; He, L

2014-01-01

193

Protein competition switches the function of COP9 from self-renewal to differentiation.  

PubMed

The balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is controlled by intrinsic factors and niche signals. In the Drosophila melanogaster ovary, some intrinsic factors promote germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal, whereas others stimulate differentiation. However, it remains poorly understood how the balance between self-renewal and differentiation is controlled. Here we use D. melanogaster ovarian GSCs to demonstrate that the differentiation factor Bam controls the functional switch of the COP9 complex from self-renewal to differentiation via protein competition. The COP9 complex is composed of eight Csn subunits, Csn1-8, and removes Nedd8 modifications from target proteins. Genetic results indicated that the COP9 complex is required intrinsically for GSC self-renewal, whereas other Csn proteins, with the exception of Csn4, were also required for GSC progeny differentiation. Bam-mediated Csn4 sequestration from the COP9 complex via protein competition inactivated the self-renewing function of COP9 and allowed other Csn proteins to promote GSC differentiation. Therefore, this study reveals a protein-competition-based mechanism for controlling the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Because numerous self-renewal factors are ubiquitously expressed throughout the stem cell lineage in various systems, protein competition may function as an important mechanism for controlling the self-renewal-to-differentiation switch. PMID:25119050

Pan, Lei; Wang, Su; Lu, Tinglin; Weng, Changjiang; Song, Xiaoqing; Park, Joseph K; Sun, Jin; Yang, Zhi-Hao; Yu, Junjing; Tang, Hong; McKearin, Dennis M; Chamovitz, Daniel A; Ni, Jianquan; Xie, Ting

2014-10-01

194

Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated

Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

2006-01-01

195

Functional gene screening in embryonic stem cells implicates Wnt antagonism in neural differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multilineage differentiation capacity of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells offers a potential testing platform for gene products that mediate mammalian lineage determination and cellular specialization. Identification of such differentiation regulators is crucial to harnessing ES cells for pharmaceutical discovery and cell therapy. Here we describe the use of episomal expression technology for functional evaluation of cDNA clones during ES-cell

Jerôme Aubert; Hannah Dunstan; Ian Chambers; Austin Smith

2002-01-01

196

Some properties of solutions of a functional-differential equation of second order with delay.  

PubMed

Existence, uniqueness, data dependence (monotony, continuity, and differentiability with respect to parameter), and Ulam-Hyers stability results for the solutions of a system of functional-differential equations with delays are proved. The techniques used are Perov's fixed point theorem and weakly Picard operator theory. PMID:24683363

Ilea, Veronica Ana; Otrocol, Diana

2014-01-01

197

FRACTIONAL ORDER NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION WITH B-SPLINE FUNCTIONS , T.M. Laleg-Kirati1  

E-print Network

FRACTIONAL ORDER NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION WITH B-SPLINE FUNCTIONS D.Y. Liu1 , T.M. Laleg-Kirati1 the Tikhonov regularization problem. Then, we propose a fractional order differentiator by calculating of the proposed method in comparison with some existing methods. Keywords: Fractional order numerical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Control of the differentiation state and function of human epidermal Langerhans cells by cytokines in vitro.  

PubMed

Langerhans cells can originate in vitro from immature precursors stimulated with granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and stem cell factor (SCF). We asked whether these cytokines also control the differentiation state of Langerhans cells within the epidermis and upon leaving this tissue. We harvested sheets of human epidermis by controlled dispase hydrolysis of keratomes, cultured them in RPMI and 10% fetal calf serum for 48 h and analysed the sheets and the cells migrated spontaneously into the medium, most of which were Langerhans cells containing Birbeck granules. By flow cytometry, the intensity of CD1a expression was reduced quite evenly among Langerhans cells migrated from sheets within 48 h. The cells in the sheets underwent loss of dendrites, with a significant reduction in the cell perimeter that was prevented by GM-CSF and TNF-alpha together. Either of these cytokines induced expression of CD18 by cells in the sheets and those in the medium. Moreover, TNF-alpha induced expression of CD54 by cells in the medium, but not by those retained in the sheets, whereas human SCF induced, dose dependently, expression of CD54 by cells in the sheets, but not from those in the medium. The proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes was much higher when stimulating Langerhans cells were harvested from cultures with any cytokine, rather than from cultures without cytokines. We conclude the following: (i) GM-CSF and TNF-alpha help to maintain full differentiation of Langerhans cells within the epidermis; (ii) cytokine influence on Langerhans cells adhesiveness is in part context dependent; and (iii) pretreatment with cytokines influences positively the number or accessory activity of Langerhans cells on lymphocytes during subsequent mixed leucocyte reaction. PMID:11763385

Prignano, F; Gerlini, G; Fossombroni, V; Pimpinelli, N; Giannotti, B; Nestle, F O; Romagnoli, P

2001-09-01

199

Reduced first order differential equation with optimal control finite element penalty functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic idea of optimal control penalty function method is applied to reduced first order differential equation. In contrast to a popular practice of the penalty function method being utilized as a scheme to impose an incompressibility condition in solid or fluid mechanics, the present study demonstrates that the concept of penalty functions can be generalized so as to overcome

T. J. Chung; J. Y. Kim; L. Utreja

1982-01-01

200

Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

2010-12-01

201

FETAL DEXAMETHASONE EXPOSURE ACCELERATES DEVELOPMENT OF RENAL FUNCTION: RELATIONSHIP TO DOSE, CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND GROWTH INHIBITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fetal exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids slows cellular development and impairs organ performance, in association with growth retardation. evertheless, low doses of glucocorticoids may enhance cell differentiation and accelerate specific functions. he current study examine...

202

Variation in Differential and Total Cross Sections Due to Different Radial Wave Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three sets of analytical wave functions are used to calculate the Na (3s---3p) transition differential and total electron excitation cross sections by Born approximations. Results show expected large variations in values. (Author/CP)

Williamson, W., Jr.; Greene, T.

1976-01-01

203

Differential item functioning in the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Third Edition: partial correlation versus expert judgment  

E-print Network

This study had three purposes: (1) to identify differential item functioning (DIF) on the PPVT-III (Forms A & B) using a partial correlation method, (2) to find a consistent pattern in items identified as underestimating ability in each ethnic...

Conoley, Colleen Adele

2004-09-30

204

Development and Demonstration of Multidimensional IRT-Based Internal Measures of Differential Functioning of Items and Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines and demonstrates a framework for studying differential item functioning and differential test functioning for tests that are intended to be multidimensional. The procedure, which is illustrated with simulated data, is an extension of the unidimensional differential functioning of items and tests approach (N. Raju, W. van der Linden, and P.…

Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S. Rajo; Flowers, Claudia P.

1997-01-01

205

Dual functions of TAF7L in adipocyte differentiation  

PubMed Central

The diverse transcriptional mechanisms governing cellular differentiation and development of mammalian tissue remains poorly understood. Here we report that TAF7L, a paralogue of TFIID subunit TAF7, is enriched in adipocytes and white fat tissue (WAT) in mouse. Depletion of TAF7L reduced adipocyte-specific gene expression, compromised adipocyte differentiation, and WAT development as well. Ectopic expression of TAF7L in myoblasts reprograms these muscle precursors into adipocytes upon induction. Genome-wide mRNA-seq expression profiling and ChIP-seq binding studies confirmed that TAF7L is required for activating adipocyte-specific genes via a dual mechanism wherein it interacts with PPAR? at enhancers and TBP/Pol II at core promoters. In vitro binding studies confirmed that TAF7L forms complexes with both TBP and PPAR?. These findings suggest that TAF7L plays an integral role in adipocyte gene expression by targeting enhancers as a cofactor for PPAR? and promoters as a component of the core transcriptional machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00170.001 PMID:23326641

Zhou, Haiying; Kaplan, Tommy; Li, Yan; Grubisic, Ivan; Zhang, Zhengjian; Wang, P Jeremy; Eisen, Michael B; Tjian, Robert

2013-01-01

206

Differentiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about lunar magmatic differentiation, in which learners simulate the process of geological differentiation. The activity ends with an extension question that asks about the makeup of the highlands of the Moon. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teacher's guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

207

Numerical solution of differential equations using multiquadric radial basis function networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents mesh-free procedures for solving linear differential equations (ODEs and elliptic PDEs) based on multiquadric (MQ) radial basis function networks (RBFNs). Based on our study of approximation of function and its derivatives using RBFNs that was reported in an earlier paper (Mai-Duy, N. & Tran-Cong, T. (1999). Approximation of function and its derivatives using radial basis function networks.

Nam Mai-duy; Thanh Tran-cong

2001-01-01

208

Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPAR? in adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPAR? induced MRAP expression. •PPAR? bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and ?-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPAR? to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the ?1209/?1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPAR? is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.

Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Si Young [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of)] [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ryong, E-mail: trlee@amorepacific.com [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-27

209

Differential Function of Themis CABIT Domains during T Cell Development  

PubMed Central

Themis (also named Gasp) is a newly identified Grb2-binding protein that is essential for thymocyte positive selection. Despite the possible involvement of Themis in TCR-mediated signal transduction, its function remains unresolved and controversial. Themis contains two functionally uncharacterized regions called CABIT (cysteine-containing, all-? in Themis) domains, a nuclear localization signal (NLS), and a proline-rich sequence (PRS). To elucidate the role of these motifs in Themis’s function in vivo, we established a series of mutant Themis transgenic mice on a Themis?/? background. Deletion of the highly conserved Core motif of CABIT1 or CABIT2 (Core1 or Core2, respectively), the NLS, or the PRS abolished Grb2-association, as well as TCR-dependent tyrosine-phosphorylation and the ability to induce positive selection in the thymus. The NLS and Core1 motifs were required for the nuclear localization of Themis, whereas Core2 and PRS were not. Furthermore, expression of ?Core1- but not ?Core2-Themis conferred dominant negative-type inhibition on T cell development. Collectively, our current results indicate that PRS, NLS, CABIT1, and CABIT2 are all required for positive selection, and that each of the CABIT domains exerts distinct functions during positive selection. PMID:24586531

Kaji, Kentaro; Takashima, Akiko; Oda, Hiroyo; Tamehiro, Norimasa; Goto, Motohito; Okamura, Tadashi; Patrick, Michael S.; Suzuki, Harumi

2014-01-01

210

Functional differentiation of RAMP2 and RAMP3 in their regulation of the vascular system.  

PubMed

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a vasoactive peptide that possesses various bioactivities. AM receptors are dimers consisting of CLR with one of two accessory proteins, RAMP2 or RAMP3. The functional difference between CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3 and the relationship between the two receptors remain unclear. To address these issues, we generated RAMP2 and RAMP3 knockout (-/-) mice and have been studying their physiological activities in the vascular system. AM-/- and RAMP2-/- mice die in utero due to blood vessel abnormalities, which is indicative of their essential roles in vascular development. In contrast, RAMP3-/- mice were born normally without any major abnormalities. In adult RAMP3-/- mice, postnatal angiogenesis was normal, but lymphangiography using indocyanine green (ICG) showed delayed drainage of subcutaneous lymphatic vessels. Moreover, chyle transport by intestinal lymphatics was delayed in RAMP3-/- mice, which also showed more severe interstitial edema than wild-type mice in a tail lymphedema model, with characteristic dilatation of lymphatic capillaries and accumulation of inflammatory cells. In scratch-wound assays, migration of isolated RAMP3-/- lymphatic endothelial cells was delayed as compared to wild-type cells, and AM administration failed to enhance the re-endothelialization. The delay in re-endothelialization was due to a primary migration defect rather than a decrease in proliferation. These results suggest that RAMP3 regulates drainage through lymphatic vessels, and that the AM-RAMP3 system could be a novel therapeutic target for controlling postoperative lymphedema. PMID:25264174

Yamauchi, Akihiro; Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Ichikawa-Shindo, Yuka; Kawate, Hisaka; Igarashi, Kyoko; Toriyama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Megumu; Liu, Tian; Xian, Xian; Imai, Akira; Zhai, Liuyu; Owa, Shinji; Arai, Takuma; Shindo, Takayuki

2014-12-01

211

Proteomic analysis of human osteoblastic cells: relevant proteins and functional categories for differentiation.  

PubMed

Osteoblasts are the bone forming cells, capable of secreting an extracellular matrix with mineralization potential. The exact mechanism by which osteoblasts differentiate and form a mineralized extracellular matrix is presently not fully understood. To increase our knowledge about this process, we conducted proteomics analysis in human immortalized preosteoblasts (SV-HFO) able to differentiate and mineralize. We identified 381 proteins expressed during the time course of osteoblast differentiation. Gene ontology analysis revealed an overrepresentation of protein categories established as important players for osteoblast differentiation, bone formation, and mineralization such as pyrophosphatases. Proteins involved in antigen presentation, energy metabolism and cytoskeleton rearrangement constitute other overrepresented processes, whose function, albeit interesting, is not fully understood in the context of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Correlation analysis, based on quantitative data, revealed a biphasic osteoblast differentiation, encompassing a premineralization and a mineralization period. Identified differentially expressed proteins between mineralized and nonmineralized cells include cytoskeleton (e.g., CCT2, PLEC1, and FLNA) and extracellular matrix constituents (FN1, ANXA2, and LGALS1) among others. FT-ICR-MS data obtained for FN1, ANXA2, and LMNA shows a specific regulation of these proteins during the different phases of osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, this study increases our understanding of the proteomics changes that accompany osteoblast differentiation and may permit the discovery of novel modulators of bone formation. PMID:20690663

Alves, Rodrigo D A M; Eijken, Marco; Swagemakers, Sigrid; Chiba, H; Titulaer, Mark K; Burgers, Peter C; Luider, Theo M; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

2010-09-01

212

Morpho-functional differentiation in lobular carcinoma of the breast.  

PubMed

Lobular carcinoma of the breast has been studied using histochemical methods for mucosubstances; immunocytochemical methods for casein and actin; the ruthenium red electronycytochemical method for acid glycoproteins and an immunoelectroncytochemical method for casein. Mucosubstances and casein showed a similar cytoplasmic localization, but casein production was much more intense and also showed a more diffuse cytoplasmic localization. Occasionally casein assumed the form of target-like 'inclusions' as seen characteristically with the mucosubstances. The neoplastic cells were not stained by antisera against actin. Ultrastructurally, some cells showed an intracytoplasmic lumen with microvilli and/or an irregular outline at one extremity which was covered by microvilli. An electron-dense 'fuzz' and casein coated the microvilli of cells exposed respectively to ruthenium red and an anticasein serum followed by peroxidase--anti-peroxidase complexes. It is concluded that lobular carcinoma shows evidence of epithelial rather than myoepithelial differentiation with the emphasis on epithelial secretory cells engaged in intensive milk protein production. All 10 tumours tested for oestrogen receptors were positive in contradistinction to ductal carcinoma with a lower incidence of positivity. It appears that, in addition to distinctive histological and histochemical features, lobular carcinoma has an almost constant endocrine pattern in respect of its oestrogen receptor content. PMID:355082

Eusebi, V; Pich, A; Macchiorlatti, E; Bussolati, G

1977-07-01

213

Differentiation and functional regulation of human fetal NK cells  

PubMed Central

The human fetal immune system is naturally exposed to maternal allogeneic cells, maternal antibodies, and pathogens. As such, it is faced with a considerable challenge with respect to the balance between immune reactivity and tolerance. Here, we show that fetal natural killer (NK) cells differentiate early in utero and are highly responsive to cytokines and antibody-mediated stimulation but respond poorly to HLA class I–negative target cells. Strikingly, expression of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) did not educate fetal NK cells but rendered them hyporesponsive to target cells lacking HLA class I. In addition, fetal NK cells were highly susceptible to TGF-?–mediated suppression, and blocking of TGF-? signaling enhanced fetal NK cell responses to target cells. Our data demonstrate that KIR-mediated hyporesponsiveness and TGF-?–mediated suppression are major factors determining human fetal NK cell hyporesponsiveness to HLA class I–negative target cells and provide a potential mechanism for fetal-maternal tolerance in utero. Finally, our results provide a basis for understanding the role of fetal NK cells in pregnancy complications in which NK cells could be involved, for example, during in utero infections and anti-RhD–induced fetal anemia. PMID:23945237

Ivarsson, Martin A.; Loh, Liyen; Marquardt, Nicole; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Berglin, Lena; Björkström, Niklas K.; Westgren, Magnus; Nixon, Douglas F.; Michaëlsson, Jakob

2013-01-01

214

Differentiation and functional regulation of human fetal NK cells.  

PubMed

The human fetal immune system is naturally exposed to maternal allogeneic cells, maternal antibodies, and pathogens. As such, it is faced with a considerable challenge with respect to the balance between immune reactivity and tolerance. Here, we show that fetal natural killer (NK) cells differentiate early in utero and are highly responsive to cytokines and antibody-mediated stimulation but respond poorly to HLA class I-negative target cells. Strikingly, expression of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) did not educate fetal NK cells but rendered them hyporesponsive to target cells lacking HLA class I. In addition, fetal NK cells were highly susceptible to TGF-?-mediated suppression, and blocking of TGF-? signaling enhanced fetal NK cell responses to target cells. Our data demonstrate that KIR-mediated hyporesponsiveness and TGF-?-mediated suppression are major factors determining human fetal NK cell hyporesponsiveness to HLA class I-negative target cells and provide a potential mechanism for fetal-maternal tolerance in utero. Finally, our results provide a basis for understanding the role of fetal NK cells in pregnancy complications in which NK cells could be involved, for example, during in utero infections and anti-RhD-induced fetal anemia. PMID:23945237

Ivarsson, Martin A; Loh, Liyen; Marquardt, Nicole; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Berglin, Lena; Björkström, Niklas K; Westgren, Magnus; Nixon, Douglas F; Michaëlsson, Jakob

2013-09-01

215

Dlk1 Influences Differentiation and Function of B Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Dlk1 (delta-like-1) gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like homeotic gene family. It influences cell–cell interactions between stromal cells and pro-B cells in vitro. To define the in vivo role of the dlk protein in B cell development, we established a Dlk1?/? mouse model. In spleens of Dlk1?/? mice, transitional B cell numbers were increased and the ratio between transitional B cell subsets was altered. Numbers of follicular B cells decreased, while the number of marginal zone B cells and the size of the marginal zone were increased. Loss of dlk resulted in increased immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 in preimmune sera. Furthermore, there was an exaggerated primary T-dependent antigen-specific humoral immune response. In bone marrow, the lack of dlk led to increased numbers of the earliest B lineage cells in young mice without affecting numbers of later B lineage cells. In vitro experiments showed that lack of dlk on either stromal cells or pro-B cells caused changes in differentiation and proliferation of pro-B cells, suggesting that lack of dlk leads to changes in cell–cell interactions in the bone marrow microenvironment. These results show that dlk expression is essential for normal B cell development. PMID:18513163

Raghunandan, Ramadevi; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Maria; Jia, Yifeng; Ettinger, Rachael; Rudikoff, Eva; Riggins, Patrick; Farnsworth, Richard; Tesfaye, Abeba; Laborda, Jorge

2008-01-01

216

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2010-04-01

217

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2011-04-01

218

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a)...

2013-04-01

219

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a)...

2014-04-01

220

Differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions from Feynman diagrams: One-variable case  

E-print Network

The differential-reduction algorithm, which allows one to express generalized hypergeometric functions with parameters of arbitrary values in terms of such functions with parameters whose values differ from the original ones by integers, is discussed in the context of evaluating Feynman diagrams. Where this is possible, we compare our results with those obtained using standard techniques. It is shown that the criterion of reducibility of multiloop Feynman integrals can be reformulated in terms of the criterion of reducibility of hypergeometric functions. The relation between the numbers of master integrals obtained by differential reduction and integration by parts is discussed.

Vladimir V. Bytev; Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bernd A. Kniehl

2010-03-31

221

Galectin-3 drives oligodendrocyte differentiation to control myelin integrity and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galectins control critical pathophysiological processes, including the progression and resolution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. In spite of considerable progress in dissecting their role within lymphoid organs, their functions within the inflamed CNS remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of galectin–glycan interactions in the control of oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation, myelin integrity and function. Both galectin-1 and -3 were

L A Pasquini; V Millet; H C Hoyos; J P Giannoni; D O Croci; M Marder; F T Liu; G A Rabinovich; J M Pasquini

2011-01-01

222

Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

2012-01-01

223

Differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions from Feynman diagrams: One-variable case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential-reduction algorithm, which allows one to express generalized hypergeometric functions with parameters of arbitrary values in terms of the same functions with parameters whose values differ from the original ones by integers, is discussed in the context of evaluating Feynman diagrams. Where this is possible, we compare our results with those obtained using standard techniques. It is shown that

Vladimir V. BytevMikhail; Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bernd A. Kniehl

2010-01-01

224

Bohr-Neugebauer type theorem for some partial neutral functional differential  

E-print Network

Bohr-Neugebauer type theorem for some partial neutral functional differential equations Mostafa atomic at zero, which means that there exists a continuous nondecreasing function : [0, r] [0-difference equations defined on the unit circle S, which is a model for a continuous circular array of resistively

Boyer, Edmond

225

Analysis of Sources of Latent Class Differential Item Functioning in International Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated differential item functioning (DIF) and its sources using a latent class (LC) modeling approach. Potential sources of LC DIF related to instruction and teacher-related variables were investigated using substantive and three statistical approaches: descriptive discriminant function, multinomial logistic regression,…

Oliveri, Maria Elena; Ercikan, Kadriye; Zumbo, Bruno

2013-01-01

226

Executive Functioning in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Can We Differentiate within the Spectrum?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA), Asperger's syndrome (AS), and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) can be differentiated from each other and from normal controls on their neurocognitive executive functioning (EF) profile. Children with HFA and AS showed the…

Verte, Sylvie; Geurts, Hilde M.; Roeyers, Herbert; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

2006-01-01

227

Differential Item Functioning in the Danish Translation of the SF36  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical analyses of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) can be used for rigorous translation evaluations. DIF techniques test whether each item functions in the same way, irrespective of the country, language, or culture of the respondents. For a given level of health, the score on any item should be independent of nationality. This requirement can be tested through contingency-table methods, which

Jakob B. Bjorner; Svend Kreiner; John E. Ware; Mogens T. Damsgaard; Per Bech

1998-01-01

228

Detection of Gender-Based Differential Item Functioning in a Mathematics Performance Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used three different differential item functioning (DIF) procedures to examine the extent to which items in a mathematics performance assessment functioned differently for matched gender groups. In addition to examining the appropriateness of individual items in terms of DIF with respect to gender, an attempt was made to identify…

Wang, Ning; Lane, Suzanne

229

Differential geometric approach to the stress aspect of a fault: Airy stress function surface and curvatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We considered the two-dimensional stress aspect of a fault from the viewpoint of differential geometry. For this analysis, we concentrated on the curvatures of the Airy stress function surface. We found the following: (i) Because the principal stresses are the principal curvatures of the stress function surface, the first and the second invariant quantities in the elasticity correspond to invariant quantities in differential geometry; specifically, the mean and Gaussian curvatures, respectively; (ii) Coulomb's failure criterion shows that the coefficient of friction is the physical expression of the geometric energy of the stress function surface; (iii) The differential geometric expression of the Goursat formula shows that the fault (dislocation) type (strike-slip or dip-slip) corresponds to the stress function surface type (elliptic or hyperbolic). Finally, we discuss the need to use non-biharmonic stress tensor theory to describe the stress aspect of multi-faults or an earthquake source zone.

Yamasaki, Kazuhito; Yajima, Takahiro

2012-02-01

230

Decellularized tracheal extracellular matrix supports epithelial migration, differentiation, and function.  

PubMed

Tracheal loss is a source of significant morbidity for affected patients with no acceptable solution. Interest in engineering tracheal transplants has created a demand for small animal models of orthotopic tracheal transplantation. Here, we examine the use of a decellularized graft in a murine model of tracheal replacement. Fresh or decellularized tracheas harvested from age-matched female donor C57BL/6 mice were transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Tracheas were decellularized using repeated washes of water, 3% Triton X-100, and 3?M NaCl under cyclic pressure changes, followed by disinfection with 0.1% peracetic acid/4% ethanol, and terminal sterilization by gamma irradiation. Tracheas were explanted for immunolabeling at 1, 4, and 8 weeks following surgery. Video microscopy and computed tomography were performed to assess function and structure. Decellularized grafts supported complete reepithelialization by 8 weeks and motile cilia were observed. Cartilaginous portions of the trachea were maintained in mice receiving fresh transplants, but repopulation of the cartilage was not seen in mice receiving decellularized transplants. We observed superior postsurgical survival, weight gain, and ciliary function in mice receiving fresh transplants compared with those receiving decellularized transplants. The murine orthotopic tracheal transplant provides an appropriate model to assess the repopulation and functional regeneration of decellularized tracheal grafts. PMID:24980864

Kutten, Johannes C; McGovern, David; Hobson, Christopher M; Luffy, Sarah A; Nieponice, Alejandro; Tobita, Kimimasa; Francis, Richard J; Reynolds, Susan D; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Thomas W

2015-01-01

231

Genome-wide exploration of miRNA function in mammalian muscle cell differentiation.  

PubMed

MiRNAs impact on the control of cell fate by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Here, using mammalian muscle differentiation as a model and a phenotypic loss-of-function screen, we explored the function of miRNAs at the genome-wide level. We found that the depletion of a high number of miRNAs (63) impacted on differentiation of human muscle precursors, underscoring the importance of this post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation. Interestingly, a comparison with miRNA expression profiles revealed that most of the hit miRNAs did not show any significant variations of expression during differentiation. These constitutively expressed miRNAs might be required for basic and/or essential cell function, or else might be regulated at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNA inhibition yielded a variety of phenotypes, reflecting the widespread miRNA involvement in differentiation. Using a functional screen (the STarS--Suppressor Target Screen--approach, i. e. concomitant knockdown of miRNAs and of candidate target proteins), we discovered miRNA protein targets that are previously uncharacterized controllers of muscle-cell terminal differentiation. Our results provide a strategy for functional annotation of the human miRnome. PMID:23991007

Polesskaya, Anna; Degerny, Cindy; Pinna, Guillaume; Maury, Yves; Kratassiouk, Gueorgui; Mouly, Vincent; Morozova, Nadya; Kropp, Jeremie; Frandsen, Niels; Harel-Bellan, Annick

2013-01-01

232

Genome-Wide Exploration of miRNA Function in Mammalian Muscle Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

MiRNAs impact on the control of cell fate by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Here, using mammalian muscle differentiation as a model and a phenotypic loss-of-function screen, we explored the function of miRNAs at the genome-wide level. We found that the depletion of a high number of miRNAs (63) impacted on differentiation of human muscle precursors, underscoring the importance of this post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation. Interestingly, a comparison with miRNA expression profiles revealed that most of the hit miRNAs did not show any significant variations of expression during differentiation. These constitutively expressed miRNAs might be required for basic and/or essential cell function, or else might be regulated at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNA inhibition yielded a variety of phenotypes, reflecting the widespread miRNA involvement in differentiation. Using a functional screen (the STarS - Suppressor Target Screen – approach, i. e. concomitant knockdown of miRNAs and of candidate target proteins), we discovered miRNA protein targets that are previously uncharacterized controllers of muscle-cell terminal differentiation. Our results provide a strategy for functional annotation of the human miRnome. PMID:23991007

Pinna, Guillaume; Maury, Yves; Kratassiouk, Gueorgui; Mouly, Vincent; Morozova, Nadya; Kropp, Jeremie; Frandsen, Niels; Harel-Bellan, Annick

2013-01-01

233

Differential geometry of the Fermat quartic and theta functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The universal curve over a finite cover of the moduli space of elliptic curves with level four structure is embedded in C as the Fermat quartic and is parametrized via the four Jacobi theta functions. Constructions from completely integrable systems have shown the importance of looking at the curvature of certain spaces and here we compute sectional curvatures. For our computations, we choose the ambient Fubini-Study metric of C. We also derive several theta identities which arise from the quartic's holomorphic two-form.

Hadnot, Jason

2012-02-01

234

A VARIATIONAL APPROACH FOR ALMOST PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN RETARDED FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the a.p. (almost periodic) solutions of retarded functional differential equa- tions in the form u?? (t )= 0 ?rD1 f(u(t),u(t +?))d? + 0 ?rD2 f(u(t ??),u(t))d? +e(t) ,w e in- troduce variational formalisms to characterize the a.p. solutions as a critical points of functionals defined on Banach spaces of a.p. functions. We obtain an existence result of weak

MOEZ AYACHI; OEL BLOT

235

Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.  

PubMed

This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

Oxenham, Julie

236

P,Q-differentiation, P,Q-integration, and P,Q-hypergeometric functions related to quantum groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of representations of two-parametric quantum groups leads to two-parametric differentiation and integration which are generalizations of the well known q-differentiation and q-integration. In this paper these differentiation and integration are studied. Their connection with q-differentiation and q-integration is derived. The p,q-hypergeometric functions are introduced. Their relation to the basic hypergeometric functions is studied. It is emphasized that investigation of

Ivan M. Burban; Anatoli U. Klimyk

1994-01-01

237

Differentially Private Synthesization of Multi-Dimensional Data using Copula Functions  

PubMed Central

Differential privacy has recently emerged in private statistical data release as one of the strongest privacy guarantees. Most of the existing techniques that generate differentially private histograms or synthetic data only work well for single dimensional or low-dimensional histograms. They become problematic for high dimensional and large domain data due to increased perturbation error and computation complexity. In this paper, we propose DPCopula, a differentially private data synthesization technique using Copula functions for multi-dimensional data. The core of our method is to compute a differentially private copula function from which we can sample synthetic data. Copula functions are used to describe the dependence between multivariate random vectors and allow us to build the multivariate joint distribution using one-dimensional marginal distributions. We present two methods for estimating the parameters of the copula functions with differential privacy: maximum likelihood estimation and Kendall’s ? estimation. We present formal proofs for the privacy guarantee as well as the convergence property of our methods. Extensive experiments using both real datasets and synthetic datasets demonstrate that DPCopula generates highly accurate synthetic multi-dimensional data with significantly better utility than state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:25405241

Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Jiang, Xiaoqian

2014-01-01

238

76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Investigation AGENCY...handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of...handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof that infringe the `594...

2011-01-05

239

Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

2006-01-01

240

Neuroglial differentiation of adult enteric neuronal progenitor cells as a function of extracellular matrix composition.  

PubMed

Enteric neuronal progenitor cells are neural crest-derived stem cells that can be isolated from fetal, post-natal and adult gut. Neural stem cell transplantation is an emerging therapeutic paradigm to replace dysfunctional or lost enteric neurons in several aganglionic disorders of the GI tract. The impetus to identify an appropriate microenvironment for enteric neuronal progenitor cells derives from the need to improve survival and phenotypic stability following implantation. Extracellular matrix composition can modulate stem cell fate and direct differentiation. Adult mammalian myenteric ganglia in vivo are surrounded by a matrix composed primarily of Collagen IV, Laminin and a Heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In these studies, adult mammalian enteric neuronal progenitor cells isolated from full thickness rabbit intestines were induced to differentiate when cultured on various combinations of neural ECM substrates. Neuronal and glial differentiation was studied as a function of ECM composition on coated glass coverslips. Poly-lysine coated coverslips (control) supported extensive glial differentiation but very minimal neuronal differentiation. Individual culture substrata (Laminin, Collagen I and Collagen IV) were conducive for both neuronal and glial differentiation. The addition of laminin or heparan sulfate to collagen substrates improved neuronal differentiation, significantly increased neurite lengths, branching and initiation of neuronal network formation. Glial differentiation was extensive on control poly lysine coated coverslips. Addition of laminin or heparan sulfate to composite collagen substrates significantly reduced glial immunofluorescence. Various neural ECM components were evaluated individually and in combination to study their effect of neuroglial differentiation of adult enteric neuronal progenitor cells. Our results indicate that specific ECM substrates that include type IV Collagen, laminin and heparan sulfate support and maintain neuronal and glial differentiation to different extents. Here, we identify a matrix composition optimized to tissue engineer transplantable innervated GI smooth muscle constructs to remedy aganglionic disorders. PMID:23746858

Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R; Bitar, Khalil N

2013-09-01

241

Neuroglial differentiation of adult enteric neuronal progenitor cells as a function of extracellular matrix composition  

PubMed Central

Enteric neuronal progenitor cells are neural crest-derived stem cells that can be isolated from fetal, post-natal and adult gut. Neural stem cell transplantation is an emerging therapeutic paradigm to replace dysfunctional or lost enteric neurons in several aganglionic disorders of the GI tract. The impetus to identify an appropriate microenvironment for enteric neuronal progenitor cells derives from the need to improve survival and phenotypic stability following implantation. Extracellular matrix composition can modulate stem cell fate and direct differentiation. Adult mammalian myenteric ganglia in vivo are surrounded by a matrix composed primarily of Collagen IV, Laminin and a Heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In these studies, adult mammalian enteric neuronal progenitor cells isolated from full thickness rabbit intestines were induced to differentiate when cultured on various combinations of neural ECM substrates. Neuronal and glial differentiation was studied as a function of ECM composition on coated glass coverslips. Poly- lysine coated coverslips (control) supported extensive glial differentiation but very minimal neuronal differentiation. Individual culture substrata (Laminin, Collagen I and Collagen IV) were conducive for both neuronal and glial differentiation. The addition of laminin or heparan sulfate to collagen substrates improved neuronal differentiation, significantly increased neurite lengths, branching and initiation of neuronal network formation. Glial differentiation was extensive on control poly lysine coated coverslips. Addition of laminin or heparan sulfate to composite collagen substrates significantly reduced glial immunofluorescence. Various neural ECM components were evaluated individually and in combination to study their effect of neuroglial differentiation of adult enteric neuronal progenitor cells. Our results indicate that specific ECM substrates that include type IV Collagen, laminin and heparan sulfate support and maintain neuronal and glial differentiation to different extents. Here, we identify a matrix composition optimized to tissue engineer transplantable innervated GI smooth muscle constructs to remedy aganglionic disorders. PMID:23746858

Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R.; Bitar, Khalil N.

2013-01-01

242

Control system for engine-operated automotive accessories  

SciTech Connect

A control system is described for an accessory of an automobile, comprising: an engine, an engine output detector for detecting the output of the engine; a gear transmission coupled to the engine and responsive to detection of an idling condition of the automobile for selecting a neutral gear position; an accessory drivable by the engine; a clutch disposed between the accessory and the engine for connecting and disconnecting the output of the engine to the accessory; a speed sensor for detecting the speed of travel of the automobile from the gear transmission; and control means for comparing an actual running condition of the automobile with a prescribed running condition in which the output of the engine and the speed of the automobile are lower than respective prescribed levels; and for inhibiting operation of the accessory by disconnecting the clutch when the automobile is under the prescribed running conditions.

Nishikawa, M.; Aoki, T.; Sato, Y.; Fukuda, Y.

1987-08-25

243

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2013-04-01

244

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2014-04-01

245

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2011-04-01

246

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2012-04-01

247

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2010-04-01

248

Skull fracture vs. accessory sutures: how can we tell the difference?  

E-print Network

K (2003) Unusual accessory cranial sutures in pediatric headcranial CT is deemed clinically necessary in trauma patients, questionable fractures can be confidently differen- tiated from unusual accessory sutures

Sanchez, Thomas; Stewart, Deborah; Walvick, Matthew; Swischuk, Leonard

2010-01-01

249

Discrete Jacobi elliptic function expansion method for nonlinear differential-difference equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an improved algorithm is devised to derive exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear differential-difference equations (DDEs) by means of Jacobi elliptic functions. With the aid of symbolic computation, we choose the integrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation to illustrate the validity and advantages of the method. As a result, new and more general Jacobi elliptic function solutions are obtained, from which hyperbolic function solutions and trigonometric function solutions are derived when the modulus m?1 and 0. It is shown that the proposed method provides a more effective mathematical tool for nonlinear DDEs in mathematical physics.

Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Qing

2009-10-01

250

Global series solutions of nonlinear differential equations with shocks using Walsh functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orthonormal basis set composed of Walsh functions is used for deriving global solutions (valid over the entire domain) to nonlinear differential equations that include discontinuities. Function gn(x) of the set, a scaled Walsh function in sequency order, is comprised of n piecewise constant values (square waves) across the domain xa?x?xb. Only two square wave lengths are allowed in any function and a new derivation of the basis functions applies a fractal-like algorithm (infinitely self-similar) focused on the distribution of wave lengths. This distribution is determined by a recursive folding algorithm that propagates fundamental symmetries to successive values of n. Functions, including those with discontinuities, may be represented on the domain as a series in gn(x) with no occurrence of a Gibbs phenomenon (ringing) across the discontinuity. A much more powerful, self-mapping characteristic of the series is closure under multiplication - the product of any two Walsh functions is also a Walsh function. This self-mapping characteristic transforms the solution of nonlinear differential equations to the solution of systems of polynomial equations if the original nonlinearities can be represented as products of the dependent variables and the convergence of the series for n?? can be demonstrated. Fundamental operations (reciprocal, integral, derivative) on Walsh function series representations of functions with discontinuities are defined. Examples are presented for solution of the time dependent Burger's equation and for quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow including a shock.

Gnoffo, Peter A.

2014-02-01

251

Evolution of the continental crust as recorded in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in precise in situ isotopic analysis by LA-ICPMS and SIMS allow correlating multiple isotopic systems within single grains of accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The combined isotope systematics have provided valuable insights into the evolution of the continental crust. Zircon, a common accessory phase in granitoids, can be precisely dated by the U-Pb system. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic composition is a function of crustal residence time of the magmatic protolith, whereas the O isotopic composition is a sensitive record of reworking of mature sediments such as pelite. An integration of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic data for detrital zircons from modern large rivers indicates that: (1) the preserved continental crust dominantly formed between 3.6 and 1.0 Ga, (2) the major mode of crustal development would change during the supercontinent cycle, i.e., the generation of juvenile crust during supercontinent fragmentation versus the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal remelting during supercontinent fragmentation, and (3) reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at ca. 2.1 Ga. No granitoids are known to have survived since 4.03 Ga. Yet evidence of an even older evolved crust is provided by detrital zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Recently, such Hadean zircons have been found from outside the Yilgarn Craton, indicating that the young Earth had widespread granitoid crust. In addition, another accessory phase, monazite, in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks offers an unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of early crustal evolution. Monazite, a light rare earth element phosphate mineral, occurs as an igneous accessory phase particularly in low-Ca granitoids, in contrast to the occurrence of igneous zircon in a wide range of granitoids. U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope systematic of monazite are analogous to U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of zircon in that they define the timing of the crystallization and magmatic protolith formation (model age), respectively. The lack of monazites having >3.6 Ga crystallization ages as well as >4.0 Ga Nd model ages in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks suggests that the source rocks of the Hadean detrital zircons are not low-Ca granitoids and therefore contained few monazites. Given that low-Ca granitoid magmas generated mainly by melting of pre-existing mid-lower crust, this finding may indicate minor intra-crustal melting and, by extension, crustal stabilization until ca. 3.6 Ga. This is consistent with the picture portrayed by the detrital zircons from modern rivers. Presumably, the hotter and rheologically weaker lithospheric mantle fostered many small plates and island arcs early in Earth's history, and the young arc crust was efficiently returned to the mantle via subduction. Accordingly, net growth of continental crust was essentially minor in early Earth's history despite high rates of crust generation.

Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

2013-04-01

252

Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

2013-01-01

253

Detecting Native Language Group Differences at the Subskills Level of Reading: A Differential Skill Functioning Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential skill functioning (DSF) exists when examinees from different groups have different probabilities of successful performance in a certain subskill underlying the measured construct, given that they have the same ability on the overall construct. Using a DSF approach, this study examined the differences between two native language…

Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

2013-01-01

254

The Usefulness of Differential Item Functioning Methodology in Longitudinal Intervention Studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perceived self-efficacy (SE) for engaging in physical activity (PA) is a key variable mediating PA change in interventions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of item response modeling-based (IRM) differential item functioning (DIF) in the investigation of group differences ...

255

A Method to Tackle First Order Differential Equations with Liouvillian Functions in the Solution - II  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a semi-decision procedure to tackle first order differential equations, with Liouvillian functions in the solution (LFOODEs). As in the case of the Prelle-Singer procedure, this method is based on the knowledge of the integrating factor structure.

L. G. S. Duarte; S. E. S. Duarte; L. A. C. P. da Mota

2001-01-01

256

The MIMIC Method with Scale Purification for Detecting Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study implements a scale purification procedure onto the standard MIMIC method for differential item functioning (DIF) detection and assesses its performance through a series of simulations. It is found that the MIMIC method with scale purification (denoted as M-SP) outperforms the standard MIMIC method (denoted as M-ST) in controlling…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yang, Chih-Chien

2009-01-01

257

Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

2013-01-01

258

Differential Effects of a Tier Two Behavior Intervention Based on Function of Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a tier two daily behavior card intervention and differential effects based on function of problem behavior. The participants were 36 elementary school students nominated for additional intervention beyond universal School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Measures included…

McIntosh, Kent; Campbell, Amy L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Dickey, Celeste Rossetto

2009-01-01

259

Differential Tendencies To Guess as a Function of Gender and Lingual-Cultural Reference Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate differential tendencies to avoid guessing as a function of three variables: (1) lingual-cultural-group; (2) gender; and (3) examination year. The Psychometric Entrance Test (PET) for universities in Israel was used, which is administered in Hebrew, Arabic, English, French, Spanish, and Russian. The…

Gafni, Naomi; Estela, Melamed

260

Differential Tendencies to Guess as a Function of Gender and Lingual-Cultural Reference Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential tendencies to avoid guessing on the Psychometric Entrance Test (the Israeli college entrance examination) were studied as a function of language group, gender, and examination date for over 10,000 students. Students with different cultural backgrounds and genders differed in their tendencies to guess. Implications for test results are…

Gafni, Naomi; Melamed, Estela

1994-01-01

261

An Odds Ratio Approach for Assessing Differential Distractor Functioning Effects under the Nominal Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations of differential distractor functioning (DDF) can provide valuable information concerning the location and possible causes of measurement invariance within a multiple-choice item. In this article, I propose an odds ratio estimator of the DDF effect as modeled under the nominal response model. In addition, I propose a simultaneous…

Penfield, Randall D.

2008-01-01

262

Linguistic Complexity, Schematic Representations, and Differential Item Functioning for English Language Learners in Math Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines nonmathematical linguistic complexity as a source of differential item functioning (DIF) in math word problems for English language learners (ELLs). Specifically, this study investigates the relationship between item measures of linguistic complexity, nonlinguistic forms of representation and DIF measures based on item…

Martiniello, Maria

2009-01-01

263

Functional evaluation of hemineglect by means of a semistructured scale: Personal extrapersonal differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semistructured scale for the functional evaluation of hemineglect was given to 26 patients who proved hemi-inattentive on standard diagnostic tests. Analysis of the internal composition of the scale indicated a differentiation between trials that require the exploration of external space (for example, dealing cards or serving tea) and trials that require the exploration of one's own body (for example,

P. Zoccolotti; A. Judica

1991-01-01

264

DIFFERENTIAL ITEM FUNCTIONING AT POST ASSESSMENT BETWEEN TREATMENT AND CONTROL GROUPS FROM AN INCREASE IN KNOWLEDGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has been some concern that participation in an intervention and exposure to a measurement instrument can distort subsequent responses to a questionnaire, thereby biasing results. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis with Item Response Modeling (IRM) can test these effects by testing f...

265

Analysis of School Context Effects on Differential Item Functioning Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers and illustrates a strategy to study effects of school context on differential item functioning (DIF) in large-scale assessment. The approach employs a hierarchical generalized linear modeling framework to (a) detect DIF, and (b) identify school-level correlates of the between-group differences in item performance. To…

Cheong, Yuk Fai

2006-01-01

266

Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

Liu, Qian

2011-01-01

267

Comparison of Differential Item Functioning Determination Techniques: HGLM, LR and IRT-LR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to determine differential item functioning (DIF) by hierarchical linear modeling (HGLM) on test items and comparing these results by the DIF results determined by logistic regression (LR) and IRT-likelihood ratio (IRT-LR) techniques. Investigating the concordance between the techniques in determining the items with DIF,…

Acar, Tulin; Kelecioglu, Hulya

2010-01-01

268

Investigating Sources of Differential Item Functioning in International Large-Scale Assessments Using a Confirmatory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International large-scale assessments of achievement often have a large degree of differential item functioning (DIF) between countries, which can threaten score equivalence and reduce the validity of inferences based on comparisons of group performances. It is important to understand potential sources of DIF to improve the validity of future…

Sandilands, Debra; Oliveri, Maria Elena; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ercikan, Kadriye

2013-01-01

269

Differential Item Functioning Detection Using the Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Method with a Pure Short Anchor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) method with a pure short anchor was proposed to detect differential item functioning (DIF). A simulation study showed that the MIMIC method with an anchor of 1, 2, 4, or 10 DIF-free items yielded a well-controlled Type I error rate even when such tests contained as many as 40% DIF items. In general,…

Shih, Ching-Lin; Wang, Wen-Chung

2009-01-01

270

Detecting Differential Item Functioning of a Course Satisfaction Instrument in the Presence of Multilevel Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to test for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) between male and female students on end-of-semester class evaluations in an introductory university science course and to demonstrate DIF detection methods that take into account the complex sampling mechanism that often underlies data used in such assessments.…

Finch, Holmes; French, Brian

2010-01-01

271

Expression Analysis of ABC Transporters Reveals Differential Functions of Tandemly Duplicated Genes in  

E-print Network

in humans or in hyper- sensitivity to drugs. For example, mutations in the ABCA1 gene cause very low levelsExpression Analysis of ABC Transporters Reveals Differential Functions of Tandemly Duplicated Genes, BC Canada V5Z 1L6 We have previously identified 60 predicted ABC transporter genes

Baillie, David

272

Lyapunov functions for quadratic differential equations with applications to adaptive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions are derived for the existence of quadratic Lyapunov functions for vector differential equations with quadratic terms. These conditions are used to establish a set of nonlinear equations for which the null solution is asymptotically stable in the whole. Many of the recent results in the stability of model reference adaptive systems are particular cases of these general conditions.

G. Luders; K. Narendra

1972-01-01

273

Genomic views of STAT function in CD4+ T helper cell differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are well known for their essential roles in transmitting cytokine-mediated signals and specifying T helper (TH) cell differentiation. Recent technological advances have revealed that STAT proteins have broad and complex roles in gene regulation and epigenetic control, including important roles as functional repressors. However, the challenge of how to link signal transduction,

Riitta Lahesmaa; Golnaz Vahedi; Arian Laurence; Yuka Kanno; John J. O'Shea

2011-01-01

274

Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

Li, Zhushan

2014-01-01

275

Differential Item Functioning with a Criterion-Referenced Test: Use of Limited Closed-Interval Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to introduce a procedure to detect differential item functioning (DIF) particularly suitable for criterion-referenced tests and to demonstrate how this approach would affect the identification of DIF items using real data sets. The procedure based on item response theory (IRT) assesses DIF at a limited closed interval…

Oshima, T. C.; And Others

276

Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) iterative purification procedures attempt to remove the contamination of matching variables due to

Qian Liu

2011-01-01

277

Utility of the Mantel-Haenszel Procedure for Detecting Differential Item Functioning in Small Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sample-size restrictions limit the contingency table approaches based on asymptotic distributions, such as the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in many practical applications. Within this framework, the present study investigated the power and Type I error performance of empirical and inferential…

Fidalgo, Angel M.; Ferreres, Doris; Muniz, Jose

2004-01-01

278

A Confirmatory Approach to Differential Item Functioning on an ESL Reading Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I describe a practical application of the Roussos and Stout (1996) multidimensional analysis framework for interpreting group performance differences on an ESL reading proficiency test. Although a variety of statistical methods have been developed for flagging test items that function differentially for equal ability examinees…

Abbott, Marilyn L.

2007-01-01

279

Explaining Crossing DIF in Polytomous Items Using Differential Step Functioning Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crossing, or intersecting, differential item functioning (DIF) is a form of nonuniform DIF that exists when the sign of the between-group difference in expected item performance changes across the latent trait continuum. The presence of crossing DIF presents a problem for many statistics developed for evaluating DIF because positive and negative…

Penfield, Randall D.

2010-01-01

280

A Robust Outlier Approach to Prevent Type I Error Inflation in Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The identification of differential item functioning (DIF) is often performed by means of statistical approaches that consider the raw scores as proxies for the ability trait level. One of the most popular approaches, the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method, belongs to this category. However, replacing the ability level by the simple raw score is a source…

Magis, David; De Boeck, Paul

2012-01-01

281

Accommodations and Item-Level Analyses Using Mixture Differential Item Functioning Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use differential item functioning (DIF) and latent mixture model analyses to explore factors that explain performance differences on a large-scale mathematics assessment between examinees allowed to use a calculator or who were afforded item presentation accommodations versus those who did not receive the same…

Scarpati, Stanley E.; Wells, Craig S.; Lewis, Christine; Jirka, Stephen

2011-01-01

282

Examining Type I Error and Power for Detection of Differential Item and Testlet Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effectiveness of detection of differential item functioning (DIF) and testlet DIF using SIBTEST and Poly-SIBTEST were examined in tests composed of testlets. An example using data from a reading comprehension test showed that results from SIBTEST and Poly-SIBTEST were not completely consistent in the detection of DIF and testlet…

Lee, Young-Sun; Cohen, Allan; Toro, Maritsa

2009-01-01

283

Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning on a Middle-School Mathematics Performance Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender-related differential item functioning (DIF) using a mathematics performance assessment, the QUASAR Cognitive Assessment Instrument (QCAI), administered to middle school students. The QCAI was developed for the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reading (QUASAR) project, which focuses on…

Lane, Suzanne; And Others

284

Functional differentiation in the anterior gills of the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster leeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fish gill is a multifunctional organ responsible for gas exchange and ionic regulation. It is hypothesized that both morphological\\u000a and functional differentiation can be found in the gills of the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster leeri. To test this, we used the air-breathing fish, Trichogaster leeri, to investigate various morphological\\/functional parameters. First, we evaluated the importance of performing the aquatic

Chun-Yen Huang; Wen Lee; Hui-Chen Lin

2008-01-01

285

Deletion of Smad2 in Mouse Liver Reveals Novel Functions in Hepatocyte Growth and Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smad family proteins Smad2 and Smad3 are activated by transforming growth factor (TGF-)\\/activin\\/ nodal receptors and mediate transcriptional regulation. Although differential functional roles of Smad2 and Smad3 are apparent in mammalian development, the relative functional roles of Smad2 and Smad3 in postnatal systems remain unclear. We used Cre\\/loxP-mediated gene targeting for hepatocyte-specific deletion of Smad2 (S2HeKO) in adult mice and

Wenjun Ju; Atsushi Ogawa; Joerg Heyer; Dirk Nierhof; Liping Yu; Raju Kucherlapati; David A. Shafritz; Erwin P. Bottinger

2006-01-01

286

Icariin induces mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation into beating functional cardiomyocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Icariin, the primary active component of Epimedium extracts, has recently been shown to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation\\u000a of murine embryonic stem (mES) cells in vitro. However, as these cardiomyocytes were not functionally characterized, the potential\\u000a application of icariin-induced cardiomyocytes in clinical practice remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we characterized\\u000a the structure and function of icariin-induced cardiomyocytes to evaluate their potential

Xiaodong Sun; Xiuwei Sun; Xiudong Jin; Xiaoli Zhang; Chunling Liu; Lei Lei; Lianhong Jin; Huiwen Liu

2011-01-01

287

A novel application of radial basis functions for solving a model of first-order integro-ordinary differential equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions (RBFs) have been considered; one is computed through the differentiation process (DRBF) and the other one is computed through the integration process (IRBF). We investigate these two approaches on the Volterra’s Population Model which is an integro-differential equation without converting it to an ordinary differential equation. To solve

K. Parand; S. Abbasbandy; S. Kazem; J. A. Rad

2011-01-01

288

Regulation of adult neurogenesis by behavior and age in the accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal system (VNS) participates in the detection and processing of pheromonal information related to social and sexual behaviors. Within the VNS, two different populations of sensory neurons, with a distinct pattern of distribution, line the epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and give rise to segregated sensory projections to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Apical sensory neurons in the VNO project to the anterior AOB (aAOB), while basal neurons project to the posterior AOB (pAOB). In the AOB, the largest population of neurons are inhibitory, the granule and periglomerular cells (GCs and PGs) and remarkably, these neurons are continuously born and functionally integrated in the adult brain, underscoring their role on olfactory function. Here we show that behaviors mediated by the VNS differentially regulate adult neurogenesis across the anterior-posterior axis of the AOB. We used immunohistochemical labeling of newly born cells under different behavioral conditions in mice. Using a resident-intruder aggression paradigm, we found that subordinate mice exhibited increased neurogenesis in the aAOB. In addition, in sexually naive adult females exposed to soiled bedding odorized by adult males, the number of newly born cells was significantly increased in the pAOB; however, neurogenesis was not affected in females exposed to female odors. In addition, we found that at two months of age adult neurogenesis was sexually dimorphic, with male mice exhibiting higher levels of newly born cells than females. Interestingly, adult neurogenesis was greatly reduced with age and this decrease correlated with a decrease in progenitor cells proliferation but not with an increase in cell death in the AOB. These results indicate that the physiological regulation of adult neurogenesis in the AOB by behaviors is both sex and age dependent and suggests an important role of newly born neurons in sex dependent behaviors mediated by the VNS. PMID:21600286

Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Pugh, Victoria; Araneda, Ricardo C

2011-08-01

289

Stem cell factor Sox2 and its close relative Sox3 have differentiation functions in oligodendrocytes  

PubMed Central

Neural precursor cells of the ventricular zone give rise to all neurons and glia of the central nervous system and rely for maintenance of their precursor characteristics on the closely related SoxB1 transcription factors Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3. We show in mouse spinal cord that, whereas SoxB1 proteins are usually downregulated upon neuronal specification, they continue to be expressed in glial precursors. In the oligodendrocyte lineage, Sox2 and Sox3 remain present into the early phases of terminal differentiation. Surprisingly, their deletion does not alter precursor characteristics but interferes with proper differentiation. Although a direct influence on myelin gene expression may be part of their function, we provide evidence for another mode of action. SoxB1 proteins promote oligodendrocyte differentiation in part by negatively controlling miR145 and thereby preventing this microRNA from inhibiting several pro-differentiation factors. This study presents one of the few cases in which SoxB1 proteins, including the stem cell factor Sox2, are associated with differentiation rather than precursor functions. PMID:24257626

Hoffmann, Stephanie A.; Hos, Deniz; Küspert, Melanie; Lang, Richard A.; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Wegner, Michael; Reiprich, Simone

2014-01-01

290

Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator functions in balancing growth and differentiation in skin.  

PubMed

In mammals, skin begins as a single-layered epithelium, which, through a series of signals, either stratifies and differentiates to become epidermis or invaginates downward to make hair follicles (HFs). To achieve and maintain proper tissue architecture, keratinocytes must intricately balance growth and differentiation. Here, we uncover a critical and hitherto unappreciated role for Yes-associated protein (YAP), an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator with potent oncogenic potential. We show that YAP is highly expressed and nuclear in single-layered basal epidermal progenitors. Notably, nuclear YAP progressively declines with age and correlates with proliferative potential of epidermal progenitors. Shortly after initiation of HF morphogenesis, YAP translocates to the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. Through genetic analysis, we demonstrate a role for YAP in maintaining basal epidermal progenitors and regulating HF morphogenesis. YAP overexpression causes hair placodes to evaginate into epidermis rather than invaginate into dermis. YAP also expands basal epidermal progenitors, promotes proliferation, and inhibits terminal differentiation. In vitro gain-and-loss of function studies show that primary mouse keratinocytes (MKs) accelerate proliferation, suppress differentiation, and inhibit apoptosis when YAP is activated and reverse these features when YAP is inhibited. Finally, we identify Cyr61 as a target of YAP in MKs and demonstrate a requirement for TEA domain (TEAD) transcriptional factors to comediate YAP functions in MKs. PMID:21262812

Zhang, Haiying; Pasolli, H Amalia; Fuchs, Elaine

2011-02-01

291

Novel Functional Changes during Podocyte Differentiation: Increase of Oxidative Resistance and H-Ferritin Expression  

PubMed Central

Podocytes are highly specialized, arborized epithelial cells covering the outer surface of the glomerular tuft in the kidney. Terminally differentiated podocytes are unable to go through cell division and hereby they are lacking a key property for regeneration after a toxic injury. Podocytes are long-lived cells but, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that support their stress resistance. Our aim was to investigate whether the well-known morphological changes during podocyte differentiation are accompanied by changes in oxidative resistance in a manner that could support their long-term survival. We used a conditionally immortalized human podocyte cell line to study the morphological and functional changes during differentiation. We followed the differentiation process for 14 days by time-lapse microscopy. During this period nondifferentiated podocytes gradually transformed into large, nonproliferating, frequently multinucleated cells, with enlarged nuclei and opened chromatin structure. We observed that differentiated podocytes were highly resistant to oxidants such as H2O2 and heme when applied separately or in combination, whereas undifferentiated cells were prone to such challenges. Elevated oxidative resistance of differentiated podocytes was associated with increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and H-ferritin expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human kidney specimens revealed that podocytes highly express H-ferritin in vivo as well. PMID:25097723

Balogh, Enik?; Arosio, Paolo; Király, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Tánczos, Bence; Balla, György; Balla, József; Bánfalvi, Gáspár

2014-01-01

292

Functional Role of Mst1/Mst2 in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

The Hippo pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway that involves cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and organ size regulation. Mst1 and Mst2 are central components of this pathway that are essential for embryonic development, though their role in controlling embryonic stem cells (ES cells) has yet to be exploited. To further understand the Mst1/Mst2 function in ES cell pluripotency and differentiation, we derived Mst1/Mst2 double knockout (Mst-/-) ES cells to completely perturb Hippo signaling. We found that Mst-/- ES cells express higher level of Nanog than wild type ES cells and show differentiation resistance after LIF withdrawal. They also proliferate faster than wild type ES cells. Although Mst-/- ES cells can form embryoid bodies (EBs), their differentiation into tissues of three germ layers is distorted. Intriguingly, Mst-/- ES cells are unable to form teratoma. Mst-/- ES cells can differentiate into mesoderm lineage, but further differentiation to cardiac lineage cells is significantly affected. Microarray analysis revealed that ligands of non-canonical Wnt signaling, which is critical for cardiac progenitor specification, are significantly repressed in Mst-/- EBs. Taken together our results showed that Mst1/Mst2 are required for proper cardiac lineage cell development and teratoma formation. PMID:24224013

Li, Peng; Chen, Ying; Mak, Kinglun Kingston; Wong, Chun Kwok; Wang, Chi Chiu; Yuan, Ping

2013-01-01

293

The Role of Sonic Hedgehog as a Regulator of Gastric Function and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

The Hedgehog (Hh) genes play a key role in the regulation of embryonic development and govern processes such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and tissue patterning. In vertebrate embryos, Hh gene expression regulates correct formation of limbs, skeleton, muscles, and organs including stomach. In the adult, the Hh pathway functions in tissue repair and regeneration, along with maintenance of stem cells. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been extensively studied for its role in developmental and cancer biology. Recent advances in the field of gastroenterology show that in the stomach, Shh is responsible for proper differentiation of the gastric glands. The aberrant activity of the Shh signaling pathway leads to an altered gastric differentiation program and loss of gastric acid secretion that is the predominant function of the stomach. In this chapter, we review the most recent findings that reveal the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric function and differentiation and how this signaling is dysregulated during the development of gastric cancer in response bacterial infection. PMID:22391317

Zavros, Yana

2014-01-01

294

Human endometrial stromal stem cells differentiate into megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets.  

PubMed

Human endometrium is a high dynamic tissue that contains endometrial stromal stem cells (hESSCs). The hESSCs have been differentiated into a number of cell lineages. However, differentiation of hESSCs into megakaryocytes (MKs) has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of MK generation from hESSCs and subsequent production of functional platelets (PLTs). In our study, hESSCs were cultured from endometrial stromal cells as confirmed by positive stromal cell specific markers (CD90 and CD29) and negative hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD45 and CD34) expression. Then, hESSCs were differentiated in a medium supplemented with thrombopoietin (TPO) for 18 days. The MK differentiation was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The differentiation medium was collected for PLT production analysis by flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and functional measurements. Our results show: 1) MKs were successfully generated from hESSCs as identified by expression of specific markers (CD41a: 1 ± 0.09% and 39 ± 3.0%; CD42b: 1.2 ± 0.06% and 28 ± 2.0%, control vs. differentiation) accompanied with reduction of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct4 and Sox2) expression; 2) The level of PLTs in the differentiation medium was 16 ± 1 number/µl as determined by size (2-4 µm) and CD41a expression (CD41a: 1 ± 0.4% and 90±2.0%, control vs. differentiation); 3) Generated PLTs were functional as evidenced by the up-regulation of CD62p expression and fibrinogen binding following thrombin stimulation; 4) Released PLTs showed similar ultra-structure characteristics (alpha granules, vacuoles and dense tubular system) as PLTs from peripheral blood determined by electron microscopic analysis. Data demonstrate the feasibility of generating MKs from hESSCs, and that the generated MKs release functional PLTs. Therefore, hESSCs could be a potential new stem cell source for in vitro MK/PLT production. PMID:22952951

Wang, Jinju; Chen, Shuzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Stegeman, Samantha; Pfaff-Amesse, Teresa; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Wenfeng; Amesse, Lawrence; Chen, Yanfang

2012-01-01

295

Functional Features of Trans-differentiated Hair Cells Mediated by Atoh1 Reveals a Primordial Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Evolution has transformed a simple ear with few vestibular maculae into a complex 3-dimensional structure consisting of nine distinct endorgans. It is debatable whether the sensory epithelia underwent progressive segregation or emerged from distinct sensory patches. To address these uncertainties we examined the morphological and functional phenotype of trans-differentiated rat hair cells to reveal their primitive or endorgan-specific origins. Additionally, it is uncertain how Atoh1-mediated trans-differentiated hair cells trigger the processes that establish their neural ranking from the vestibulocochlear ganglia. We have demonstrated that the morphology and functional expression of ionic currents in trans-differentiated hair cells resemble those of “ancestral” hair cells, even at the lesser epithelia ridge aspects of the cochlea. The structures of stereociliary bundles of trans-differentiated hair cells were in keeping with cells in the vestibule. Functionally, the transient expression of Na+ and Ih currents initiates and promotes evoked spikes. Additionally, Ca2+ current was expressed and underwent developmental changes. These events correlate well with the innervation of ectopic hair cells. New “born” hair cells at the abneural aspects of the cochlea are innervated by spiral ganglion neurons, presumably under the tropic influence of chemoattractants. The disappearance of inward currents coincides well with the attenuation of evoked electrical activity, remarkably recapitulating the development of hair cells. Ectopic hair cells underwent stepwise changes in the magnitude and kinetics of transducer currents. We propose that Atoh1 mediates trans-differentiation of morphological and functional “ancestral” hair cells that are likely to undergo diversification in an endorgan-specific manner. PMID:22423092

Yang, Juanmei; Bouvron, Sonia; Lv, Ping; Chi, Fanglu; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

2012-01-01

296

Positive solutions of a superlinear first-order differential equation with delay depending on the unknown function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superlinear first-order differential-functional equation is considered with a delay depending on the unknown function. Sufficient conditions are provided for the existence of positive solutions to the equation under consideration.

Drumi Bainov; Pavel Simeonov

1998-01-01

297

Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

Murphy, K. A.

1988-01-01

298

Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

Murphy, K. A.

1990-01-01

299

A New Method for Assessing the Statistical Significance in the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests (DFIT) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new item parameter replication method is proposed for assessing the statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index associated with the differential functioning of items and tests framework. In this new method, a cutoff score for each item is determined by obtaining a (1-alpha ) percentile rank score…

Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.; Nanda, Alice O.

2006-01-01

300

A Comparison of Unidimensional and Three-Dimensional Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Two-Dimensional Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oshima, Raju, and Flowers demonstrated the use of an item response theory-based technique for analyzing differential item function (DIF) and differential test function for dichotomously scored data that are intended to be multidimensional. Their study assumed that the number of intended-to-be measured dimensions was correctly identified. In…

Snow, Teresa K.; Oshima, T. C.

2009-01-01

301

Breakage-fusion-bridge Cycles and Large Insertions Contribute to the Rapid Evolution of Accessory Chromosomes in a Fungal Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal rearrangements are a major driver of eukaryotic genome evolution, affecting speciation, pathogenicity and cancer progression. Changes in chromosome structure are often initiated by mis-repair of double-strand breaks in the DNA. Mis-repair is particularly likely when telomeres are lost or when dispersed repeats misalign during crossing-over. Fungi carry highly polymorphic chromosomal complements showing substantial variation in chromosome length and number. The mechanisms driving chromosome polymorphism in fungi are poorly understood. We aimed to identify mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We combined population genomic resequencing and chromosomal segment PCR assays with electrophoretic karyotyping and resequencing of parents and offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carried highly differentiated gene contents due to numerous insertions and deletions. The largest accessory chromosome recently doubled in length through insertions totaling 380 kb. Based on comparative genomics, we identified the precise breakpoint locations of these insertions. Nondisjunction during meiosis led to chromosome losses in progeny of three different crosses. We showed that a new accessory chromosome emerged in two viable offspring through a fusion between sister chromatids. Such chromosome fusion is likely to initiate a breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle that can rapidly degenerate chromosomal structure. We suggest that the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici originated mainly from ancient core chromosomes through a degeneration process that included BFB cycles, nondisjunction and mutational decay of duplicated sequences. The rapidly evolving accessory chromosome complement may serve as a cradle for adaptive evolution in this and other fungal pathogens. PMID:23785303

Croll, Daniel; Zala, Marcello; McDonald, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

302

Coronary anomaly with a left ventricular accessory chamber: Is it left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum?  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old male hypertensive was suspected to have post myocardial infarction left ventricular aneurysm. His transthoracic echocardiogram performed elsewhere reported an inferior wall left ventricular aneurysm. He was referred for coronary angiography. His coronary angiogram and repeat transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated an accessory chamber arising from mid-inferior wall synchronously contracting with the left ventricle suggesting a diverticulum. In addition, he had anomalous coronary arteries with coronary artery disease. His electrocardiogram did not reveal any features suggestive of a post infarct aneurysm. This case illustrates the importance of a comprehensive clinical and echocardiographic examination with a broad differential thought process. PMID:23960694

Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Riyami, Abdullah Amour

2012-01-01

303

Topical Hesperidin Improves Epidermal Permeability Barrier Function and Epidermal Differentiation in Normal Murine Skin  

PubMed Central

Orange peel extract appears to exhibit beneficial effects on skin whitening, inflammation, UVB protection, as well as keratinocyte proliferation. In the present study, we determine whether topical hesperidin influences epidermal permeability barrier function and its underlying mechanisms. Hairless mice were treated topically with 2% hesperidin or 70% ethanol alone twice daily for 6 days. At the end of treatment, basal barrier function as well as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured 2 and 4 hours post barrier disruption. Epidermal proliferation and differentiation were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Additionally, lamellar body density and secretion were assessed by electron microscopy. Although there were no significant differences in basal barrier function, in comparison to control animals, topical hesperidin significantly accelerated barrier recovery at both 2 and 4 hours after acute barrier abrogation. Enhanced barrier function in hesperidin-treated skin correlated with stimulation of both epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as enhanced lamellar body secretion. These results indicate that topical hesperidin enhances epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis at least in part due to stimulation of epidermal proliferation, differentiation, as well as lamellar body secretion. PMID:22509829

Hou, Maihua; Man, Mona; Man, Wenyan; Zhu, Wenyuan; Hupe, Melanie; Park, Kyungho; Crumrine, Debra; Elias, Peter M.; Man, Mao-Qiang

2012-01-01

304

Tick saliva inhibits differentiation, maturation and function of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Haematophagous arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, tsetse flies, sandflies and ticks have evolved salivary immunomodulatory factors that prevent the vertebrate host from rejecting them meanwhile enhancing pathogen transmission. As dendritic cells (DC) play a major role in host immune responses, we studied the effects of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva on DC differentiation and maturation. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the addition of saliva to bone marrow cells inhibits the differentiation of DC and decreased the population of differentiated immature DC, increasing the levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II while not altering the expression of costimulatory (CD40, CD80 and CD86) and adhesion (CD54) molecules. Furthermore, maturation of DC stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of saliva resulted in a lower expression of costimulatory molecules, but did not alter the up-regulation of MHC class II and CD54. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-matured DC cultured with saliva also presented reduced production of interleukin-12, whereas interleukin-10 production was unaltered. Assessment of the function of DC cultured with tick saliva revealed them to be poor stimulators of cytokine production by antigen-specific T cells. Our data indicate a novel modulatory role for the saliva of arthropod vectors at an initial step of the immune response through the inhibition of differentiation and maturation of DC into functional antigen-presenting cells. PMID:15667568

Cavassani, Karen A; Aliberti, Júlio C; Dias, Alexandra R V; Silva, Joăo S; Ferreira, Beatriz R

2005-01-01

305

Th1/Th2 Differentiation and B Cell Function by the Atypical PKCs and Their Regulators  

PubMed Central

The members of the atypical Protein Kinase Cs (aPKC) kinase subfamily, PKC? and PKC?/?, as well as their adapters, p62 and Par-6, form part of the PB1-domain-containing group of signaling regulators. Both adapters serve to locate through heterotypic interactions the aPKCs into the NF-?B and cell polarity pathways, respectively. Both signaling cascades have been critically implicated in T cell function in vitro and in vivo. The analysis of gene-knockout (KO) mice deficient in the different PB1 molecules is providing more definitive information on the actual role that the aPKCs and other PB1-containing molecules play in B cell biology and T cell polarity, survival, and differentiation toward the different effector lineages in vivo and at the cellular ex vivo level. Here we discuss recent data generated from the analysis of KO mice linking the control of cell polarity by PKC?/? and PKC?, their adapter p62, and the Par-4 inhibitor, in the control of B and T cell signaling and differentiation. Altogether, these genetic and biochemical evidences reveal the existence of a PB1-orchestrated signaling network that acts to control Th2 differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and the gene transcriptional programs that are essential during the B cell maturation and function and Th2 differentiation. PMID:22888333

Martin, Pilar; Moscat, Jorge

2012-01-01

306

An Efficient Spectral Method for Ordinary Differential Equations with Rational Function Coefficients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present some relations that allow the efficient approximate inversion of linear differential operators with rational function coefficients. We employ expansions in terms of a large class of orthogonal polynomial families, including all the classical orthogonal polynomials. These families obey a simple three-term recurrence relation for differentiation, which implies that on an appropriately restricted domain the differentiation operator has a unique banded inverse. The inverse is an integration operator for the family, and it is simply the tridiagonal coefficient matrix for the recurrence. Since in these families convolution operators (i.e. matrix representations of multiplication by a function) are banded for polynomials, we are able to obtain a banded representation for linear differential operators with rational coefficients. This leads to a method of solution of initial or boundary value problems that, besides having an operation count that scales linearly with the order of truncation N, is computationally well conditioned. Among the applications considered is the use of rational maps for the resolution of sharp interior layers.

Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Torres, David; Hagstrom, Thomas

1994-01-01

307

Accessory splenectomy with gastroesophageal devascularization for recurrent hypersplenism and refractory bleeding varices in a patient with liver cirrhosis: report of a case.  

PubMed

We report a case of recurrent thrombocytopenia associated with symptomatic enlargement of an accessory spleen, 2 years after splenectomy, in a 36-year-old man with posthepatitic liver cirrhosis. The patient suffered three episodes of variceal bleeding, but the esophageal varices were not eradicated by two sessions of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy and endoscopic band ligation. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a giant accessory spleen (6 x 6 x 5 cm), gallbladder stones, and complete postsplenectomy splenomesoportal thrombosis. Subsequent 99mTc scintigraphy confirmed the presence of a functioning residual splenic nodule. Thus, we performed gastroesophageal devascularization (Hassab-Paquet procedure) with accessory splenectomy and cholecystectomy, after which the platelet count normalized and no further variceal bleeding occurred during 17 months of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English medical literature of accessory splenectomy for recurrent thrombocytopenia in a patient with liver cirrhosis. PMID:15580390

Mishin, Igor; Ghidirim, Gheorghe

2004-01-01

308

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical...

2012-04-01

309

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... A biliary catheter and accessories is a tubular flexible device used for temporary or prolonged drainage of the biliary tract, for splinting of the bile duct during healing, or for preventing stricture of the bile duct. This generic...

2010-04-01

310

What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings  

E-print Network

Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

Stege, Elinor Hope

2009-01-01

311

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products  

MedlinePLUS

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products Cancer treatments can cause major changes in the way you look – ... the form. You should wear whatever bra you find most comfortable. Keep in mind that the best ...

312

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

2012-04-01

313

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

2013-04-01

314

Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories  

MedlinePLUS

... Phones Current Research Results Radiofrequency Background Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories Steps to reduce ... distance between your head and the cell phone. Hands-free kits Hand-free kits may include audio ...

315

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2013-04-01

316

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2010-04-01

317

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2010-04-01

318

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

319

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2013-04-01

320

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2012-04-01

321

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

322

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2014-04-01

323

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2012-04-01

324

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

325

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2011-04-01

326

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2011-04-01

327

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2014-04-01

328

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

329

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2010-04-01

330

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2013-04-01

331

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2012-04-01

332

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2014-04-01

333

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

334

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2011-04-01

335

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2011-04-01

336

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2010-04-01

337

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2014-04-01

338

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2012-04-01

339

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2013-04-01

340

21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories...Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope is...perform diagnostic and surgical procedures on the female genital... (2) Class I for gynecologic laparoscope...

2010-04-01

341

21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories...the various positions required during obstetric and gynecologic procedures. This generic type of device may include...

2010-04-01

342

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

2010-04-01

343

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

2011-04-01

344

Migrate, Differentiate, Proliferate, or Die: Pleiotropic Functions of an Apical "Apoptotic Caspase"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caspases, the cysteine proteases that cleave their substrates following an aspartate residue, primarily carry out two distinct functions: (i) activation of proinflammatory cytokines and (ii) execution of apoptosis. These two functions are considered to be unique to individual caspases; thus, some caspases act in apoptosis, whereas others have a role in inflammation. However, this dogma is now being challenged as nonapoptotic functions are ascribed to caspases that, until recently, were only known to function in cell death pathways. Recent work suggests that DRONC, the only initiator cell death caspase in Drosophila, may play a direct or indirect role in cell migration, sperm differentiation, and cell proliferation in addition to its function in cell death.

Sharad Kumar (Hanson Institute and Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science; REV)

2004-10-12

345

Identification time-delayed fractional order chaos with functional extrema model via differential evolution  

E-print Network

In this paper, a novel inversion mechanism of functional extrema model via the differential evolution algorithms(DE), is proposed to exactly identify time-delays fractional order chaos systems. With the functional extrema model, the unknown time-delays, systematic parameters and fractional-orders of the fractional chaos, are converted into independent variables of a non-negative multiple modal functions' minimization, as a particular case of the functional extrema model's minimization. And the objective of the model is to find their optimal combinations by DE in the predefined intervals, such that the objective functional is minimized. Simulations are done to identify two classical time-delayed fractional chaos, Logistic and Chen system, both in cases with noise and without. The experiments' results show that the proposed inversion mechanism for time-delay fractional-order chaotic systems is a successful methods, with the advantages of high precision and robustness.

Fei Gao; Xue-jing Lee; Feng-xia Fei; Heng-qing Tong

2013-08-12

346

Construct and Differential Item Functioning in the Assessment of Prescription Opioid Use Disorders Among American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the psychometric properties of diagnostic criteria for prescription analgesic opioid use disorders (OUDs) and to identify background predictors of a latent continuum for OUD liability. Method Data were drawn from the adolescent sample of the 2006 National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Item response theory (IRT) and multiple indicators–multiple causes methods were used to examine DSM-IV criteria for OUDs in a subsample of adolescents who reported nonmedical prescription opioid use in the past year (N = 1,290). Results Among nonmedical users of prescription opioids, the criteria of OUDs were arrayed along a single continuum of severity. All abuse criteria were endorsed at a severity level higher than D1 (tolerance) and D5 (time spent) but lower than D3 (taking larger amounts) and D4 (inability to cut down). Differential item functioning in reports of dependence symptoms across adolescents’ sex and race/ethnicity were identified: withdrawal, time spent, and continued use despite medical or psychological problems. Adjusting for the effects of differential item functioning and the demographic variables examined, female subjects were more likely than male subjects to exhibit a higher level of OUD liability. Conclusions Study findings do not support the DSM-IV’s current hierarchical distinction between abuse of and dependence on prescription opioids. Abuse symptoms in adolescents are not necessarily less severe than those of dependence. There is evidence of some differential item functioning in the assessment of OUDs. PMID:19318987

Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Yang, Chongming; Reeve, Bryce B.; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G.

2011-01-01

347

Spatial congregation of STAT binding directs selective nuclear architecture during T-cell functional differentiation.  

PubMed

Higher-order genome organization shows tissue-specific patterns. However, functional relevance and the mechanisms shaping the genome architecture are poorly understood. Here we report a profound shift from promiscuous to highly selective genome organization that accompanies the effector lineage choice of differentiating T cells. As multipotent naive cells receive antigenic signals and commit to a T helper (Th) pathway, the genome-wide contacts of a lineage-specific cytokine locus are preferentially enriched for functionally relevant genes. Despite the establishment of divergent interactomes and global reprogramming of transcription in Th1 versus Th2, the overall expression status of the contact genes is surprisingly similar between the two lineages. Importantly, during differentiation, the genomic contacts are retained and strengthened precisely at DNA binding sites of the specific lineage-determining STAT transcription factor. In cells from the specific STAT knock-out mouse, the signature cytokine locus is unable to shed the promiscuous contacts established in the naive T cells, indicating the importance of genomic STAT binding. Altogether, the global aggregation of STAT binding loci from genic and nongenic regions highlights a new role for differentiation-promoting transcription factors in direct specification of higher-order nuclear architecture through interacting with regulatory regions. Such subnuclear environments have significant implications for efficient functioning of the mature effector lymphocytes. PMID:23212947

Hakim, Ofir; Sung, Myong-Hee; Nakayamada, Shingo; Voss, Ty C; Baek, Songjoon; Hager, Gordon L

2013-03-01

348

From Monocytes to M1/M2 Macrophages: Phenotypical vs. Functional Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Studies on monocyte and macrophage biology and differentiation have revealed the pleiotropic activities of these cells. Macrophages are tissue sentinels that maintain tissue integrity by eliminating/repairing damaged cells and matrices. In this M2-like mode, they can also promote tumor growth. Conversely, M1-like macrophages are key effector cells for the elimination of pathogens, virally infected, and cancer cells. Macrophage differentiation from monocytes occurs in the tissue in concomitance with the acquisition of a functional phenotype that depends on microenvironmental signals, thereby accounting for the many and apparently opposed macrophage functions. Many questions arise. When monocytes differentiate into macrophages in a tissue (concomitantly adopting a specific functional program, M1 or M2), do they all die during the inflammatory reaction, or do some of them survive? Do those that survive become quiescent tissue macrophages, able to react as naďve cells to a new challenge? Or, do monocyte-derived tissue macrophages conserve a “memory” of their past inflammatory activation? This review will address some of these important questions under the general framework of the role of monocytes and macrophages in the initiation, development, resolution, and chronicization of inflammation. PMID:25368618

Italiani, Paola; Boraschi, Diana

2014-01-01

349

The Epsilon Expansion of Feynman Diagrams via Hypergeometric Functions and Differential Reduction  

E-print Network

Higher-order diagrams required for radiative corrections to mixed electroweak and QCD processes at the LHC and anticipated future colliders will require numerically stable representations of the associated Feynman diagrams. The hypergeometric representation supplies an analytic framework that is useful for deriving such stable representations. We discuss the reduction of Feynman diagrams to master integrals, and compare integration-by-parts methods to differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. We describe the problem of constructing higher-order terms in the epsilon expansion, and characterize the functions generated in such expansions.

S. A. Yost; V. V. Bytev; M. Yu. Kalmykov; B. A. Kniehl; B. F. L. Ward

2011-10-21

350

The Epsilon Expansion of Feynman Diagrams via Hypergeometric Functions and Differential Reduction  

E-print Network

Higher-order diagrams required for radiative corrections to mixed electroweak and QCD processes at the LHC and anticipated future colliders will require numerically stable representations of the associated Feynman diagrams. The hypergeometric representation supplies an analytic framework that is useful for deriving such stable representations. We discuss the reduction of Feynman diagrams to master integrals, and compare integration-by-parts methods to differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. We describe the problem of constructing higher-order terms in the epsilon expansion, and characterize the functions generated in such expansions.

Yost, S A; Kalmykov, M Yu; Kniehl, B A

2011-01-01

351

Cellular Trafficking of Phospholamban and Formation of Functional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum During Myocyte DIfferentiation  

SciTech Connect

The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) family members are transmembrane proteins that play an essential role in regulating intracellular calcium levels. Phospholamban (PLB), a 52 amino acid phosphoprotein, regulates SERCA activity in adult heart and skeletal muscle. Using the C2C12 myocyte cell line, we find endogenous PLB constitutively expressed in both myoblasts and myotubes, whereas SERCA expression coincides with activation of the differentiation program. PLB has a punctuate distribution in myoblasts changing to a reticular distribution in myotubes where it colocalizes with SERCAs. To examine the distribution and dynamics of PLB and SERCA, we expressed fluorescent fusion proteins (GFP, CFP, and YFP) of PLB and SERCA in myoblasts. Coexpressed PLB and SERCA localize to distinct cellular compartments in myoblasts but begin to colocalize as cells differentiate. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) studies show different recovery patterns for each protein in myoblasts confirming their localization to distinct compartments. To extend these studies, we created stable cell lines expressing O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) fusions with PLB or SERCA to track their localization as myocytes differentiate. These experiments demonstrate that PLB localizes to punctate vesicles in myoblasts and adopts a reticular distribution that coincides with SERCA distribution after differentiation. Colocalization experiments indicate that a subset of PLB in myoblasts colocalizes with endosomes, Golgi, and the plasma membrane however PLB also localizes to other, as yet unidentified vesicles. Our results indicate that differentiation plays a critical role in regulating PLB distribution to ensure its colocalization within the same cellular compartment as SERCA in differentiated cells. The presence and altered distribution of PLB in undifferentiated myoblasts raises the possibility that this protein has additional functions distinct from SERCA regulation.

Stenoien, David L.; Knyushko, Tatyana V.; Londono, Monica P.; Opresko, Lee; Mayer, M. Uljana; Brady, Scott T.; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.

2007-06-01

352

Drosophila E-Cadherin Functions in Hematopoietic Progenitors to Maintain Multipotency and Block Differentiation  

PubMed Central

A fundamental question in stem cell biology concerns the regulatory strategies that control the choice between multipotency and differentiation. Drosophila blood progenitors or prohemocytes exhibit key stem cell characteristics, including multipotency, quiescence, and niche dependence. As a result, studies of Drosophila hematopoiesis have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that control these processes. Here, we show that E-cadherin is an important regulator of prohemocyte fate choice, maintaining prohemocyte multipotency and blocking differentiation. These functions are reminiscent of the role of E-cadherin in mammalian embryonic stem cells. We also show that mis-expression of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes disrupts the boundary between these cells and undifferentiated prohemocytes. Additionally, upregulation of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes increases the number of intermediate cell types expressing the prohemocyte marker, Patched. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the Drosophila GATA transcriptional co-factor, U-shaped, is required for E-cadherin expression. Consequently, E-cadherin is a downstream target of U-shaped in the maintenance of prohemocyte multipotency. In contrast, we showed that forced expression of the U-shaped GATA-binding partner, Serpent, repressed E-cadherin expression and promoted lamellocyte differentiation. Thus, U-shaped may maintain E-cadherin expression by blocking the inhibitory activity of Serpent. Collectively, these observations suggest that GATA:FOG complex formation regulates E-cadherin levels and, thereby, the choice between multipotency and differentiation. The work presented in this report further defines the molecular basis of prohemocyte cell fate choice, which will provide important insights into the mechanisms that govern stem cell biology. PMID:24040319

Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

2013-01-01

353

Dynamic Rewiring of the Drosophila Retinal Determination Network Switches Its Function from Selector to Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Organ development is directed by selector gene networks. Eye development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is driven by the highly conserved selector gene network referred to as the “retinal determination gene network,” composed of approximately 20 factors, whose core comprises twin of eyeless (toy), eyeless (ey), sine oculis (so), dachshund (dac), and eyes absent (eya). These genes encode transcriptional regulators that are each necessary for normal eye development, and sufficient to direct ectopic eye development when misexpressed. While it is well documented that the downstream genes so, eya, and dac are necessary not only during early growth and determination stages but also during the differentiation phase of retinal development, it remains unknown how the retinal determination gene network terminates its functions in determination and begins to promote differentiation. Here, we identify a switch in the regulation of ey by the downstream retinal determination genes, which is essential for the transition from determination to differentiation. We found that central to the transition is a switch from positive regulation of ey transcription to negative regulation and that both types of regulation require so. Our results suggest a model in which the retinal determination gene network is rewired to end the growth and determination stage of eye development and trigger terminal differentiation. We conclude that changes in the regulatory relationships among members of the retinal determination gene network are a driving force for key transitions in retinal development. PMID:24009524

Sansores-Garcia, Leticia; Jusiak, Barbara; Halder, Georg; Mardon, Graeme

2013-01-01

354

Dynamic rewiring of the Drosophila retinal determination network switches its function from selector to differentiation.  

PubMed

Organ development is directed by selector gene networks. Eye development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is driven by the highly conserved selector gene network referred to as the "retinal determination gene network," composed of approximately 20 factors, whose core comprises twin of eyeless (toy), eyeless (ey), sine oculis (so), dachshund (dac), and eyes absent (eya). These genes encode transcriptional regulators that are each necessary for normal eye development, and sufficient to direct ectopic eye development when misexpressed. While it is well documented that the downstream genes so, eya, and dac are necessary not only during early growth and determination stages but also during the differentiation phase of retinal development, it remains unknown how the retinal determination gene network terminates its functions in determination and begins to promote differentiation. Here, we identify a switch in the regulation of ey by the downstream retinal determination genes, which is essential for the transition from determination to differentiation. We found that central to the transition is a switch from positive regulation of ey transcription to negative regulation and that both types of regulation require so. Our results suggest a model in which the retinal determination gene network is rewired to end the growth and determination stage of eye development and trigger terminal differentiation. We conclude that changes in the regulatory relationships among members of the retinal determination gene network are a driving force for key transitions in retinal development. PMID:24009524

Atkins, Mardelle; Jiang, Yuwei; Sansores-Garcia, Leticia; Jusiak, Barbara; Halder, Georg; Mardon, Graeme

2013-08-01

355

RotundRacGAP Functions with Ras during Spermatogenesis and Retinal Differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Our analysis of rotund (rn) null mutations in Drosophila melanogaster revealed that deletion of the rn locus affects both spermatid and retinal differentiation. In the male reproductive system, the absence of RnRacGAP induced small testes, empty seminal vesicles, short testicular cysts, reduced amounts of interspermatid membrane, the absence of individualization complexes, and incomplete mitochondrial condensation. Flagellar growth continued within the short rn null cysts to produce large bulbous terminations of intertwined mature flagella. Organization of the retina was also severely perturbed as evidenced by grossly misshapen ommatidia containing reduced numbers of photoreceptor and pigment cells. These morphological phenotypes were rescued by genomic rnRacGAP transgenes, demonstrating that RnRacGAP function is critical to spermatid and retinal differentiation. The testicular phenotypes were suppressed by heterozygous hypomorphic mutations in the Dras1 and drk genes, indicating cross talk between RacGAP-regulated signaling and that of the Ras pathway. The observed genetic interactions are consistent with a model in which Rac signaling is activated by Ras and negatively regulated by RnRacGAP during spermatid differentiation. RnRacGAP and Ras cross talk also operated during retinal differentiation; however, while the heterozygous hypomorphic drk mutation continued to act as a suppressor of the rn null mutation, the heterozygous hypomorphic Dras1 mutation induced novel retinal phenotypes. PMID:11509670

Bergeret, Evelyne; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Guichard, Annabel; Raymond, Karine; Fauvarque, Marie-Odile; Cazemajor, Michel; Griffin-Shea, Ruth

2001-01-01

356

Improving the odorant sensitivity of olfactory receptor-expressing yeast with accessory proteins.  

PubMed

Olfaction depends on the selectivity and sensitivity of olfactory receptors. Previous attempts at constructing a mammalian olfactory receptor-based artificial odorant sensing system in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffered from low sensitivity and activity. This result may be at least in part due to poor functional expression of olfactory receptors and/or limited solubility of some odorants in the medium. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of accessory proteins, receptor transporting protein 1 short and odorant binding proteins, in improving odor-mediated activation of olfactory receptors expressed in yeast. We found that receptor transporting protein 1 short enhanced the membrane expression and ligand-induced responses of some olfactory receptors. Coexpression of odorant binding proteins of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori enhanced the sensitivity of a mouse olfactory receptor. Our results suggest that different classes of accessory proteins can confer sensitive and robust responses of olfactory receptors expressed in yeast. Inclusion of accessory proteins may be essential in the future development of practical olfactory receptor-based odorant sensors. PMID:25449303

Fukutani, Yosuke; Hori, Ayaka; Tsukada, Satoshi; Sato, Ryoichi; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Yohda, Masafumi

2015-02-15

357

Adult human dental pulp stem cells differentiate toward functionally active neurons under appropriate environmental cues.  

PubMed

Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) reside within the perivascular niche of dental pulp and are thought to originate from migrating cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. During embryonic development, CNC cells differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, including neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Previously, we have demonstrated that DPSCs derived from adult human third molar teeth differentiate into cell types reminiscent of CNC embryonic ontology. We hypothesized that DPSCs exposed to the appropriate environmental cues would differentiate into functionally active neurons. The data demonstrated that ex vivo-expanded human adult DPSCs responded to neuronal inductive conditions both in vitro and in vivo. Human adult DPSCs, but not human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), acquired a neuronal morphology, and expressed neuronal-specific markers at both the gene and protein levels. Culture-expanded DPSCs also exhibited the capacity to produce a sodium current consistent with functional neuronal cells when exposed to neuronal inductive media. Furthermore, the response of human DPSCs and HFFs to endogenous neuronal environmental cues was determined in vivo using an avian xenotransplantation assay. DPSCs expressed neuronal markers and acquired a neuronal morphology following transplantation into the mesencephalon of embryonic day-2 chicken embryo, whereas HFFs maintained a thin spindle fibroblastic morphology. We propose that adult human DPSCs provide a readily accessible source of exogenous stem/precursor cells that have the potential for use in cell-therapeutic paradigms to treat neurological disease. PMID:18499892

Arthur, Agnes; Rychkov, Grigori; Shi, Songtao; Koblar, Simon Andrea; Gronthos, Stan

2008-07-01

358

Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 orchestrates invariant NKT cell differentiation and effector function.  

PubMed

Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells play critical roles in bridging innate and adaptive immunity. The Raptor containing mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) has been well documented to control peripheral CD4 or CD8 T cell effector or memory differentiation. However, the role of mTORC1 in iNKT cell development and function remains largely unknown. By using mice with T cell-restricted deletion of Raptor, we show that mTORC1 is selectively required for iNKT but not for conventional T cell development. Indeed, Raptor-deficient iNKT cells are mostly blocked at thymic stage 1-2, resulting in a dramatic decrease of terminal differentiation into stage 3 and severe reduction of peripheral iNKT cells. Moreover, residual iNKT cells in Raptor knockout mice are impaired in their rapid cytokine production upon ?Galcer challenge. Bone marrow chimera studies demonstrate that mTORC1 controls iNKT differentiation in a cell-intrinsic manner. Collectively, our data provide the genetic evidence that iNKT cell development and effector functions are under the control of mTORC1 signaling. PMID:25015820

Zhang, Lianjun; Tschumi, Benjamin O; Corgnac, Stéphanie; Rüegg, Markus A; Hall, Michael N; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Romero, Pedro; Donda, Alena

2014-08-15

359

HIF-2? downregulation in the absence of functional VHL is not sufficient for renal cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background Mutational inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene has been linked to hereditary as well as sporadic clear cell renal carcinomas. The product of the VHL gene, pVHL, acts to target hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-?) subunits for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Using an RNA interference approach to lower levels of HIF-2? in two different renal cell lines that lack functional pVHL, we have tested the contribution of HIF-2? toward cellular pVHL activities. Results Knockdown of HIF-2? resulted in cell cycle arrest of renal cells that were grown on collagen I, indicating that this pVHL function is dependent on HIF-2? regulation. However, cellular morphological changes and downregulation of integrins ?5 and ?1, which were seen upon pVHL replacement, were not faithfully phenocopied by HIF-2? reduction. Moreover, fibronectin deposition and expression of renal cell differentiation markers were observed in cells containing replaced pVHL, but not in HIF-2? knockdown cells, indicating that these pVHL functions may occur independently of HIF-2? downregulation. Conclusion These results indicate that HIF-2? regulation is not sufficient for pVHL-induced renal cell differentiation. We hypothesize that in addition to HIF-2? dysregulation, abrogation of additional pVHL functions is required for the initiation of renal carcinogenesis. PMID:17598890

Hughes, Michael D; Kapllani, Erilda; Alexander, Ashlynn E; Burk, Robert D; Schoenfeld, Alan R

2007-01-01

360

Midbrain cues dictate differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells towards functional dopaminergic neurons.  

PubMed

Dental pulp originating from the neural crest is considered a better source of postnatal stem cells for cell-based therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) have been shown to differentiate into cell-types of cranial neural crest ontology; however, their ability to differentiate to functional neurons of the central nervous system remains to be studied. We hypothesized that midbrain cues might commit DPSCs to differentiate to functional dopaminergic cell-type. As expected, DPSCs in their naďve state spontaneously expressed early and mature neuronal markers like nestin, musashi12, ? tubulin III, and Map2ab. On exposure to midbrain cues (sonic hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor 8 and basic fibroblast growth factor), DPSCs showed upregulation of dopaminergic neuron-specific transcription factors Nuclear Receptor related protein 1 (Nurr1), Engrailed 1 (En1) and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 3 (Pitx3) as revealed by real-time RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed enhanced expression of mature neuronal marker Map2ab and dopaminergic-neuronal markers [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), En1, Nurr1, and Pitx3], with nearly 77% of the induced DPSCs positive for TH. Functional studies indicated that the induced DPSCs could secrete dopamine constitutively and upon stimulation with potassium chloride (KCl) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as measured by dopamine ELISA. Additionally, the induced DPSCs showed intracellular Ca(2+) influx in the presence of KCl, unlike control DPSCs. ATP-stimulated Ca(2+) influx was observed in control and induced DPSCs, but only the induced cells secreted dopamine. Our data clearly demonstrate for the first time that DPSCs in the presence of embryonic midbrain cues show efficient propensity towards functional dopaminergic cell-type. PMID:24477667

Kanafi, Mohammad; Majumdar, Debanjana; Bhonde, Ramesh; Gupta, Pawan; Datta, Indrani

2014-10-01

361

Gossiping Differential Evolution: a decentralized heuristic for function optimization in P2P networks  

E-print Network

Abstract—P2P-based optimization has recently gained interest among distributed function optimization scientists. Several wellknown optimization heuristics have been recently re-designed to exploit the peculiarity of such a distributed environment. The final goal is to perform high quality function optimization by means of inexpensive, fully decentralized machines, which may either be purposely organized in a P2P network, or voluntarily join a running P2P optimization task. In this paper we present the GoDE algorithm (Gossip-based Differential Evolution), which obtains remarkable results on several test functions. We describe in detail the algorithm design and the epidemic mechanism that greatly improves the performance. Experimental results in a simulated environment show how GoDE adapts to network scale and how the epidemic communication protocol can make the algorithm achieve good results even in presence of a high churn

Marco Biazzini; Alberto Montresor

362

MYC2 Differentially Modulates Diverse Jasmonate-Dependent Functions in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix Leu zipper transcription factor (TF) MYC2/JIN1 differentially regulates jasmonate (JA)-responsive pathogen defense (e.g., PDF1.2) and wound response (e.g., VSP) genes. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of wild type and mutant myc2/jin1 plants followed by functional analyses has revealed new roles for MYC2 in the modulation of diverse JA functions. We found that MYC2 negatively regulates Trp and Trp-derived secondary metabolism such as indole glucosinolate biosynthesis during JA signaling. Furthermore, MYC2 positively regulates JA-mediated resistance to insect pests, such as Helicoverpa armigera, and tolerance to oxidative stress, possibly via enhanced ascorbate redox cycling and flavonoid biosynthesis. Analyses of MYC2 cis binding elements and expression of MYC2-regulated genes in T-DNA insertion lines of a subset of MYC2–regulated TFs suggested that MYC2 might modulate JA responses via differential regulation of an intermediate spectrum of TFs with activating or repressing roles in JA signaling. MYC2 also negatively regulates its own expression, and this may be one of the mechanisms used in fine-tuning JA signaling. Overall, these results provide new insights into the function of MYC2 and the transcriptional coordination of the JA signaling pathway. PMID:17616737

Dombrecht, Bruno; Xue, Gang Ping; Sprague, Susan J.; Kirkegaard, John A.; Ross, John J.; Reid, James B.; Fitt, Gary P.; Sewelam, Nasser; Schenk, Peer M.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

2007-01-01

363

Interleukin-21 suppresses the differentiation and functions of T helper 2 cells.  

PubMed

T helper (Th) 2 cells, which produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, control immunity to all forms of allergic inflammatory responses. IL-21 reduces allergic symptoms in murine models and inhibits IL-4-induced IgE secretion by B cells. However, whether or not IL-21 directly affects Th2 cells which leads to reduced allergic symptoms is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-21 on the differentiation and effector functions of Th2 cells. We found that IL-21 reduced the number of differentiated Th2 cells and these Th2 cells showed a diminished Th2 cytokine production. IL-21 suppressed Th2 cytokine production of already polarized Th2 cells by downregulation of transcription factor GATA-3. IL-21 also induced apoptosis of Th2 cells with decreased anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Intranasal administration of IL-21 at the beginning of OVA sensitization or before OVA challenge decreased Th2 cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA/alum immunized allergic mice. In addition, the inhibitory effects of IL-21 on Th2 effector functions can also be found in allergic patients. Our results demonstrate that IL-21 suppresses the development of Th2 cells and functions of polarized Th2 cells. Hence, the administration of IL-21 may be considered for use as a preventive and therapeutic approach when dealing with Th2 mediated allergic diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25351608

Lin, Pin-Yi; Jen, Hsiao-Yu; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Sheu, Fuu; Chuang, Ya-Hui

2014-10-28

364

Differential phosphodiesterase activity contributes to restrictive endothelial barrier function during angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Angiogenic endothelial hyperpermeability is abruptly diminished between days 4.5 and 5.0 of the 18-day lifespan of the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Here, we evaluated phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity during the differentiation of barrier function. At day 4.5, rolipram-mediated inhibition of cAMP-specific PDE IV reduced FITC-dextran extravasation. Moreover, inhibition of PDE III by HL 725, but not PDE I by 8-IBMX, decreased the temporal angiogenic endothelial hyperpermeability. Reduced FITC-dextran was also observed at day 4.5 after application of KT 5823, a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific protein kinase G (PKG), LY 83583, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, or LNMMA, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. At day 5.0, Rp-cAMPS-mediated inhibition of cAMP-specific protein kinase A (PKA) diminished barrier function and interstitial accumulation of FITC-dextran was increased. In all cases, the mean widths of interendothelial separation remained uniform. Together, the results support the concept that differentiation of restrictive angiogenic endothelial barrier function in vivo includes inactivation of PDE III and PDE IV with consequent up-regulation of cAMP/PKA signaling and down-regulation of the cGMP/PKG pathway. PMID:11678629

DeFouw, L M; DeFouw, D O

2001-11-01

365

Function of the c-Myc antagonist Mad1 during a molecular switch from proliferation to differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Mad-Max heterodimers have been shown to antagonize Myc transforming activity by a mechanism requiring multiple protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. However, the mechanism by which Mad functions in differentiation is unknown. Here, we present evidence that Mad functions by an active repression mechanism to antagonize the growth-promoting function(s) of Myc and bring about a transition from cellular proliferation to differentiation. We demonstrate that exogenously expressed c-Myc blocks inducer-mediated differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells without disrupting the induction of endogenous Mad; rather, high levels of c-Myc prevent a heterocomplex switch from growth-promoting Myc-Max to growth-inhibitory Mad-Max. Cotransfection of a constitutive c-myc with a zinc-inducible mad1 results in clones expressing both genes, whereby a switch from proliferation to differentiation can be modulated. Whereas cells grown in N'N'-hexamethylene bisacetamide in the absence of zinc fail to differentiate, addition of zinc up-regulates Mad expression by severalfold and differentiation proceeds normally. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis reveals that Mad-Max complexes are in excess of Myc-Max in these cotransfectants. Moreover, we show that the Sin-binding, basic region, and leucine zipper motifs are required for Mad to function during a molecular switch from proliferation to differentiation. PMID:9111304

Cultraro, C M; Bino, T; Segal, S

1997-01-01

366

Direct differentiation of homogeneous human adipose stem cells into functional hepatocytes by mimicking liver embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The potential of adult human adipose tissue stem cells (hASCs) to differentiate into hepatocytes has generated much excitement over the possible use of hASCs in therapeutic applications. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the plasticity of hASCs toward hepatocytes will help to make this possibility a reality. Herein, we show that a homogenous population of hASCs characterized by a high level of CD73, CD90, and CD105 express the pluripotent transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and SALL4 under proliferation conditions. A high level of activin A allows for hASCs acquiring the fate of definitive endoderm (DE) cells and expressing the specific transcription factors HEX, FOXA2, SOX17, and GATA4 synchronously. Using a reproducible three-stage method by mimicking liver embryogenesis, hASCs were directed to differentiate into functional hepatocytes. In the first stage, hASCs were induced to become DE cells by 2 days cultured in serum-free medium and 3 days of activin A treatment. Next, the presence of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 4 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 in the medium for 5 days induced efficient hepatic differentiation from DE cells. After 10 days of further maturated by the sequential exposure to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), oncostatin M (OSM), and dexamethasone (DEX), the hASC-derived hepatocytes expressed mature hepatocytes marker and exhibited functional characterization, including albumin secretion, glycogen storage, urea production, activity of drug transporters, and cytochrome P450 activity. These findings will be useful for the implementation of hASC-derived hepatocytes in therapeutic purposes, metabolic analyses, drug toxicity screening, and studies of hepatocyte function. PMID:24166453

Li, Xueyang; Yuan, Jie; Li, Weihong; Liu, Sicheng; Hua, Mingxi; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Haiyan

2014-06-01

367

The algebraic independence of the values of E-functions satisfying linear first-order differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we prove a general theorem on the algebraic independence of the values, at algebraic points, of a set of E-functions each of which satisfies a first-order linear differential equation with polynomial coefficients.

V. Kh. Salikhov

1973-01-01

368

Differential Abundance of Microbial Functional Groups along the Elevation Gradient from the Coast to the Luquillo Mountains  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial communities respond to multiple abiotic and biotic factors that change along elevation gradients. We compare changes in microbial community composition in soil and review previous research on differential abundance of microbial functional groups along an elevation gradi...

369

CD 19 function in central and peripheral B-cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) factors most prominently in the maintenance and differentiation of mature B cells,\\u000a it is now appreciated that co-receptor molecules can positively or negatively modulate signals through the BCR. Co-receptors\\u000a are functionally defined as modifiers of BCR engagement and signal transuction, and are distinct from other accessory molecules\\u000a that act independently to regulate B-cell growth.

Christopher J. Del Nagro; Dennis C. Otero; Amy N. Anzelon; Sidne A. Omori; Ravi V. Kolla; Robert C. Rickert

2005-01-01

370

Discontinuous initial value problems for functional differential-algebraic equations of mixed type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the well-posedness of initial value problems for nonlinear functional differential-algebraic equations of mixed type. We are interested in solutions to such problems that admit a single jump discontinuity at time zero. We focus specially on the question whether unstable equilibria can be stabilized by appropriately choosing the size of the jump discontinuity. We illustrate our techniques by analytically studying an economic model for the interplay between inflation and interest rates. In particular, we investigate under which circumstances the central bank can prevent runaway inflation by appropriately hiking the interest rate.

d'Albis, H.; Augeraud-Véron, E.; Hupkes, H. J.

371

Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with glaucoma from DNA microarray data.  

PubMed

Microarray data of astrocytes extracted from the optic nerves of donors with and without glaucoma were analyzed to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Functional exploration with bioinformatic tools was then used to understand the roles of the identified DEGs in glaucoma. Microarray data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, which contains 13 astrocyte samples, 6 from healthy subjects and 7 from patients suffering from glaucoma. Data were pre-processed, and DEGs were screened out using R software packages. Interactions between DEGs were identified, and networks were built using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING). GENECODIS was utilized for the functional analysis of the DEGs, and GOTM was used for module division, for which functional annotation was conducted with the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). A total of 371 DEGs were identified between glaucoma-associated samples and normal samples. Three modules included in the PPID database were generated with 11, 12, and 2 significant functional annotations, including immune system processes, inflammatory responses, and synaptic vesicle endocytosis, respectively. We found that the most significantly enriched functions for each module were associated with immune function. Several genes that play interesting roles in the development of glaucoma are described; these genes may be potential biomarkers for glaucoma diagnosis or treatment. PMID:25501152

Wu, Y; Zang, W D; Jiang, W

2014-01-01

372

Mutational Signatures of De-Differentiation in Functional Non-Coding Regions of Melanoma Genomes  

PubMed Central

Much emphasis has been placed on the identification, functional characterization, and therapeutic potential of somatic variants in tumor genomes. However, the majority of somatic variants lie outside coding regions and their role in cancer progression remains to be determined. In order to establish a system to test the functional importance of non-coding somatic variants in cancer, we created a low-passage cell culture of a metastatic melanoma tumor sample. As a foundation for interpreting functional assays, we performed whole-genome sequencing and analysis of this cell culture, the metastatic tumor from which it was derived, and the patient-matched normal genomes. When comparing somatic mutations identified in the cell culture and tissue genomes, we observe concordance at the majority of single nucleotide variants, whereas copy number changes are more variable. To understand the functional impact of non-coding somatic variation, we leveraged functional data generated by the ENCODE Project Consortium. We analyzed regulatory regions derived from multiple different cell types and found that melanocyte-specific regions are among the most depleted for somatic mutation accumulation. Significant depletion in other cell types suggests the metastatic melanoma cells de-differentiated to a more basal regulatory state. Experimental identification of genome-wide regulatory sites in two different melanoma samples supports this observation. Together, these results show that mutation accumulation in metastatic melanoma is nonrandom across the genome and that a de-differentiated regulatory architecture is common among different samples. Our findings enable identification of the underlying genetic components of melanoma and define the differences between a tissue-derived tumor sample and the cell culture created from it. Such information helps establish a broader mechanistic understanding of the linkage between non-coding genomic variations and the cellular evolution of cancer. PMID:22912592

Parker, Stephen C. J.; Gartner, Jared; Cardenas-Navia, Isabel; Wei, Xiaomu; Ozel Abaan, Hatice; Ajay, Subramanian S.; Hansen, Nancy F.; Song, Lingyun; Bhanot, Umesh K.; Killian, J. Keith; Gindin, Yevgeniy; Walker, Robert L.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Mullikin, James C.; Furey, Terrence S.; Crawford, Gregory E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Samuels, Yardena; Margulies, Elliott H.

2012-01-01

373

Bipolar and borderline patients display differential patterns of functional connectivity among resting state networks.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality (BPD) disorder share clinical features such as emotional lability and poor interpersonal functioning but the course of illness and treatment differs in these groups, which suggests that the underlying neurobiology of BD and BPD is likely to be different. Understanding the neural mechanisms behind the pathophysiology of BD and BPD will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform the administration of targeted treatment. Since deficits in social cognition or emotion regulation or in the self-referential processing system can give rise to these clinical features, and impairment in these domains have been observed in both patient groups, functional connectivity within and between networks subserving these processes during resting was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Data were acquired from 16 patients with BD, 14 patients with BPD, and 13 healthy controls (HC) and functional connectivity strength was correlated with scores using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Functional network connectivity (FNC) patterns differentiated BD and BPD patients from HC. In BD, FNC was increased while in BPD it was decreased. In BD impaired FNC was evident primarily among networks involved in self-referential processing while in BPD it also involved the emotion regulatory network. Impaired FNC displayed an association with impulsivity in BPD and emotional clarity and emotional awareness in BD. This study shows that BD and BPD can perhaps be differentiated using resting state FNC approach and that the neural mechanisms underpinning overlapping symptoms discernibly differ between the groups. These findings provide a potential platform for elucidating the targeted effects of psychological interventions in both disorders. PMID:24793833

Das, Pritha; Calhoun, Vince; Malhi, Gin S

2014-09-01

374

Role of epidermis-type lipoxygenases for skin barrier function and adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

12R-lipoxygenase (12R-LOX) and epidermis-type LOX-3 (eLOX-3) are novel members of the multigene family of mammalian LOX. A considerable gap exists between the identification of these enzymes and their biologic function. Here, we present evidence that 12R-LOX and eLOX-3, acting in sequence, and eLOX-3 in combination with another, not yet identified LOX are critically involved in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and adipocytes, respectively. Mutational inactivation of 12R-LOX and/or eLOX-3 has been found to be associated with development of an inherited ichthyosiform skin disorder in humans and genetic ablation of 12R-LOX causes a severe impairment of the epidermal lipid barrier in mice leading to post-natal death of the animals. In preadipocytes, a LOX-dependent PPARgamma activating ligand is released into the cell supernatant early upon induction of differentiation and available evidence indicates that this ligand is an eLOX-3-derived product. In accordance with this data is the observation that forced expression of eLOX-3 enhances adipocyte differentiation. PMID:17164140

Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Epp, Nikolas; Eckl, Katja-Martina; Hennies, Hans Christian; Jřrgensen, Claus; Hallenborg, Philip; Kristiansen, Karsten; Krieg, Peter

2007-01-01

375

Differential PAX3 functions in normal skin melanocytes and melanoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} PAX3 retains embryonic roles in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. {yields} Promotes 'stem' cell-like phenotype via NES and SOX9 in both cells types. {yields} Regulates melanoma and melanocyte migration through MCAM and CSPG4. {yields} PAX3 regulates melanoma but not melanocyte proliferation via TPD52. {yields} Regulates melanoma cell (but not melanocyte) survival via BCL2L1 and PTEN. -- Abstract: The PAX3 transcription factor is the key regulator of melanocyte development during embryogenesis and is also frequently found in melanoma cells. While PAX3 is known to regulate melanocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration during development, it is not clear if its function is maintained in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. To clarify this we have assessed which genes are targeted by PAX3 in these cells. We show here that similar to its roles in development, PAX3 regulates complex differentiation networks in both melanoma cells and melanocytes, in order to maintain cells as 'stem' cell-like (via NES and SOX9). We show also that mediators of migration (MCAM and CSPG4) are common to both cell types but more so in melanoma cells. By contrast, PAX3-mediated regulation of melanoma cell proliferation (through TPD52) and survival (via BCL2L1 and PTEN) differs from that in melanocytes. These results suggest that by controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration as well as maintaining a less differentiated 'stem' cell like phenotype, PAX3 may contribute to melanoma development and progression.

Medic, Sandra [School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA (Australia)] [School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA (Australia); Rizos, Helen [Westmead Institute for Cancer Research and Melanoma Institute of Australia, University of Sydney at Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW (Australia)] [Westmead Institute for Cancer Research and Melanoma Institute of Australia, University of Sydney at Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW (Australia); Ziman, Mel, E-mail: m.ziman@ecu.edu.au [School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA (Australia) [School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA (Australia); School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

2011-08-12

376

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

377

Accessory Anterolateral Talar Facet as an Etiology of Painful Talocalcaneal Impingement in the Rigid Flatfoot: A New Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

A retrospective review identified six patients with seven painful rigid flatfeet. In each case, pain was localized laterally to an accessory facet of the anterolateral talus. cross-sectional imaging demonstrated no evidence of tarsal coalition. In five of the six, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and in each case demonstrated focal abutting bone marrow edema consistent with impingement between the accessory facet and the anterior calcaneus. Seven feet in six patients underwent resection of the accessory facet with additional subtalar joint-sparing reconstructive procedures. At an average follow-up of 11 months, clinical results were graded as four good and two fair. An association between this accessory facet and pain in the rigid flatfoot has not been previously reported. Obesity was universal and may represent a risk factor for facet impingement. At early follow-up, facet resection with subtalar joint-sparing flatfoot reconstruction provided good results with symptomatic and functional improvement in the majority of patients. PMID:19223941

Martus, Jeffrey E.; Femino, John E.; Caird, Michelle S.; Kuhns, Lawrence R.; Craig, Clifford L.; Farley, Frances A.

2008-01-01

378

A novel application of radial basis functions for solving a model of first-order integro-ordinary differential equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions (RBFs) have been considered; one is computed through the differentiation process (DRBF) and the other one is computed through the integration process (IRBF). We investigate these two approaches on the Volterra's Population Model which is an integro-differential equation without converting it to an ordinary differential equation. To solve the problem, we use four well-known radial basis functions: Multiquadrics (MQ), Inverse multiquadrics (IMQ), Gaussian (GA) and Hyperbolic secant (sech) which is a newborn RBF. Numerical results and residual norm (?R(t)?2) show good accuracy and rate of convergence of two common approaches.

Parand, K.; Abbasbandy, S.; Kazem, S.; Rad, J. A.

2011-11-01

379

Either main or accessory olfactory system signaling can mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female chemosignals in sexually naive male mice.  

PubMed

A long-held view has been that interest of male mice in female body odors reflects an activation of reward circuits in the male brain following their detection by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and processing via the accessory olfactory system. We found that adult, sexually naive male mice acquired a conditioned place preference (CPP) after repeatedly receiving estrous female urine on the nose and being placed in an initially nonpreferred chamber with soiled estrous bedding on the floor. CPP was not acquired in control mice that received saline on the nose before being placed in a nonpreferred chamber with clean bedding. Robust acquisition of a CPP using estrous female odors as the reward persisted in separate groups of mice in which VNO-accessory olfactory function was disrupted by bilateral lesioning of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) or in which main olfactory function was disrupted by zinc sulfate lesions of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). By contrast, no CPP was acquired for estrous odors in males that received combined AOB and MOE lesions. Either the main or the accessory olfactory system suffices to mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female odors in the male mouse, even in the absence of prior mating experience. The main olfactory system is part of the circuitry that responds to chemosignals involved in motivated behavior, a role that may be particularly important for humans who lack a functional accessory olfactory system. PMID:23978150

Korzan, Wayne J; Freamat, Mihael; Johnson, Adam G; Cherry, James A; Baum, Michael J

2013-10-01

380

On the integration of the differential equations of five-parametric double-hypergeometric functions of second order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions of the differential equations associated with Appell’s hypergeometric function F2 (a,b1,b2,c1,c2; x1,x2) are obtained by considering them as a Laplace transform of a product of two confluent hypergeometric functions. Since these differential equations may be transformed into the equations associated with Appell’s function F3(a,b1,b2,c1,c2; x1,x2) and Horn’s function H2(a,b,c,d,e; x1,x2), these equations are solved simultaneously. A set of 36

P. O. M. Olsson; I NTRODUCT ION

1977-01-01

381

On the integration of the differential equations of five-parametric double-hypergeometric functions of second order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions of the differential equations associated with Appell's hypergeometric function F2 (a,b1,b2,c1,c2; x1,x2) are obtained by considering them as a Laplace transform of a product of two confluent hypergeometric functions. Since these differential equations may be transformed into the equations associated with Appell's function F3(a,b1,b2,c1,c2; x1,x2) and Horn's function H2(a,b,c,d,e; x1,x2), these equations are solved simultaneously. A set of 36

P. O. M. Olsson

1977-01-01

382

Growth-differentiation factor-15 and functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Blood biomarkers may improve the performance in predicting early stroke outcome beyond well-established clinical factors. We investigated the value of growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) to predict functional outcome after 90 days in a prospectively collected patient cohort with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke. Two hundred eighty-one patients with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke were prospectively investigated. Serial blood samples for GDF-15 analysis were obtained after the admission of the patient, after 6 and 24 h. Primary outcome was the dichotomized modified ranking scale (MRS) 90 days after the initial clinical event. Within the final study population (264 patients, mean age 70.3 ± 12.7 years, 55.3% male), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIH-SS) [odds ratio (OR) 1.269, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.141-1.412, p < 0.001] and initial GDF-15 levels (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.007-1.053, p = 0.011) were independently associated with a MRS ? 2 after day 90 after multiple regression analysis. Growth-differentiation factor-15 levels increase with higher NIH-SS-tertiles (p = 0.005). Receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrated a discriminatory accuracy to predict unfavourable stroke outcome of 0.629 (95% CI 0.558-0.699), 0.753 (95% CI 0.693-812) and 0.774 (95% CI 0.717-0.832) for GDF-15, NIH-SS and the combination of these variables. The additional use of GDF-15 to NIH-SS ameliorates the model with a net reclassification index of 0.044 (p = 0.541) and integrated discrimination improvement of 0.034 (p = 0.443). Growth-differentiation factor-15 as an acute stroke biomarker independently predicts unfavourable functional 90 day stroke outcome. Discriminatory value in addition to NIH-SS is only modestly distinct. PMID:22231869

Gröschel, Klaus; Schnaudigel, Sonja; Edelmann, Frank; Niehaus, Cord-Friedrich; Weber-Krüger, Mark; Haase, Beatrice; Lahno, Rosine; Seegers, Joachim; Wasser, Katrin; Wohlfahrt, Janin; Vollmann, Dirk; Stahrenberg, Raoul; Wachter, Rolf

2012-08-01

383

Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into highly functional classical brown adipocytes.  

PubMed

We describe a detailed method for directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), into functional classical brown adipocytes (BAs) under serum-free and feeder-free conditions. It is a two-tiered culture system, based on very simple techniques, a floating culture and a subsequent adherent culture. It does not require gene transfer. The entire process can be carried out in about 10 days. The key point is the usage of our special hematopoietic cytokine cocktail. Almost all the differentiated cells express uncoupling protein 1, a BA-selective marker, as determined by immunostaining. The differentiated cells show characteristics of classical BA as assessed by morphology and gene/protein expression. Moreover, the expression of myoblast marker genes is transiently induced during the floating culture step. hESC/hiPSC-derived BAs show significantly higher oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) than white adipocytes generated from human mesenchymal stem cell. They also show responsiveness to adrenergic stimuli, with about twofold upregulation in OCR by ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) agonist treatments. hESC/hiPSC-derived BAs exert in vivo calorigenic activities in response to ?-AR agonist treatments as assessed by thermography. Finally, lipid and glucose metabolisms are significantly improved in hESC/hiPSC-derived BA-transplanted mice. Our system provides a highly feasible way to produce functional classical BA bearing metabolism-improving capacities from hESC/hiPSC under a feeder-free and serum-free condition without gene transfer. PMID:24480347

Nishio, Miwako; Saeki, Kumiko

2014-01-01

384

Cisd2 modulates the differentiation and functioning of adipocytes by regulating intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.  

PubMed

CISD2 is a causative gene associated with Wolfram syndrome (WFS). However, it remains a mystery as to how the loss of CISD2 causes metabolic defects in patients with WFS. Investigation on the role played by Cisd2 in specific cell types may help us to resolve these underlying mechanisms. White adipose tissue (WAT) is central to the maintenance of energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis in humans. In this study, adipocyte-specific Cisd2 knockout (KO) mice showed impairment in the development of epididymal WAT (eWAT) in the cell autonomous manner. A lack of Cisd2 caused defects in the biogenesis and function of mitochondria during differentiation of adipocytes in vitro. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and secretion of adiponectin by the Cisd2 KO adipocytes were decreased. Moreover, Cisd2 deficiency increased the cytosolic level of Ca(2+) and induced Ca(2+)-calcineurin-dependent signaling that inhibited adipogenesis. Importantly, Cisd2 was found to interact with Gimap5 on the mitochondrial and ER membranes and thereby modulate mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake associated with the maintenance of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in adipocytes. Thus, it would seem that Cisd2 plays an important role in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, which is required for the differentiation and functioning of adipocytes as well as the regulation of glucose homeostasis in mice. PMID:24833725

Wang, Chih-Hao; Chen, Yi-Fan; Wu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Pei-Chun; Huang, Yi-Long; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Kao, Lung-Sen; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Wei, Yau-Huei

2014-09-15

385

The overtures of preschool social skill intervention agents. Differential rates, forms, and functions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the differential topographies and functions of social behaviors directed by normally developing preschoolers to their playmates with autism. Social interaction data from intervention phases of a study by Kohler, Strain, Hoyson, DeCesare, Donina, and Rapp were analyzed in three different ways. First, the frequency of four behaviors commonly included in social interaction training or assessment procedures (i.e., play organizer suggestions, share offers or requests, assistance offers or requests, and general statements) was examined. Second, the effects of each peer behavior on the immediate response of 3 children with autism were examined. Finally, the impact of each behavior that led to a positive response on the duration of subsequent target child-peer social interactions was examined. The four social behaviors had differential topographical and functional properties. Shares and play organizers occurred most frequently and generated the highest proportion of positive responses from all 3 children with autism. Conversely, assistance offers or requests occurred less often and received a lower percentage of positive responses. However, assistance behaviors consistently led to the longest social interactions. Implications of these results for future social skills training and research are discussed. PMID:1417712

Kohler, F W; Strain, P S; Shearer, D D

1992-10-01

386

Senseless functions as a molecular switch for color photoreceptor differentiation in Drosophila.  

PubMed

A major question in development is how different specialized cell types arise from a common progenitor. In the adult Drosophila compound eye, color discrimination is achieved by UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptors (PRs). These different PR subsets arise from neuronal precursors called R7 and R8 cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that R7-based UV-sensitive PRs require the repression of R8-based blue/green-sensitive PR characteristics to properly develop. This repression is mediated by the transcription factor Prospero (Pros). Here, we report that Senseless (Sens), a Drosophila ortholog of the vertebrate Gfi1 transcription factor, plays an opposing role to Pros by both negatively regulating R7-based features and positively enforcing R8-based features during terminal differentiation. In addition, we demonstrate that Pros and Sens function together with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd) to oppositely regulate R7 and R8 PR Rhodopsin gene expression in vitro. These data show that sens, previously shown to be essential for neuronal specification, also controls differentiation of specific neuronal subtypes in the retina. Interestingly, Pros has recently been shown to function as a tumor suppressor, whereas Gfi1 is a well-characterized oncogene. Thus, we propose that sens/pros antagonism is important for regulating many biological processes. PMID:17978002

Xie, Baotong; Charlton-Perkins, Mark; McDonald, Elizabeth; Gebelein, Brian; Cook, Tiffany

2007-12-01

387

Dynamic functional connectomics signatures for characterization and differentiation of PTSD patients.  

PubMed

Functional connectomes (FCs) have been recently shown to be powerful in characterizing brain conditions. However, many previous studies assumed temporal stationarity of FCs, while their temporal dynamics are rarely explored. Here, based on the structural connectomes constructed from diffusion tensor imaging data, FCs are derived from resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data and are then temporally divided into quasi-stable segments via a sliding time window approach. After integrating and pooling over a large number of those temporally quasi-stable FC segments from 44 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and 51 healthy controls, common FC (CFC) patterns are derived via effective dictionary learning and sparse coding algorithms. It is found that there are 16 CFC patterns that are reproducible across healthy controls, and interestingly, two additional CFC patterns with altered connectivity patterns [termed signature FC (SFC) here] exist dominantly in PTSD subjects. These two SFC patterns alone can successfully differentiate 80% of PTSD subjects from healthy controls with only 2% false positive. Furthermore, the temporal transition dynamics of CFC patterns in PTSD subjects are substantially different from those in healthy controls. These results have been replicated in separate testing datasets, suggesting that dynamic functional connectomics signatures can effectively characterize and differentiate PTSD patients. PMID:23671011

Li, Xiang; Zhu, Dajiang; Jiang, Xi; Jin, Changfeng; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Xiaoping; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming

2014-04-01

388

Management of bile duct injuries combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Bile duct injuries (BDIs) are difficult to avoid absolutely when the biliary tract has a malformation, such as accessory hepatic duct. Here, we investigated the management strategies for BDI combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25232275

Ren, Pei-Tu; Lu, Bao-Chun; Yu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Xin

2014-01-01

389

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2012-04-01

390

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2011-04-01

391

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2011-04-01

392

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2012-04-01

393

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2013-04-01

394

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2013-04-01

395

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2010-04-01

396

77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY...Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of...

2012-06-25

397

77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY...Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of...

2012-02-03

398

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2013-04-01

399

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2011-04-01

400

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2010-04-01

401

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2012-04-01

402

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. 121.8...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. (a) An...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2014-04-01

403

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2012-04-01

404

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2013-04-01

405

77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest...exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark Registration...

2012-03-15

406

77 FR 22802 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of U.S. Trademark...

2012-04-17

407

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2010-04-01

408

Memory Functioning and Negative Symptoms as Differential Predictors of Social Problem Solving Skills in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Method Sixty outpatients (aged 21 – 65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. Results An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Conclusions Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. PMID:23235142

Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R.; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S.

2014-01-01

409

Ethnic differential item functioning in the assessment of quality of life in cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Past research has shown that Filipino cancer patients report lower levels of quality of life (QoL) than other ethnic groups. One possible explanation for this is that Filipinos do not define QoL in the same manner as others, resulting in bias in their assessments. Hence, Filipinos would not necessarily have lower QoL. Methods Item response theory methods were used to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in the quality of life (measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30) of cancer patients across four ethnic groups (Caucasian, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Japanese). The sample consisted of 359 cancer patients. Results Results showed the presence of DIF on several items, indicating ethnic differences in the assessment of quality of life. Relative to the Caucasian and Japanese groups, items related to physical functioning, cognitive functioning, social functioning, nausea and vomiting, and financial difficulties exhibited DIF for Filipinos. On these items Filipinos exhibited either higher or lower QoL scores, even though their overall QoL was the same. Conclusion This evidence may explain why Filipinos have previously been found to have lower overall QoL. Although Filipinos score lower on QoL than other groups, this may not reflect lower QoL, but rather differences in how QoL is defined. The presence of DIF did not appear, however, to alter the psychometric properties of the QLQ-C30. PMID:16209720

Pagano, Ian S; Gotay, Carolyn C

2005-01-01

410

Differential sensitivity of cranial and limb motor function to nigrostriatal dopamine depletion  

PubMed Central

The present study determined the differential effects of unilateral striatal dopamine depletion on cranial motor versus limb motor function. Forty male Long Evans rats were first trained on a comprehensive motor testing battery that dissociated cranial versus limb motor function and included: cylinder forepaw placement, single pellet reaching, vermicelli pasta handling; sunflower seed opening, pasta biting acoustics, and a licking task. Following baseline testing, animals were randomized to either a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (n = 20) or control (n = 20) group. Animals in the 6-OHDA group received unilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA infusions to induce striatal dopamine depletion. Six-weeks following infusion, all animals were re-tested on the same battery of motor tests. Near infrared densitometry was performed on sections taken through the striatum that were immunohistochemically stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Animals in the 6-OHDA condition showed a mean reduction in TH staining of 88.27%. Although 6-OHDA animals were significantly impaired on all motor tasks, limb motor deficits were more severe than cranial motor impairments. Further, performance on limb motor tasks was correlated with degree of TH depletion while performance on cranial motor impairments showed no significant correlation. These results suggest that limb motor function may be more sensitive to striatal dopaminergic depletion than cranial motor function and is consistent with the clinical observation that therapies targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson’s disease are more effective for limb motor symptoms than cranial motor impairments. PMID:23018122

Plowman, Emily K.; Maling, Nicholas; Rivera, Benjamin J.; Larson, Krista; Thomas, Nagheme J.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

411

Isolated rupture of an accessory liver from blunt abdominal trauma in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accessory liver is uncommonly encountered in surgical practice. It can rarely cause acute abdominal pain. An isolated\\u000a injury to an accessory liver from blunt trauma in a 10-year-old boy caused major intraperitoneal haemorrhage. Laparotomy and\\u000a excision of the lacerated accessory liver lobe was necessary; the patient recovered uneventfully. The literature on accessory\\u000a liver is reviewed.

E. S. Garba; E. A. Ameh

2002-01-01

412

Meningioma 1 is required for appropriate osteoblast proliferation, motility, differentiation, and function.  

PubMed

The vitamin D endocrine system is essential for calcium and phosphate homeostasis and skeletal mineralization. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) hormone binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to regulate gene expression. These gene products in turn mediate the actions of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in mineral-regulating target cells such as the osteoblast. We showed previously that meningioma 1 (MN1) is a novel target of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in MG-63 osteoblastic cells and that it is a coactivator for VDR-mediated transcription (Sutton, A. L., Zhang, X., Ellison, T. I., and MacDonald, P. N. (2005) Mol. Endocrinol. 19, 2234-2244). However, the functional significance of MN1 in osteoblastic cell biology is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that MN1 expression is increased dramatically during differentiation of primary osteoblastic cells. Using calvarial osteoblasts derived from wild-type and MN1 knock-out mice, we provide data supporting an essential role of MN1 in maintaining appropriate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and function. MN1 knock-out osteoblasts displayed altered morphology, decreased growth rate, impaired motility, and attenuated 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)/VDR-mediated transcription as well as reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation. MN1 null osteoblasts were also impaired in supporting osteoclastogenesis in co-culture studies presumably because of marked reduction in the RANKL:OPG ratio in the MN1 null cells. Mechanistic studies supported a transcriptional role for MN1 in controlling RANKL gene expression through activation of the RANKL promoter. Cumulatively, these studies indicate an important role for MN1 in maintaining the appropriate maturation and function of calvarial osteoblasts. PMID:19386590

Zhang, Xiaoxue; Dowd, Diane R; Moore, Meika C; Kranenburg, Tanya A; Meester-Smoor, Magda A; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; MacDonald, Paul N

2009-07-01

413

Collagen functionalized bioactive nanofiber matrices for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Scaffold architecture, surface topography, biochemical and mechanical cues have been shown to significantly improve cellular events and in vivo tissue regeneration. Specifically electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained tremendous interest due to their intrinsic structural resemblance to native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). The present study reports on the electrospun nanofiber matrices of polycaprolactone (PCL)-chitosan (CS) blends and effect of type I collagen surface functionalization in regulating rat bone marrow derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) differentiation into osteogenic lineage. Collagen was covalently attached to blend nanofibers via carbodiimide (EDC) coupling. Bead-free smooth nanofibers (diameter-700-850 nm) obtained at the optimized conditions of polymer concentration and electrospinning parameters were used for the study. EDC collagen coupling resulted in 0.120+/-0.016 micro g of collagen immobilization onto a 1 cm2 area of the PCL/CS nanofibers, which was 2.6-folds higher than the amount of collagen that can be retained by physical adsorption. Significantly improved rBMSCs adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was observed on the collagen functionalized COL-PCULCS nanofiber matrices as compared to control groups. Osteogenic phenotypic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization were found to be significantly higher on COL-PCL/CS nanofiber matrices as compared to controls. Elevated gene expression profiles of osteogenic markers such as osteocalcin (0CN), osteopontin (OPN) and ALP further corroborate the osteoinductive nature of the collagen functionalized PCL/CS nanofiber matrices. These fiber matrices and modification techniques could be extended to other scaffold systems for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24738337

Cheng, Yixing; Ramos, Daisy; Lee, Paul; Liang, Danni; Yu, Xiaojun; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

2014-02-01

414

Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.  

PubMed

The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). PMID:24995382

Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

2014-09-01

415

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

416

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe, valve, or...

2011-10-01

417

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

418

Salvage of poorly developed arteriovenous fistulae with percutaneous ligation of accessory veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many arteriovenous (AV) fistulae fail to achieve an adequate blood flow or size for successful cannulation because of accessory veins. We describe a simple technique to ligate accessory veins that does not require a surgical incision. In this retrospective study, 17 end-stage renal disease patients underwent ligation of accessory veins of poorly developed AV fistulae. There were 14 men and

Rashid Faiyaz; Kenneth Abreo; Fahim Zaman; Aslam Pervez; Gazi Zibari; Jack Work

2002-01-01

419

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Rebuilt parts or accessories sold...Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on...include the value of a like part or accessory accepted...example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold...

2012-04-01

420

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rebuilt parts or accessories sold...Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on...include the value of a like part or accessory accepted...example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold...

2013-04-01

421

Differential Control of Glucocorticoid Receptor Hormone-Binding Function by Tetratricopeptide Repeat (TPR) Proteins and the Immunosuppressive Ligand  

E-print Network

Differential Control of Glucocorticoid Receptor Hormone-Binding Function by Tetratricopeptide the existence of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins (also known as immunophilins) in hormone-free steroid, and PP5) on hormone-binding function of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) endogenously expressed in mammalian

Abraham, Nader G.

422

THE WEIGHTED SPACES L_{p,r}^\\alpha(\\rho_1,\\,\\rho_2) OF DIFFERENTIABLE FUNCTIONS OF FRACTIONAL SMOOTHNESS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an investigation of weighted spaces of differentiable functions of fractional smoothness consisting of functions f(x) which are r-integrable with a weight \\rho_1 and have "fractional derivatives" which are p-integrable with a weight \\rho_2.Bibliography: 20 titles.

Nogin, V. A.

1988-02-01

423

Conservation of the function of DMRT1 regulatory sequences in mammalian sex differentiation.  

PubMed

Among genes involved in sex determination and differentiation, DMRT1 is the only one characterized to date containing a domain (the DM domain) that is conserved between phyla. To study DMRT1 transcriptional regulation within mammalian phyla, we generated transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) or Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of 2.6 kb of pig DMRT1 5' flanking sequences (pDMRT1p-GFP and pDMRT1p-Cre, respectively). Within the pDMRT1p-GFP positive mice, GFP expression was observed in the XY genital ridge by embryonic day 11.5 (e11.5) and remained detectable during testis embryonic development to birth. GFP expression was restricted within testis cords as soon as cords were detectable. No fluorescence was observed in developing ovaries, although more sensitive RT-PCR analysis revealed transgene expression in embryonic ovaries from e13.5 to e15.5. RT-PCR performed on fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS)-purified GFP cells from e14.5, e17.5, and e19.5 developing testis showed that GFP expression was restricted to cells expressing the endogenous mouse Dmrt1. GFP cells also expressed Mis and Oct4, showing that the transgene is expressed in both Sertoli cell and germ cell compartments. In postnatal testis, transgene expression was detectable by GFP fluorescence from P0 to P21 in mice heterozygous for the transgene and through adulthood in mice homozygous for the transgene. In pDMRT1p-Cre positive mice, Cre expression was detected within the genital ridges of both XY and XX embryos. We conclude that DMRT1 regulatory mechanisms during sexual differentiation are functionally conserved across mammalian evolution. The transgenic mouse lines described should provide useful marker systems for studies involving Dmrt1 gene expression during sex differentiation. PMID:12434333

Boyer, Alexandre; Dornan, Saffron; Daneau, Isabelle; Lussier, Jacques; Silversides, David W

2002-12-01

424

Opposing developmental functions of Agrocybe aegerita galectin (AAL) during mycelia differentiation.  

PubMed

Mycelia of basidiomycetes differentiating into fruiting body is a controlled developmental process, however the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. In previous work, a novel fungal Agrocybe aegerita galectin (AAL) was isolated from A. aegerita in our laboratory. AAL was shown to promote mycelial differentiation in A. aegerita and Auricularia polytricha, indicating that AAL might function as a conserved fruiting initiator during basidiomycete mycelia development. In the current work, we investigate the role of AAL in mycelia differentiation and fruiting body formation. First, the expression and localization of AAL in mycelia, primordium and fruiting body were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. AAL was found to be ubiquitously expressed in the primordium and fruiting body but not in the mycelia. AAL facilitated mycelia congregation and promoted fruiting body production when AAL was applied on mycelia. At the same time, when AAL was spread on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium prior to mycelia inoculation, mycelia exhibited slowed growth rates, resulting in mycelia cords formation and inhibition of fruiting body formation. The 5' regulatory sequence of aal was cloned by 'genome walking'. Here, we show that aal lack introns in the coding region and the upstream 740 bp sequence was characterized by the existence of core promoter elements, which included: two CCAAT boxes (-535/-280), a GC box (-145), a TATA box (-30) and a fungal leader intron within the 5' UTR. The identification of regulatory expression elements may provide an explanation to the stage-specific and high-level expression of aal during fruiting development. PMID:20943171

Luan, Rong; Liang, Yi; Chen, Yijie; Liu, Honghong; Jiang, Shuai; Che, Tao; Wong, Barry; Sun, Hui

2010-08-01

425

Functional Differentiation of Bundle Sheath and Mesophyll Maize Chloroplasts Determined by Comparative ProteomicsW?  

PubMed Central

Chloroplasts of maize (Zea mays) leaves differentiate into specific bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) types to accommodate C4 photosynthesis. Consequences for other plastid functions are not well understood but are addressed here through a quantitative comparative proteome analysis of purified M and BS chloroplast stroma. Three independent techniques were used, including cleavable stable isotope coded affinity tags. Enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, nitrogen import, and tetrapyrrole and isoprenoid biosynthesis are preferentially located in the M chloroplasts. By contrast, enzymes involved in starch synthesis and sulfur import preferentially accumulate in BS chloroplasts. The different soluble antioxidative systems, in particular peroxiredoxins, accumulate at higher levels in M chloroplasts. We also observed differential accumulation of proteins involved in expression of plastid-encoded proteins (e.g., EF-Tu, EF-G, and mRNA binding proteins) and thylakoid formation (VIPP1), whereas others were equally distributed. Enzymes related to the C4 shuttle, the carboxylation and regeneration phase of the Calvin cycle, and several regulators (e.g., CP12) distributed as expected. However, enzymes involved in triose phosphate reduction and triose phosphate isomerase are primarily located in the M chloroplasts, indicating that the M-localized triose phosphate shuttle should be viewed as part of the BS-localized Calvin cycle, rather than a parallel pathway. PMID:16243905

Majeran, Wojciech; Cai, Yang; Sun, Qi; van Wijk, Klaas J.

2005-01-01

426

Manganese superoxide dismutase is required to maintain osteoclast differentiation and function under static force  

PubMed Central

Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Increased activity of OCs not only contributes to pathological bone resorption, such as osteoporosis and periodontitis, but also is responsible for physiological conditions like orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, the detailed mechanism by which orthodontic force promotes the formation of OCs is still poorly understood. In this study, we confirmed that static force promoted the differentiation of human cord monocytes (HMNCs) into OCs depending on loading time and magnitude. Protein expression profiles among HMNCs, HMNCs subjected to static force and mature OCs were established via 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Total respective protein spot numbers of 549 ± 13, 612 ± 19 and 634 ± 16 were detected in each of the gels by image analysis. The five proteins identified were plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2, Spot 1), peroxiredoxin-6 (PRD-6, Spot 3), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2, Spot 6), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (Rho-GDI2, Spot 11) and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (L-LDH, Spot 15). More importantly, we revealed that SOD2 was required to maintain monocyte differentiation into functional OCs and may become a potential target for regulating the efficiency of OTM in the future. PMID:25619900

Guo, Tao; Zhang, Liqiang; Konermann, Anna; Zhou, Hong; Jin, Fang; Liu, Wenjia

2015-01-01

427

Manganese superoxide dismutase is required to maintain osteoclast differentiation and function under static force.  

PubMed

Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Increased activity of OCs not only contributes to pathological bone resorption, such as osteoporosis and periodontitis, but also is responsible for physiological conditions like orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, the detailed mechanism by which orthodontic force promotes the formation of OCs is still poorly understood. In this study, we confirmed that static force promoted the differentiation of human cord monocytes (HMNCs) into OCs depending on loading time and magnitude. Protein expression profiles among HMNCs, HMNCs subjected to static force and mature OCs were established via 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Total respective protein spot numbers of 549 ± 13, 612 ± 19 and 634 ± 16 were detected in each of the gels by image analysis. The five proteins identified were plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2, Spot 1), peroxiredoxin-6 (PRD-6, Spot 3), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2, Spot 6), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (Rho-GDI2, Spot 11) and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (L-LDH, Spot 15). More importantly, we revealed that SOD2 was required to maintain monocyte differentiation into functional OCs and may become a potential target for regulating the efficiency of OTM in the future. PMID:25619900

Guo, Tao; Zhang, Liqiang; Konermann, Anna; Zhou, Hong; Jin, Fang; Liu, Wenjia

2015-01-01

428

Restoring ciliary function to differentiated Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia cells with a lentiviral vector  

PubMed Central

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disease in which mutations disrupt ciliary function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance and life-long lung disease. Mouse tracheal cells with a targeted deletion in the axonemal dynein intermediated chain gene Dnaic1 differentiate normally in culture but lack ciliary activity. Gene transfer to undifferentiated cultures of mouse Dnaic1?/? cells with a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with avian influenza hemagglutinin restored Dnaic1 expression and ciliary activity. Importantly, apical treatment of well-differentiated cultures of mouse Dnaic1?/? with lentiviral vector also restored ciliary activity, demonstrating successful gene transfer from the apical surface. Treatment of Dnaic1flox/flox mice expressing an estrogen responsive Cre recombinase with different doses of tamoxifen indicated that restoration of ~20% of ciliary activity may be sufficient to prevent the development of rhinosinusitis. However, while administration of a ?-galactosidase expressing vector to control mice demonstrated efficient gene transfer to the nasal epithelium, treatment of Dnaic1?/? mice resulted in a low level of gene transfer, demonstrating that the severe rhinitis present in these animals impedes gene transfer. The results demonstrate that gene replacement therapy may be a viable treatment option for primary ciliary dyskinesia, but further improvements in the efficiency of gene transfer are necessary. PMID:24451115

Ostrowski, Lawrence E; Yin, Weining; Patel, Manij; Sechelski, John; Rogers, Troy; Burns, Kimberlie; Grubb, Barbara R; Olsen, John C

2014-01-01

429

Yeast Irc6p is a novel type of conserved clathrin coat accessory factor related to small G proteins  

PubMed Central

Clathrin coat accessory proteins play key roles in transport mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles. Yeast Irc6p and the related mammalian p34 are putative clathrin accessory proteins that interact with clathrin adaptor complexes. We present evidence that Irc6p functions in clathrin-mediated traffic between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, linking clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 and the Rab GTPase Ypt31p. The crystal structure of the Irc6p N-terminal domain revealed a G-protein fold most related to small G proteins of the Rab and Arf families. However, Irc6p lacks G-protein signature motifs and high-affinity GTP binding. Also, mutant Irc6p lacking candidate GTP-binding residues retained function. Mammalian p34 rescued growth defects in irc6? cells, indicating functional conservation, and modeling predicted a similar N-terminal fold in p34. Irc6p and p34 also contain functionally conserved C-terminal regions. Irc6p/p34-related proteins with the same two-part architecture are encoded in genomes of species as diverse as plants and humans. Together these results define Irc6p/p34 as a novel type of conserved clathrin accessory protein and founding members of a new G protein–like family. PMID:22993212

Gorynia, Sabine; Lorenz, Todd C.; Costaguta, Giancarlo; Daboussi, Lydia; Cascio, Duilio; Payne, Gregory S.

2012-01-01

430

The actin cytoskeleton in myofibroblast differentiation: Ultrastructure defining form and driving function  

PubMed Central

Myofibroblasts are modified fibroblasts, characterized by the presence of a well-developed contractile apparatus, and the formation of robust actin stress fibers. These mechanically active cells are thought to orchestrate extracellular matrix remodeling during normal wound healing in response to tissue injury, and in aberrant tissue remodeling found in fibrosing disorders. This review surveys the understanding of the role of actin stress fibers in myofibroblast biology. From its original description as a defining ultrastructural and morphologic feature, to well-accepted observations demonstrating its participation in contraction, focal adhesion maturation, and extracellular matrix reorganization, and finally to more recent observations demonstrating its role in transducing mechanical force into biochemical signals, transcriptional control of genes involved in locomotion, contraction, and matrix reorganization, and the localized regulation of mRNA translation. This breadth of functionality of the actin stress fiber serves to reinforce and amplify its mechanical function, via induced expression of proteins that themselves augment contraction, focal adhesion formation, and matrix remodeling. In composite, the functions of the actin cytoskeleton are most often aligned, allowing for the integration and amplification of signals promoting both myofibroblast differentiation and matrix remodeling during fibrogenesis. PMID:21925115

Sandbo, Nathan; Dulin, Nickolai

2011-01-01

431

Dual amyloid domains promote differential functioning of the chaplin proteins during Streptomyces aerial morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The chaplin proteins are functional amyloids found in the filamentous Streptomyces bacteria. These secreted proteins are required for the aerial development of Streptomyces coelicolor, and contribute to an intricate rodlet ultrastructure that decorates the surfaces of aerial hyphae and spores. S. coelicolor encodes eight chaplin proteins. Previous studies have revealed that only three of these proteins (ChpC, ChpE, and ChpH) are necessary for promoting aerial development, and of these three, ChpH is the primary developmental determinant. Here, we show that the model chaplin, ChpH, contains two amyloidogenic domains: one in the N terminus and one in the C terminus of the mature protein. These domains have different polymerization properties as determined using fluorescence spectroscopy, secondary structure analyses, and electron microscopy. We coupled these in vitro assays with in vivo genetic studies to probe the connection between ChpH amyloidogenesis and its biological function. Using mutational analyses, we demonstrated that both N- and C-terminal amyloid domains of ChpH were required for promoting aerial hypha formation, while the N-terminal domain was dispensable for assembly of the rodlet ultrastructure. These results suggest that there is a functional differentiation of the dual amyloid domains in the chaplin proteins. PMID:21628577

Capstick, David S.; Jomaa, Ahmad; Hanke, Chistopher; Ortega, Joaquin; Elliot, Marie A.

2011-01-01

432

Structural Insights into Functional Overlapping and Differentiation among Myosin V Motors*  

PubMed Central

Myosin V (MyoV) motors have been implicated in the intracellular transport of diverse cargoes including vesicles, organelles, RNA-protein complexes, and regulatory proteins. Here, we have solved the cargo-binding domain (CBD) structures of the three human MyoV paralogs (Va, Vb, and Vc), revealing subtle structural changes that drive functional differentiation and a novel redox mechanism controlling the CBD dimerization process, which is unique for the MyoVc subclass. Moreover, the cargo- and motor-binding sites were structurally assigned, indicating the conservation of residues involved in the recognition of adaptors for peroxisome transport and providing high resolution insights into motor domain inhibition by CBD. These results contribute to understanding the structural requirements for cargo transport, autoinhibition, and regulatory mechanisms in myosin V motors. PMID:24097982

Nascimento, Andrey F. Z.; Trindade, Daniel M.; Tonoli, Celisa C. C.; de Giuseppe, Priscila O.; Assis, Leandro H. P.; Honorato, Rodrigo V.; de Oliveira, Paulo S. L.; Mahajan, Pravin; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A.; von Delft, Frank; Larson, Roy E.; Murakami, Mario T.

2013-01-01

433

Refractive laser beam shaping by means of a functional differential equation based design approach.  

PubMed

Many laser applications require specific irradiance distributions to ensure optimal performance. Geometric optical design methods based on numerical calculation of two plano-aspheric lenses have been thoroughly studied in the past. In this work, we present an alternative new design approach based on functional differential equations that allows direct calculation of the rotational symmetric lens profiles described by two-point Taylor polynomials. The formalism is used to design a Gaussian to flat-top irradiance beam shaping system but also to generate a more complex dark-hollow Gaussian (donut-like) irradiance distribution with zero intensity in the on-axis region. The presented ray tracing results confirm the high accuracy of both calculated solutions and emphasize the potential of this design approach for refractive beam shaping applications. PMID:24718175

Duerr, Fabian; Thienpont, Hugo

2014-04-01

434

Electronic structure computation and differential capacitance profile in ?-doped FET as a function of hydrostatic pressure  

SciTech Connect

In this work we present the results obtained from the calculation of the level structure of a n-type delta-doped well Field Effect Transistor when is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. We study the energy level structure as a function of hydrostatic pressure within the range of 0 to 6 kbar for different Schottky barrier height (SBH). We use an analytical expression for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the SBH and the pressure dependence of the basic parameters of the system as the effective mass m(P) and the dielectric constant ?(P) of GaAs. We found that due to the effects of hydrostatic pressure, in addition to electronic level structure alteration, the profile of the differential capacitance per unit area C{sup ?2} is affected.

Carlos-Pinedo, C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Calzada Solidaridad Esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N. C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

2014-05-15

435

The effect of winter sex ratio on immune function and condition in a differential migrant.  

PubMed

The dark-eyed junco (Junco h. hyemalis) is a differential migrant in which females migrate farther south in winter than males. Hypotheses to explain this difference in migratory behavior have given limited consideration to physiological differences between the sexes, particularly with respect to immune function. We hypothesized that female migratory behavior could either be directly dependent on climate if migratory distance traveled is a product of interactions between climate and inherent sex differences in physiology, or indirectly dependent on climate owing to interactions between climate and aggressive encounters with males which are known to be behaviorally dominant to females and restrict their access to food. We tested the latter of these two hypotheses by measuring condition in females held in two sex ratio regimes in a common winter environment. Holding density constant in 28 replicate populations, we compared flocks composed of 100% female to mixed-sex flocks composed of 20% female. We assessed condition by measuring immune function via complement activity and response to a foreign antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin, as well as by indices of mass, fat, and pectoral muscle. Unexpectedly, females in mixed-sex flocks did not differ in condition from females housed only with females, despite increased aggressive interactions in mixed flocked cages. Combined, our results suggest that overwintering with males has no significant effect on female winter condition. Differential migration in the junco may be mediated by sex differences in ability to withstand harsh northern climate, as has been demonstrated in several mammalian systems, rather than dominance interactions. PMID:21134388

O'Neal, Dawn M; Kiley, Ryan P; Ketterson, Ellen D

2011-03-01

436

Isomorphic type of a space of smooth functions generated by a finite family of differential operators. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space of smooth function on T\\u000a 3 generated by one differential expression may fail to be isomorphic to a complemented subspace of C(K). For instance, this\\u000a happens for the differential expression ?\\u000a 1\\u000a 2\\u000a -?\\u000a 2\\u000a 2\\u000a -?\\u000a 3\\u000a 2\\u000a . Bibliography: 2 titles.

D. V. Maksimov

2007-01-01

437

Steroids of Invertebrates: Production of Oestrogens by an Accessory Reproductive Tissue of the Slug Arion ater rufus (Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PREVIOUS communication1 described the endogenous production of 11-keto-testosterone, testosterone and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone during the in vitro incubation of the eggs of Arion ater. The present study concerns the in vitro production of C18 steroids from endogenous precursors by an accessory reproductive organ of this animal, the bursa copulatrix or spermatheca gland. The function of the spermatheca is believed to be

H. Gottfried; R. I. Dorfman; P. E. Wall

1967-01-01

438

Dysbindin-1 gene contributes differentially to early- and adult-onset forms of functional psychosis.  

PubMed

Dysbindin-1 is a relatively ubiquitous protein in the brain which is involved in the modulation of synaptic homeostasis. The dysbindin-1 gene (DTNBP1) has been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder diagnoses. However, its contribution to the severity of the clinical and neurocognitive expression of these disorders remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association between DTNBP1 and the phenotypes which are more directly linked with the underlying biology, such as age at onset and neurocognitive impairment. The present family sample comprised 894 Caucasian individuals: 268 patients affected by functional psychosis [58% with illness onset before 18 years, mean age at onset (SD): 14.71 (2.10)], 483 parents and 143 siblings. Ten DTNBP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in all individuals and their transmission disequilibrium was tested in relation to: (i) the risk for psychosis; (ii) patients' age at onset; and (iii) familial neurocognitive performance (including IQ estimation and executive functioning). In early-onset families a 5-marker haplotype encompassing exons 2-4 and the surrounding introns was significantly over-transmitted to cases, while in adult-onset families two haplotypes corresponding to the region between introns 4 and 7 were over-transmitted to cases. Estimated IQ was associated with the rs760666 marker in the whole sample, whereas a significant association between executive functioning and the rs2619522 marker appeared in early-onset families. Our findings confirm the role of the dysbindin-1 gene in the risk for functional psychosis and show a differential haplotypic risk pattern in families with early as opposed to adult onset in the affected offspring. PMID:21305691

Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Papiol, Sergi; Estrada, Gemma; Bombín, Igor; Peralta, Victor; Rosa, Araceli; Parellada, Mara; Miret, Salvador; Martín, María; Lázaro, Luisa; Campanera, Sílvia; Muńoz, Ma José; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Arias, Bárbara; Navarro, Ma Eulalia; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Cuesta, Manuel J; Arango, Celso; Fańanás, Lourdes

2011-04-01

439

Correlation function analysis of the COBE differential microwave radiometer sky maps  

SciTech Connect

The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite has detected anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A two-point correlation function analysis which helped lead to this discovery is presented in detail. The results of a correlation function analysis of the two year DMR data set is presented. The first and second year data sets are compared and found to be reasonably consistent. The positive correlation for separation angles less than {approximately}20{degree} is robust to Galactic latitude cuts and is very stable from year to year. The Galactic latitude cut independence of the correlation function is strong evidence that the signal is not Galactic in origin. The statistical significance of the structure seen in the correlation function of the first, second and two year maps is respectively > 9{sigma}, > 10{sigma} and > 18{sigma} above the noise. The noise in the DMR sky maps is correlated at a low level. The structure of the pixel temperature covariance matrix is given. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky map is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occurs with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60{degree} due to the 60{degree} separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance of 60{degree} is 0.45%{sub {minus}0.14}{sup +0.18} of the mean variance. The noise properties of the DMR maps are thus well approximated by the noise properties of maps made by a single-beam experiment. Previously published DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

Lineweaver, C.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-08-01

440

Burkholderia pseudomallei sequencing identifies genomic clades with distinct recombination, accessory, and epigenetic profiles.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causative agent of the infectious disease melioidosis. To investigate population diversity, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer in closely related Bp isolates, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 106 clinical, animal, and environmental strains from a restricted Asian locale. Whole-genome phylogenies resolved multiple genomic clades of Bp, largely congruent with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We discovered widespread recombination in the Bp core genome, involving hundreds of regions associated with multiple haplotypes. Highly recombinant regions exhibited functional enrichments that may contribute to virulence. We observed clade-specific patterns of recombination and accessory gene exchange, and provide evidence that this is likely due to ongoing recombination between clade members. Reciprocally, interclade exchanges were rarely observed, suggesting mechanisms restricting gene flow between clades. Interrogation of accessory elements revealed that each clade harbored a distinct complement of restriction-modification (RM) systems, predicted to cause clade-specific patterns of DNA methylation. Using methylome sequencing, we confirmed that representative strains from separate clades indeed exhibit distinct methylation profiles. Finally, using an E. coli system, we demonstrate that Bp RM systems can inhibit uptake of non-self DNA. Our data suggest that RM systems borne on mobile elements, besides preventing foreign DNA invasion, may also contribute to limiting exchanges of genetic material between individuals of the same species. Genomic clades may thus represent functional units of genetic isolation in Bp, modulating intraspecies genetic diversity. PMID:25236617

Nandi, Tannistha; Holden, Mathew T G; Didelot, Xavier; Mehershahi, Kurosh; Boddey, Justin A; Beacham, Ifor; Peak, Ian; Harting, John; Baybayan, Primo; Guo, Yan; Wang, Susana; How, Lee Chee; Sim, Bernice; Essex-Lopresti, Angela; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Nelson, Michelle; Smither, Sophie; Ong, Catherine; Aw, Lay Tin; Hoon, Chua Hui; Michell, Stephen; Studholme, David J; Titball, Richard; Chen, Swaine L; Parkhill, Julian; Tan, Patrick

2015-01-01

441

Differential Expression of Functional Fc-Receptors and Additional Immune Complex Receptors on Mouse Kidney Cells  

PubMed Central

The precise mechanisms by which circulating immune complexes accumulate in the kidney to form deposits in glomerulonephritis are not well understood. In particular, the role of resident cells within glomeruli of the kidney has been widely debated. Immune complexes have been shown to bind one glomerular cell type (mesangial cells) leading to functional responses such as pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To further assess the presence of functional immunoreceptors on resident glomerular cells, cultured mouse renal epithelial, endothelial, and mesangial cells were treated with heat-aggregated mouse IgG or preformed murine immune complexes. Mesangial and renal endothelial cells were found to bind IgG complexes, whereas glomerular epithelial cell binding was minimal. A blocking antibody for Fc-gamma receptors reduced binding to mesangial cells but not renal endothelial cells, suggesting differential immunoreceptor utilization. RT-PCR and immunostaining based screening of cultured renal endothelial cells showed limited low-level expression of known Fc-receptors and Igbinding proteins. The interaction between mesangial cells and renal endothelial cells and immune complexes resulted in distinct, cell-specific patterns of chemokine and cytokine production. This novel pathway involving renal endothelial cells likely contributes to the predilection of circulating immune complex accumulation within the kidney and to the inflammatory responses that drive kidney injury. PMID:23911392

Suwanichkul, Adisak; Wenderfer, Scott E.

2013-01-01

442

Efficient differentiation and function of human macrophages in humanized CSF-1 mice.  

PubMed

Humanized mouse models are useful tools to understand pathophysiology and to develop therapies for human diseases. While significant progress has been made in generating immunocompromised mice with a human hematopoietic system, there are still several shortcomings, one of which is poor human myelopoiesis. Here, we report that human CSF-1 knockin mice show augmented frequencies and functions of human myeloid cells. Insertion of human CSF1 into the corresponding mouse locus of Balb/c Rag2(-/-) ?c(-/-) mice through VELOCIGENE technology resulted in faithful expression of human CSF-1 in these mice both qualitatively and quantitatively. Intra-hepatic transfer of human fetal liver derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CD34(+)) in humanized CSF-1 (CSF1(h/h)) newborn mice resulted in more efficient differentiation and enhanced frequencies of human monocytes/macrophages in the bone marrow, spleens, peripheral blood, lungs, liver and peritoneal cavity. Human monocytes/macrophages obtained from the humanized CSF-1 mice show augmented functional properties including migration, phagocytosis, activation and responses to LPS. Thus, humanized mice engineered to express human cytokines will significantly help to overcome the current technical challenges in the field. In addition, humanized CSF-1 mice will be a valuable experimental model to study human myeloid cell biology. PMID:21791433

Rathinam, Chozhavendan; Poueymirou, William T; Rojas, Jose; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Rongvaux, Anthony; Eynon, Elizabeth E; Manz, Markus G; Flavell, Richard A

2011-09-15

443

Effect of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with lactoferrin in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LF) is a bioactive glycoprotein that became recently interesting in the field of bone regeneration for its modulatory effect on bone cells. On the basis of this evidence this work aims to functionalize biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals with LF to study their effect on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The orientation of LF on the HA surface was analyzed by spectroscopic and thermal techniques. Three samples with different amounts of LF attached to HA nanocrystals were tested in vitro. The combined effect of HA and LF on MSC proliferation and morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene expression were evaluated at different time points. The sample with the lowest LF amount showed the best bioactivity probably due to the formation of a single layer of protein with a better molecular orientation. Coupling of HA-LF did not affect cell proliferation and morphology, while analysis of HA-LF on ALP activity and messenger RNA expression of the selected genes, demonstrated the role of HA-LF in the induction of osteogenic markers. HA-LF represents a promising system to be used to manufacture bioactive functional materials in tissue engineering (as scaffolds, injectable cements, or coatings for metallic implants) with enhanced anabolic activity to treat bone diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 224-234, 2015. PMID:24639083

Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Iafisco, Michele; Adamiano, Alessio; Tampieri, Anna

2015-01-01

444

Rat hepatocyte spheroids formed by rocked technique maintain differentiated hepatocyte gene expression and function  

PubMed Central

The culture of primary hepatocytes as spheroids creates an efficient 3-dimensional tissue construct for hepatic studies in vitro. Spheroids possess structural polarity and functional bile canaliculi with normal differentiated function. Thus, hepatocyte spheroids have been proposed as the cell source in a variety of diagnostic, discovery, and therapeutic applications, such as a bioartificial liver. Using a novel rocking technique to induce spheroid formation, kinetics of spheroid formation, cell-cell adhesion, gene expression and biochemical activities of rat hepatocyte spheroids were tested over 14 days of culture. Evidence was provided that the formation of spheroids occurred faster and with fewer non-adherent hepatocytes in rocked suspension culture compared to a traditional rotational system. Hepatocyte spheroids in rocked culture showed stable expression of over 80% of 242 liver-related genes including those of albumin synthesis, urea cycle, phase I and II metabolic enzymes, and clotting factors. Biochemical activity of rocked spheroid hepatocytes was superior to monolayer culture of hepatocytes on tissue culture plastic and collagen. In conclusion, spheroid formation by rocker technique was more rapid and more efficient than rotational technique. Rocker formed spheroids appear suitable for application in a bioartificial liver or as an in vitro liver tissue construct. PMID:19085959

Brophy, Colleen M.; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer L.; Amiot, Bruce P.; Remmel, Rory P.; Rinaldo, Piero; Nyberg, Scott L.

2009-01-01

445

Morphological changes do not reflect biochemical and functional differentiation in OLN-93 oligodendroglial cells.  

PubMed

OLN-93 cells, a cell line established from spontaneously transformed rat brain glial cultures, are used as a model for oligodendrocytes. These cells are known to undergo morphological changes upon serum deprivation. The objective of the present study is to investigate a possible correlation between these morphological changes and (1) the loss or gain of oligodendrocyte markers and (2) the electrophysiological properties of these cells. Using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate that the OLN-93 cell line expresses a broad range of markers (NG2, CNP, MAG, MOG) both when cultured in medium containing 10% or 0.5% fetal calf serum. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that, regardless of the culture conditions, OLN-93 cells mainly express delayed-rectifying K+ currents, a characteristic of immature oligodendrocytes. These currents are in part mediated by the shaker family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Kv1.1 and Kv1.3-expression are present at the mRNA and at the protein levels, and functional evidence for Kv1.3 mediated currents was obtained by using the selective blocker margatoxin. Under low serum conditions, OLN-93 cells exhibit differentiation-like morphological changes. However, we provide evidence that these morphological modifications do not necessarily correlate with biochemical or functional changes. Based on these data, we conclude that the OLN-93 cell line can be situated at a developmental stage between a late pre-oligodendrocyte and a late immature oligodendrocyte, regardless of serum concentration. PMID:19595704

Buckinx, Roeland; Smolders, Inge; Sahebali, Sheen; Janssen, Daniel; Smets, Ilse; Ameloot, Marcel; Rigo, Jean-Michel

2009-10-30

446

Gene dosage in the dysbindin schizophrenia susceptibility network differentially affect synaptic function and plasticity.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental disorders arise from single or multiple gene defects. However, the way multiple loci interact to modify phenotypic outcomes remains poorly understood. Here, we studied phenotypes associated with mutations in the schizophrenia susceptibility gene dysbindin (dysb), in isolation or in combination with null alleles in the dysb network component Blos1. In humans, the Blos1 ortholog Bloc1s1 encodes a polypeptide that assembles, with dysbindin, into the octameric BLOC-1 complex. We biochemically confirmed BLOC-1 presence in Drosophila neurons, and measured synaptic output and complex adaptive behavior in response to BLOC-1 perturbation. Homozygous loss-of-function alleles of dysb, Blos1, or compound heterozygotes of these alleles impaired neurotransmitter release, synapse morphology, and homeostatic plasticity at the larval neuromuscular junction, and impaired olfactory habituation. This multiparameter assessment indicated that phenotypes were differentially sensitive to genetic dosages of loss-of-function BLOC-1 alleles. Our findings suggest that modification of a second genetic locus in a defined neurodevelopmental regulatory network does not follow a strict additive genetic inheritance, but rather, precise stoichiometry within the network determines phenotypic outcomes. PMID:25568125

Mullin, Ariana P; Sadanandappa, Madhumala K; Ma, Wenpei; Dickman, Dion K; VijayRaghavan, Krishnaswamy; Ramaswami, Mani; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Faundez, Victor

2015-01-01

447

EGF-induced adipose tissue mesothelial cells undergo functional vascular smooth muscle differentiation.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggested that the post-natal mesothelium retain differentiative potential of the embryonic mesothelium, which generates fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), in developing coelomic organs via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Whether adult mesothelial cells (MCs) are able to give rise to functional VSMCs in vitro and which are the factors and mechanisms directing this process remain largely unknown. Here, we isolated adipose tissue MCs (ATMCs) from adult mice, and demonstrated that ATMCs cultured in a serum-containing media supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) efficiently increased both their proliferation and EMT above levels found in only serum-containing media cultures. EGF-induced ATMCs gained phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and activated simultaneously ILK/Erk1/2, PI3K/Akt and Smad2/3-dependent pathways. Sequential subculture onto collagen-I surface efficiently improved their vasculogenic EMT towards cells featuring VSMCs (?-SMA, calponin, caldesmon, SM22?, desmin, SM-MHC, smoothelin-B and PDGFR-?) that could actively contract in response to receptor and non-receptor-mediated vasoactive agonists. Overall, our results indentify EGF signalling as a robust vasculogenic inductive pathway for ATMCs, leading to their transdifferentiation into functional VSMC-like cells. PMID:24967966

Lachaud, C C; López-Beas, J; Soria, B; Hmadcha, A

2014-01-01

448

Actin-binding proteins differentially regulate endothelial cell stiffness, ICAM-1 function and neutrophil transmigration.  

PubMed

Chronic vascular inflammation is driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. Leukocyte ?2-integrins bind to endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which allows leukocyte spreading, crawling and transendothelial migration. Leukocytes scan the vascular endothelium for permissive sites to transmigrate, which suggests that there is apical membrane heterogeneity within the endothelium. However, the molecular basis for this heterogeneity is unknown. Leukocyte adhesion induces ICAM-1 clustering, which promotes its association to the actin-binding proteins filamin B, ?-actinin-4 and cortactin. We show that these endothelial proteins differentially control adhesion, spreading and transmigration of neutrophils. Loss of filamin B, ?-actinin-4 and cortactin revealed adaptor-specific effects on a nuclear-to-peripheral gradient of endothelial cell stiffness. By contrast, increasing endothelial cell stiffness stimulates ICAM-1 function. We identify endothelial ?-actinin-4 as a key regulator of endothelial cell stiffness and of ICAM-1-mediated neutrophil transmigration. Finally, we found that the endothelial lining of human and murine atherosclerotic plaques shows elevated levels of ?-actinin-4. These results identify endothelial cell stiffness as an important regulator of endothelial surface heterogeneity and of ICAM-1 function, which in turn controls the adhesion and transmigration of neutrophils. PMID:25107367

Schaefer, Antje; Te Riet, Joost; Ritz, Katja; Hoogenboezem, Mark; Anthony, Eloise C; Mul, Frederik P J; de Vries, Carlie J; Daemen, Mat J; Figdor, Carl G; van Buul, Jaap D; Hordijk, Peter L

2014-10-15

449

The effect of winter sex ratio on immune function and condition in a differential migrant  

E-print Network

The dark-eyed junco (Junco h. hyemalis) is a differential migrant in which females migrate farther south behavior, and the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis hyemalis) is one such differential migrant in which effect on female winter condition. Differential migration in the junco may be mediated by sex differences

450

Differential algebra methods for the study of the structural identifiability of rational function state-space models in the biosciences.  

PubMed

In this paper methods from differential algebra are used to study the structural identifiability of biological and pharmacokinetics models expressed in state-space form and with a structure given by rational functions. The focus is on the examples presented and on the application of efficient, automatic methods to test for structural identifiability for various input-output experiments. Differential algebra methods are coupled with Gröbner bases, Lie derivatives and the Taylor series expansion in order to obtain efficient algorithms. In particular, an upper bound on the number of derivatives needed for the Taylor series approach for a structural identifiability analysis of rational function models is given. PMID:11595254

Margaria, G; Riccomagno, E; Chappell, M J; Wynn, H P

2001-11-01

451

Role of Cytokines in Thymus- Versus Peripherally Derived-Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Function  

PubMed Central

CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential players in the control of immune responses. Recently, accordingly to their origin, two main subsets of Tregs have been described: thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs) and peripherally derived Tregs (pTregs). Numerous signaling pathways including the IL-2/STAT5 or the TGF-?/Smad3 pathways play a crucial role in segregating the two lineages. Here, we review some of the information existing on the distinct requirements of IL-2, TGF-?, and TNF-? three major cytokines involved in tTreg and pTreg generation, homeostasis and function. Today it is clear that signaling via the IL-2R? chain (CD122) common to IL-2 and IL-15 is required for proper differentiation of tTregs and for tTreg and pTreg survival in the periphery. This notion has led to the development of promising therapeutic strategies based on low-dose IL-2 administration to boost the patients’ own Treg compartment and dampen autoimmunity and inflammation. Also, solid evidence points to TGF-? as the master regulator of pTreg differentiation and homeostasis. However, therapeutic administration of TGF-? is difficult to implement due to toxicity and safety issues. Knowledge on the role of TNF-? on the biology of Tregs is fragmentary and inconsistent between mice and humans. Moreover, emerging results from the clinical use of TNF-? inhibitors indicate that part of their anti-inflammatory effect may be dependent on their action on Tregs. Given the profusion of clinical trials testing cytokine administration or blocking to modulate inflammatory diseases, a better knowledge of the effects of cytokines on tTregs and pTregs biology is necessary to improve the efficiency of these immunotherapies. PMID:23801992

Goldstein, Jérémie David; Pérol, Louis; Zaragoza, Bruno; Baeyens, Audrey; Marodon, Gilles; Piaggio, Eliane

2013-01-01

452

Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble ?-glutamyl transpeptidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

: BACKGROUND: In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory

Michael J Walker; Caroline M Rylett; Jeff N Keen; Neil Audsley; Mohammed Sajid; Alan D Shirras; R Elwyn Isaac

2006-01-01

453

Reprint of: Betaglycan: a multifunctional accessory.  

PubMed

Betaglycan is a co-receptor for the TGF? superfamily, particularly important in establishing the potency of its ligands on their target cells. In recent years, new insights have been gained into the structure and function of betaglycan, expanding its role from that of a simple co-receptor to include additional ligand-dependent and ligand-independent roles. This review focuses on recent advances in the betaglycan field, with a particular emphasis on its newly discovered actions in mediating the trafficking of TGF? superfamily receptors and as a determinant of the functional output of TGF? superfamily signalling. In addition, this review encompasses a discussion of the emerging roles of the betaglycan/inhibin pathway in reproductive cancers and disease. PMID:22521265

Bilandzic, Maree; Stenvers, Kaye L

2012-08-15

454

IL-13R?1 is a surface marker for M2 macrophages influencing their differentiation and function.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the role IL-13 receptor alpha 1 (IL-13R?1) plays in macrophage differentiation and function. The findings indicate that IL-13R?1 is expressed on the M2 but not on the M1 subset of macrophages and specifically heterodimerizes with the IL-4R? chain to form a type II receptor, which controls the differentiation and function of these cells. Indeed, BM cells from IL-13R?1(+/+) and IL-13R?1(-/-) mice yield equivalent numbers of macrophages when cultured under M2 polarizing conditions. However, IL-13R?1(-/-) BM cells yield a much higher number of macrophages than IL-13R?1(+/+) BM cells when the differentiation is carried out under M1-polarizing conditions. Further analyses indicated that macrophages that express IL-13R?1 also display surface markers associated with an M2 phenotype. In addition, the IL-13R?1(+) macrophages were highly efficient in phagocytizing zymosan bioparticles both in vitro and in vivo, and supported differentiation of naďve T cells to a Th2 phenotype. Finally, when stimulated by IL-13, a cytokine that uses the heteroreceptor, the cells were able to phosphorylate STAT6 efficiently. These previously unrecognized findings indicate that IL-13R?1 serves as a marker for M2 macrophages and the resulting heteroreceptor influences both their differentiation and function. PMID:24281978

Dhakal, Mermagya; Hardaway, John C; Guloglu, Fatma Betul; Miller, Mindy M; Hoeman, Christine M; Zaghouani, Adam A; Wan, Xiaoxiao; Rowland, Linda M; Cascio, Jason A; Sherman, Michael P; Zaghouani, Habib

2014-03-01

455

Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

2015-01-01

456

Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8(th) cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

2015-01-01

457

Accessory attachment structure for a v-shaped engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an accessory attachment structure for a V-shaped engine having a pair of cylinder banks with a V-shaped space defined therebetween, a crank pulley disposed on one end of the engine in the direction of a crankshaft and transmission case on an opposite end of the engine, comprising: an intake manifold with a throttle body assembled thereon, the intake manifold being disposed in the v-shaped space and positioned with the throttle body disposed over the transmission case, providing a space between the pair of cylinder banks close to the crank pulley; and at least one accessory disposed in the last mentioned space and actuatable by the crank pulley.

Kadoshima, Y.; Nimi, A.

1988-12-27

458

Repetitive Organic Dust Exposure in vitro Impairs Macrophage Differentiation and Function  

PubMed Central

Background Organic dust exposure in the agricultural industry results in significant airway disease and lung function decline. Mononuclear phagocytes are key cells that mediate the inflammatory and innate immune response following dust exposure. Objective To investigate the effect of organic dust extract (ODE) from modern swine operations on monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) phenotype and function. Methods Peripheral blood monocytes were obtained by elutriation methodology (>99% mCD14+) and differentiated into macrophages in the presence of GM-CSF (1 week) with and without ODE (0.1%). At one week, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for cell surface marker expression (HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, TLR2, TLR4, mCD14, CD16), phagocytosis (IgG-opsonized zymosan particles), and intracellular killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. At one week, MDMs were re-challenged with high dose ODE (1%), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and peptidoglycan (PGN), and cytokines (TNF?, IL-6, IL-10, CXCL8/IL-8) were measured. To elucidate ODE-associated factors, comparisons were made to MDMs conditioned with heat-inactivated dust, endotoxin-depleted dust, LPS, and PGN. Results Expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, phagocytosis and intracellular bacterial killing were significantly decreased with ODE- versus control-MDMs. Responses were retained after marked depletion of endotoxin. PGN, LPS and PGN + LPS significantly reduced MDM surface marker expression, and except for LPS alone, also reduced phagocytosis. ODE-MDMs had significantly diminished cytokine responses (TNF?, IL-6, IL-10) following repeat challenge with high dose ODE. Cross-tolerant cytokine responses were also observed. Conclusion Repetitive organic dust exposure significantly decreases markers of antigen presentation and host defense function in monocyte-derived macrophages. Bacterial cell components appear to be driving these impaired responses. Key Messages Repetitive organic dust exposure impairs monocyte-derived macrophage host defense functions. Gram positive bacterial cell components may be driving this impaired response. Clinical implications: Organic dust-induced macrophage dysfunction may be important in respiratory disease development. Capsule Summary Repetitive organic dust exposure in vitro impairs host defense function in monocyte-derived macrophages, which appear to be driven by gram positive bacterial cell components. Organic dust-induced macrophage dysfunction may be important in respiratory disease development. PMID:18585769

Poole, Jill A.; Alexis, Neil E.; Parks, Conrad; MacInnes, Amy K.; Gentry-Nielsen, Martha J.; Fey, Paul D.; Larsson, Lennart; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Von Essen, Susanna G.; Romberger, Debra J.

2009-01-01

459

Clodronate acts on human osteoclastic cell proliferation, differentiation and function in a bioreversible manner.  

PubMed

Background. Clodronate is used in high bone resorption diseases. Its action was defined as "cytotoxic" based on the induced cellular ATP loss, without any experimental verification of reversibility. In the present report the reversibility of clodronate action was tested on cultured human osteoclastic cell cultures. As "in vitro" bioeffects of clodronate are reversible, this compound should not be defined as "cytotoxic".Introduction. Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs able to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption widely used in the treatment of diseases with high bone turnover. Several evidences have shown that bisphosphonates can be divided into two groups with distinct molecular mechanisms of action depending on the nature of the R(2)side chain. The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates act on osteoclasts by preventing protein prenylation, while non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, like clodronate, are metabolized intracellularly to a ?-?-methylene analog of ATP that induces inhibition of the ADP/ATP translocase.Materials and Methods. In order to evaluate clodronate effects on osteoclastic cells and the bioreversibility of its action, we have used a human preosteoclastic (FLG 29.1) cell line and primary cultures of human osteoclast-like (HOC) cells. Functional and differentiative modifications were evaluated with immunocytochemical tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity (TRAcP) assay and with rapid quantitative detection of the complex "matrix metalloproteinase 9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase" (MMP9/TIMP1) by RT-PCR analysis based on "TaqMan" technology. The apoptosis phenomenon were detected by DNA ladder analysis and quantified by counting apoptotic cells with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. Adenosine-5'-[ ? - ? -dichloromethylene] triphosphate (AppCCl(2)p) was detected and identified in cell extract by HPLC-ESI-MS-MS Mass Spectrometry. Intracellular ATP modulation in the presence of clodronate was evaluated by luciferin-luciferase assay. The Mann-Whitney "U" test was conducted for statistical analysis.Results. We found that clodronate inhibited both proliferation and differentiative features of cells of the osteoclastic lineage. Furthermore, treatment of both cell types with clodronate caused apoptosis, generation of measurable levels of AppCCl(2)p, and reduction of intracellular ATP levels. Addition of ATP to the culture medium caused an inhibition of the biological actions of clodronate on the human osteoclastic cell lineage.Conclusions. These data indicate that intracellular accumulation of the metabolite AppCCl(2)p is the likely route by which clodronate inhibits osteoclastic function and this effect is reversed by ATP. PMID:22461215

Recenti, Raffaella; Leone, Giuseppe; Simi, Lisa; Orfei, Marco; Pinzani, Pamela; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Carossino, Anna Maria; Franchi, Alessandro; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Carbonell Sala, Silvia; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

2007-05-01

460

Clodronate acts on human osteoclastic cell proliferation, differentiation and function in a bioreversible manner  

PubMed Central

Background. Clodronate is used in high bone resorption diseases. Its action was defined as “cytotoxic” based on the induced cellular ATP loss, without any experimental verification of reversibility. In the present report the reversibility of clodronate action was tested on cultured human osteoclastic cell cultures. As “in vitro” bioeffects of clodronate are reversible, this compound should not be defined as “cytotoxic”. Introduction. Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs able to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption widely used in the treatment of diseases with high bone turnover. Several evidences have shown that bisphosphonates can be divided into two groups with distinct molecular mechanisms of action depending on the nature of the R2side chain. The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates act on osteoclasts by preventing protein prenylation, while non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, like clodronate, are metabolized intracellularly to a ?-?-methylene analog of ATP that induces inhibition of the ADP/ATP translocase. Materials and Methods. In order to evaluate clodronate effects on osteoclastic cells and the bioreversibility of its action, we have used a human preosteoclastic (FLG 29.1) cell line and primary cultures of human osteoclast-like (HOC) cells. Functional and differentiative modifications were evaluated with immunocytochemical tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity (TRAcP) assay and with rapid quantitative detection of the complex “matrix metalloproteinase 9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase” (MMP9/TIMP1) by RT-PCR analysis based on “TaqMan” technology. The apoptosis phenomenon were detected by DNA ladder analysis and quantified by counting apoptotic cells with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. Adenosine-5’-[ ? - ? -dichloromethylene] triphosphate (AppCCl2p) was detected and identified in cell extract by HPLC-ESI-MS-MS Mass Spectrometry. Intracellular ATP modulation in the presence of clodronate was evaluated by luciferin-luciferase assay. The Mann-Whitney “U” test was conducted for statistical analysis. Results. We found that clodronate inhibited both proliferation and differentiative features of cells of the osteoclastic lineage. Furthermore, treatment of both cell types with clodronate caused apoptosis, generation of measurable levels of AppCCl2p, and reduction of intracellular ATP levels. Addition of ATP to the culture medium caused an inhibition of the biological actions of clodronate on the human osteoclastic cell lineage. Conclusions. These data indicate that intracellular accumulation of the metabolite AppCCl2p is the likely route by which clodronate inhibits osteoclastic function and this effect is reversed by ATP. PMID:22461215

Recenti, Raffaella; Leone, Giuseppe; Simi, Lisa; Orfei, Marco; Pinzani, Pamela; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Carossino, Anna Maria; Franchi, Alessandro; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Carbonell Sala, Silvia; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

2007-01-01

461

The consistent presence of the human accessory deep peroneal nerve  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four human legs were dissected macroscopically to study the morphological details of the accessory deep peroneal nerve. This nerve arose from the superficial peroneal nerve and descended in the lateral compartment of the leg, deep to peroneus longus along the posterior border of peroneus brevis. Approaching the ankle joint, this nerve passed through the peroneal tunnels to wind around the lateral malleolus; it then crossed beneath the peroneus brevis tendon anteriorly to reach the dorsum of the foot. The accessory deep peroneal nerve was found in every case examined and constantly gave off muscular branches to peroneus brevis and sensory branches to the ankle region. In addition, this nerve occasionally had muscular branches to peroneus longus and extensor digitorum brevis, and sensory branches to the fibula and the foot. The anomalous muscles around the lateral malleolus were also innervated by this nerve. Neither cutaneous branches nor communicating branches with other nerves were found. The present study reveals that the accessory deep peroneal nerve is consistently present and possesses a proper motor and sensory distribution in the lateral region of the leg and ankle. It is not an anomalous nerve as has previously been suggested. PMID:10227671

KUDOH, HIROYUKI; SAKAI, TATSUO; HORIGUCHI, MASAHARU

1999-01-01

462

Structures of benzylsuccinate synthase elucidate roles of accessory subunits in glycyl radical enzyme activation and activity  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic degradation of the environmental pollutant toluene is initiated by the glycyl radical enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), which catalyzes the radical addition of toluene to fumarate, forming benzylsuccinate. We have determined crystal structures of the catalytic ?-subunit of BSS with its accessory subunits ? and ?, which both bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster and are essential for BSS activity in vivo. We find that BSS? has the common glycyl radical enzyme fold, a 10-stranded ?/?-barrel that surrounds the glycyl radical cofactor and active site. Both accessory subunits ? and ? display folds related to high potential iron–sulfur proteins but differ substantially from each other in how they interact with the ?-subunit. BSS? binds distally to the active site, burying a hydrophobic region of BSS?, whereas BSS? binds to a hydrophilic surface of BSS? that is proximal to the active site. To further investigate the function of BSS?, we determined the structure of a BSS?? complex. Remarkably, we find that the barrel partially opens, allowing the C-terminal region of BSS? that houses the glycyl radical to shift within the barrel toward an exit pathway. The structural changes that we observe in the BSS?? complex center around the crucial glycyl radical domain, thus suggesting a role for BSS? in modulating the conformational dynamics required for enzyme activity. Accompanying proteolysis experiments support these structural observations. PMID:24982148

Funk, Michael A.; Judd, Evan T.; Marsh, E. Neil G.; Elliott, Sean J.; Drennan, Catherine L.

2014-01-01

463

HIV-1 Vpu Accessory Protein Induces Caspase-mediated Cleavage of IRF3 Transcription Factor.  

PubMed

Vpu is an accessory protein encoded by HIV-1 that interferes with multiple host-cell functions. Herein we report that expression of Vpu by transfection into 293T cells causes partial proteolytic cleavage of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor in the innate anti-viral response. Vpu-induced IRF3 cleavage is mediated by caspases and occurs mainly at Asp-121. Cleavage produces a C-terminal fragment of ?37 kDa that comprises the IRF dimerization and transactivation domains but lacks the DNA-binding domain. A similar cleavage is observed upon infection of the Jurkat T-cell line with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-1. Two other HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif and Vpr, also contribute to the induction of IRF3 cleavage in both the transfection and the infection systems. The C-terminal IRF3 fragment interferes with the transcriptional activity of full-length IRF3. Cleavage of IRF3 under all of these conditions correlates with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an indicator of apoptosis. We conclude that Vpu contributes to the attenuation of the anti-viral response by partial inactivation of IRF3 while host cells undergo apoptosis. PMID:25352594

Park, Sang Yoon; Waheed, Abdul A; Zhang, Zai-Rong; Freed, Eric O; Bonifacino, Juan S

2014-12-19

464

Recently Evolved Genes Identified From Drosophila yakuba and D. erecta Accessory Gland Expressed Sequence Tags  

PubMed Central

The fraction of the genome associated with male reproduction in Drosophila may be unusually dynamic. For example, male reproduction-related genes show higher-than-average rates of protein divergence and gene expression evolution compared to most Drosophila genes. Drosophila male reproduction may also be enriched for novel genetic functions. Our earlier work, based on accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) in D. simulans and D. melanogaster, suggested that the melanogaster subgroup Acp's may be lost and/or gained on a relatively rapid timescale. Here we investigate this possibility more thoroughly through description of the accessory gland transcriptome in two melanogaster subgroup species, D. yakuba and D. erecta. A genomic analysis of previously unknown genes isolated from cDNA libraries of these species revealed several cases of genes present in one or both species, yet absent from ingroup and outgroup species. We found no evidence that these novel genes are attributable primarily to duplication and divergence, which suggests the possibility that Acp's or other genes coding for small proteins may originate from ancestrally noncoding DNA. PMID:16361246

Begun, David J.; Lindfors, Heather A.; Thompson, Melissa E.; Holloway, Alisha K.

2006-01-01

465

Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: An unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10?cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far. PMID:25430551

Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

2014-11-27

466

Notch signaling regulates murine atrioventricular conduction and the formation of accessory pathways  

PubMed Central

Ventricular preexcitation, which characterizes Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, is caused by the presence of accessory pathways that can rapidly conduct electrical impulses from atria to ventricles, without the intrinsic delay characteristic of the atrioventricular (AV) node. Preexcitation is associated with an increased risk of tachyarrhythmia, palpitations, syncope, and sudden death. Although the pathology and electrophysiology of preexcitation syndromes are well characterized, the developmental mechanisms are poorly understood, and few animal models that faithfully recapitulate the human disorder have been described. Here we show that activation of Notch signaling in the developing myocardium of mice can produce fully penetrant accessory pathways and ventricular preexcitation. Conversely, inhibition of Notch signaling in the developing myocardium resulted in a hypoplastic AV node, with specific loss of slow-conducting cells expressing connexin-30.2 (Cx30.2) and a resulting loss of physiologic AV conduction delay. Taken together, our results suggest that Notch regulates the functional maturation of AV canal embryonic myocardium during the development of the specialized conduction system. Our results also show that ventricular preexcitation can arise from inappropriate patterning of the AV canal–derived myocardium. PMID:21266778

Rentschler, Stacey; Harris, Brett S.; Kuznekoff, Laura; Jain, Rajan; Manderfield, Lauren; Lu, Min Min; Morley, Gregory E.; Patel, Vickas V.; Epstein, Jonathan A.

2011-01-01

467

Green function of the double-fractional Fokker-Planck equation: Path integral and stochastic differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistics of rare events, the so-called black-swan events, is governed by non-Gaussian distributions with heavy power-like tails. We calculate the Green functions of the associated Fokker-Planck equations and solve the related stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the subject in the framework of path integration.

Kleinert, H.; Zatloukal, V.

2013-11-01

468

Application of an Empirical Bayes Enhancement of Mantel-Haenszel Differential Item Functioning Analysis to a Computerized Adaptive Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a simulation to investigate the applicability to computerized adaptive test data of a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis method. Results show the performance of this empirical Bayes enhancement of the Mantel Haenszel DIF analysis method to be quite promising. (SLD)

Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

2002-01-01

469

Examining Differential Item Functioning Trends for English Language Learners in a Reading Test: A Meta-Analytical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, differential item functioning (DIF) trends were examined for English language learners (ELLs) versus non-ELL students in third and tenth grades on a large-scale reading assessment. To facilitate the analyses, a meta-analytic DIF technique was employed. The results revealed that items requiring knowledge of words and phrases in…

Koo, Jin; Becker, Betsy Jane; Kim, Young-Suk

2014-01-01

470

The Mantel-Haenszel Method for Detecting Differential Item Functioning in Dichotomously Scored Items: A Multilevel Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multilevel data often exist in educational studies. The focus of this study is to consider differential item functioning (DIF) for dichotomous items from a multilevel perspective. One of the most often used methods for detecting DIF in dichotomously scored items is the Mantel-Haenszel log odds-ratio. However, the Mantel-Haenszel reduces the…

MacInnes, Jann Marie Wise

2009-01-01

471

Association of tissue lineage and gene expression: conservatively and differentially expressed genes define common and special functions of tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed, develops, and establishes developmental hierarchies of tissues. The recent advance in microarray technology made it possible to investigate the tissue specific patterns of gene expression and their relationship with tissue lineages. This study is focused on how tissue specific functions, tissue lineage, and cell differentiation are correlated, which is

Yao Yu; Tao Xu; Yongtao Yu; Pei Hao; Xuan Li

2010-01-01

472

Centering, Scale Indeterminacy, and Differential Item Functioning Detection in Hierarchical Generalized Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss and illustrate two centering and anchoring options available in differential item functioning (DIF) detection studies based on the hierarchical generalized linear and generalized linear mixed modeling frameworks. We compared and contrasted the assumptions of the two options, and examined the properties of their DIF…

Cheong, Yuk Fai; Kamata, Akihito

2013-01-01

473

Differential Item Functioning on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire Is Minimal in Demographically Matched Meditators and Nonmeditators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire reported high levels of differential item functioning (DIF) for 18 of its 39 items in meditating and nonmeditating samples that were not demographically matched. In particular, meditators were more likely to endorse positively worded items whereas nonmeditators were more likely to deny…

Baer, Ruth A.; Samuel, Douglas B.; Lykins, Emily L. B.

2011-01-01

474

Detection of Differential Item Functioning in Large-Scale State Assessments: A Study Evaluating a Two-Stage Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied a two-stage methodology for evaluating differential item functioning (DIF) in large-scale assessment data using a sample of 60,000 students taking a large-scale assessment. Findings illustrate the merit of iterative approached for DIF detection, since items identified at one stage were not necessarily the same as those identified at the…

Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Robin, Frederic

2003-01-01

475

Do Items that Measure Self-Perceived Physical Appearance Function Differentially across Gender Groups? An Application of the MACS Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to investigate whether the 6 items of the Physical Appearance Scale (Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche, & Tremayne, 1994) show differential item functioning (DIF) across gender groups of adolescents, and to show how this can be done using the multigroup mean and covariance structure (MG-MACS) analysis model. Two samples…

Gonzalez-Roma, Vicente; Tomas, Ines; Ferreres, Doris; Hernandez, Ana

2005-01-01

476

Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Science and Mathematics Items in the University Entrance Examinations in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is aimed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) items across gender groups, analyze item content for the possible sources of DIF, and eventually investigate the effect of DIF items on the criterion-related validity of the test scores in the quantitative section of the university entrance examination (UEE) in Turkey. The reason…

Kalaycioglu, Dilara Bakan; Berberoglu, Giray

2011-01-01

477

Analysis of the Gender Variable in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire--Revised Scales Using Differential Item Functioning Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies in the field of personality have systematically found gender differences in two of the three dimensions of the Eysenck model: neuroticism and psychoticism. This study aims to analyze these differences in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire--Revised (EPQ-R) scales using differential item functioning (DIF) techniques to determine whether…

Escorial, Sergio; Navas, Maria J.

2007-01-01

478

Differential Item Functioning for a Test with a Cutoff Score: Use of Limited Closed-Interval Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A procedure to detect differential item functioning (DIF) is introduced that is suitable for tests with a cutoff score. DIF is assessed on a limited closed interval of thetas in which a cutoff score falls. How this approach affects the identification of DIF items is demonstrated with real data sets. (SLD)

Oshima, T. C.; And Others

1994-01-01

479

Differential Item Functioning and Language Translation: A Cross-National Study with a Test Developed for Certification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often, educational and psychological measurement instruments must be translated from one language to another when they are administered to different cultural groups. The translation process often necessarily introduces measurement inequivalence. Therefore, an examination may be said to exhibit differential functioning if the test provides a…

Price, Larry R.; Oshima, T. C.

480

Polytomous Differential Item Functioning and Violations of Ordering of the Expected Latent Trait by the Raw Score  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graded response (GR) and generalized partial credit (GPC) models do not imply that examinees ordered by raw observed score will necessarily be ordered on the expected value of the latent trait (OEL). Factors were manipulated to assess whether increased violations of OEL also produced increased Type I error rates in differential item functioning (DIF) procedures conditioned on the raw

Christine E. DeMars

2008-01-01