These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

UVB radiation and human monocyte accessory function: Differential effects on pre-mitotic events in T-cell activation  

SciTech Connect

Purified T lymphocytes fail to proliferate in response to antigenic and mitogenic stimuli when cultured in the presence of accessory cells that have been exposed in vitro to sublethal doses of UVB radiation. Because proliferation represents a final stage in the T-cell activation process, the present study was conducted to determine whether T cells were able to progress through any of the pre-mitotic stages when UVB-irradiated monocytes were used as model accessory cells. In these experiments, monoclonal anti-CD3 antibodies were employed as the mitogenic stimulus. Culture of T cells with UVB-irradiated monocytes did allow the T cells to undergo an increase in intracellular free calcium, which is one of the first steps in the activation sequence. The T cells expressed interleukin-2 receptors, although at a reduced level. However, T cells failed to produce interleukin-2 above background levels when they were placed in culture with monocytes exposed to UVB doses as low as 50 J/m2. Incubation of T cells with UVB-irradiated monocytes did not affect the subsequent capacity of T cells to proliferate, since they developed a normal proliferative response in secondary culture when restimulated with anti-CD3 antibodies and unirradiated monocytes. These studies indicate that T lymphocytes become partially activated when cultured with UVB-irradiated monocytes and mitogenic anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, they suggest that interleukin-2 production is the T-cell activation step most sensitive to inhibition when UVB-irradiated monocytes are employed as accessory cells.

Krutmann, J.K.; Kammer, G.M.; Toossi, Z.; Waller, R.L.; Ellner, J.J.; Elmets, C.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

1990-02-01

2

Adenosine and Its Derivatives Control Human Monocyte Differentiation Into Highly Accessory Cells Versus Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human peripheral blood monocytes have been found to undergo a transitory state of high accessory activity before they fully become macrophages. Time kinetics were done to follow this accessory potential. Studying the regulation of accessory activity, we have found that monocyte-derived accessory cells (m-AC) pass through two phases of devel- opment, which both are adversely controlled by cyclic nucleotides. Phase

Hossain Motieian Najar; Stephan Ruhi; Anne Christine Bru-Capdeville; Johann Hinrich Peters

3

Differential Objective Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item response theory (IRT) has been used extensively to study differential item functioning (dif) and to identify potentially biased items. The use of IRT for diagnostic purposes is less prevalent and has received comparatively less attention. This study addressed differential objective function (dof) to identify potentially biased content units.…

Kino, Mary M.; And Others

4

Functional organization of glomerular maps in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The mammalian accessory olfactory system extracts information about species, sex and individual identity from social odors, but its functional organization remains unclear. We imaged presynaptic Ca(2+) signals in vomeronasal inputs to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) during peripheral stimulation using light sheet microscopy. Urine- and steroid-responsive glomeruli densely innervated the anterior AOB. Glomerular activity maps for sexually mature female mouse urine overlapped maps for juvenile and/or gonadectomized urine of both sexes, whereas maps for sexually mature male urine were highly distinct. Further spatial analysis revealed a complicated organization involving selective juxtaposition and dispersal of functionally grouped glomerular classes. Glomeruli that were similarly tuned to urines were often closely associated, whereas more disparately tuned glomeruli were selectively dispersed. Maps to a panel of sulfated steroid odorants identified tightly juxtaposed groups that were disparately tuned and dispersed groups that were similarly tuned. These results reveal a modular, nonchemotopic spatial organization in the AOB. PMID:24880215

Hammen, Gary F; Turaga, Diwakar; Holy, Timothy E; Meeks, Julian P

2014-07-01

5

Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.  

PubMed

Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus. PMID:22428138

Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

2012-01-01

6

Interleukin-11 promotes accessory cell-dependent B-cell differentiation in humans.  

PubMed

Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a recently described stromal-derived cytokine that supports the growth of an IL-6-dependent murine plasmacytoma line in the presence of antibody to IL-6 and appears to act in a manner similar to IL-6 on hematopoietic stem cells. Because IL-6 is known to promote differentiation of normal human B cells, the role of IL-11 on B-cell differentiation in vitro was characterized. IL-11 does not result in significantly increased DNA synthesis or Ig secretion by purified B cells alone or B cells cultured with Staphylococcus Cowan I, a T-cell-independent B-cell mitogen. In contrast, purified B cells cultured in the presence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM), irradiated T cells, and monocytes show increased DNA synthesis at day 3 and increased IgG and IgM secretion at day 7 of culture; addition of IL-11 further augments Ig secretion without change in DNA synthesis, an effect that can only be partially blocked by monoclonal antibody to IL-6. Similar experiments confirmed that increased IgG secretion was demonstrable when either IL-11 or IL-6 was added to B cells + CD4+/45RA- T cells + monocytes + PWM; in contrast, Ig secretion was low and equivalent when CD4+/45RA+ T cells were cultured with B cells+monocytes+PWM with or without IL-6 or IL-11. Neither IL-6 nor IL-11 could significantly increase phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced DNA synthesis by CD4+/45RA- or CD4+/45RA+ T cells. Although PWM or IL-11 induced IL-6 mRNA expression in both CD4+/45RA- T cells and monocytes, in neither cell did IL-11 increase IL-6 mRNA expression over that noted to PWM alone. These observations support the view that IL-11 promotes differentiation of human B lymphocytes only in the presence of accessory T cells and monocytes and that a minor component of this effect may be through stimulation of IL-6 production by CD4+/45RA- T cells and monocytes. PMID:1450406

Anderson, K C; Morimoto, C; Paul, S R; Chauhan, D; Williams, D; Cochran, M; Barut, B A

1992-12-01

7

Accessory cell function in the Con A response: role of Ia-positive and Ia-negative accessory cells.  

PubMed

We have examined the role of Ia-positive and Ia-negative accessory cells (AC) and soluble factors in Con A-stimulated murine T cell activation. Supernatant fluids containing interleukin 1 (IL 1) derived from the P388D1 macrophage cell line and from a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage hybridoma provided only partial reconstitution of the response of purified T cells (18 to 27%). The complete reconstitution obtained with gamma-irradiated spleen cells or LPS-activated B cells was inhibited by approximately 60 to 77% when anti-Ia antibody was included in the culture. Despite this apparent involvement of Ia+ spleen AC, Ia-negative L cell AC could also reconstitute the response of both Class I-restricted Lyt-2+ T cells and Class II-restricted L3T4+ T cells. When the Ia-negative AC were employed, the L3T4 antigen on L3T4+ T cells played a critical role because addition of anti-L3T4 antibody to the culture inhibited the response by 85 to 90%. In contrast, anti-L3T4 did not inhibit the response in the presence of spleen AC. These results suggest that the molecules involved in T cell-AC interactions may vary depending on the AC source. Moreover, at least one of the putative target ligands for L3T4 presumably is not Ia, because anti-L3T4 inhibited T cell stimulation when Ia-negative AC were used. PMID:3881521

Bekoff, M; Kakiuchi, T; Grey, H M

1985-03-01

8

Matching Accessories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

Steven M. Foord (Stevenage;Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

2003-07-08

9

Automatic differentiation of limit functions  

SciTech Connect

Automatic differentiation can be used to evaluate the derivatives of and set up Taylor series for implicitly defined functions and maps. The author provides several examples of how this works, within the context of the MXYZPTLK class library, and discusses its extension to inverse functions. The techniques of automatic differentiation and differential algebra are rapidly becoming a standard part of accelerator physicists` arsenals.

Michelotti, L.

1993-05-01

10

Using Differentials to Differentiate Trigonometric and Exponential Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting from geometric definitions, we show how differentials can be used to differentiate trigonometric and exponential functions without limits, numerical estimates, solutions of differential equations, or integration.

Dray, Tevian

2013-01-01

11

Differentiability of functions of matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a function on diagonal matrices, there is a unique way to extend this to an invariant (by conjugation) function on symmetric matrices. We show that the extension preserves regularity -- that is, if the original function is k times differentiable so is the extension (likewise for analyticity and the class k+alpha).

Yury Grabovsky; Omar Hijab; Igor Rivin

2003-01-01

12

Receptor accessory folding helper enzymes: the functional role of peptidyl prolyl cis\\/ trans isomerases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptor accessory peptidyl prolyl cis\\/trans isomerases (PPIases) of the FKBP and cyclophilin types form receptor heterocomplexes with different stabilities. PPIases have been found to associate with other receptor heterocomplex constituents via either proline-directed active sites or additional domains of the enzymes. The single-domain PPIases FKBP12 and FKBP12.6 are shown to interact with receptor protein kinases and calcium channels at their

Cordelia Schiene-Fischer; Chao Yu

2001-01-01

13

Effect of an indigenous drug (Speman) on accessory reproductive functions of mice.  

PubMed

The effects of an indigenous drug preparation, Speman (Himalaya Drug Company), on the accessory reproductive organs were studied in castrated adult mice and immature intact mice. Oral administration of Speman to castrated adults markedly increased the weights of the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate, as well as the level of fructose and maltase activity. These increases were dose-dependent and highly significant (p less than .001). The results indicate that Speman possesses both androgenic and anaboliclike activities. PMID:992734

Jayatilak, P G; Pardanani, D S; Dattatreya, B; Sheth, A R

1976-03-01

14

Shared and differential traits in the accessory olfactory bulb of caviomorph rodents with particular reference to the semiaquatic capybara.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal system is crucial for social and sexual communication in mammals. Two populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons, each expressing G?i2 or G?o proteins, send projections to glomeruli of the rostral or caudal accessory olfactory bulb, rAOB and cAOB, respectively. In rodents, the G?i2- and G?o-expressing vomeronasal pathways have shown differential responses to small/volatile vs. large/non-volatile semiochemicals, respectively. Moreover, early gene expression suggests predominant activation of rAOB and cAOB neurons in sexual vs. aggressive contexts, respectively. We recently described the AOB of Octodon degus, a semiarid-inhabiting diurnal caviomorph. Their AOB has a cell indentation between subdomains and the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB. Moreover, their AOB receives innervation from the lateral aspect, contrasting with the medial innervation of all other mammals examined to date. Aiming to relate AOB anatomy with lifestyle, we performed a morphometric study on the AOB of the capybara, a semiaquatic caviomorph whose lifestyle differs remarkably from that of O. degus. Capybaras mate in water and scent-mark their surroundings with oily deposits, mostly for male-male communication. We found that, similar to O. degus, the AOB of capybaras shows a lateral innervation of the vomeronasal nerve, a cell indentation between subdomains and heterogeneous subdomains, but in contrast to O. degus the caudal portion is larger than the rostral one. We also observed that four other caviomorph species present a lateral AOB innervation and a cell indentation between AOB subdomains, suggesting that those traits could represent apomorphies of the group. We propose that although some AOB traits may be phylogenetically conserved in caviomorphs, ecological specializations may play an important role in shaping the AOB. PMID:21457258

Suárez, Rodrigo; Santibáñez, Rodrigo; Parra, Daniela; Coppi, Antonio A; Abrahão, Luciana M B; Sasahara, Tais H C; Mpodozis, Jorge

2011-05-01

15

Shared and differential traits in the accessory olfactory bulb of caviomorph rodents with particular reference to the semiaquatic capybara  

PubMed Central

The vomeronasal system is crucial for social and sexual communication in mammals. Two populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons, each expressing G?i2 or G?o proteins, send projections to glomeruli of the rostral or caudal accessory olfactory bulb, rAOB and cAOB, respectively. In rodents, the G?i2- and G?o-expressing vomeronasal pathways have shown differential responses to small/volatile vs. large/non-volatile semiochemicals, respectively. Moreover, early gene expression suggests predominant activation of rAOB and cAOB neurons in sexual vs. aggressive contexts, respectively. We recently described the AOB of Octodon degus, a semiarid-inhabiting diurnal caviomorph. Their AOB has a cell indentation between subdomains and the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB. Moreover, their AOB receives innervation from the lateral aspect, contrasting with the medial innervation of all other mammals examined to date. Aiming to relate AOB anatomy with lifestyle, we performed a morphometric study on the AOB of the capybara, a semiaquatic caviomorph whose lifestyle differs remarkably from that of O. degus. Capybaras mate in water and scent-mark their surroundings with oily deposits, mostly for male–male communication. We found that, similar to O. degus, the AOB of capybaras shows a lateral innervation of the vomeronasal nerve, a cell indentation between subdomains and heterogeneous subdomains, but in contrast to O. degus the caudal portion is larger than the rostral one. We also observed that four other caviomorph species present a lateral AOB innervation and a cell indentation between AOB subdomains, suggesting that those traits could represent apomorphies of the group. We propose that although some AOB traits may be phylogenetically conserved in caviomorphs, ecological specializations may play an important role in shaping the AOB. PMID:21457258

Suarez, Rodrigo; Santibanez, Rodrigo; Parra, Daniela; Coppi, Antonio A; Abrahao, Luciana M B; Sasahara, Tais H C; Mpodozis, Jorge

2011-01-01

16

Investigating Differentiability of Piecewise Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in calculus need to be proficient in working with functions in a variety of ways: graphical, numerical, analytic, or verbal, and to understand connections among these representations. This demo provides a set of visualizations designed to help students better understand what it means for a piecewise function to be differentiable at a particular domain value.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2004-10-04

17

Theory of fractional functional differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the basic theory for the initial value problems for fractional functional differential equations is considered, extending the corresponding theory of ordinary functional differential equations.

V. Lakshmikantham

2008-01-01

18

Functional Recovery Following an End to Side Neurorrhaphy of the Accessory Nerve to the Suprascapular Nerve: Case Report  

PubMed Central

The use of end-to-side neurrorhaphy remains a controversial topic in peripheral nerve surgery. The authors report the long-term functional outcome following a modified end-to-side motor reinnervation using the spinal accessory to innervate the suprascapular nerve following a C5 to C6 avulsion injury. Additionally, functional outcomes of an end-to-end neurotization of the triceps branch to the axillary nerve and double fascicular transfer of the ulnar and medial nerve to the biceps and brachialis are presented. Excellent functional recoveries are found in respect to shoulder abduction and flexion and elbow flexion. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11552-009-9242-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19902308

Ray, Wilson Z.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Yee, Andrew

2009-01-01

19

Male accessory gland infection.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) is a consequence of canalicular spreading of agents via urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, deferent duct, epididymis and testis. Haematogenous infections are rare. The main infectious agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and also enterobacteriae at a lesser frequency. Characteristic symptoms of MAGI are leukocytospermia, enhanced concentration of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. As complications, obstruction of the ductus epididymidis and/or another duct section, impairment of spermatogenesis in orchitis, impairment of sperm function, and dysfunctions of the male accessory glands may occur. Reduction of male fertility is a rare consequence. The treatment has to consider specific antibiotics. PMID:18336461

Krause, W

2008-04-01

20

Functional Analysis of the Accessory Protein TapA in Bacillus subtilis Amyloid Fiber Assembly  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation relies on the assembly of a fibrous scaffold formed by the protein TasA. TasA polymerizes into highly stable fibers with biochemical and morphological features of functional amyloids. Previously, we showed that assembly of TasA fibers requires the auxiliary protein TapA. In this study, we investigated the roles of TapA sequences from the C-terminal and N-terminal ends and TapA cysteine residues in its ability to promote the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers. We found that the cysteine residues are not essential for the formation of TasA fibers, as their replacement by alanine residues resulted in only minor defects in biofilm formation. Mutating sequences in the C-terminal half had no effect on biofilm formation. However, we identified a sequence of 8 amino acids in the N terminus that is key for TasA fiber formation. Strains expressing TapA lacking these 8 residues were completely defective in biofilm formation. In addition, this TapA mutant protein exhibited a dominant negative effect on TasA fiber formation. Even in the presence of wild-type TapA, the mutant protein inhibited fiber assembly in vitro and delayed biofilm formation in vivo. We propose that this 8-residue sequence is crucial for the formation of amyloid-like fibers on the cell surface, perhaps by mediating the interaction between TapA or TapA and TasA molecules. PMID:24488317

Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard

2014-01-01

21

Accessory function of endothelial cells in anti-CD3-induced T-cell proliferation: synergism with monocytes.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies to CD3 can induce proliferation of resting T cells. In vitro this effect is dependent on the presence of monocytes. They serve as accessory cells providing a co-stimulatory signal after cross-linking of the antibody-coated TcR/CD3 complex by the Fc receptor on the monocytes. We have studied whether endothelial cells can replace monocytes with regard to this function. Highly purified T-cell preparations were cultured in the presence of anti-CD3 antibody, purified monocytes, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Anti-CD3 and endothelial cells alone were unable to support T-cell proliferation, due to lack of FcR expression. Addition, however, of as few as 1000 FcR+ monocytes (0.8% of the number of T cells present) to a coculture of T cells and endothelial cells (EC) in the presence of soluble anti-CD3 resulted in a strong proliferation of T cells. When anti-CD3 was presented in an immobilized form (coated to the culture well or to Sepharose beads), or when phytohaemagglutinin was added to the culture as a cross-linking agent, EC could support T-cell proliferation in the absence of any monocytes. We conclude that EC by themselves cannot support the proliferation of pure T cells induced by soluble anti-CD3, but are potent generators of the co-stimulatory signal(s). They provide a suitable starting material to further define this co-stimulatory activity. PMID:1532667

Westphal, J R; Tax, W J; Willems, H W; Koene, R A; Ruiter, D J; De Waal, R M

1992-04-01

22

Identifying Possible Sources of Differential Functioning Using Differential Bundle Functioning with Polytomously Scored Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oshima, Raju, Flowers, and Slinde (1998) described procedures for identifying sources of differential functioning for dichotomous data using differential bundle functioning (DBF) derived from the differential functioning of items and test (DFIT) framework (Raju, van der Linden, & Fleer, 1995). The purpose of this study was to extend the procedures…

McCarty, F. A.; Oshima, T. C.; Raju, Nambury S.

2007-01-01

23

Extracting differential pair distribution functions using MIXSCAT  

SciTech Connect

Differently weighted experimental scattering data have been used to extract partial or differential structure factors or pair distribution functions in studying many materials. However, this is not done routinely partly because of the lack of user-friendly software. This paper presents MIXSCAT, a new member of the DISCUS program package. MIXSCAT allows one to combine neutron and X-ray pair distribution functions and extract their respective differential functions.

Wurden, Caroline; Page, Katharine; Llobet, Anna; White, Claire E.; Proffen, Thomas (LANL)

2010-08-27

24

Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

Longford, Nicholas T.

2014-01-01

25

A class of neutral functional differential equations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formulation and study of the initial value problem for neutral functional differential equations. The existence, uniqueness, and continuation of solutions to this problem are investigated, and an analysis is made of the dependence of the solutions on the initial conditions and parameters, resulting in the derivation of a continuous dependence theorem in which the fundamental mathematical principles underlying the continuous dependence problem for a very general system of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations are separated out.

Melvin, W. R.

1972-01-01

26

The Laser Accessory Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

Desai, Ashvin

1988-09-01

27

A Novel Function for the Hox Gene Abd-B in the Male Accessory Gland Regulates the Long-Term Female Post-Mating Response in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR). The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa), CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a robust female PMR. PMID:23555301

Maeda, Robert K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Karch, Francois

2013-01-01

28

Topological dynamics of retarded functional differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that a local flow can be constructed for a general class of nonautonomous retarded functional differential equations (RFDE). This is an extension to a result of Artstein (J. Differential Equations 23 (1977) 216) and fits in the classical theory of R. Miller and G. Sell. The main tool in this paper are generalized ordinary differential equations according to Kurzweil (Czech. Math. J. 7 (82) (1957) 418). In obtaining our results, we must prove the space of RFDEs can be embedded in a space of generalized ordinary differential equations. In opposition to the technical hypotheses of Oliva and Vorel (Bol. Soc. Mat. Mexicana 11 (1996) 40), this auxiliary result, as we present, is advantageous in the sense that our assumptions have an explanatory character. Applications based on topological dynamics techniques follow naturally from our results. As an illustration of this fact we show how to achieve in this setting a theorem on continuous dependence on initial data of solutions of RFDEs.

Federson, Márcia; Táboas, Plácido

29

Ramsay-Curve Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test, questionnaire, or interview has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of true group-mean differences on the constructs being measured. This article is focused on item response theory based likelihood ratio testing for DIF (IRT-LR or…

Woods, Carol M.

2011-01-01

30

Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…

Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

2012-01-01

31

Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

2009-01-01

32

A rare case of chronic sialadenitis of accessory parotid gland.  

PubMed

The accessory parotid gland is salivary tissue adjacent to stenson's duct that is separated from the main parotid gland and lying on masseter muscle. It has secondary duct empting into the stenson's duct. The differential diagnosis of mid-cheek masses include pathology arising from normal anatomic structures or from variations of normal accessory parotid gland tissue. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for the accessory parotid gland tumor. We report a case of accessory parotid gland with chronic sialadenitis in a 26 years old male with the diagnosis and treatment. Accessory parotid gland pathologies should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient presently with a mid-cheek mass. PMID:24533418

Sathe, Nilam Uttam; Thakare, Samir; Wadkar, Gaurav; Gaikwad, Ninad

2014-01-01

33

Diverse amino acid residues function within the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal. Implications for the role of accessory residues upstream of the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plant type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) utilizes amino acid residues that do not strictly adhere to the serine-lysine-leucine (SKL) motif (small-basic-hydrophobic residues). Selected residues were appended to the C terminus of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and were tested for their ability to target CAT fusion proteins to glyoxysomes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 suspension-cultured cells. CAT was redirected from the cytosol into glyoxysomes by a wide range of residues, i.e. A/C/G/S/T-H/K/ L/N/R-I/L/M/Y. Although L and N at the -2 position (-SLL, -ANL) do not conform to the SKL motif, both functioned, but in a temporally less-efficient manner. Other SKL divergent residues, however, did not target CAT to glyoxysomes, i.e. F or P at the -3 position (-FKL, -PKL), S or T at the -2 position (-SSI, STL), or D at the -1 position (-SKD). The targeting inefficiency of CAT-ANL could be ameliorated when K was included at the -4 position (-KANL). In summary, the plant PTS1 mostly conforms to the SKL motif. For those PTS1s that possess nonconforming residue(s), other residues upstream of the PTS1 appear to function as accessory sequences that enhance the temporal efficiency of peroxisomal targeting. PMID:9390426

Mullen, R T; Lee, M S; Flynn, C R; Trelease, R N

1997-01-01

34

Legendre-Tau approximations for functional differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The numerical approximation of solutions to linear functional differential equations are considered using the so called Legendre tau method. The functional differential equation is first reformulated as a partial differential equation with a nonlocal boundary condition involving time differentiation. The approximate solution is then represented as a truncated Legendre series with time varying coefficients which satisfy a certain system of ordinary differential equations. The method is very easy to code and yields very accurate approximations. Convergence is established, various numerical examples are presented, and comparison between the latter and cubic spline approximations is made.

Ito, K.; Teglas, R.

1983-01-01

35

Accessories Around the Clock.  

E-print Network

Accessories Around the Clock RHEBA MERLE BOYLES GRAHAM HARD NENA ROBERSON FANNIE BROWN EATON Extension Clothing Specialists k. The Texas A. a M. College System 2? well-dressed woman of today believes a wardrobe of fewer q, well chosen... for a short time and are adapfed- by only a few. Some fads can be practical but often they grade you down on appearance. Good taste is realizing the importance of wearing the right clothes for the occasion and the individual. Acc on l m o HINTS...

Boyles, Rheba Merle; Hard, Graham; Roberson, Nena; Eaton, Fannie Brown

1958-01-01

36

Differentiability of Point Process Models and Asymptotic Efficiency of Differentiable Functionals  

E-print Network

Differentiability of Point Process Models and Asymptotic Efficiency of Differentiable Functionals R models. In particular we establish L 2 ­differentiability for point processes with multiplicative LAN models of point processes. We establish the LAN condition for point processes with differen

Rüschendorf, Ludger

37

DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

2010-01-01

38

EQUIVARIANT HOPF BIFURCATION FOR NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS  

E-print Network

functional differential equations with the zeros of the reduced bifurcation map, and then set up equivariantEQUIVARIANT HOPF BIFURCATION FOR NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS SHANGJIANG GUO of branches of bifurcating periodic solutions in terms of the original system, avoiding the process of center

Lamb, Jeroen

39

Controllability of fractional neutral stochastic functional differential systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a class of fractional neutral stochastic functional differential systems. We obtain the controllability of the stochastic functional differential systems by the Sadovskii's fixed point theorem under some suitable assumptions. An example is given to illustrate the theory.

Kexue, Li; Jigen, Peng

2014-10-01

40

Differentiability of Functions of MatricesMatrix Functions DIFFERENTIABILITY OF FUNCTIONS OF MATRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let f be a function on the set of diagonal n×nmatrices, and let ˜ f be the unique extension of f to the set of symmetric n×n matrices invariant with respect to conjugation by orthogonal matrices. We show that ˜ f has the same regularity properties as f. That is, if f is Ck, or Ck+?, or C? or C?

YURY GRABOVSKY; OMAR HIJAB; IGOR RIVIN

41

Accessory scrotum in the perineum  

PubMed Central

A case of accessory scrotum in a 2-day-old male infant is reported because of its rarity. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypotheses regarding etiology of accessory scrotum. PMID:22121322

Kumar, Pananghat A.; Arunachalam, Pavai; Kumar, Prasanna N.

2011-01-01

42

Genetic difference in the proliferative response to T mitogens between Hi/PHA and Lo/PHA lymphocytes is independent of accessory cell function.  

PubMed

The role of the macrophage as accessory cell in the proliferative response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was studied in two lines of mice genetically selected for high and low responsiveness to T mitogens. Adherent cell depletion of lymph node cells abrogated the low (Lo)/PHA response, but only partially inhibited the high (Hi)/PHA response. Addition of peritoneal cells provided either by Hi/PHA or by Lo/PHA mice equally restored Hi/PHA responsiveness but had only a slight reconstituting effect on the inhibited Lo/PHA response. Equivalent enhancement or suppression of proliferation of untreated lymph node cells was obtained by the addition of increasing percentages of each of the two peritoneal cell populations. However, the maximum level of the Lo/PHA response never reached that of Hi/PHA cells. These data indicate that the bidirectional selective breeding has not modified the potentialities of the macrophages as accessory cells but has resulted in an impaired response of Lo/PHA lymphocytes to the signals delivered either by accessory cells or by T mitogens. PMID:3273413

Stiffel, C; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Decreusefond, C; Parlebas, J

1987-01-01

43

HIV accessory proteins versus host restriction factors.  

PubMed

Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

Strebel, Klaus

2013-12-01

44

Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

2009-01-01

45

Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (?) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than smaller clasts due to longer residence times and to greater differential velocities within the ash-laden jet. Lastly, our model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3?s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m depth).

Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

2013-09-01

46

FUNCTIONAL VOLUME 13 DIFFERENTIAL 2006, NO 3-4  

E-print Network

:4 resonance has no effect on equations of the form z(t) = -r(t)g(x(t-1)). Key Words. bifurcation of maps]). In a previous paper ([18]) the bifurcation of the time-one map of a scalar periodic delay differential equationFUNCTIONAL VOLUME 13 DIFFERENTIAL 2006, NO 3-4 EQUATIONS PP. 585­ 602 BIFURCATION OF PERIODIC DELAY

Röst, Gergely

47

Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation in mammary  

E-print Network

EMBO open Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation mammary epithelial cells integrate biochemical and mechanical extra- cellular cues to maintain expression and non-biomimetic intracellular elasticity. Our data indicate that tissue-specific gene

Nelson, Celeste M.

48

Generating functionals and Lagrangian partial differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to derive an alternative characterization of the multisymplectic form formula for classical field theories using the geometry of the space of boundary values. We review the concept of Type-I/II generating functionals defined on the space of boundary data of a Lagrangian field theory. On the Lagrangian side, we define an analogue of Jacobi's solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for field theories, and we show that by taking variational derivatives of this functional, we obtain an isotropic submanifold of the space of Cauchy data, described by the so-called multisymplectic form formula. As an example of the latter, we show that Lorentz's reciprocity principle in electromagnetism is a particular instance of the multisymplectic form formula. We also define a Hamiltonian analogue of Jacobi's solution, and we show that this functional is a Type-II generating functional. We finish the paper by defining a similar framework of generating functions for discrete field theories, and we show that for the linear wave equation, we recover the multisymplectic conservation law of Bridges.

Vankerschaver, Joris; Liao, Cuicui; Leok, Melvin

2013-08-01

49

Generating functionals and Lagrangian partial differential equations  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this paper is to derive an alternative characterization of the multisymplectic form formula for classical field theories using the geometry of the space of boundary values. We review the concept of Type-I/II generating functionals defined on the space of boundary data of a Lagrangian field theory. On the Lagrangian side, we define an analogue of Jacobi's solution to the Hamilton–Jacobi equation for field theories, and we show that by taking variational derivatives of this functional, we obtain an isotropic submanifold of the space of Cauchy data, described by the so-called multisymplectic form formula. As an example of the latter, we show that Lorentz's reciprocity principle in electromagnetism is a particular instance of the multisymplectic form formula. We also define a Hamiltonian analogue of Jacobi's solution, and we show that this functional is a Type-II generating functional. We finish the paper by defining a similar framework of generating functions for discrete field theories, and we show that for the linear wave equation, we recover the multisymplectic conservation law of Bridges.

Vankerschaver, Joris; Liao, Cuicui; Leok, Melvin [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0112, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0112, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)

2013-08-15

50

Boundedness, Differentiability and Extensions of Convex Functions  

E-print Network

- tensions. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 52A41; Secondary 46G05, 46N10, 49J50, 90C25. 1 was visiting Simon Fraser University, he played a key role in producing the paper [5] --which among other convex function on Computer Science Faculty, 325, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, B3H 1W5

Borwein, Jonathan

51

Using Radial Basis Functions to Approximate Battery Differential Capacity and Differential Voltage  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy’s Applied Battery Research Program, lithium-ion cells of various sizes and chemistries are aged with periodic reference performance tests to ascertain degradation rates. The reference tests included a very slow discharge and charge based on a constant current equal to 1/25th of the rated capacity to elucidate the true electrochemical capacity of the cell. A differential analysis of these data helps to identify the individual kinetic and thermodynamic contributions of the anode and cathode. However, differential curves are very noisy, and previous smoothing methods included simple data reduction and moving averages. This paper introduces an alternative method of finding the differential voltage and differential capacity curves based on radial basis functions. The voltage profile is fit with a number of Gaussian curves, and the resulting model is differentiated. This approach also has the added advantage of assessing model uncertainty based on a bootstrap analysis. The radial basis function method was successfully applied to various lithium-ion chemistries tested under the Applied Battery Research Program. The resulting differential capacity and differential voltage curves were generally smoother than the corresponding curves found by previous methods and also showed little variance, indicating a good model fit. These results imply that the radial basis function technique is a more robust tool for assessing differential data.

Jon P. Christophersen; Steven R. Shaw

2010-02-01

52

A note on the automated differentiation of implicit functions  

SciTech Connect

This paper answers the question: Can automated differentiation be used on functions that are defined implicitly, recursively, or iteratively Consider, for example, the simple function x(m) defined by the equation, x(m) {equals} cos(m{center dot}x(m)).

Michelotti, L.

1991-06-27

53

Decisions that Make a Difference in Detecting Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are numerous statistical procedures for detecting items that function differently across subgroups of examinees that take a test or survey. However, in endeavouring to detect items that may function differentially, selection of the statistical method is only one of many important decisions. In this article, we discuss the important decisions…

Sireci, Stephen G.; Rios, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

54

Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

Bacon, C.R.

1989-01-01

55

Hyperglycemia enhances function and differentiation of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can eventually cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are the critical mediators of physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling; however, the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation is not well known. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation on the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblasts and show that hyperglycemia enhances cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation. We found that high glucose treatment increased collagen I, III, and VI gene expression in rat adult cardiac fibroblasts. Interestingly, hyperglycemia increased CF migration and proliferation that is augmented by collagen I and III. Surprisingly, we found that short term hyperglycemia transiently inhibited ERK1/2 activation but increased AKT phosphorylation. Finally, high glucose treatment increased spontaneous differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts with increasing passage compared with low glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that hyperglycemia induces cardiac fibrosis by modulating collagen expression, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24959995

Shamhart, Patricia E; Luther, Daniel J; Adapala, Ravi K; Bryant, Jennifer E; Petersen, Kyle A; Meszaros, J Gary; Thodeti, Charles K

2014-07-01

56

Differential Impact of Parent Functioning on Infant Social Emotional Functioning During the Transition to Parenthood  

E-print Network

The current study examined the relations between parental and relationship functioning and infant social-emotional functioning, with an emphasis on the differential predictive power of mothers and fathers. This is the first study to examine certain...

Carhart, Kathryn Patricia

2012-07-16

57

The LIM protein LIMD1 influences osteoblast differentiation and function  

SciTech Connect

The balance between bone resorption and bone formation involves the coordinated activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Communication between these two cell types is essential for maintenance of normal bone homeostasis; however, the mechanisms regulating this cross talk are not completely understood. Many factors that mediate differentiation and function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts have been identified. The LIM protein Limd1 has been implicated in the regulation of stress osteoclastogenesis through an interaction with the p62/sequestosome protein. Here we show that Limd1 also influences osteoblast progenitor numbers, differentiation, and function. Limd1{sup -/-} calvarial osteoblasts display increased mineralization and accelerated differentiation. While no significant differences in osteoblast number or function were detected in vivo, bone marrow stromal cells isolated from Limd1{sup -/-} mice contain significantly more osteoblast progenitors compared to wild type controls when cultured ex vivo. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in nuclear {beta}-catenin staining in differentiating Limd1{sup -/-} calvarial osteoblasts suggesting that Limd1 is a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. These results demonstrate that Limd1 influences not only stress osteoclastogenesis but also osteoblast function and osteoblast progenitor commitment. Together, these data identify Limd1 as a novel regulator of both bone osetoclast and bone osteoblast development and function.

Luderer, Hilary F. [Department of Cell Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bai Shuting [Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Longmore, Gregory D. [Department of Cell Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: glongmor@im.wustl.edu

2008-09-10

58

Differentiable but exact formulation of density-functional theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The universal density functional F of density-functional theory is a complicated and ill-behaved function of the density—in particular, F is not differentiable, making many formal manipulations more complicated. While F has been well characterized in terms of convex analysis as forming a conjugate pair (E, F) with the ground-state energy E via the Hohenberg-Kohn and Lieb variation principles, F is nondifferentiable and subdifferentiable only on a small (but dense) subset of its domain. In this article, we apply a tool from convex analysis, Moreau-Yosida regularization, to construct, for any ? > 0, pairs of conjugate functionals (?E, ?F) that converge to (E, F) pointwise everywhere as ? ? 0+, and such that ?F is (Fréchet) differentiable. For technical reasons, we limit our attention to molecular electronic systems in a finite but large box. It is noteworthy that no information is lost in the Moreau-Yosida regularization: the physical ground-state energy E(v) is exactly recoverable from the regularized ground-state energy ?E(v) in a simple way. All concepts and results pertaining to the original (E, F) pair have direct counterparts in results for (?E, ?F). The Moreau-Yosida regularization therefore allows for an exact, differentiable formulation of density-functional theory. In particular, taking advantage of the differentiability of ?F, a rigorous formulation of Kohn-Sham theory is presented that does not suffer from the noninteracting representability problem in standard Kohn-Sham theory.

Kvaal, Simen; Ekström, Ulf; Teale, Andrew M.; Helgaker, Trygve

2014-05-01

59

THE #MARUYAMA SCHEME FOR STOCHASTIC FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH  

E-print Network

THE #­MARUYAMA SCHEME FOR STOCHASTIC FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH DISTRIBUTED MEMORY TERM term. The mean­square consistency of a class of schemes, the #­Maruyama methods, is analysed, using #­Maruyama schemes applied to simulate the so­ lution of (1). For a statement of mean­square convergence

Küchler, Uwe

60

Differential Item Functioning (DIF): Current Problems and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rising concerns over the fairness of language tests, Differential Item Functioning (DIF) has been increasingly applied in bias analysis. Despite its widespread use in psychometric circles, DIF is facing a number of serious problems. This paper is an attempt to shed light on a number of the issues involved in DIF analysis. Specifically,…

Karami, Hossein; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2011-01-01

61

Testing for Differential Item Functioning with Measures of Partial Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test or questionnaire has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of mean differences on the construct. There are many methods available for DIF assessment. The present article is focused on indices of partial association. A family of average…

Woods, Carol M.

2009-01-01

62

DIFAS: Differential Item Functioning Analysis System. Computer Program Exchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) is an important consideration in assessing the validity of test scores (Camilli & Shepard, 1994). A variety of statistical procedures have been developed to assess DIF in tests of dichotomous (Hills, 1989; Millsap & Everson, 1993) and polytomous (Penfield & Lam, 2000; Potenza & Dorans, 1995) items. Some of these…

Penfield, Randall D.

2005-01-01

63

Three Classes of Nonparametric Differential Step Functioning Effect Estimators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of measurement invariance in polytomous items is complicated by the possibility that the magnitude and sign of lack of invariance may vary across the steps underlying the set of polytomous response options, a concept referred to as differential step functioning (DSF). This article describes three classes of nonparametric DSF effect…

Penfield, Randall D.

2008-01-01

64

Adenosine receptors in regulation of dendritic cell differentiation and function  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of functional dendritic cells (DCs) critically depends on the microenvironment. DCs differentiate in hypoxic tumor sites and inflamed or damaged tissue. Because local concentrations of adenosine reach high physiologically relevant levels in these conditions, we assessed the expression of adenosine receptors and the effect of their activation on differentiation of human monocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into myeloid DCs. Stimulation of adenosine receptors skews DC differentiation toward a distinct cell population characterized by expression of both DC and monocyte/macrophage cell surface markers. Pharmacologic analysis and experiments with cells from A2B adenosine receptor knockout mice identified A2B receptor as the mediator of adenosine effects on DCs. Unlike normal myeloid DCs, adenosine-differentiated DCs have impaired allostimulatory activity and express high levels of angiogenic, pro-inflammatory, immune suppressor, and tolerogenic factors, including VEGF, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, TGF-?, and IDO. They promoted tumor growth if injected into tumors implanted in mice. Using adenosine desaminase knockout animals, we showed that DCs with proangiogenic phenotype are highly abundant under conditions associated with elevated levels of extracellular adenosine in vivo. Adenosine signaling through A2B receptor is an important factor of aberrant DC differentiation and generation of tolerogenic, angiogenic, and proinflammatory cells. PMID:18559975

Novitskiy, Sergey V.; Ryzhov, Sergey; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Goldstein, Anna E.; Huang, Yuhui; Tikhomirov, Oleg Y.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Biaggioni, Italo; Carbone, David P.; Feoktistov, Igor

2008-01-01

65

news update Fashion Accessory Design  

E-print Network

. Her work was inspired by the patterns of floor tiles, and she incorporated domestic knittingnews update let's talk Fashion Accessory Design Fashion Design Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted-year Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted Textiles student Thea Sanders won the top knitwear prize at the event

Evans, Paul

66

Differentiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The derivative refers to the rate of change, or slope, of a function. Differentiation refers to the calculation of a derivative. Derivatives are used throughout applied mathematics and science. The derivative of a function is the instantaneous rate of change of a function evaluated at each point.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

67

HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction (HYPERDIRE): MATHEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions: FD and FS Horn-type hypergeometric functions of three variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: the first one, FdFunction, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions FD of r variables; and the second one, FsFunction, for manipulations with Lauricella-Saran hypergeometric functions FS of three variables. Both functions are related with one-loop Feynman diagrams.

Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Moch, Sven-Olaf

2014-11-01

68

Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells  

SciTech Connect

Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-? and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 ?M) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-? and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ? Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ? Arsenite (> 1 ?M) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by inducing necrosis ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) slightly reduces endocytotic activity of immature DCs ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) represses expression of IL-12p70 and IL-23 in activated DCs ? Arsenite (0.1 to 0.5 ?M) reduces the ability of DCs to activate human T lymphocytes.

Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)] [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France) [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)] [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l'Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

2013-01-15

69

Proteasome inhibitors abrogate osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer-induced bone disease results in bone destruction, pathological fractures, and pain. We hypothesized that the inhibition of the proteasome–ubiquitin system in osteoclasts could abolish the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) mediated osteoclast differentiation and function, since RANKL-mediated downstream signaling plays a crucial role in osteoclast life cycle. In this study, we examined the effects of the proteasome inhibitors MG-132

Ivana Zavrski; Holger Krebbel; Britt Wildemann; Ulrike Heider; Martin Kaiser; Kurt Possinger; Orhan Sezer

2005-01-01

70

Exp-Function Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations  

PubMed Central

We extend the Exp-function method to fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative based on nonlinear fractional complex transformation. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the space-time fractional Fokas equation and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established. PMID:23818823

2013-01-01

71

Control of functional differential equations to target sets in function space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal control of systems governed by functional differential equations of retarded and neutral type is considered. Problems with function space initial and terminal manifolds are investigated. Existence of optimal controls, regularity, and bang-bang properties are discussed. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived, and several solved examples which illustrate the theory are presented.

Banks, H. T.; Kent, G. A.

1971-01-01

72

Notch signaling in differentiation and function of dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to multiple lineages of cells. This process is governed by a tightly controlled signaling network regulated by cytokines and a direct cell-cell. Notch signaling represents one of the major pathways activated during direct interaction between hematopoietic progenitor cells and bone marrow stroma. A critical role of Notch signaling in differentiation of T and B lymphocytes has now been established. Until recently, the role of Notch signaling in the development of myeloid cells and particular dendritic cells remained unclear. In this review we discuss recent exciting findings that shed light on the critical role of Notch in differentiation and the function of dendritic cells and its impact on immune responses. PMID:18008056

Cheng, Pingyan; Gabrilovich, Dmitry

2009-01-01

73

The impact of testicular and accessory sex gland function on sperm chromatin integrity as assessed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) provides an objective assessment of sperm chromatin integrity, which is essential for normal sperm function. SCSA is valuable as a fertility marker in epidemiological studies and in the clinical situation. Little is known about the impact of testicular and post-testicular function on SCSA parameters. METHODS: Ejaculates from 278 military conscripts of median age

J. Richthoff; M. Spano; Y. L. Giwercman; B. Frohm; K. Jepson; J. Malm; S. Elzanaty; M. Stridsberg; A. Giwercman

2002-01-01

74

Role of PPAR? in the Differentiation and Function of Neurons  

PubMed Central

Neuronal processes (neurites and axons) have an important role in brain cells communication and, generally, they are damaged in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence has showed that the activation of PPAR? pathway promoted neuronal differentiation and axon polarity. In addition, activation of PPAR? using thiazolidinediones (TZDs) prevented neurodegeneration by reducing neuronal death, improving mitochondrial function, and decreasing neuroinflammation in neuropathic pain. In this review, we will discuss important evidence that supports a possible role of PPAR? in neuronal development, improvement of neuronal health, and pain signaling. Therefore, activation of PPAR? is a potential target with therapeutic applications against neurodegenerative disorders, brain injury, and pain regulation.

Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Utreras, Elias; Cabezas-Opazo, Fabian A.

2014-01-01

75

Recent insights into HIV accessory proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV produces structural, regulatory, and accessory proteins during viral replication in host cells. The accessory proteins\\u000a include Nef, viral infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R, and viral protein U or viral protein X. Although these accessory\\u000a proteins are generally dispensable for viral replication in vitro, they are essential for viral pathogenesis in vivo. Consequently,\\u000a there has been much interest in

Jenny L. Anderson; Thomas J. Hope

2003-01-01

76

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

77

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

78

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

79

Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

Marlino, L.D.

2010-06-15

80

Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

Vazquez, J. A.

2012-12-01

81

Preparation, Functional Characterization, and NMR Studies of Human KCNE1, a Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Accessory Subunit Associated With Deafness and Long QT Syndrome†  

PubMed Central

KCNE1, also known as minK, is a member of the KCNE family of membrane proteins that modulate the function of KCNQ1 and certain other voltage-gated potassium channels (KV). Mutations in human KCNE1 cause congenital deafness and congenital long QT syndrome, an inherited predisposition to potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Although its modulation of KCNQ1 function has been extensively characterized, many questions remain regarding KCNE1's structure and location within the channel complex. In this study KCNE1 was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. Micellar solutions of the protein were then microinjected into Xenopus oocytes expressing KCNQ1 channels, followed by electrophysiological recordings to test whether recombinant KCNE1 can co-assemble with the channel. Native-like modulation of channel properties was observed following injection of KCNE1 in lysomyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (LMPG) micelles, indicating that KCNE1 is not irreversibly misfolded and that LMPG is able to act as a vehicle for delivering membrane proteins into the membranes of viable cells. 1H,15N-TROSY NMR experiments indicated that LMPG micelles are well-suited for structural studies of KCNE1, leading to assignment of its backbone resonances and to relaxation studies. The chemical shift data confirmed that KCNE1's secondary structure includes several ?-helices and demonstrated that its distal C-terminus is disordered. Surprisingly, for KCNE1 in LMPG micelles there appears to be a break in ?-helicity at sites 59?61, near the middle of the transmembrane segment, a feature that is accompanied by increased local backbone mobility. Given that this segment overlaps with sites 57?59, which are known to play a critical role in modulating KCNQ1 channel activation kinetics, this unusual structural feature is likely of considerable functional relevance. PMID:17892302

Tian, Changlin; Vanoye, Carlos G.; Kang, Congbao; Welch, Richard C.; Kim, Hak Jun; George, Alfred L.; Sanders, Charles R.

2008-01-01

82

49 CFR 393.3 - Additional equipment and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Additional equipment and accessories. 393.3 Section 393.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION General § 393.3 Additional equipment and accessories....

2010-10-01

83

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

84

An accessory limb with an imperforate anus  

PubMed Central

Congenital accessory limbs are very rare anomalies with many causative factors. We describe the case of a 1-day-old female neonate-born to a healthy, 27-year-old mother-who presented with an accessory limb (foot) attached to the buttock and an imperforate anus. We also provide a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25317418

Park, Kun-Bo; Kim, Yeon-Mee; Park, Ji-Yong; Chung, Mi-Lim; Jung, Yu-Jin

2014-01-01

85

YlxM is a newly identified accessory protein that influences the function of signal recognition particle pathway components in Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic oral pathogen whose virulence is determined largely by its membrane composition. The signal recognition particle (SRP) protein-targeting pathway plays a pivotal role in membrane biogenesis. S. mutans SRP pathway mutants demonstrate growth defects, cannot contend with environmental stress, and exhibit multiple changes in membrane composition. This study sought to define a role for ylxM, which in S. mutans and numerous other bacteria resides directly upstream of the ffh gene, encoding a major functional element of the bacterial SRP. YlxM was observed as a produced protein in S. mutans. Its predicted helix-turn-helix motif suggested that it has a role as a transcriptional regulator of components within the SRP pathway; however, no evidence of transcriptional regulation was found. Instead, capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), affinity chromatography, and bio-layer interferometry (BLI) demonstrated that S. mutans YlxM interacts with the SRP components Ffh and small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA) but not with the SRP receptor FtsY. In the absence of FtsY, YlxM increased the GTP hydrolysis activity of Ffh alone and in complex with scRNA. However, in the presence of FtsY, YlxM caused an overall diminution of net GTPase activity. Thus, YlxM appears to modulate GTP hydrolysis, a process necessary for proper recycling of SRP pathway components. The presence of YlxM conferred a significant competitive growth advantage under nonstress and acid stress conditions when wild-type and ylxM mutant strains were cultured together. Our results identify YlxM as a component of the S. mutans SRP and suggest a regulatory function affecting GTPase activity. PMID:24659773

Williams, Matthew L; Crowley, Paula J; Hasona, Adnan; Brady, L Jeannine

2014-06-01

86

The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly.  

PubMed

This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed. PMID:23532389

Gandhi, Kusum R; Siddiqui, Abu U; Wabale, Rajendra N; Daimi, Syed R

2012-09-01

87

Requirement for functional BK channels in maintaining oscillation in venomotor tone revealed by species differences in expression of the ?1 accessory subunits  

PubMed Central

We determined the possible role of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in regulation of venous tone in small capacitance veins and blood pressure. In rat mesenteric venous smooth muscle cells (MV SMC), BK channel ?- and ?1-subunits were co-expressed, unitary BK currents were detected, and single channel currents were sensitive to voltage and [Ca2+]i. Rat MV SMCs displayed Ca2+ sparks and iberiotoxin (IBTX)-sensitive spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs). Under resting conditions in vitro, rat MV exhibited nifedipine-sensitive spontaneous oscillatory constrictions. Blockade of BK channels by paxilline and Ca2+ sparks by ryanodine constricted rat MV. Nifedipine caused venodilation and blocked paxilline-, KCl (20 mM) and BayK 8644-induced contraction. Acute inhibition of BK channels with IBTX in vivo increased blood pressure and reduced venous capacitance, measured as an increase in mean circulatory filling pressure in conscious rats. BK channel ?-subunits and L-type Ca2+ channel ?1-C subunits are expressed in murine MV. However, these channels are not functional as murine MV lacked nifedipine-sensitive basal tone and rhythmic constrictions. Murine MV were also insensitive to paxilline, ryanodine, KCl and BayK8644, consistent with our previous studies showing that murine MV do not have BK ?1-subunits. These data show that not only there are species-dependent properties in ion channel control of venomotor tone, but also that BK channels are required for rhythmic oscillations in venous tone. PMID:21885988

Xu, Hui; Kandlikar, Sachin S; Westcott, Erika B; Fink, Gregory D; Galligan, James J

2011-01-01

88

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

89

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

90

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

91

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

92

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

93

Defining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC Differentiation  

EPA Science Inventory

Defining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC DifferentiationDefining a Model for Mitochondrial Function in mESC Differentiation Differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) undergo mitochondrial maturation leading to a switch from a system dependent upon glycolysis to a re...

94

Epifascial accessory palmaris longus muscle.  

PubMed

In hand reconstructive surgery the palmaris longus muscle is one of the most utilized donor site for tendon reconstruction procedures. However, its anatomic position is variable and anatomic variations may be responsible for median nerve compression. We report the case of a 40-year-old, right-handed woman, who presented with numbness and paresthesias in the palm and in the flexor aspect of the first, second, and third fingers of her right hand for the preceding 5 months, coinciding with increase of office work (typing). The clinical examination and radiological investigations (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) revealed a subcutaneous mass (15 mm x 2.3 mm x 6 cm), with a lenticular shape and definite edges at the level of the volar aspect of the distal third of the forearm. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of striated muscle fibers. During surgery, a muscle belly was found in the epifascial plane. This muscle originated from subcutaneous septa in the middle forearm and inserted on to the superficial palmar aponeurosis with fine short tendon fibers. Exposure of the antebrachial fascia did not reveal any area of weakness or muscle herniation. The palmaris longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, and flexor carpi radialis tendon showed usual topography under the antebrachial fascia. The accessory muscle was excised and histology revealed unremarkable striated muscle fibers, limited by a thin connective sheath. The presence of an accessory palmaris longus (APL) located in the epifascial plane could be ascribed to an unusual migration of myoblasts during the morphogenesis. Although extremely rare, APL is worth bearing in mind as a possible cause of median nerve compression and etiology of a volar mass in the distal forearm. PMID:16917822

Tiengo, Cesare; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Bassetto, Franco; De Caro, Raffaele

2006-09-01

95

Differential association between chronic cannabis use and brain function deficits.  

PubMed

To summarize, 12 objective tests that generated 16 test variables were administered to 850 male regular cannabis users and 839 nonusers. The tests were designed to assess various modalities, including speed of psychomotor performance, distance estimation, time estimation, immediate memory, and visuomotor coordination. Most of the test variables differentiated significantly between consumers and controls. At the same time, a significant second-order interaction emerged in most cases. This interaction meant that, under certain conditions that relate to the two dimensions "literacy-illiteracy" and/or "urbanism-ruralism," the superiority of controls over cannabis users became impressive, whereas under other conditions it almost disappeared. To account for this complex pattern of results, a working hypothesis was presented to the effect that "other conditions being equal, the lower the nondrug level of proficiency on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance the smaller the size of function deficit associated with drug usage." For an empirical examination of the hypothesis, six predictions were formulated. Three predictions defined specific relationships between level of performance, on one hand, and each of three organismic variables, on the other: literacy, urbanism, and age. The remaining predictions delineated relationships to be expected between size of function deficit and the three organismic variables. All our predictions were confirmed, showing less function impairment to be contingent with cannabis usage among the illiterates, rurals, and older subjects. Level of cortical arousal was suggested as the central process associated with the three organismic variables. Because the version of our working hypothesis was formulated with reference to chronic material, the possibility of a transposition of the paradign to research on the acute effects of the drug was discussed. The suggestion was made that our working hypothesis, in either version, is capable of establishing genuine integration between reports that present conflicting results on possible function deficits contingent with cannabis consumption. PMID:1071386

Soueif, M I

1976-01-01

96

Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills.  

PubMed

The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) by using an error analysis approach where traditional measures of the tasks, as well as identification of major error patterns are related. Results show that during the infancy and early juvenile period, two processes that help support set-maintenance could be differentiated: modulation of responses to novelty and persistence despite negative feedback. The results suggest that these two aspects of set-maintenance were largely independent. Modulation of responses to novelty was most prominent in the infancy and early juvenile period. The ability to persist with a response set despite negative feedback emerged in the early juvenile period and was related to task performance until the end of the study. PMID:21563178

Mandell, Dorothy J; Ward, Sarah E

2011-12-01

97

Runx1-mediated regulation of osteoclast differentiation and function.  

PubMed

Excessive bone resorption is the cause of several metabolic bone diseases including osteoporosis. Thus, identifying factors that can inhibit osteoclast formation and/or activity may define new drug targets that can be used to develop novel therapies for these conditions. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the master regulator of hematopoiesis, Runx1, is expressed in preosteoclasts and may influence skeletal health. To examine the potential role of Runx1 in osteoclast formation and function, we deleted its expression in myeloid osteoclast precursors by crossing Runx1 floxed mice (Runx1(F/F)) with CD11b-Cre transgenic mice. Mice lacking Runx1 in preosteoclasts (CD11b-Cre;Runx1(F/F)) exhibited significant loss of femoral trabecular and cortical bone mass compared with that in Cre-negative mice. In addition, serum levels of collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide, a biomarker of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, were significantly elevated in CD11b-Cre;Runx1(F/F) mice compared with those in Runx1(F/F) mice. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts that differentiated from bone marrow cells of CD11b-Cre;Runx1(F/F) mice in vitro were larger, were found in greater numbers, and had increased bone resorbing activity than similarly cultured cells from Runx1(F/F) mice. CD11b-Cre;Runx1(F/F) bone marrow cells that were differentiated into osteoclasts in vitro also had elevated mRNA levels of osteoclast-related genes including vacuolar ATPase D2, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9, calcitonin receptor, osteoclast-associated receptor, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, and cFos. These data indicate that Runx1 expression in preosteoclasts negatively regulates osteoclast formation and activity and contributes to overall bone mass. PMID:24606124

Soung, Do Y; Kalinowski, Judith; Baniwal, Sanjeev K; Jacome-Galarza, Christian E; Frenkel, Baruch; Lorenzo, Joseph; Drissi, Hicham

2014-04-01

98

DIFFERENTIAL FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS OF BIOMATERIALS ON DENDRITIC CELL MATURATION  

PubMed Central

The immunological outcome of dendritic cell (DC) treatment with different biomaterials was assessed to demonstrate the range of DC phenotypes induced by biomaterials commonly used in combination products. Immature DCs (iDCs) were derived from human peripheral blood monocytes, and treated with different biomaterial films of alginate, agarose, chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA), or 75:25 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a comprehensive cadre of phenotypic functional outcomes were assessed. Differential levels of functional changes of DC phenotype were observed depending on the type of biomaterial films used to treat DCs. Treatment of DCs with PLGA or chitosan films supported DC maturation with higher levels of DC allostimulatory capacity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, HLA-DQ and CD44 expression as compared to iDCs, and endocytic ability at a level lower compared to iDCs. Alginate film induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release from DCs at levels higher than iDCs,. Dendritic cells treated with HA film expressed lower levels of CD40, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR as compared to iDCs. They also exhibited endocytic ability and CD44 expression at levels lower than iDCs, possibly due to an insolublized (cross-linked) form with high molecular weight HA. Interestingly, treatment of DCs with agarose film maintained a DC functional phenotype at levels similar to iDCs except for CD44 expression which was lower than expression levels for iDCs. Taken together, these results can provide selection criteria for biomaterials to be used in immunomodulating applications and can inform potential outcomes of biomaterials within combination products on associated immune responses as desired by the application. PMID:22705044

Park, Jaehyung; Babensee, Julia E.

2012-01-01

99

Decreased SH3BP2 inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function.  

PubMed

Germline mutations in SH3BP2 gene have been identified in patients with cherubism, a skeletal disorder characterized by excessive osteoclastic bone resorption that is limited to the mandible and maxilla. We previously demonstrated that SH3BP2 overexpression in Raw264.7 cells increased RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Here, we examine the effect of decreased SH3BP2 on osteoclastogenesis. shRNA knockdown of SH3BP2 decreased PLC?2 phosphorylation and NFATc1 expression, and reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes. In BMMs knockdown of SH3BP2 led to reductions in both the number and the surface area of TRAP positive and multinucleated osteoclasts. Bone resorptive activity was also dramatically blocked by shRNA knockdown of SH3BP2. Similarly Sh3bp2(-/-) deficient mice BMMs formed smaller osteoclasts that stained less with TRAP than wild-type mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that SH3BP2 knockdown significantly decreases osteoclast differentiation and function. These results suggest that SH3BP2 plays a critical role in osteoclastogenesis and is a potential target for suppression of pathologic bone resorption. PMID:21448930

Kawamoto, Teruya; Fan, Chun; Gaivin, Robert J; Levine, Michael A; Lietman, Steven A

2011-10-01

100

Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

PubMed Central

Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel genes, in addition to conserved ones for which functions can be predicted. Identifying differentially expressed genes might help to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes in eusocial Hymenoptera. While the novel genes could account for rapidly evolving ones driven by intra-sexual conflict between males, conserved genes imply that rather beneficial traits might get fixed by a process described as inter-sexual cooperation between males and females. PMID:20825642

2010-01-01

101

Singularly perturbed nonlinear boundary value problem for a kind of Volterra type functional differential equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

By employing the theory of differential inequality and some analysis methods, a nonlinear boundary value problem subject to\\u000a a general kind of second-order Volterra functional differential equation was considered first. Then, by constructing the right-side\\u000a layer function and the outer solution, a nonlinear boundary value problem subject to a kind of second-order Volterra functional\\u000a differential equation with a small parameter

Lu Shi-pin

2003-01-01

102

Adaptable infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy accessory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second generation prototype enabling surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic measurements in the infrared (IR) range is described. The new design (v2) uses the optical train (optics and detector) within conventional FT-IR spectrometers by confining dimensions of the accessory to space available within the sample compartment of the spectrometer. The v2 accessory builds upon knowledge gained from a previous version that was based on a modified commercial variable angle spectroscopic accessory and addresses observed limitations of the original design—improved temporal stability and measurement acquisition speed, crucial to biomolecular binding studies, as well as optical flexibility, a requirement for investigations of novel plasmon-supporting materials. Different aspects of the accessory, including temporal stability, mechanical resilience, and sensitivity to changes in refractive index of a sample were evaluated and presented in this contribution.

Menegazzo, Nicola; Kegel, Laurel L.; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Allen, Derrick L.; Booksh, Karl S.

2012-09-01

103

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2013-04-01

104

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2014-04-01

105

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2012-04-01

106

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2011-04-01

107

Differential Item Functioning (DIF) among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in State Science Tests.  

E-print Network

??Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are… (more)

Ilich, Maria O.

2013-01-01

108

One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation  

PubMed Central

The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromones. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture. PMID:23162438

Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Caretta, Antonio

2012-01-01

109

On-site education of VEGF-recruited monocytes improves their performance as angiogenic and arteriogenic accessory cells  

PubMed Central

Adult neovascularization relies on the recruitment of monocytes to the target organ or tumor and functioning therein as a paracrine accessory. The exact origins of the recruited monocytes and the mechanisms underlying their plasticity remain unclear. Using a VEGF-based transgenic system in which genetically tagged monocytes are conditionally summoned to the liver as part of a VEGF-initiated angiogenic program, we show that these recruited cells are derived from the abundant pool of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes. Remarkably, however, upon arrival at the VEGF-induced organ, but not the naive organ, monocytes undergo multiple phenotypic and functional changes, endowing them with enhanced proangiogenic capabilities and, importantly, with a markedly increased capacity to remodel existing small vessels into larger conduits. Notably, monocytes do not differentiate into long-lived macrophages, but rather appear as transient accessory cells. Results from transfers of presorted subpopulations and a novel tandem transfer strategy ruled out selective recruitment of a dedicated preexisting subpopulation or onsite selection, thereby reinforcing active reprogramming as the underlying mechanism for improved performance. Collectively, this study uncovered a novel function of VEGF, namely, on-site education of recruited “standard” monocytes to become angiogenic and arteriogenic professional cells, a finding that may also lend itself for a better design of angiogenic therapies. PMID:24166715

Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Yona, Simon; Grunewald, Myriam; Landsman, Limor; Cochain, Clement; Silvestre, Jean Sebastien; Mizrahi, Haim; Faroja, Mohammad; Strauss-Ayali, Dalit; Mack, Matthias

2013-01-01

110

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

2014-01-01

111

Differential-algebraic approach to constructing representations of commuting differentiations in functional spaces and its application to nonlinear integrable dynamical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is developed a differential-algebraic approach to studying the representations of commuting differentiations in functional differential rings under nonlinear differential constraints. An example of the differential ideal with the only one conserved quantity is analyzed in detail, the corresponding Lax type representations of differentiations are constructed for an infinite hierarchy of nonlinear dynamical systems of the Burgers and Korteweg-de Vries type. A related infinite bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy of Lax type dynamical systems is constructed.

Prykarpatski, Anatolij K.; Soltanov, Kamal N.; Özça?, Emin

2014-05-01

112

Quasi-Newton methods for parameter estimation in functional differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state-space approach to parameter estimation in linear functional differential equations is developed using the theory of linear evolution equations. A locally convergent quasi-Newton type algorithm is applied to distributed systems with particular emphasis on parameters that induce unbounded perturbations of the state. The algorithm is computationally implemented on several functional differential equations, including coefficient and delay estimation in linear delay-differential equations.

Brewer, Dennis W.

1988-01-01

113

Examining Differential Distractor Functioning in Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities. CRESST Report 743  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the incorrect response choices, or distractors, by students with disabilities in standardized reading assessments. Differential distractor functioning (DDF) analysis differs from differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, which treats all answers alike and examines all wrong answers against the correct answer. DDF analysis…

Abedi, Jamal; Leon, Seth; Kao, Jenny C.

2008-01-01

114

Detecting Differential Item Functioning Using IRT and Mantel-Haenszel Techniques: Implementing Procedures and Comparing Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two techniques for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) of test items are compared: (1) item response theory (IRT), using the three-parameter model; and (2) Mantel-Haenszel chi square techniques (MHCS). The steps necessary for identifying differentially functioning items are identified for both approaches. Using data from the 1988…

Baghi, Heibatollah; Ferrara, Steven F.

115

The Item Parameter Replication Method for Detecting Differential Functioning in the Polytomous DFIT Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent study of Oshima, Raju, and Nanda proposes the item parameter replication (IPR) method for assessing statistical significance of the noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF) index within the differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) framework. Previous Monte Carlo simulations have found that the appropriate cutoff…

Raju, Nambury S.; Fortmann-Johnson, Kristen A.; Kim, Wonsuk; Morris, Scott B.; Nering, Michael L.; Oshima, T. C.

2009-01-01

116

A Generalized DIF Effect Variance Estimator for Measuring Unsigned Differential Test Functioning in Mixed Format Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One approach to measuring unsigned differential test functioning is to estimate the variance of the differential item functioning (DIF) effect across the items of the test. This article proposes two estimators of the DIF effect variance for tests containing dichotomous and polytomous items. The proposed estimators are direct extensions of the…

Penfield, Randall D.; Algina, James

2006-01-01

117

Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles  

PubMed Central

Summary Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However, these bone diseases are often misdiagnosed or mistreated. In patients with trauma history, relevant diseases of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles as above mentioned are highly probable to be misdiagnosed as avulsion fractures. In such cases, radiographic findings may provide a basis for clinical diagnosis.

Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

2012-01-01

118

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Is a Type I Interferon Antagonist  

PubMed Central

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory infection with as yet unclear epidemiology. We previously showed that MERS-CoV counteracts parts of the innate immune response in human bronchiolar cells. Here we analyzed accessory proteins 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 for their abilities to inhibit the type I interferon response. Accessory protein 4a was found to block interferon induction at the level of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) activation presumably by direct interaction with double-stranded RNA. PMID:24027320

Niemeyer, Daniela; Zillinger, Thomas; Muth, Doreen; Zielecki, Florian; Horvath, Gabor; Suliman, Tasnim; Barchet, Winfried; Weber, Friedemann

2013-01-01

119

Differentiation mechanism and function of the cereal aleurone cells and hormone effects on them.  

PubMed

The cereal aleurone cells differentiate from the endosperm epidermis with the exception of endosperm transfer cells. Aleurone cells contain proteins, lipids, and minerals, and are important for digesting the endosperm storage products to nurse the embryo under effects of several hormones during the seed germination. The differentiation of aleurone cells is related to location effect and special gene expression. Moreover, the differentiation of aleurone cells is probably affected by the cues from maternal tissues. In the paper, differentiation mechanism and function of aleurone cells and hormone effects on them are reviewed. Some speculations about the differentiation mechanism of aleurone cells are given here. PMID:25007781

Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

2014-11-01

120

Forming functional fat: a growing understanding of adipocyte differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipose tissue, which is primarily composed of adipocytes, is crucial for maintaining energy and metabolic homeostasis. Adipogenesis is thought to occur in two stages: commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to a preadipocyte fate and terminal differentiation. Cell shape and extracellular matrix remodelling have recently been found to regulate preadipocyte commitment and competency by modulating WNT and RHO-family GTPase signalling cascades.

Ana G. Cristancho; Mitchell A. Lazar

2011-01-01

121

HYPERDIRE, HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction: MATHEMATICA-based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions pF,F1,F2,F3,F4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica-based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: one, pfq, is relevant for manipulations of hypergeometric functions pFp, and the other, AppellF1F4, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F1,F2,F3,F4 of two variables.

Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A.

2013-10-01

122

Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.  

PubMed

Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

2014-01-01

123

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

Hoehn, F. W.

1981-01-01

124

Family Functioning and Self-Differentiation: A Cross-Cultural Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the degree to which self-differentiation as related to family functioning is valued differently by Korean\\u000a and European-American university students. The main findings confirm that the level of family functioning reported by European\\u000a Americans is greater than for their Korean counterpart; family functioning is associated with differentiation measures (total\\u000a score, emotional reactivity, and emotional cutoff) to a different

Hyejeong Chung; Jerry Gale

2009-01-01

125

Mycophenolic Acid Differentially Impacts B Cell Function Depending on the Stage of Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Production of pathogenic Abs contributes to disease progression in many autoimmune disorders. The immunosuppressant agent mycophenolic acid (MPA) has shown clinical efficacy for patients with autoimmunity. The goal of these studies was to elucidate the mechanisms of action of MPA on B cells isolated from healthy individuals and autoimmune patients. In this study, we show that MPA significantly inhibited both proliferation and differentiation of primary human B cells stimulated under various conditions. Importantly, MPA did not globally suppress B cell responsiveness or simply induce cell death, but rather selectively inhibited early activation events and arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, MPA blocked expansion of both naive and memory B cells and prevented plasma cell (PC) differentiation and Ab production from healthy controls and individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, whereas MPA potently suppressed Ig secretion from activated primary B cells, terminally differentiated PCs were not susceptible to inhibition by MPA. The target of MPA, IMPDH2, was found to be downregulated in PCs, likely explaining the resistance of these cells to MPA. These results suggest that MPA provides benefit in settings of autoimmunity by directly preventing activation and PC differentiation of B cells; however, MPA is unlikely to impact autoantibody production by preexisting, long-lived PCs. PMID:21873529

Karnell, Jodi L.; Karnell, Fredrick G.; Stephens, Geoffrey L.; Rajan, Bhargavi; Morehouse, Chris; Li, Ying; Swerdlow, Bonnie; Wilson, Mildred; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Groves, Christopher; Coyle, Anthony J.; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel

2014-01-01

126

Accessory Mental Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The presence of an Accessory Mental Nerve (AMN) is rare. The mental foramen is an important landmark in the mandible for administration of local anaesthesia and mental nerve identification and its preservation is of paramount importance in various surgical procedures. This article presents a case of an incidental finding of accessory mental nerves during open reduction and fixation of a compound fracture of left body of mandible. Knowledge on anatomic variations is helpful in diagnosis, treatment planning and management during surgical procedures. PMID:24179949

N.S., Mamatha; N.S., Kedarnath; Singh, Madhumathi; Patel, Gourav

2013-01-01

127

MTH5105 Differential and Integral Analysis 2008-2009 1. Differentiable functions: Definition of differentiability. Algebra of derivatives, chain rule. Derivative of inverse  

E-print Network

. state and use key theorems concerning differentiable functions, such as Rolle's Theorem, the Mean Value's Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and applications. Taylor's Theorem. 2. Integration: Darboux definition). Fundamental Theorem of the calculus, integral form of the Mean Value Theorem and of the remainder in Taylor

Prellberg, Thomas

128

MTH5105 Differential and Integral Analysis 2010-2011 1. Differentiable functions: Definition of differentiability. Algebra of derivatives, chain rule. Derivative of inverse  

E-print Network

. state and use key theorems concerning differentiable functions, such as Rolle's Theorem, the Mean Value's Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and applications. Taylor's Theorem. 2. Integration: Darboux definition). Fundamental Theorem of the calculus, integral form of the Mean Value Theorem and of the remainder in Taylor

Prellberg, Thomas

129

MTH5105 Differential and Integral Analysis 2009-2010 1. Differentiable functions: Definition of differentiability. Algebra of derivatives, chain rule. Derivative of inverse  

E-print Network

. state and use key theorems concerning differentiable functions, such as Rolle's Theorem, the Mean Value's Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and applications. Taylor's Theorem. 2. Integration: Darboux definition). Fundamental Theorem of the calculus, integral form of the Mean Value Theorem and of the remainder in Taylor

Prellberg, Thomas

130

Differentiablity of point process models and asymptotic efficiency of differentiable functionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In this paper we consider some different techniques allowing to construct asymptotically efficient estimators in point process models. In particular we establish L-differentiability for point processes with multiplicative intensities and thus can apply Hadamard differentiability techniques for the i.i.d. case. In the second part of the paper we extend some properties of differentiable functionals known from the i.i.d. situation

R. Holtrode; L. Rüschendorf

1993-01-01

131

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2014-01-01

132

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2012-01-01

133

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2010-01-01

134

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2011-01-01

135

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2013-01-01

136

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2013-04-01

137

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2011-04-01

138

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2012-04-01

139

Protein competition switches the function of COP9 from self-renewal to differentiation.  

PubMed

The balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is controlled by intrinsic factors and niche signals. In the Drosophila melanogaster ovary, some intrinsic factors promote germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal, whereas others stimulate differentiation. However, it remains poorly understood how the balance between self-renewal and differentiation is controlled. Here we use D. melanogaster ovarian GSCs to demonstrate that the differentiation factor Bam controls the functional switch of the COP9 complex from self-renewal to differentiation via protein competition. The COP9 complex is composed of eight Csn subunits, Csn1-8, and removes Nedd8 modifications from target proteins. Genetic results indicated that the COP9 complex is required intrinsically for GSC self-renewal, whereas other Csn proteins, with the exception of Csn4, were also required for GSC progeny differentiation. Bam-mediated Csn4 sequestration from the COP9 complex via protein competition inactivated the self-renewing function of COP9 and allowed other Csn proteins to promote GSC differentiation. Therefore, this study reveals a protein-competition-based mechanism for controlling the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Because numerous self-renewal factors are ubiquitously expressed throughout the stem cell lineage in various systems, protein competition may function as an important mechanism for controlling the self-renewal-to-differentiation switch. PMID:25119050

Pan, Lei; Wang, Su; Lu, Tinglin; Weng, Changjiang; Song, Xiaoqing; Park, Joseph K; Sun, Jin; Yang, Zhi-Hao; Yu, Junjing; Tang, Hong; McKearin, Dennis M; Chamovitz, Daniel A; Ni, Jianquan; Xie, Ting

2014-10-01

140

Theory of differential equations in discontinuous piecewise-defined functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A truly general and systematic theory of finite element methods (FEM) should be formulated using, as trial and test functions, piecewise-defined functions that can be fully discontinuous across the internal boundary, which separates the elements from each other. Some of the most relevant work addressing such formu- lations is contained in the literature on discontinuous Galerkin (dG) methods and on

I. Herrera

2007-01-01

141

Functional gene screening in embryonic stem cells implicates Wnt antagonism in neural differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multilineage differentiation capacity of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells offers a potential testing platform for gene products that mediate mammalian lineage determination and cellular specialization. Identification of such differentiation regulators is crucial to harnessing ES cells for pharmaceutical discovery and cell therapy. Here we describe the use of episomal expression technology for functional evaluation of cDNA clones during ES-cell

Jerôme Aubert; Hannah Dunstan; Ian Chambers; Austin Smith

2002-01-01

142

Exploring differential bundle functioning in mathematics by gender: the effect of hierarchical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in exploring substantive group differences are increasingly attending to bundles of items (or testlets): the aim is to understand how gender differences, for instance, are explained by differential performances on different types or bundles of items, hence differential bundle functioning (DBF). Some previous work has modelled hierarchies in data in this context or considered item responses within persons,

Yoke Mooi Ong; Julian Williams; Iasonas Lamprianou

2012-01-01

143

Removal of Accessory Breasts: A Novel Tumescent Liposuction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Accessory breasts, usually with a protuberant appearance, are composed of both the central accessory breast tissue and adjacent\\u000a fat tissue. They are a palpable convexity and cosmetically unsightly. Consequently, patients often desire cosmetic improvement.\\u000a The traditional general surgical treatment for accessory breasts is removal of the accessory breast tissue, fat tissue, and\\u000a covering skin as a whole unit. A rather

Jufeng Fan

2009-01-01

144

Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory  

DOEpatents

An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

2005-05-31

145

Studies on the accessory requirement for T lymphocyte activation by concanavalin A.  

PubMed Central

In this study we have examined the interactions between accessory cells (AC) and T cells in response to Con A. Highly purified peripheral blood T cells and AC exposed to a variety of treatments were used. We found that untreated AC provided optimal help for T cell proliferation and this was not mediated by soluble factors since whole cells could not be replaced with supernatants from activated AC. Furthermore, cycloheximide-treated AC were able to supply the accessory signal although unable to elaborate soluble activation factors. To find out more about the accessory signal, we examined the ability of monocytes mildly fixed with glutaraldehyde to supply help. These cells were completely unable to perform as AC, although they were viable and had unaltered surface antigen expression. They could not secrete activation factors, but this alone could not explain their inability to supply help because this function was not restored with the addition of soluble activation factors. This indicated that AC-T cell contact was of prime importance to accessory function. To investigate the possibility that AC work by cross-linking structures on the lymphocyte surface, we attempted to substitute for the soluble Con A plus AC with Con A bound to the surface of erythrocytes. Comparable stimulation was observed, suggesting that the cross-linking of Con A-bound structures on the lymphocyte surface generates the accessory signal. PMID:3100115

Gallagher, R B; Whelan, A; Feighery, C

1986-01-01

146

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2014-04-01

147

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2012-04-01

148

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2014-04-01

149

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2013-04-01

150

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2013-04-01

151

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2011-04-01

152

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2011-04-01

153

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2012-04-01

154

Differential Reduction Algorithms for Hypergeometric Functions Applied to Feynman Diagram Calculation  

E-print Network

We describe the application of differential reduction algorithms for Feynman Diagram calculation. We illustrate the procedure in the context of generalized hypergeometric functions, and give an example for a type of q-loop bubble diagram.

V. V. Bytev; M. Kalmykov; B. A. Kniehl; B. F. L. Ward; S. A. Yost

2009-02-09

155

Examining the Effects of Differential Item (Functioning and Differential) Test Functioning on Selection Decisions: When Are Statistically Significant Effects Practically Important?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Item response theory differential test functioning (DTF) methods are often used to address issues in personnel selection, but the results are frequently difficult to interpret because statistically significant findings may have little practical importance. In this article, the authors proposed 2 effect size measures for DTF. One related DTF to mean raw score differences across groups; the other related DTF

Stephen Stark; Oleksandr S. Chernyshenko; Fritz Drasgow

2004-01-01

156

Differential functions of calpain 1 during epithelial cell death and adipocyte differentiation in mammary gland involution.  

PubMed

Calpains become activated in the mammary gland early during weaning, cleaving several proteins located mainly in the cell membrane, but also in other organelles such as lysosomes, mitochondria and nuclei. By immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, we have demonstrated the nuclear translocation of calpain-1 and calpain-2, together with the cleavage of several cytoplasmic nucleoporins in epithelial cells of the lobulo-alveolar compartment. In vivo and in vitro calpain inhibition prevented this nucleoporin degradation. In addition, calpain-1 was also present in the nucleus of non-epithelial mammary tissue cells, concomitant with adipocyte re-differentiation. Calpain-1 was internalized within nuclei and found to be present in the nuclear chromatin-enriched fraction, associated with histone H3. Furthermore, we have demonstrated, both in vivo and in vitro, the cleavage of the N-terminal residue of histone H3 by calpain-1. Calpain-1 co-localized with both H3K4me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at Lys4) and H3K27me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at Lys27) at the nuclear periphery, a bivalent epigenetic signal essential for cell differentiation. Using ChIP assays we could confirm the presence of calpain-1 in the promoters of key genes expressed in adipose tissue, such as Cebpa (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and Lep (leptin). The results of the present study highlight a dual role for calpain-1 in the weaned gland after the pregnancy/lactation cycle, controlling programmed cell death and participating in the epigenetic programme during adipocyte differentiation. PMID:24467364

Arnandis, Teresa; Ferrer-Vicens, Ivan; Torres, Luis; García, Concha; Garcia-Trevijano, Elena R; Zaragoza, Rosa; Viña, Juan R

2014-04-15

157

Chondrocytic Atf4 regulates osteoblast differentiation and function via Ihh.  

PubMed

Atf4 is a leucine zipper-containing transcription factor that activates osteocalcin (Ocn) in osteoblasts and indian hedgehog (Ihh) in chondrocytes. The relative contribution of Atf4 in chondrocytes and osteoblasts to the regulation of skeletal development and bone formation is poorly understood. Investigations of the Atf4(-/-);Col2a1-Atf4 mouse model, in which Atf4 is selectively overexpressed in chondrocytes in an Atf4-null background, demonstrate that chondrocyte-derived Atf4 regulates osteogenesis during development and bone remodeling postnatally. Atf4 overexpression in chondrocytes of the Atf4(-/-);Col2a1-Atf4 double mutants corrects the reduction in stature and limb in Atf4(-/-) embryos and rectifies the decrease in Ihh expression, Hh signaling, proliferation and accelerated hypertrophy that characterize the Atf4(-/-) developing growth plate cartilages. Unexpectedly, this genetic manipulation also restores the expression of osteoblastic marker genes, namely Ocn and bone sialoprotein, in Atf4(-/-) developing bones. In Atf4(-/-);Col2a1-Atf4 adult mice, all the defective bone parameters found in Atf4(-/-) mice, including bone volume, trabecular number and thickness, and bone formation rate, are rescued. In addition, the conditioned media of ex vivo cultures from wild-type or Atf4(-/-);Col2a1-Atf4, but not Atf4(-/-) cartilage, corrects the differentiation defects of Atf4(-/-) bone marrow stromal cells and Ihh-blocking antibody eliminates this effect. Together, these data indicate that Atf4 in chondrocytes is required for normal Ihh expression and for its paracrine effect on osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, the cell-autonomous role of Atf4 in chondrocytes dominates the role of Atf4 in osteoblasts during development for the control of early osteogenesis and skeletal growth. PMID:22190639

Wang, Weiguang; Lian, Na; Ma, Yun; Li, Lingzhen; Gallant, Richard C; Elefteriou, Florent; Yang, Xiangli

2012-02-01

158

Regeneration niche differentiates functional strategies of desert woody plant species  

PubMed Central

Plant communities vary dramatically in the number and relative abundance of species that exhibit facilitative interactions, which contributes substantially to variation in community structure and dynamics. Predicting species’ responses to neighbors based on readily measurable functional traits would provide important insight into the factors that structure plant communities. We measured a suite of functional traits on seedlings of 20 species and mature plants of 54 species of shrubs from three arid biogeographic regions. We hypothesized that species with different regeneration niches—those that require nurse plants for establishment (beneficiaries) versus those that do not (colonizers)—are functionally different. Indeed, seedlings of beneficiary species had lower relative growth rates, larger seeds and final biomass, allocated biomass toward roots and height at a cost to leaf mass fraction, and constructed costly, dense leaf and root tissues relative to colonizers. Likewise at maturity, beneficiaries had larger overall size and denser leaves coupled with greater water use efficiency than colonizers. In contrast to current hypotheses that suggest beneficiaries are less “stress-tolerant” than colonizers, beneficiaries exhibited conservative functional strategies suited to persistently dry, low light conditions beneath canopies, whereas colonizers exhibited opportunistic strategies that may be advantageous in fluctuating, open microenvironments. In addition, the signature of the regeneration niche at maturity indicates that facilitation expands the range of functional diversity within plant communities at all ontogenetic stages. This study demonstrates the utility of specific functional traits for predicting species’ regeneration niches in hot deserts, and provides a framework for studying facilitation in other severe environments. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-010-1741-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20686787

Briggs, John M.

2010-01-01

159

Baker-Akhiezer Spinor Kernel and Tau-functions on Moduli Spaces of Meromorphic Differentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials on Riemann surfaces. We introduce the Baker-Akhiezer tau-function which is related to both the Bergman tau-function (which was studied before in the context of Hurwitz spaces and spaces of holomorphic Abelian and quadratic differentials) and the KP tau-function on such spaces. In particular, we derive variational formulas of Rauch-Ahlfors type on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials with prescribed singularities: we use the system of homological coordinates, consisting of absolute and relative periods of the meromorphic differential, and show how to vary the fundamental objects associated to a Riemann surface (the matrix of b-periods, normalized Abelian differentials, the Bergman bidifferential, the Szegö kernel and the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel) with respect to these coordinates. The variational formulas encode dependence both on the moduli of the Riemann surface and on the choice of meromorphic differential (variation of the meromorphic differential while keeping the Riemann surface fixed corresponds to flows of KP type). Analyzing the global properties of the Bergman and Baker-Akhiezer tau-functions, we establish relationships between various divisor classes on the moduli spaces.

Kalla, C.; Korotkin, D.

2014-08-01

160

Baker-Akhiezer Spinor Kernel and Tau-functions on Moduli Spaces of Meromorphic Differentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials on Riemann surfaces. We introduce the Baker-Akhiezer tau-function which is related to both the Bergman tau-function (which was studied before in the context of Hurwitz spaces and spaces of holomorphic Abelian and quadratic differentials) and the KP tau-function on such spaces. In particular, we derive variational formulas of Rauch-Ahlfors type on moduli spaces of meromorphic differentials with prescribed singularities: we use the system of homological coordinates, consisting of absolute and relative periods of the meromorphic differential, and show how to vary the fundamental objects associated to a Riemann surface (the matrix of b-periods, normalized Abelian differentials, the Bergman bidifferential, the Szegö kernel and the Baker-Akhiezer spinor kernel) with respect to these coordinates. The variational formulas encode dependence both on the moduli of the Riemann surface and on the choice of meromorphic differential (variation of the meromorphic differential while keeping the Riemann surface fixed corresponds to flows of KP type). Analyzing the global properties of the Bergman and Baker-Akhiezer tau-functions, we establish relationships between various divisor classes on the moduli spaces.

Kalla, C.; Korotkin, D.

2014-11-01

161

Differentiating High-Functioning Autism and Social Phobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both high-functioning autism (HFA) and social phobia (SP) involve profound social interaction deficits. Although these disorders share some similar symptoms, they are conceptualized as distinct. Because both HFA and SP are defined behaviorally, the degree of overlap between the two disorders may result in misinterpretation of symptoms. However,…

Tyson, Katherine E.; Cruess, Dean G.

2012-01-01

162

Integral estimates for differentiable functions on irregular domains  

SciTech Connect

Integral representations for functions and their partial derivatives in terms of some fixed system of partial derivatives are constructed on irregular domains in a Euclidean space. Embedding theorems for Sobolev-type spaces into a Lebesgue space are established and the norms of the derivatives are estimated. Bibliography: 17 titles.

Besov, Oleg V [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-02-11

163

Differentiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about lunar magmatic differentiation, in which learners simulate the process of geological differentiation. The activity ends with an extension question that asks about the makeup of the highlands of the Moon. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teacher's guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

164

Dlk1 Influences Differentiation and Function of B Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Dlk1 (delta-like-1) gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like homeotic gene family. It influences cell–cell interactions between stromal cells and pro-B cells in vitro. To define the in vivo role of the dlk protein in B cell development, we established a Dlk1?/? mouse model. In spleens of Dlk1?/? mice, transitional B cell numbers were increased and the ratio between transitional B cell subsets was altered. Numbers of follicular B cells decreased, while the number of marginal zone B cells and the size of the marginal zone were increased. Loss of dlk resulted in increased immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 in preimmune sera. Furthermore, there was an exaggerated primary T-dependent antigen-specific humoral immune response. In bone marrow, the lack of dlk led to increased numbers of the earliest B lineage cells in young mice without affecting numbers of later B lineage cells. In vitro experiments showed that lack of dlk on either stromal cells or pro-B cells caused changes in differentiation and proliferation of pro-B cells, suggesting that lack of dlk leads to changes in cell–cell interactions in the bone marrow microenvironment. These results show that dlk expression is essential for normal B cell development. PMID:18513163

Raghunandan, Ramadevi; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Maria; Jia, Yifeng; Ettinger, Rachael; Rudikoff, Eva; Riggins, Patrick; Farnsworth, Richard; Tesfaye, Abeba; Laborda, Jorge

2008-01-01

165

Differentiation and functional regulation of human fetal NK cells  

PubMed Central

The human fetal immune system is naturally exposed to maternal allogeneic cells, maternal antibodies, and pathogens. As such, it is faced with a considerable challenge with respect to the balance between immune reactivity and tolerance. Here, we show that fetal natural killer (NK) cells differentiate early in utero and are highly responsive to cytokines and antibody-mediated stimulation but respond poorly to HLA class I–negative target cells. Strikingly, expression of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) did not educate fetal NK cells but rendered them hyporesponsive to target cells lacking HLA class I. In addition, fetal NK cells were highly susceptible to TGF-?–mediated suppression, and blocking of TGF-? signaling enhanced fetal NK cell responses to target cells. Our data demonstrate that KIR-mediated hyporesponsiveness and TGF-?–mediated suppression are major factors determining human fetal NK cell hyporesponsiveness to HLA class I–negative target cells and provide a potential mechanism for fetal-maternal tolerance in utero. Finally, our results provide a basis for understanding the role of fetal NK cells in pregnancy complications in which NK cells could be involved, for example, during in utero infections and anti-RhD–induced fetal anemia. PMID:23945237

Ivarsson, Martin A.; Loh, Liyen; Marquardt, Nicole; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Berglin, Lena; Björkström, Niklas K.; Westgren, Magnus; Nixon, Douglas F.; Michaëlsson, Jakob

2013-01-01

166

ESF GROUND SUPPORT - MATERIAL DEDICATION ANALYSIS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL AND ACCESSORIES FROM A COMMERCIAL GRADE SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to select the critical characteristics to be verified for steel sets and accessories and the verification methods to be implemented through a material dedication process for the procurement and use of commercial grade structural steel sets and accessories (which have a nuclear safety function) to be used in ground support (with the exception of alcove ground support and alcove opening framing, which are not addressed in this analysis) for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Spring (TS) Loop. The ESF TS Loop includes the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp underground openings.

M.D. Stine

1996-01-23

167

Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

2012-01-01

168

Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

2001-01-01

169

Lyapunov–Razumikhin method for impulsive functional differential equations and applications to the population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the investigation of the stability of the zero solution of impulsive functional differential equations. By means of piecewise continuous functions coupled with the Razumikhin technique sufficient conditions for stability, uniform stability and asymptotic stability of the zero solution of such equations are found.

Ivanka M. Stamova; Gani T. Stamov

2001-01-01

170

Random generation of monotonic functions for Monte Carlo solution of qualitative differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present improvements to the function representation and generation method used in the Monte Carlo analysis of incomplete ordinary differential equations. Our method widens the scope of the technique to cover cases in which no envelopes have been specified for the function under consideration, thereby extending the applicability of the Monte Carlo approach to the full repertoire of models developed

A. C. Cem Say; A. Kutsi Nircan

2005-01-01

171

Functional differentiation of chitin synthases in Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified seven chitin synthase-encoding genes in the genome of the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Three encoded chitin synthases with myosin motor-like domains at their N-termini, and we designated these CSM1 to CSM3, whereas four were identified as CHS1 to CHS4. To investigate the functions of these seven genes, we constructed and characterized their deletion mutants. The chs2? mutant formed chained cells in which daughter cells were connected with mother cells and had abnormally thick septa at the bud neck. The chs4? mutant showed remarkably reduced chitin content in its cell wall. The chs2?, csm1?, and csm2? mutants were found to be highly sensitive to chitin binding dyes, calcofluor white (CFW) and Congo red, whereas the chs4? mutant was resistant to CFW. These results suggest that Chs2 and Chs4 play major roles in septum formation and cell wall chitin synthesis respectively, whereas Csm1 and Csm2 are involved in the maintenance of cell wall architecture and/or cell wall integrity. The populations of filamentous cells, a type of cell population that are defined by the lengths of the cellular long and short axes, decreased in the chs3? mutant, suggesting that Chs3 is involved in cellular morphogenesis. PMID:23748777

Sheng, Wei; Yamashita, Shuichi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

172

Three differentially expressed S-adenosylmethionine synthetases from Catharanthus roseus: molecular and functional characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the molecular and functional characterization of three closely related S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase (SAMS) isoenzymes from Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). The genes are differentially expressed in cell cultures during growth of the culture and after application of various stresses (elicitor, nutritional down-shift, increased NaCl). Seedlings revealed organ-specific expression and differential gene regulation after salt stress. A relationship analysis indicated that

Gudrun Schröder; Johannes Eichel; Sabine Breinig; Joachim Schröder

1997-01-01

173

Identification of a Novel Function for the Chromatin Remodeling Protein ING2 in Muscle Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitor of growth (ING) family of zinc-finger plant homeodomain (PHD)-containing chromatin remodeling protein controls gene expression and has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and death. However, the role of ING proteins in cell differentiation remains largely unexplored. Here, we identify an essential function for ING2 in muscle differentiation. We find that knockdown of ING2 by RNA

Shawn A. Eapen; Stuart J. Netherton; Krishna P. Sarker; Lili Deng; Angela Chan; Karl Riabowol; Shirin Bonni

2012-01-01

174

Exact solution of a differential problem in analytical fluid dynamics: use of Airy's functions  

E-print Network

Treating a boundary value problem in analytical fluid dynamics, translation of 2D steady Navier-Stokes equations to ordinary differential form leads to a second order equation of Riccati type. In the case of a compressible fluid with constant kinematic viscosity along streamlines, it is possible to find an exact solution of the differential problem by rational combination of Airy's functions and their derivatives.

Gianluca Argentini

2006-06-28

175

Does migration function to reduce earnings differentials by race and gender?  

PubMed

"This study investigates the role of migration in the determination of earnings differentials by race and gender. Microdata from the United Status Census are used to estimate earnings functions by race, gender, and migration status. Strong evidence is provided suggesting that unexplained portions of earnings differentials, reflectng wage discrimination and other unobserved heterogeneity, are substantially reduced for both race and gender through the process of interstate migration." PMID:12283491

Krieg, R G

1990-01-01

176

The functional expression of calcium-sensing receptor in the differentiated THP1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression and function of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in differentiated THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell\\u000a line) cells are unknown currently. This study investigated above-mentioned issues using TRAP staining, immunofluorescence\\u000a staining, Western blotting, ELISA, and Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy techniques. We found that CaSR protein was expressed,\\u000a and mainly located in the membrane and cytoplasm in differentiated THP-1 cells. Elevated

Yu-hui Xi; Hong-zhu Li; Wei-hua Zhang; Li-na Wang; Li Zhang; Yan Lin; Shu-zhi Bai; Hong-xia Li; Ling-yun Wu; Rui Wang; Chang-qing Xu

2010-01-01

177

Dermal fibroblasts contribute to multiple tissues in the accessory limb model.  

PubMed

The accessory limb model has become an alternative model for performing investigations of limb regeneration in an amputated limb. In the accessory limb model, a complete patterned limb can be induced as a result of an interaction between the wound epithelium, a nerve and dermal fibroblasts in the skin. Studies should therefore focus on examining these tissues. To date, however, a study of cellular contributions in the accessory limb model has not been reported. By using green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic axolotl tissues, we can trace cell fate at the tissue level. Therefore, in the present study, we transgrafted GFP skin onto the limb of a non-GFP host and induced an accessory limb to investigate cellular contributions. Previous studies of cell contribution to amputation-induced blastemas have demonstrated that dermal cells are the progenitors of many of the early blastema cells, and that these cells contribute to regeneration of the connective tissues, including cartilage. In the present study, we have determined that this same population of progenitor cells responds to signaling from the nerve and wound epithelium in the absence of limb amputation to form an ectopic blastema and regenerate the connective tissues of an ectopic limb. Blastema cells from dermal fibroblasts, however, did not differentiate into either muscle or neural cells, and we conclude that dermal fibroblasts are dedifferentiated along its developmental lineage. PMID:20148925

Hirata, Ayako; Gardiner, David M; Satoh, Akira

2010-05-01

178

Differential Reduction Algorithms for the All-Order Epsilon Expansion of Hypergeometric Functions  

E-print Network

Hypergeometric functions provide a useful representation of Feynman diagrams occuring in precision phenomenology. In dimension regularization, the epsilon-expansion of these functions about d=4 is required. We discuss the current status of differential reduction algorithms. As an illustration, we consider the construction of the all-order epsilon-expansion of the Appell hypergeometric function about integer values of the parameters and present an explicit evaluations of the first few terms.

S. A. Yost; M. Yu. Kalmykov; B. F. L. Ward

2008-08-19

179

Comparison between classic-differential and automatic shunt functioning on the basis of infusion tests.  

PubMed

Infusion tests were performed in order to examine cerebrospinal compensatory ability in two groups of patients with impaired compensation, subjected to shunt implantation. The functioning of the classic differential shunts was compared to the automatically (Orbis-Sigma) functioning shunts. The reference group, with intact compensatory parameters is also presented. The influence of different types of shunts on the intracranial compensation ability was compared. Automatic shunts produce less decrease in the resorption resistance of CSF in the post-shunted examination than the classic differential shunts. Classic differential shunts disturb the mono-exponential character of the pressure-volume relationship in a higher degree than automatic shunts. Shunt functioning models were proposed as well as the method of detection of eventual recovery to the normal resorption reserve. This method can be applied only to patients with automatic shunts. PMID:2270783

Czosnyka, M; Maksymowicz, W; Batorski, L; Koszewski, W; Czosnyka, Z

1990-01-01

180

Differentially Private Synthesization of Multi-Dimensional Data using Copula Functions  

PubMed Central

Differential privacy has recently emerged in private statistical data release as one of the strongest privacy guarantees. Most of the existing techniques that generate differentially private histograms or synthetic data only work well for single dimensional or low-dimensional histograms. They become problematic for high dimensional and large domain data due to increased perturbation error and computation complexity. In this paper, we propose DPCopula, a differentially private data synthesization technique using Copula functions for multi-dimensional data. The core of our method is to compute a differentially private copula function from which we can sample synthetic data. Copula functions are used to describe the dependence between multivariate random vectors and allow us to build the multivariate joint distribution using one-dimensional marginal distributions. We present two methods for estimating the parameters of the copula functions with differential privacy: maximum likelihood estimation and Kendall’s ? estimation. We present formal proofs for the privacy guarantee as well as the convergence property of our methods. Extensive experiments using both real datasets and synthetic datasets demonstrate that DPCopula generates highly accurate synthetic multi-dimensional data with significantly better utility than state-of-the-art techniques.

Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Jiang, Xiaoqian

2014-01-01

181

DiffNet: Automatic differential functional summarization of dE-MAP networks.  

PubMed

The study of genetic interaction networks that respond to changing conditions is an emerging research problem. Recently, Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) proposed a technique to construct a differential network (dE-MAPnetwork) from two static gene interaction networks in order to map the interaction differences between them under environment or condition change (e.g., DNA-damaging agent). This differential network is then manually analyzed to conclude that DNA repair is differentially effected by the condition change. Unfortunately, manual construction of differential functional summary from a dE-MAP network that summarizes all pertinent functional responses is time-consuming, laborious and error-prone, impeding large-scale analysis on it. To this end, we propose DiffNet, a novel data-driven algorithm that leverages Gene Ontology (go) annotations to automatically summarize a dE-MAP network to obtain a high-level map of functional responses due to condition change. We tested DiffNet on the dynamic interaction networks following MMS treatment and demonstrated the superiority of our approach in generating differential functional summaries compared to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods. We studied the effects of parameters in DiffNet in controlling the quality of the summary. We also performed a case study that illustrates its utility. PMID:25009128

Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Dewey, C Forbes

2014-10-01

182

Differential Equation Approach for One- and Two- Dimensional Lattice Green's Function  

E-print Network

A first order differential equation of Green's Function, at the origin G(0), for the one- dimensional lattice is derived by simple recurrence relation. Green's Function at site (m)is then calculated in terms of G(0). A simple recurrence relation connecting the lattice Green's Function at the site (m,n)and the first derivative of the lattice Green's Function at the site (m+_1,n)is presented for the two- dimensional lattice, a differential equation of the second order in G(0,0) is obtained. By making use of the letter recurrence relation, lattice Green's Function at an arbitrary site is obtained in closed form. Finally, the phase shift and scattering cross section are evaluated analytically and numerically for one- and two impurities.

J. H. Asad

2009-04-03

183

IRF6 is a mediator of Notch pro-differentiation and tumour suppressive function in keratinocytes.  

PubMed

While the pro-differentiation and tumour suppressive functions of Notch signalling in keratinocytes are well established, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We report here that interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), an IRF family member with an essential role in epidermal development, is induced in differentiation through a Notch-dependent mechanism and is a primary Notch target in keratinocytes and keratinocyte-derived SCC cells. Increased IRF6 expression contributes to the impact of Notch activation on growth/differentiation-related genes, while it is not required for induction of 'canonical' Notch targets like p21(WAF1/Cip1), Hes1 and Hey1. Down-modulation of IRF6 counteracts differentiation of primary human keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo, promoting ras-induced tumour formation. The clinical relevance of these findings is illustrated by the strikingly opposite pattern of expression of Notch1 and IRF6 versus epidermal growth factor receptor in a cohort of clinical SCCs, as a function of their grade of differentiation. Thus, IRF6 is a primary Notch target in keratinocytes, which contributes to the role of this pathway in differentiation and tumour suppression. PMID:21909072

Restivo, Gaetana; Nguyen, Bach-Cuc; Dziunycz, Piotr; Ristorcelli, Elodie; Ryan, Russell J H; Özuysal, Özden Yalçin; Di Piazza, Matteo; Radtke, Freddy; Dixon, Michael J; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Lefort, Karine; Dotto, G Paolo

2011-11-16

184

Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPAR? in adipocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPAR? induced MRAP expression. •PPAR? bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and ?-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPAR? to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the ?1209/?1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPAR? is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.

Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Si Young [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of)] [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ryong, E-mail: trlee@amorepacific.com [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-27

185

Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.  

PubMed

(1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and lung function testing by spirometry. (7) Possible alternative disinfectants to glutaraldehyde include peracetic acid (0.2-0.35%), chlorine dioxide (700-1100 ppm) and superoxidized water. These are very effective, killing vegetative bacteria, including mycobacteria, and viruses in 5 min and bacterial spores in 10 min. An endorsement of compatibility with endoscopes, accessories and processing equipment is required from both the solution/device manufacturer and the endoscope manufacturer. Other important considerations are stability, cost and safety from the user and environmental standpoints. (8) Cleaning and disinfection or sterilization should be undertaken by trained staff in a dedicated area, e.g., SSD or TSSU. A suitable training programme is described. (9) If endoscopes are processed by immersion in disinfectants, harmful residues must be removed by thorough rinsing. Sterile or bacteria free water is essential for rinsing all invasive endoscopes and accessories to prevent recontamination. (10) If an automated washer disinfector is used it must be effective, non-damaging, reliable, easy to use and its performance regularly monitored. (11) If used, washer disinfectors and other processing equipment should be disinfected on a regular basis, i.e., between patients or at the start of each session. This will prevent biofilm formation and recontamination of instruments during rinsing. Disinfection should include the water treatment system, if present. (12) To comply with the Medical Devices Directive, manufacturers are obliged to provide full details on how to decontaminate the reusable devices they supply. This should include details of compatibility with heat, pressure, moisture, processing chemicals and ultrasonics. (13) The Infection Control Team should always be involved in the formulation and implementation of decontamination policies. Wherever possible, the national good practice guidelines produced by the Medical Devices Agency and/or professional societies shoul PMID:10973743

Ayliffe, G

2000-08-01

186

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

187

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

188

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

189

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

190

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

191

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

192

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

193

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

194

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

195

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

196

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

197

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

198

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

199

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

200

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

201

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

202

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

203

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

204

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

205

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

206

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

207

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

208

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

209

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

210

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

211

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

212

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

213

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

214

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

215

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2012-04-01

216

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

217

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

218

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

219

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

220

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

221

Voigt lineshape function as a solution of the parabolic partial differential equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to show that the Voigt function may be found as a solution of a parabolic partial differential equation, like the heat conduction equation or other diffusion equations. A square of the Gaussian half-width of the Voigt function plays the role of ‘time’ and initial conditions are determined by a Lorentz function. Some questions concerning the practical application of the numerical grid methods for the calculation of the Voigt function are discussed. It is shown, that in some cases the offered calculation algorithm can be both faster and more accurate than other known algorithms.

Dulov, E. N.; Khripunov, D. M.

2007-10-01

222

Computing Fukui functions without differentiating with respect to electron number. I. Fundamentals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using perturbations in the molecular external potential, the authors deduce the Fukui function from the change in Kohn-Sham orbital energies, avoiding the troublesome differentiation of the density with respect to electron number. Though this paper focuses on the Fukui function, the same general technique can be used to compute the functional derivative of any observable with respect to the external potential. In this paper, the method is used to compute the Fukui function for the beryllium atom and the formaldehyde molecule. The follow-up paper (part II) addresses the problem of computing condensed reactivity indicators.

Ayers, Paul W.; De Proft, Frank; Borgoo, Alex; Geerlings, Paul

2007-06-01

223

Functional differentiation in the anterior gills of the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster leeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fish gill is a multifunctional organ responsible for gas exchange and ionic regulation. It is hypothesized that both morphological\\u000a and functional differentiation can be found in the gills of the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster leeri. To test this, we used the air-breathing fish, Trichogaster leeri, to investigate various morphological\\/functional parameters. First, we evaluated the importance of performing the aquatic

Chun-Yen Huang; Wen Lee; Hui-Chen Lin

2008-01-01

224

Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the authors used differential item functioning analysis to examine if there were items in the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory functioning differently across gender and athletic membership. A total of 444 male (56.3%) and female (43.7%) participants (30.9% athletes and 69.1% non-athletes) responded to the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory items. Using Mantel–Haenszel and simultaneous

Yong Gao; Mick G. Mack; Moira A. Ragan; Brian Ragan

2012-01-01

225

Investigating Gender Differential Item Functioning across Countries and Test Languages for PISA Science Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses PISA cycle 3 field trial data to investigate the relationships between gender differential item functioning (DIF) across countries and test languages for science items and their formats and the four other dimensions defined in PISA framework: focus, context, competency, and scientific knowledge. The data used were collected from 60…

Le, Luc T.

2009-01-01

226

Accommodations and Item-Level Analyses Using Mixture Differential Item Functioning Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use differential item functioning (DIF) and latent mixture model analyses to explore factors that explain performance differences on a large-scale mathematics assessment between examinees allowed to use a calculator or who were afforded item presentation accommodations versus those who did not receive the same…

Scarpati, Stanley E.; Wells, Craig S.; Lewis, Christine; Jirka, Stephen

2011-01-01

227

Linguistic Complexity, Schematic Representations, and Differential Item Functioning for English Language Learners in Math Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines nonmathematical linguistic complexity as a source of differential item functioning (DIF) in math word problems for English language learners (ELLs). Specifically, this study investigates the relationship between item measures of linguistic complexity, nonlinguistic forms of representation and DIF measures based on item response theory difficulty parameters in a state fourth-grade math test. This study revealed that the

Maria Martiniello

2009-01-01

228

Identification of Differential Item Functioning in Assessment Booklet Designs with Structurally Missing Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mantel-Haenszel procedure is a popular technique for determining items that may exhibit differential item functioning (DIF). Numerous studies have focused on the strengths and weaknesses of this procedure, but few have focused the performance of the Mantel-Haenszel method when structurally missing data are present as a result of test booklet…

Goodman, Joshua T.; Willse, John T.; Allen, Nancy L.; Klaric, John S.

2011-01-01

229

Detecting Native Language Group Differences at the Subskills Level of Reading: A Differential Skill Functioning Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential skill functioning (DSF) exists when examinees from different groups have different probabilities of successful performance in a certain subskill underlying the measured construct, given that they have the same ability on the overall construct. Using a DSF approach, this study examined the differences between two native language…

Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

2013-01-01

230

A Comparison of Logistic Regression and Analysis of Variance Differential Item Functioning Detection Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential item functioning (DIF) detection rates were compared between logistic regression and analysis of variance for dichotomously scored items. These two DIF methods were compared using simulated binary item response data sets of varying test length (20, 40, and 60 items), sample size (200, 400, and 600 examinees), discrimination type (fixed and varying), and relative underlying ability (equal and unequal)

Marjorie L. Whitmore; Randall E. Schumacker

1999-01-01

231

Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the 2003-04 NHANES Physical Activity Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses, this study examined whether there were any DIF items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) physical activity (PA) questionnaire. A subset of adult data from the 2003-04 NHANES study (n = 3,083) was used. PA items related to respondents' occupational, transportation,…

Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

2011-01-01

232

A Monte Carlo Study Investigating Missing Data, Differential Item Functioning, and Effect Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of polytomous items in assessments has increased over the years, and as a result, the validity of these assessments has been a concern. Differential item functioning (DIF) and missing data are two factors that may adversely affect assessment validity. Both factors have been studied separately, but DIF and missing data are likely to occur…

Garrett, Phyllis

2009-01-01

233

Determinants of Differential Item Functioning in an Elementary Mathematics Test with Accommodations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those items or test characteristics that are likely to result in differential item functioning (DIF) across accommodated test forms in statewide tests have received little attention. An examination of elementary-level student performance across accommodated test forms in a large-scale mathematics assessment revealed DIF variations by grades,…

Chae, Soo Eun; Kim, Doyoung; Han, Jae-Ho

2012-01-01

234

Detecting Differential Rater Functioning over Time (DRIFT) Using a Rasch Multi-faceted Rating Scale Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a class of rater effects, differential rater functioning over time (DRIFT), that depicts rater-by-time interactions. Also describes Rasch measurement procedures designed to identify these types of DRIFT in rating data. Applied these procedures to simulated data to show their usefulness in classifying raters as aberrant or non-aberrant…

Wolfe, Edward W.; Moulder, Bradley C.; Myford, Carol M.

2001-01-01

235

Assessing Motor Skills as a Differentiating Feature between High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to investigate if motor skills could be used as a differentiating feature between Asperger's Disorder (AD) and High Functioning (HFA) in children under the age of 9 years, 0 months, in order to provide additional information regarding the usefulness and validity of distinguishing these two disorders. There is…

Cid, Maria R.

2011-01-01

236

Functional brain imaging in the dementias: role in early detection, differential diagnosis, and longitudinal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review considers the role of functional brain imaging techniques in the dementias. The substantial assistance that especially single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography can play in the initial diagnosis of dementia and in the differential diagnosis of the specific dementing disorder is discussed. These techniques alone essentially match the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnoses in distinguishing Alzheimer's

Michael D. Devous Sr

2002-01-01

237

Theoretical Foundations for Traditional and Generalized Sensitivity Functions for Nonlinear Delay Differential Equations  

E-print Network

] in biology. They argued that time delays in dynamical systems can produce oscillatory phenomenaTheoretical Foundations for Traditional and Generalized Sensitivity Functions for Nonlinear Delay present new results for differentiability of delay systems with respect to initial conditions and delays

238

A Synthesis of the Peer-Reviewed Differential Bundle Functioning Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article was to present a synthesis of the peer-reviewed differential bundle functioning (DBF) research that has been conducted to date. A total of 16 studies were synthesized according to the following characteristics: tests used and learner groups, organizing principles used for developing bundles, DBF detection methods used,…

Banks, Kathleen

2013-01-01

239

Differential Structure in non-Linear Image Embedding Functions Robert Pless  

E-print Network

pose estimates in rigid body motions [8], visualization of biomedical image data sets [3Differential Structure in non-Linear Image Embedding Functions Robert Pless Department of Computer Science, Washington University in St. Louis pless@cse.wustl.edu Abstract Many natural image sets

Pless, Robert

240

An Odds Ratio Approach for Assessing Differential Distractor Functioning Effects under the Nominal Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations of differential distractor functioning (DDF) can provide valuable information concerning the location and possible causes of measurement invariance within a multiple-choice item. In this article, I propose an odds ratio estimator of the DDF effect as modeled under the nominal response model. In addition, I propose a simultaneous…

Penfield, Randall D.

2008-01-01

241

Detecting Differential Item Functioning of a Course Satisfaction Instrument in the Presence of Multilevel Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to test for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) between male and female students on end-of-semester class evaluations in an introductory university science course and to demonstrate DIF detection methods that take into account the complex sampling mechanism that often underlies data used in such assessments.…

Finch, Holmes; French, Brian

2010-01-01

242

Evaluation of Model Selection Strategies for Cross-Level Two-Way Differential Item Functioning Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Model specification issues on the cross-level two-way differential item functioning model were previously investigated by Patarapichayatham et al. (2009). Their study clarified that an incorrect model specification can easily lead to biased estimates of key parameters. The objective of this article is to provide further insights on the issue by…

Patarapichayatham, Chalie; Kamata, Akihito; Kanjanawasee, Sirichai

2012-01-01

243

Evaluation of Two Types of Differential Item Functioning in Factor Mixture Models with Binary Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conventional differential item functioning (DIF) detection methods (e.g., the Mantel-Haenszel test) can be used to detect DIF only across observed groups, such as gender or ethnicity. However, research has found that DIF is not typically fully explained by an observed variable. True sources of DIF may include unobserved, latent variables, such as…

Lee, HwaYoung; Beretvas, S. Natasha

2014-01-01

244

Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

2013-01-01

245

Detecting Differential Item Functioning of Polytomous Items for an Ideal Point Response Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been growing use of ideal point models to develop scales measuring important psychological constructs. For meaningful comparisons across groups, it is important to identify items on such scales that exhibit differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, the authors examined several methods for assessing DIF on polytomous items…

Wang, Wei; Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

2013-01-01

246

Differential Item Functioning By Sex and Race in The Hogan Personality Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined measurement bias in the Hogan Personality Inventory by investigating differential item functioning (DIF) across sex and two racial groups (Caucasian and Black). The sample consisted of 1,579 Caucasians (1,023 men, 556 women) and 523 Blacks (321 men, 202 women) who were applying for entry-level, unskilled jobs in factories.…

Sheppard, Richard; Han, Kyunghee; Colarelli, Stephen M.; Dai, Guangdong; King, Daniel W.

2006-01-01

247

Investigating Sources of Differential Item Functioning in International Large-Scale Assessments Using a Confirmatory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International large-scale assessments of achievement often have a large degree of differential item functioning (DIF) between countries, which can threaten score equivalence and reduce the validity of inferences based on comparisons of group performances. It is important to understand potential sources of DIF to improve the validity of future…

Sandilands, Debra; Oliveri, Maria Elena; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ercikan, Kadriye

2013-01-01

248

Examining the Relationship between Race-Based Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research examining racial differences on standardized cognitive tests has focused on the impact of test item difficulty. Studies using data from the SAT and GRE have reported a correlation between item difficulty and differential item functioning (DIF) such that minority test takers are less likely than majority test takers to respond…

Scherbaum, Charles A.; Goldstein, Harold W.

2008-01-01

249

Studying Differential Item Functioning via Latent Variable Modeling: A Note on a Multiple-Testing Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note is concerned with a latent variable modeling approach for the study of differential item functioning in a multigroup setting. A multiple-testing procedure that can be used to evaluate group differences in response probabilities on individual items is discussed. The method is readily employed when the aim is also to locate possible…

Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Lee, Chun-Lung; Chang, Chi

2013-01-01

250

Differential accumulation of cadmium and changes in glutathione levels as a function of symbiotic state  

E-print Network

.05). Changes in glutathione (GSH) levels have been proposed as a useful biomarker in other marine invertebratesDifferential accumulation of cadmium and changes in glutathione levels as a function of symbiotic; Anthopleura elegantissima; Cadmium; Cnidarian; Glutathione; Heavy metal 1. Introduction Heavy metals emanate

251

An evolutionary and functional analysis of FoxL2 in rainbow trout gonad differentiation  

E-print Network

An evolutionary and functional analysis of FoxL2 in rainbow trout gonad differentiation Daniel for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (Requests to be paralogs of the FoxL2a sequences (named FoxL2b). In the rainbow trout, FoxL2a and FoxL2b were specifically

Xia, Xuhua

252

Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential effects of neglect and physical abuse on psychological functioning are not well understood. The present study examined the relationship between reported neglect and physical abuse and symptomatology and attachment styles in a sample of 236 male and 276 female undergraduates. In contrast to physical abuse, which must involve some parental involvement in a child's life, neglect is characterized

Lisa Gauthier; Gary Stollak; Lawrence Messé; Joel Aronoff

1996-01-01

253

Functional differentiation of Leydig cells in the testis of the fetal monkey (Macaca fascicularis)  

E-print Network

hormone-producing cells, Leydig cells have an abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum frequently associatedFunctional differentiation of Leydig cells in the testis of the fetal monkey (Macaca fascicularis of mesenchymal cells, developed during week 7 (predi(j&dquo;erentiation phase). True Leydig cells entered

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

PTPN13 regulates cellular signalling and ?-catenin function during megakaryocytic differentiation.  

PubMed

PTPN13 is a high-molecular weight intracellular phosphatase with several isoforms that exhibits a highly modular structure. Although in recent years different roles have been described for PTPN13, we are still far from understanding its function in cell biology. Here we show that PTPN13 expression is activated during megakaryocytic differentiation at the protein and mRNA level. Our results show that the upregulation of PTPN13 inhibits megakaryocytic differentiation, while PTPN13 silencing triggers differentiation. The ability of PTPN13 to alter megakaryocytic differentiation can be explained by its capacity to regulate ERK and STAT signalling. Interestingly, the silencing of ?-catenin produced the same effect as PTPN13 downregulation. We demonstrate that both proteins coimmunoprecipitate and colocalise. Moreover, we provide evidence showing that PTPN13 can regulate ?-catenin phosphorylation, stability and transcriptional activity. Therefore, the ability of PTPN13 to control megakaryocytic differentiation must be intimately linked to the regulation of ?-catenin function. Moreover, our results show for the first time that PTPN13 is stabilised upon Wnt signalling, which makes PTPN13 an important player in canonical Wnt signalling. Our results show that PTPN13 behaves as an important regulator of megakaryocytic differentiation in cell lines and also in murine haematopoietic progenitors. This importance can be explained by the ability of PTPN13 to regulate cellular signalling, and especially through the regulation of ?-catenin stability and function. Our results hold true for different megakaryocytic cell lines and also for haematopoietic progenitors, suggesting that these two proteins may play a relevant role during in vivo megakaryopoiesis. PMID:25193362

Sardina, José L; López-Ruano, Guillermo; Prieto-Bermejo, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Sánchez, Beatriz; Pérez-Fernández, Alejandro; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; Quintales, Luis; Sánchez-Yagüe, Jesús; Llanillo, Marcial; Antequera, Francisco; Hernández-Hernández, Angel

2014-12-01

255

Epidermoid cyst of an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background An epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is a rare lesion. Despite advances in radiologic techniques, in most cases it has been diagnosed preoperatively as a possible pancreatic neoplasm. Case presentation Herein, we present a 63-year-old Caucasian woman, diagnosed preoperatively with enhanced-contrast abdominal computed tomography, as having a potential cystic tumor in the tail of the pancreas. The patient underwent a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, and the histological examination revealed the presence of an epidermoid cyst of an accessory intrapancreatic spleen. Conclusions Familiarity with the imaging features, the clinical presentation and the location of the cyst are important to consider if this rare entity is to be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. PMID:24721745

2014-01-01

256

Viscoelastic Properties of Differentiating Blood Cells Are Fate- and Function-Dependent  

PubMed Central

Although cellular mechanical properties are known to alter during stem cell differentiation, understanding of the functional relevance of such alterations is incomplete. Here, we show that during the course of differentiation of human myeloid precursor cells into three different lineages, the cells alter their viscoelastic properties, measured using an optical stretcher, to suit their ultimate fate and function. Myeloid cells circulating in blood have to be advected through constrictions in blood vessels, engendering the need for compliance at short time-scales (differentiated cell types reduce their steady-state viscosity by more than 50% and show over 140% relative increase in their ability to migrate through tissue-like pores at long time-scales (>minutes), compared to undifferentiated cells. These findings suggest that reduction in steady-state viscosity is a physiological adaptation for enhanced migration through tissues. Our results indicate that the material properties of cells define their function, can be used as a cell differentiation marker and could serve as target for novel therapies. PMID:23028868

Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Whyte, Graeme; Chalut, Kevin; Pagliara, Stefano; Lautenschlager, Franziska; Fiddler, Christine; Paschke, Stephan; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Guck, Jochen

2012-01-01

257

Differential genetic etiology of reading component processes as a function of IQ.  

PubMed

Results obtained from previous studies of word recognition, reading component skills, and reading composite measures suggest that genetic factors may be more important as a cause for reading disability among children with higher IQ scores than among those with lower IQ scores. To investigate the genetic etiology of reading disability further, measures of word recognition, phonological decoding, orthographic coding, and phoneme awareness were obtained from a total of 465 twin pairs with a positive school history of reading problems. The basic and extended DeFries and Fulker (DF) multiple regression models for the analysis of selected twin data were employed to investigate the etiology of group deficits in reading and language skills, as well as to assess differential genetic etiology for the reading-related measures as a function of IQ. Data from 168 sibling pairs (drawn from the twins' families), including fraternal twin pairs and their siblings, as well as non-twin siblings of identical twins were subjected to single-marker analyses using the DF basic linkage model to examine evidence for linkage of a quantitative-trait locus (QTL) for reading and language deficits to the short arm of chromosome 6. Lastly, to investigate the possible differential influence of this QTL as a function of IQ, the sibling pair data were fitted to an extension of the DF basic linkage model. Results indicated that reading and language deficits are significantly heritable and that differential genetic influences as a function of IQ are evident for measures of word recognition and phonological decoding. Results obtained from linkage analyses confirmed the presence of a QTL on chromosome 6p that influences phonological and orthographic skills, as well as phoneme awareness measures, and suggest that this QTL may influence phoneme awareness differentially as a function of IQ: however, future analyses with considerably larger samples are needed to test the hypothesis of differential QTL influence more rigorously. PMID:12141780

Knopik, Valerie S; Smith, Shelley D; Cardon, Lon; Pennington, Bruce; Gayan, Javier; Olson, Richard K; DeFries, John C

2002-05-01

258

New Genes for Male Accessory Gland Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accessory gland of male insects produces components of the seminal fluid that alter the behavior, physiology and life span of the mated female, and contribute to her efficient storage and utilization of sperm. As a step towards understanding how this occurs, we have isolated genes encoding 12 previously unreported accessory gland-specific mRNAs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We

Mariana F. Wolfner; Heidi A. Harada; Michael J. Bertram; Thomas J. Stelick; Kevin W. Kraus; John M. Kalb; Y. Oliver Lung; Deborah M. Neubaum; Morgan Park; Uyen Tram

1997-01-01

259

Morphological characteristics of the cranial root of the accessory nerve.  

PubMed

There has been the controversy surrounding the cranial root (CR) of the accessory nerve. This study was performed to clarify the morphological characteristics of the CR in the cranial cavity. Fifty sides of 25 adult cadaver heads were used. The accessory nerve was easily distinguished from the vagus nerve by the dura mater in the jugular foramen in 80% of 50 specimens. The trunk of the accessory nerve from the spinal cord penetrated the dura mater at various distances before entering the jugular foramen. In 20% of the specimens there was no dural boundary. In these cases, the uppermost cranial rootlet of the accessory nerve could be identified by removing the dura mater around the jugular foramen where it joined to the trunk of the accessory nerve at the superior vagal ganglion. The cranial rootlet was formed by union of two to four short filaments emerging from the medulla oblongata (66%) and emerged single, without filament (34%), and usually joined the trunk of the accessory nerve directly before the jugular foramen. The mean number of rootlets of the CR was 4.9 (range 2-9) above the cervicomedullary junction. The CR of the accessory nerve was composed of two to nine rootlets, which were formed by the union of two to four short filaments and joined the spinal root of the accessory nerve. The CR is morphologically distinct from the vagus nerve, confirming its existence. Clin. Anat. 27:1167-1173, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25131313

Liu, Hong-Fu; Won, Hyung-Sun; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, In-Beom; Han, Seung-Ho

2014-11-01

260

Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

Murphy, K. A.

1990-01-01

261

Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

2012-01-01

262

INAM Plays a Critical Role in IFN-? Production by NK Cells Interacting with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid-Stimulated Accessory Cells.  

PubMed

Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid strongly promotes the antitumor activity of NK cells via TLR3/Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor molecule 1 and melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5/mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein pathways. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid acts on accessory cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (M?s) to secondarily activate NK cells. In a previous study in this context, we identified a novel NK-activating molecule, named IFN regulatory factor 3-dependent NK-activating molecule (INAM), a tetraspanin-like membrane glycoprotein (also called Fam26F). In the current study, we generated INAM-deficient mice and investigated the in vivo function of INAM. We found that cytotoxicity against NK cell-sensitive tumor cell lines was barely decreased in Inam(-/-) mice, whereas the number of IFN-?-producing cells was markedly decreased in the early phase. Notably, deficiency of INAM in NK and accessory cells, such as CD8?(+) conventional DCs and M?s, led to a robust decrease in IFN-? production. In conformity with this phenotype, INAM effectively suppressed lung metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells, which is controlled by NK1.1(+) cells and IFN-?. These results suggest that INAM plays a critical role in NK-CD8?(+) conventional DC (and M?) interaction leading to IFN-? production from NK cells in vivo. INAM could therefore be a novel target molecule for cancer immunotherapy against IFN-?-suppressible metastasis. PMID:25320282

Kasamatsu, Jun; Azuma, Masahiro; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Morioka, Yuka; Okabe, Masaru; Ebihara, Takashi; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

2014-11-15

263

Outcome Analysis of Pediatric Pyeloplasty as a Function of Patient Age, Presentation and Differential Renal Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of patients who underwent pyeloplasty. In all cases preoperative and postoperative isotope renal scans were performed to assess the surgical outcome with particular emphasis on the change in renal function postoperatively.

Yousef H. Salem; Massoud Majd; A. Barry Belman

1995-01-01

264

Topical Hesperidin Improves Epidermal Permeability Barrier Function and Epidermal Differentiation in Normal Murine Skin  

PubMed Central

Orange peel extract appears to exhibit beneficial effects on skin whitening, inflammation, UVB protection, as well as keratinocyte proliferation. In the present study, we determine whether topical hesperidin influences epidermal permeability barrier function and its underlying mechanisms. Hairless mice were treated topically with 2% hesperidin or 70% ethanol alone twice daily for 6 days. At the end of treatment, basal barrier function as well as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured 2 and 4 hours post barrier disruption. Epidermal proliferation and differentiation were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Additionally, lamellar body density and secretion were assessed by electron microscopy. Although there were no significant differences in basal barrier function, in comparison to control animals, topical hesperidin significantly accelerated barrier recovery at both 2 and 4 hours after acute barrier abrogation. Enhanced barrier function in hesperidin-treated skin correlated with stimulation of both epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as enhanced lamellar body secretion. These results indicate that topical hesperidin enhances epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis at least in part due to stimulation of epidermal proliferation, differentiation, as well as lamellar body secretion. PMID:22509829

Hou, Maihua; Man, Mona; Man, Wenyan; Zhu, Wenyuan; Hupe, Melanie; Park, Kyungho; Crumrine, Debra; Elias, Peter M.; Man, Mao-Qiang

2012-01-01

265

Second Argonne theory institute on differentiation of computational approximations of functions.  

SciTech Connect

A Theory Institute on ''Differentiation of Computational Approximations to Functions'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on May 18--20, 1998. The institute was organized by Christian Bischof and Paul Hovland of the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The Theory Institute brought together 38 researchers from the US, Great Britain, France, and Germany. Mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, and engineers from diverse disciplines discussed advances in automatic differentiation (AD) theory and software and described benefits from applying AD methods in application areas. These areas include fluid mechanics, structural engineering, optimization, meteorology, and computational mathematics for the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or differential algebraic equations (DAEs). This meeting was the fourth workshop dedicated to automatic differentiation. Earlier meetings were the 1991 SIAM conference in Breckenridge, Colorado; the first Argonne Theory Institute on computational differentiation in 1993; and the 1996 SIAM conference in Santa Fe, New Mexico. AD methods can be used whenever gradient information or higher-order derivative information must be computed. The problem is defined by a computer program (without gradient information) that is able to compute numerical values of some output variables for a given set of input variables. As a result of applying AD methods to this computer program, a new computer program is generated automatically to compute the derivatives of the output variables with respect to the input variables. This at first glance, astonishing fact can be easily understood by viewing the program from a compiler angle. A complicated computational sequence is split into a sequence of simple operations. Then, to compute the gradients, the chain rule of differentiation is applied successively to this sequence completely automatically. The resultant gradients are accurate up to roundoff errors (which are always present in numerical evaluations).

Bischof, C.H.; Eberhard, P.; Hovland, P.D.

1998-10-09

266

Ablation of the calcium-sensing receptor in keratinocytes impairs epidermal differentiation and barrier function.  

PubMed

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) has an essential role in mediating Ca(2+)-induced keratinocyte differentiation in vitro. In this study, we generated keratinocyte-specific CaR knockout ((Epid)CaR(-/-)) mice to investigate the function of the CaR in epidermal development in vivo. (Epid)CaR(-/-) mice exhibited a delay in permeability barrier formation during embryonic development. Ion capture cytochemistry detected the loss of the epidermal Ca(2+) gradient in the (Epid)CaR(-/-) mice. The expression of terminal differentiation markers and key enzymes mediating epidermal sphingolipid transport and processing in the (Epid)CaR(-/-) epidermis was significantly reduced. The (Epid)CaR(-/-) epidermis displayed a marked decrease in the number of lamellar bodies (LBs) and LB secretion, thinner lipid-bound cornified envelopes, and a defective permeability barrier. Consistent with in vivo results, epidermal keratinocytes cultured from (Epid)CaR(-/-) mice demonstrated abnormal Ca(2+)(i) handling and diminished differentiation. The impairment in epidermal differentiation and permeability barrier in (Epid)CaR(-/-) mice maintained on a low calcium (0.02%) diet is more profound and persistent with age than in (Epid)CaR(-/-) mice maintained on a normal calcium (1.3%) diet. Deleting CaR perturbs the epidermal Ca(2+) gradient and impairs keratinocyte differentiation and permeability barrier homeostasis, indicating a key role for the CaR in normal epidermal development. PMID:22622426

Tu, Chia-Ling; Crumrine, Debra A; Man, Mao-Qiang; Chang, Wenhan; Elalieh, Hashem; You, Michael; Elias, Peter M; Bikle, Daniel D

2012-10-01

267

An NCME Instructional Module on Using Differential Step Functioning to Refine the Analysis of DIF in Polytomous Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional methods for examining differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomously scored test items yield a single item-level index of DIF and thus provide no information concerning which score levels are implicated in the DIF effect. To address this limitation of DIF methodology, the framework of differential step functioning (DSF) has…

Penfield, Randall D.; Gattamorta, Karina; Childs, Ruth A.

2009-01-01

268

An Efficient Spectral Method for Ordinary Differential Equations with Rational Function Coefficients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present some relations that allow the efficient approximate inversion of linear differential operators with rational function coefficients. We employ expansions in terms of a large class of orthogonal polynomial families, including all the classical orthogonal polynomials. These families obey a simple three-term recurrence relation for differentiation, which implies that on an appropriately restricted domain the differentiation operator has a unique banded inverse. The inverse is an integration operator for the family, and it is simply the tridiagonal coefficient matrix for the recurrence. Since in these families convolution operators (i.e. matrix representations of multiplication by a function) are banded for polynomials, we are able to obtain a banded representation for linear differential operators with rational coefficients. This leads to a method of solution of initial or boundary value problems that, besides having an operation count that scales linearly with the order of truncation N, is computationally well conditioned. Among the applications considered is the use of rational maps for the resolution of sharp interior layers.

Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Torres, David; Hagstrom, Thomas

1994-01-01

269

Th1/Th2 Differentiation and B Cell Function by the Atypical PKCs and Their Regulators  

PubMed Central

The members of the atypical Protein Kinase Cs (aPKC) kinase subfamily, PKC? and PKC?/?, as well as their adapters, p62 and Par-6, form part of the PB1-domain-containing group of signaling regulators. Both adapters serve to locate through heterotypic interactions the aPKCs into the NF-?B and cell polarity pathways, respectively. Both signaling cascades have been critically implicated in T cell function in vitro and in vivo. The analysis of gene-knockout (KO) mice deficient in the different PB1 molecules is providing more definitive information on the actual role that the aPKCs and other PB1-containing molecules play in B cell biology and T cell polarity, survival, and differentiation toward the different effector lineages in vivo and at the cellular ex vivo level. Here we discuss recent data generated from the analysis of KO mice linking the control of cell polarity by PKC?/? and PKC?, their adapter p62, and the Par-4 inhibitor, in the control of B and T cell signaling and differentiation. Altogether, these genetic and biochemical evidences reveal the existence of a PB1-orchestrated signaling network that acts to control Th2 differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and the gene transcriptional programs that are essential during the B cell maturation and function and Th2 differentiation. PMID:22888333

Martin, Pilar; Moscat, Jorge

2012-01-01

270

Accessory gene regulator locus of Staphylococcus intermedius.  

PubMed

The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, a candidate system for the regulation of the production of virulence factors in Staphylococcus intermedius, has been characterized. Using PCR-based genome walking, we have obtained the first complete sequence (3,436 bp) of the accessory gene regulator (agr) gene in this organism. Sequence analysis of the agr gene has identified five open reading frames (ORFs), agrB, agrD, agrC, agrA, and hld. The translated ORF contained amino acid motifs characteristic of the response regulator and histidine protein kinase signal transducer of the classic two-component regulatory system. Sequencing of the agrD PCR products amplified from DNA from 20 different isolates has facilitated detection of genetic variation in the putative autoinducing peptide (AIP) within the agr gene of S. intermedius, revealing the presence of at least three agr specificity groups within this species. Classification of the agr gene from S. intermedius was supported by phylogenetic analysis. Real-time PCR also revealed that the effector molecule of the agr system, RNAIII, was regulated in an autocrine manner in S. intermedius and demonstrated positive correlation with the temporal gene expression patterns of luk and entC. Transcription of RNAIII was also dependent on self secreted cues. Cyclic self and nonself peptides were synthesized on the basis of the novel AIPs produced by S. intermedius, which lack the cysteine necessary to form the thiolactone ring in analogous peptides from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Experiments with these synthetic cyclic peptides indicated that self peptides led to up-regulation of RNAIII--findings in support of the assumption that activation of the agr gene is initiated by growth- and species-specific factors generated during bacterial growth. PMID:16622233

Sung, Julia M L; Chantler, Peter D; Lloyd, David H

2006-05-01

271

Evolution of the continental crust as recorded in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in precise in situ isotopic analysis by LA-ICPMS and SIMS allow correlating multiple isotopic systems within single grains of accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite. The combined isotope systematics have provided valuable insights into the evolution of the continental crust. Zircon, a common accessory phase in granitoids, can be precisely dated by the U-Pb system. Zircon Lu-Hf isotopic composition is a function of crustal residence time of the magmatic protolith, whereas the O isotopic composition is a sensitive record of reworking of mature sediments such as pelite. An integration of U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic data for detrital zircons from modern large rivers indicates that: (1) the preserved continental crust dominantly formed between 3.6 and 1.0 Ga, (2) the major mode of crustal development would change during the supercontinent cycle, i.e., the generation of juvenile crust during supercontinent fragmentation versus the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal remelting during supercontinent fragmentation, and (3) reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at ca. 2.1 Ga. No granitoids are known to have survived since 4.03 Ga. Yet evidence of an even older evolved crust is provided by detrital zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga from Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Recently, such Hadean zircons have been found from outside the Yilgarn Craton, indicating that the young Earth had widespread granitoid crust. In addition, another accessory phase, monazite, in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks offers an unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of early crustal evolution. Monazite, a light rare earth element phosphate mineral, occurs as an igneous accessory phase particularly in low-Ca granitoids, in contrast to the occurrence of igneous zircon in a wide range of granitoids. U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope systematic of monazite are analogous to U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of zircon in that they define the timing of the crystallization and magmatic protolith formation (model age), respectively. The lack of monazites having >3.6 Ga crystallization ages as well as >4.0 Ga Nd model ages in the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks suggests that the source rocks of the Hadean detrital zircons are not low-Ca granitoids and therefore contained few monazites. Given that low-Ca granitoid magmas generated mainly by melting of pre-existing mid-lower crust, this finding may indicate minor intra-crustal melting and, by extension, crustal stabilization until ca. 3.6 Ga. This is consistent with the picture portrayed by the detrital zircons from modern rivers. Presumably, the hotter and rheologically weaker lithospheric mantle fostered many small plates and island arcs early in Earth's history, and the young arc crust was efficiently returned to the mantle via subduction. Accordingly, net growth of continental crust was essentially minor in early Earth's history despite high rates of crust generation.

Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

2013-04-01

272

HYPERDIRE: HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction: MATHEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions: $F_D$ and $F_S$ Horn-type hypergeometric functions of three variables  

E-print Network

HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: the first one, FdFunction, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions $F_D$ of $r$ variables; and the second one, FsFunction, for manipulations with Lauricella-Saran hypergeometric functions $F_S$ of three variables. Both functions are related with one-loop Feynman diagrams. The published version includes also Chapter 5 with two theorems about structure of coefficients of epsilon-expansion of the Horn-type hypergeometric functions. As illustration, the first three coefficients of epsilon-expansion for the Appell hypergeometric function FD of r-variables are explicitly evaluated.

Vladimir V. Bytev; Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Sven-Olaf Moch

2013-12-19

273

Ligand-functionalized Biomaterial Surfaces: Controlled Regulation of Signaling Pathways to Direct Cell Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate ligand–receptor interactions are critical in triggering signal transduction pathways in cells. This, among other\\u000a functions, can direct stem cell differentiation into specific lineages. Although many of these ligands act as soluble agents,\\u000a a significant number are present on surfaces of neighboring cells or as bound components on the extracellular matrix. Recent\\u000a research has focused on identifying such interactions, quantitatively

Myung Hee Kim; Krishnendu Roy

274

Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses of health-related quality of life instruments using logistic regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Differential item functioning (DIF) methods can be used to determine whether different subgroups respond differently to particular items within a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) subscale, after allowing for overall subgroup differences in that scale. This article reviews issues that arise when testing for DIF in HRQoL instruments. We focus on logistic regression methods, which are often used because

Neil W Scott; Peter M Fayers; Neil K Aaronson; Andrew Bottomley; Alexander de Graeff; Mogens Groenvold; Chad Gundy; Michael Koller; Morten A Petersen; Mirjam AG Sprangers

2010-01-01

275

Squamous cell carcinoma cells differentially stimulate NK cell effector functions: the role of IL18  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor cells stimulate natural killer (NK) cell effector functions, but the regulation of cytokine secretion and cytolysis is incompletely understood. We tested whether oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines differentially stimulated NK cell interferon-n (IFN-n) secretion and cytolysis using a clone of the NK-92-transformed human NK cell line, NK92.35. SCC-4 and SCC-25 cells, but not FaDu or Cal

Mikel B. Moore; Zoya B. Kurago; Colleen A. Fullenkamp; Charles T. Lutz

2003-01-01

276

BRCA1 Functions as a Differential Modulator of Chemotherapy-induced Apoptosis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the role played by BRCA1 in mediating the pheno- typic response to a range of chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in cancer treatment. Here we provide evidence that BRCA1 functions as a differential mediator of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Specifically, we demonstrate that BRCA1 mediates sensitivity to apoptosis induced by antimicrotubule agents but conversely induces resistance to DNA-damag- ing agents.

Jennifer E. Quinn; Richard D. Kennedy; Paul B. Mullan; Paula M. Gilmore; Michael Carty; Patrick G. Johnston; D. Paul Harkin

2003-01-01

277

Assessing impact of differential symptom functioning on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis.  

PubMed

This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as differential item functioning [DIF]) related to various background variables such as gender, marital status and educational level, this study emphasizes the importance of evaluating the impact of DIF on population inferences as made in health surveys and clinical trials, and on the diagnosis of individual patients. Using a sample from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R), four symptoms for gender, one symptom for marital status, and three symptoms for educational level were significantly flagged as DIF, but their impact on diagnosis was fairly small. We conclude that the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD do not produce substantially biased results in the investigated subpopulations, and there should be few reservations regarding their use. Further, although the impact of DIF (i.e. the influence of differential symptom functioning on diagnostic results) was found to be quite small in the current study, we recommend that diagnosticians always perform a DIF analysis of various subpopulations using the methodology presented here to ensure the diagnostic criteria is valid in their own studies. PMID:24436035

He, Qiwei; Glas, Cees A W; Veldkamp, Bernard P

2014-06-01

278

From Monocytes to M1/M2 Macrophages: Phenotypical vs. Functional Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Studies on monocyte and macrophage biology and differentiation have revealed the pleiotropic activities of these cells. Macrophages are tissue sentinels that maintain tissue integrity by eliminating/repairing damaged cells and matrices. In this M2-like mode, they can also promote tumor growth. Conversely, M1-like macrophages are key effector cells for the elimination of pathogens, virally infected, and cancer cells. Macrophage differentiation from monocytes occurs in the tissue in concomitance with the acquisition of a functional phenotype that depends on microenvironmental signals, thereby accounting for the many and apparently opposed macrophage functions. Many questions arise. When monocytes differentiate into macrophages in a tissue (concomitantly adopting a specific functional program, M1 or M2), do they all die during the inflammatory reaction, or do some of them survive? Do those that survive become quiescent tissue macrophages, able to react as naïve cells to a new challenge? Or, do monocyte-derived tissue macrophages conserve a “memory” of their past inflammatory activation? This review will address some of these important questions under the general framework of the role of monocytes and macrophages in the initiation, development, resolution, and chronicization of inflammation. PMID:25368618

Italiani, Paola; Boraschi, Diana

2014-01-01

279

Human Cytomegalovirus Inhibits Differentiation of Monocytes into Dendritic Cells with the Consequence of Depressed Immunological Functions  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in immunocompromised patients are associated with impaired immunological functions. Blood monocytes, which can differentiate into dendritic cells upon cytokine stimulation, play a central role in adequate immune reactivity and are believed to carry latent HCMV. We demonstrate here that HCMV infection of monocytes results in a block in the cytokine-induced differentiation of monocytes into functionally active CD1a-positive dendritic cells, which exhibited severely depressed immunological functions in vitro. The HCMV-infected cells exhibited a significantly reduced ability to endocytose fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran particles as well as a more than 90% reduced ability to migrate in response to the chemoattractant factors RANTES, MIP-1?, and MIP-3?. Interestingly, HCMV-infected cells expressed high levels of the costimulatory molecule CD86, in contrast to the low levels of expression that was observed on uninfected monocytes and uninfected immature dendritic cells. Furthermore, HCMV-infected CD1a-negative cells were unable to induce a T-cell response. Thus, these observations suggest that HCMV infection of monocytes in vitro blocks cytokine-induced dendritic cell differentiation, and since dendritic cells play a central role in initiating immune responses, these findings suggest a powerful tactic to avoid immune recognition and to blunt the immune response at early phases of infection. PMID:14512544

Gredmark, Sara; Soderberg-Naucler, Cecilia

2003-01-01

280

Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells express cardiomyogenic proteins but do not exhibit functional cardiomyogenic differentiation potential.  

PubMed

Despite their paracrine activites, cardiomyogenic differentiation of bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is thought to contribute to cardiac regeneration. To systematically evaluate the role of differentiation in MSC-mediated cardiac regeneration, the cardiomyogenic differentiation potential of human MSCs (hMSCs) and murine MSCs (mMSCs) was investigated in vitro and in vivo by inducing cardiomyogenic and noncardiomyogenic differentiation. Untreated hMSCs showed upregulation of cardiac tropopin I, cardiac actin, and myosin light chain mRNA and protein, and treatment of hMSCs with various cardiomyogenic differentiation media led to an enhanced expression of cardiomyogenic genes and proteins; however, no functional cardiomyogenic differentiation of hMSCs was observed. Moreover, co-culturing of hMSCs with cardiomyocytes derived from murine pluripotent cells (mcP19) or with murine fetal cardiomyocytes (mfCMCs) did not result in functional cardiomyogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Despite direct contact to beating mfCMCs, hMSCs could be effectively differentiated into cells of only the adipogenic and osteogenic lineage. After intramyocardial transplantation into a mouse model of myocardial infarction, Sca-1(+) mMSCs migrated to the infarcted area and survived at least 14 days but showed inconsistent evidence of functional cardiomyogenic differentiation. Neither in vitro treatment nor intramyocardial transplantation of MSCs reliably generated MSC-derived cardiomyocytes, indicating that functional cardiomyogenic differentiation of BM-derived MSCs is a rare event and, therefore, may not be the main contributor to cardiac regeneration. PMID:22309203

Siegel, Georg; Krause, Petra; Wöhrle, Stefanie; Nowak, Patrick; Ayturan, Miriam; Kluba, Torsten; Brehm, Bernhard R; Neumeister, Birgid; Köhler, David; Rosenberger, Peter; Just, Lothar; Northoff, Hinnak; Schäfer, Richard

2012-09-01

281

The Epsilon Expansion of Feynman Diagrams via Hypergeometric Functions and Differential Reduction  

E-print Network

Higher-order diagrams required for radiative corrections to mixed electroweak and QCD processes at the LHC and anticipated future colliders will require numerically stable representations of the associated Feynman diagrams. The hypergeometric representation supplies an analytic framework that is useful for deriving such stable representations. We discuss the reduction of Feynman diagrams to master integrals, and compare integration-by-parts methods to differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. We describe the problem of constructing higher-order terms in the epsilon expansion, and characterize the functions generated in such expansions.

S. A. Yost; V. V. Bytev; M. Yu. Kalmykov; B. A. Kniehl; B. F. L. Ward

2011-10-02

282

TGF-?-induced Foxp3 inhibits Th17 cell differentiation by antagonizing ROR?t function  

PubMed Central

T helper cells that produce IL-17 (Th17 cells) promote autoimmunity in mice and have been implicated in pathogenesis of human inflammatory diseases. At mucosal surfaces Th17 cells are thought to protect the host from infection while regulatory T (Treg) cells control immune responses and inflammation triggered by the resident microflora1–5. Differentiation of both cell types requires TGF-?, but depends on distinct transcription factors, ROR?t for Th17 and Foxp3 for Treg cells6-8. How TGF-? regulates the differentiation of T cells with opposing activities has been perplexing. Here, we demonstrate that together with pro-inflammatory cytokines TGF-? orchestrates Th17 cell differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At low concentrations, TGF-? synergizes with IL-6 and IL-21 (ref. 9-11) to promote IL-23R expression, favoring Th17 cell differentiation. High concentrations of TGF-? repress IL-23R expression and favor Foxp3+ Treg cells. ROR?t and Foxp3 are co-expressed in naïve CD4+ T cells exposed to TGF-? and in a subset of T cells in the small intestinal lamina propria (LP). In vitro, TGF-?-induced Foxp3 inhibits ROR?t function at least in part through their interaction. Accordingly, LP T cells that co-express both transcription factors produce less IL-17 than those that express ROR?t alone. IL-6, IL-21 and IL-23 relieve Foxp3-mediated inhibition of ROR?t, thereby promoting Th17 cell differentiation. Therefore, the decision of antigen-stimulated cells to differentiate into Th17 or Treg cells depends upon the cytokine-regulated balance of ROR?t and Foxp3. PMID:18368049

Zhou, Liang; Lopes, Jared E.; Chong, Mark M. W.; Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Min, Roy; Victora, Gabriel D.; Shen, Yuelei; Du, Jianguang; Rubtsov, Yuri P.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Ziegler, Steven F.; Littman, Dan R.

2008-01-01

283

Functional expression of heme oxygenase-1 in human differentiated epidermis and its regulation by cytokines.  

PubMed

Although heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced in keratinocytes after UV radiation, HO-1 expression during normal epidermal differentiation has not yet been reported. We showed by real-time PCR, western blotting, and ELISA that HO-1 mRNA and protein expression by cultured normal human keratinocytes was upregulated during epidermal differentiation induced by a high-calcium medium. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization showed the graduated expression of HO-1 in the upper epidermis, which was accompanied by suprabasal HO-1 mRNA expression, and the accumulation of bilirubin (BR) in the stratum corneum. We examined the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is a pivotal transcription factor for HO-1 expression, by western blotting and by examining the mRNA expression of Nrf2 target genes, and excluded its role in HO-1 expression in epidermal differentiation. Next, we examined the regulation of HO-1 expression by inflammatory cytokines. IL-4 and IL-22 significantly reduced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, whereas IL-1beta, IL-17A, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) increased it. Finally, immunohistochemical studies on psoriatic lesional skin showed that HO-1 expression was downregulated in the parakeratotic epidermis, whereas it was retained in the orthokeratotic epidermis. These studies demonstrate that HO-1 is functionally expressed by keratinocytes in parallel with epidermal differentiation and that its expression is independently affected by several cytokines. PMID:19536150

Numata, Ikuko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Memezawa, Ai; Ito, Yumiko; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Furuyama, Kazumichi; Shibahara, Shigeki; Aiba, Setsuya

2009-11-01

284

HIF-2? downregulation in the absence of functional VHL is not sufficient for renal cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background Mutational inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene has been linked to hereditary as well as sporadic clear cell renal carcinomas. The product of the VHL gene, pVHL, acts to target hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-?) subunits for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Using an RNA interference approach to lower levels of HIF-2? in two different renal cell lines that lack functional pVHL, we have tested the contribution of HIF-2? toward cellular pVHL activities. Results Knockdown of HIF-2? resulted in cell cycle arrest of renal cells that were grown on collagen I, indicating that this pVHL function is dependent on HIF-2? regulation. However, cellular morphological changes and downregulation of integrins ?5 and ?1, which were seen upon pVHL replacement, were not faithfully phenocopied by HIF-2? reduction. Moreover, fibronectin deposition and expression of renal cell differentiation markers were observed in cells containing replaced pVHL, but not in HIF-2? knockdown cells, indicating that these pVHL functions may occur independently of HIF-2? downregulation. Conclusion These results indicate that HIF-2? regulation is not sufficient for pVHL-induced renal cell differentiation. We hypothesize that in addition to HIF-2? dysregulation, abrogation of additional pVHL functions is required for the initiation of renal carcinogenesis. PMID:17598890

Hughes, Michael D; Kapllani, Erilda; Alexander, Ashlynn E; Burk, Robert D; Schoenfeld, Alan R

2007-01-01

285

Midbrain cues dictate differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells towards functional dopaminergic neurons.  

PubMed

Dental pulp originating from the neural crest is considered a better source of postnatal stem cells for cell-based therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) have been shown to differentiate into cell-types of cranial neural crest ontology; however, their ability to differentiate to functional neurons of the central nervous system remains to be studied. We hypothesized that midbrain cues might commit DPSCs to differentiate to functional dopaminergic cell-type. As expected, DPSCs in their naïve state spontaneously expressed early and mature neuronal markers like nestin, musashi12, ? tubulin III, and Map2ab. On exposure to midbrain cues (sonic hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor 8 and basic fibroblast growth factor), DPSCs showed upregulation of dopaminergic neuron-specific transcription factors Nuclear Receptor related protein 1 (Nurr1), Engrailed 1 (En1) and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 3 (Pitx3) as revealed by real-time RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed enhanced expression of mature neuronal marker Map2ab and dopaminergic-neuronal markers [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), En1, Nurr1, and Pitx3], with nearly 77% of the induced DPSCs positive for TH. Functional studies indicated that the induced DPSCs could secrete dopamine constitutively and upon stimulation with potassium chloride (KCl) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as measured by dopamine ELISA. Additionally, the induced DPSCs showed intracellular Ca(2+) influx in the presence of KCl, unlike control DPSCs. ATP-stimulated Ca(2+) influx was observed in control and induced DPSCs, but only the induced cells secreted dopamine. Our data clearly demonstrate for the first time that DPSCs in the presence of embryonic midbrain cues show efficient propensity towards functional dopaminergic cell-type. PMID:24477667

Kanafi, Mohammad; Majumdar, Debanjana; Bhonde, Ramesh; Gupta, Pawan; Datta, Indrani

2014-10-01

286

Fractional-order differentiation of the Gaussian function for processing overlapped peaks.  

PubMed

The resolution method for overlapped peaks based on fractional-order differentiation (FOD) of the Gaussian function is described. Its main idea stems from a variation of the maximum and the zero-crossing of the Gaussian peaks signal at different differential orders. I obtained two kinds of estimators for estimating the characteristic parameters of the Gaussian peak based on the above relationship. The resolution of several kinds of overlapped peaks simulated by computer has been performed and discussed in detail. The proposed method has been used to resolve overlapped voltammetric peaks obtained in the analysis of binary mixtures of Cd(II) and In(III) metal ions. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to resolve overlapped peaks which can be modeled by the Gaussian peaks both effectively and satisfactorily. PMID:19907092

Li, Yuanlu

2009-11-01

287

A note on order of convergence of numerical method for neutral stochastic functional differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the order of convergence of the Euler-Maruyama (EM) method for neutral stochastic functional differential equations (NSFDEs). Under the global Lipschitz condition, we show that the pth moment convergence of the EM numerical solutions for NSFDEs has order p/2 - 1/ l for any p ? 2 and any integer l > 1. Moreover, we show the rate of the mean-square convergence of EM method under the local Lipschitz condition is 1 - ?/2 for any ? ? (0, 1), provided the local Lipschitz constants of the coefficients, valid on balls of radius j, are supposed not to grow faster than log j. This is significantly different from the case of stochastic differential equations where the order is 1/2.

Jiang, Feng; Shen, Yi; Wu, Fuke

2012-03-01

288

On the presence of ganglion cells in the intracranial portion of the accessory nerve (XI cranial nerve) in some mammals.  

PubMed

The intracranial tract of the accessory nerve (XI cranial nerve) was studied in some mammals (equines, domestic and wild ruminants, pig, carnivores, rabbit, nutria, guinea pig, hamster, hedgehog). The specimens were embedded in paraffin or paraplast, the sections were stained with cresyl violet, haematoxylin and eosin, or submitted to argentic impregnation. Pseudounipolar ganglion cells were found in all the mammals examined, with the exception of the cat. The number of cells and their variability in the different species and subjects were related. The topography and morphology of the cells were described. This comparative study has demonstrated that the accessory nerve is not a entirely motor nerve, but it is a mixed, motor and sensitive, nerve. Nevertheless, we think further studies are necessary in order to establish the peripheral distribution, the central pathway and the functional role of the pseudounipolar neurons found in the intracranial tract of the accessory nerve. PMID:10684182

Panu, R; Bo Minelli, L; Acone, F; Gazza, F; Cacchioli, A; Botti, M; Palmieri, G

1999-01-01

289

Expression Patterns and Function of Chromatin Protein HMGB2 during Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation*  

PubMed Central

The superficial zone (SZ) of articular cartilage is critical in maintaining tissue function and homeostasis and represents the site of the earliest changes in osteoarthritis (OA). The expression of chromatin protein HMGB2 is restricted to the SZ, which contains cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers. Age-related loss of HMGB2 and gene deletion are associated with reduced SZ cellularity and early onset OA. This study addressed HMGB2 expression patterns in MSC and its role during differentiation. HMGB2 was detected at higher levels in human MSC as compared with human articular chondrocytes, and its expression declined during chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. Lentiviral HMGB2 transduction of MSC suppressed chondrogenesis as reflected by an inhibition of Col2a1 and Col10a1 expression. Conversely, in bone marrow MSC from Hmgb2?/? mice, Col10a1 was more strongly expressed than in wild-type MSC. This is consistent with in vivo results from mouse growth plates showing that Hmgb2 is expressed in proliferating and prehypertrophic zones but not in hypertrophic cartilage where Col10a1 is strongly expressed. Osteogenesis was also accelerated in Hmgb2?/? MSC. The expression of Runx2, which plays a major role in late stage chondrocyte differentiation, was enhanced in Hmgb2?/? MSC, and HMGB2 negatively regulated the stimulatory effect of Wnt/?-catenin signaling on the Runx2 proximal promoter. These results demonstrate that HMGB2 expression is inversely correlated with the differentiation status of MSC and that HMGB2 suppresses chondrogenic differentiation. The age-related loss of HMGB2 in articular cartilage may represent a mechanism responsible for the decline in adult cartilage stem cell populations. PMID:21890638

Taniguchi, Noboru; Carames, Beatriz; Hsu, Emily; Cherqui, Stephanie; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Lotz, Martin

2011-01-01

290

Parathyroid hormone reversibly suppresses the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into functional osteoblasts.  

PubMed

The effects of PTH on osteoprogenitor cell differentiation have been analyzed by quantifying its effects on bone nodule formation in an in vitro assay. Fetal rat calvaria cells were plated at 3 x 10(4) cells/35-mm dish, and cultures were maintained for 17-23 days in alpha-Minimal Essential Medium containing ascorbic acid, Na beta-glycerophosphate, and 10% fetal bovine serum. Continuous exposure to PTH at concentrations from 1 pM to 1 nM (2 x 10(-5) to 2 x 10(-2) IU/ml) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of bone nodule formation. Half-maximal inhibition occurred at 0.05 nM, and total inhibition at 1 nM, concentrations much lower than those required to elicit a significant cAMP response in rat calvaria cells. PTH at the concentrations used did not affect cell growth or saturation density. While continuous exposure to 1 nM PTH eliminated bone nodule formation, a single 48-h pulse administered at any time during the 17-day culture period had no effect. When 1 nM PTH was added on day 1 and removed at different times during the culture period, a time-related release from inhibition was observed. Cultures exposed to 1 nM PTH until nodules had developed in the corresponding control cultures and then switched to medium without added PTH rapidly formed clusters of differentiated osteoblasts and nodules within 3 days. PTH added at different times during the culture period and present continuously there-after suppressed formation of new nodules, the magnitude of the effect being a function of the duration of exposure. The results show that PTH at physiological concentrations is a potent suppressor of osteoblast differentiation and that its effect occurs at a late stage in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells, probably preventing differentiation of preosteoblasts into osteoblasts. PMID:2174346

Bellows, C G; Ishida, H; Aubin, J E; Heersche, J N

1990-12-01

291

The differential influence of contextual risks on psychosocial functioning and participation of Australian aboriginal youth.  

PubMed

This study investigated the differential influence of contextual risks for positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment in a representative sample of 12- to 17-year-old Aboriginal youth (N = 674) using data drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS) 2000-2002. The authors modeled the influence of 3 empirical risk measures (risk factor, cumulative risk, and single risks) on positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment. Results showed different risks for different developmental outcomes. Single sociodemographic risks were associated with reduced likelihood of positive psychosocial functioning, whereas cumulative risk and composite Family Health and Community Risk measures were associated with reduced likelihood of participation in education or employment. Methodological issues and implications for interventions to support young Aboriginal people's adaptation are discussed. PMID:24164518

Hopkins, Katrina D; Taylor, Catherine L; Zubrick, Stephen R

2013-10-01

292

Accessory spleens: Clinical significance with particular reference to the recurrence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important stages during splenectomy is the search for accessory spleens. The average frequency of accessory spleens is an estimated 11%. In our own material in 611 patients who had splenectomy in hematological disorders, accessory spleens were found in 110 patients (18%). The surgical anatomy, embryology, and clinical significance of the accessory spleens, with particular reference to the

Witold J. Rudowski

1985-01-01

293

Comparative morphology of the accessory olfactory bulb in bats.  

PubMed Central

Bouin-perfused brains of 148 bats (76 species, 48 genera, 8 families) were examined in serial sections for the presence of an accessory olfactory bulb. A moderate to well developed AOB was identified in 26 species. However, absence of an AOB in a particular species does not preclude its presence in some other species of that genus. Descriptions and measurements of the AOBs of each species are reported. The unmyelinated vomeronasal nerve enters the bulb medially and posteriorly. The glomeruli, variable in diameter, appear better circumscribed than previously described. Mitral cells often form thick layers, up to five cells deep, which sometimes reach the dorsolateral surface of the bulb formation. Both external and internal plexiform layers are thin. The latter, however is seen only in a few species. The internal granular layer, reaching the ventricular ependyma in some species, is a prominent component of the bulb. The pars dorsalis of the lateral olfactory tract usually courses between the mitral and internal granular layers. The chiropteran AOB does not differ in significant detail from that of insectivores, primates and other mammals. The occurrence of a functional vomeronasal system in the frugivorous, nectarivorous, and sanguivorous Phyllosotomatidae points to a primary functional role of this system in feeding strategy, at least in bats. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7400042

Frahm, H D; Bhatnagar, K P

1980-01-01

294

21 CFR 884.1640 - Culdoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such culdoscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, biopsy brush, clip applier (without clips), applicator, cannula (without trocar or valves), ligature carrier/needle...

2010-04-01

295

21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electrosurgical, lasers, or other power sources. Such gynecologic laparosope accessory instruments include: the lens cleaning brush, biopsy brush, clip applier (without clips), applicator, cannula (without trocar or valves), ligature carrier/needle...

2010-04-01

296

46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...copper, copper alloys and aluminum alloys, shall not be used in the construction of valves, fittings or accessory equipment. Brazed joints are prohibited. (b) Each tank shall be provided with the necessary fill and discharge liquid and vapor...

2010-10-01

297

21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

2011-04-01

298

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

299

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

300

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

301

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

302

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

303

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

304

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

305

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

306

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

307

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2012-04-01

308

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

309

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

310

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

311

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

312

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

313

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

314

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

315

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

316

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

317

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

318

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

319

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

320

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

321

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

322

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

323

Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Amphibians University, Spokane, WA, USA SUMMARY Gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone (T) and related hormones, such as prolactin, have been found to be necessary in conjunction with gonadal steroids

Sever, David M.

324

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

325

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

326

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

327

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

328

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

329

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

330

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

331

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

332

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways  

MedlinePLUS

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways James Kulig , PA-C ; Bruce A. Koplan , MD, MPH From the Cardiovascular ... rate, which can be dangerous. What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome? Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is ...

333

What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings  

E-print Network

Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

Stege, Elinor Hope

2009-01-01

334

Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories  

MedlinePLUS

... Phones Current Research Results Radiofrequency Background Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories Steps to reduce ... distance between your head and the cell phone. Hands-free kits Hand-free kits may include audio ...

335

Bone marrow accessory cells regulate human bone precursor cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMuch remains to be learned about the intimate relationship between bone marrow and its surrounding tissue: the bone. We hypothesized that bone marrow accessory cell populations might regulate the development of human bone precursor cells.

Peter G Eipers; Sujata Kale; Russell S Taichman; George G Pipia; Nancy A Swords; Kenneth G Mann; Michael W Long

2000-01-01

336

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2014-04-01

337

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2010-04-01

338

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2013-04-01

339

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2012-04-01

340

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2011-04-01

341

21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

342

Breakage-fusion-bridge Cycles and Large Insertions Contribute to the Rapid Evolution of Accessory Chromosomes in a Fungal Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal rearrangements are a major driver of eukaryotic genome evolution, affecting speciation, pathogenicity and cancer progression. Changes in chromosome structure are often initiated by mis-repair of double-strand breaks in the DNA. Mis-repair is particularly likely when telomeres are lost or when dispersed repeats misalign during crossing-over. Fungi carry highly polymorphic chromosomal complements showing substantial variation in chromosome length and number. The mechanisms driving chromosome polymorphism in fungi are poorly understood. We aimed to identify mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We combined population genomic resequencing and chromosomal segment PCR assays with electrophoretic karyotyping and resequencing of parents and offspring from experimental crosses to show that this pathogen harbors a highly diverse complement of accessory chromosomes that exhibits strong global geographic differentiation in numbers and lengths of chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carried highly differentiated gene contents due to numerous insertions and deletions. The largest accessory chromosome recently doubled in length through insertions totaling 380 kb. Based on comparative genomics, we identified the precise breakpoint locations of these insertions. Nondisjunction during meiosis led to chromosome losses in progeny of three different crosses. We showed that a new accessory chromosome emerged in two viable offspring through a fusion between sister chromatids. Such chromosome fusion is likely to initiate a breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle that can rapidly degenerate chromosomal structure. We suggest that the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici originated mainly from ancient core chromosomes through a degeneration process that included BFB cycles, nondisjunction and mutational decay of duplicated sequences. The rapidly evolving accessory chromosome complement may serve as a cradle for adaptive evolution in this and other fungal pathogens. PMID:23785303

Croll, Daniel; Zala, Marcello; McDonald, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

343

A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

2014-01-01

344

Functional differentiation of stem cell-derived neurons from different murine backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Murine stem cell-derived neurons have been used to study a wide variety of neuropsychiatric diseases with a hereditary component, ranging from autism to Alzheimer’s. While a significant amount of data on their molecular biology has been generated, there is little data on the physiology of these cultures. Different mouse strains show clear differences in behavioral and other neurobiologically relevant readouts. We have studied the physiology of early differentiation and network formation in neuronal cultures derived from three different mouse embryonic stem cell lines. We have found largely overlapping patterns with some significant differences in the timing of the functional milestones. Neurons from R1 showed the fastest development of intrinsic excitability, while E14Tg2a and J1 were slower. This was also reflected in an earlier appearance of synaptic activity in R1 cultures, while E14Tg2a and J1 were delayed by up to 2 days. In conclusion, stem cells from all backgrounds could be successfully differentiated into functioning neural networks with similar developmental patterns. Differences in the timing of specific milestones, suggest that control cell lines and time-points should be carefully chosen when investigating genetic alterations that lead to subtle deficits in neuronal function. PMID:24600351

Barth, Lydia; Sutterlin, Rosmarie; Nenniger, Markus; Vogt, Kaspar E.

2014-01-01

345

Mitochondrial (Dys)function in Adipocyte (De)differentiation and Systemic Metabolic Alterations  

PubMed Central

In mammals, adipose tissue, composed of BAT and WAT, collaborates in energy partitioning and performs metabolic regulatory functions. It is the most flexible tissue in the body, because it is remodeled in size and shape by modifications in adipocyte cell size and/or number, depending on developmental status and energy fluxes. Although numerous reviews have focused on the differentiation program of both brown and white adipocytes as well as on the pathophysiological role of white adipose tissues, the importance of mitochondrial activity in the differentiation or the dedifferentiation programs of adipose cells and in systemic metabolic alterations has not been extensively reviewed previously. Here, we address the crucial role of mitochondrial functions during adipogenesis and in mature adipocytes and discuss the cellular responses of white adipocytes to mitochondrial activity impairment. In addition, we discuss the increase in scientific knowledge regarding mitochondrial functions in the last 10 years and the recent suspicion of mitochondrial dysfunction in several 21st century epidemics (ie, obesity and diabetes), as well as in lipodystrophy found in HIV-treated patients, which can contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria. PMID:19700756

De Pauw, Aurelia; Tejerina, Silvia; Raes, Martine; Keijer, Jaap; Arnould, Thierry

2009-01-01

346

Distinctive Accessory Minerals, Textures and Crystal Habits in Biofilm Associated Gypsum Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gypsum-depositing environments near Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico were investigated in order to differentiate the influence of microbial activity versus nonbiological processes upon sedimentary fabrics and minerals. Field sites were located in sabkhas (mudflats and anchialine pools) and in seawater concentration ponds in the salt production facility operated by Exportadora de Sal, S. A. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) was classified according to sedimentary environment (e.g., mudflats, anchialine pools, saltern ponds, surface and subsurface sediments), sedimentary texture, mineral composition, crystal habit, brine composition and other geochemical and biological factors. Gypsum types that develop in the absence of biofilms include water column precipitates (pelagic grains) and subsedimentary crystalline discs that form from phreatic brine ripening. Subsedimentary gypsum forming in sabkha environments had a sinuous axial microtexture and poikilitically enclosed detrital particles whereas water column precipitates exhibited euhedral prismatic habits and extensive penetrative twinning. Gypsum that was influenced by biofilms included cumulate crusts and gypsooids / gypsolite developing in anchialine pools and in saltern concentration ponds. Gypsum precipitating within subaqueous benthic microbial mats, or biofilm/sediment surfaces offered compelling evidence of biofilm influence on crystal textures and habits. Biofilm effects include irregular high relief surface textures, accessory minerals (elemental sulfur, Ca-carbonate, Sr/Ca-sulfate, Mg-oxide and Mg- sulfate) and distinctive crystal habits. Elemental sulfur, Ca-carbonate, and Sr/Ca-sulfate are known byproducts of bacterially mediated sulfate reduction (BSR). Populations of gypsum crystals within biofilms exhibited euhedral to lensoidal morphologies with unique equant and distorted prismatic forms. These forms had been shown to arise from form- and face-specific inhibition by bioorganic functional groups (Cody, 1991; Cody and Cody 1991). Biofilms therefore may play an active role in influencing brine chemistry, inducing crystallization and modifying crystal habits, evidence of which is preserved in grain morphologies.

Vogel, M.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.; Parenteau, M.

2008-12-01

347

Notch-regulated periphery B cell differentiation involves suppression of E protein function  

PubMed Central

Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in promoting the generation of marginal zone (MZ) B cells at the expense of follicular (FO) B cells during periphery B cell maturation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesize that Notch favors the generation of MZ B cells by down-regulating E protein activity. Here, we demonstrated that expression of Id2 and ankyrin-repeat SOCS box-containing protein 2 (Asb2) was elevated in MZ B cells and by Notch signaling. Id2 inhibits the DNA binding activity of E proteins whereas Asb2 facilitates E protein ubiquitination. Next, we examined the phenotypes of splenic B cells in mice expressing constitutively active Notch1 and/or two gain-of-function mutants of E proteins that counteract Id2-mediated inhibition or Notch-induced degradation. We found that up-regulation of E proteins promoted the formation of FO B cells while it suppressed the maturation of MZ B cells. In contrast, excessive amounts of Notch1 stimulated the differentiation of MZ B cells and inhibited the production of FO B cells. More interestingly, the effects of Notch1 were reversed by gain of E protein function. Furthermore, high levels of Bcl-6 expression in FO B cells was shown to be diminished by Notch signaling and restored by E proteins. In addition, E proteins facilitated and Notch hindered the differentiation of transitional B cells. Taken together, it appears that Notch regulates peripheral B cell differentiation, at least in part, through opposing E protein function. PMID:23752615

Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Hong

2013-01-01

348

Identification of a Free Energy Functional in an Integro-Differential Equation Model for Neuronal Network Activity  

E-print Network

], or [5]). The wave behavior has been observed in various experimental studies involving retinal activity in the hippocampus [9]. We will study the following integro-differential equation model for neuronal activity: ut + uIdentification of a Free Energy Functional in an Integro-Differential Equation Model for Neuronal

French, Donald A.

349

Expression of novel interleukin 2 binding molecules and their functional roles in human B cell differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Expressions and functional roles of novel IL-2 binding molecules (p70, 75) in the differentiation of B cells into Ig secreting cells were explored by using human several B cell lines and tonsillar B cells. Affinity-crosslinking studies revealed that five of nine B cell lines expressed p70 and p75 without detectable Tac antigen (p55) expression and the expression was associated with B cell maturation. In tonsillar B cells, small high-density B cells did not express p70 and p75, whereas large low-density B cells, which were thought to be activated in vivo, expressed them. Binding assays of radiolabeled IL-2 showed that the affinity of these molecules was intermediate (kD = 1-3 nM, 700-3,000 sites/cell). Furthermore, high concentrations of IL-2 (greater than 100 U/ml) induced Ig productions in large B cells and two of five cell lines. These results taken together suggest that B cells may express novel IL-2 binding molecules, associated with B cell differentiation and differentiate into Ig secreting cells by IL-2 through novel IL-2 binding molecules. Images PMID:2839549

Tanaka, T; Saiki, O; Doi, S; Suemura, M; Negoro, S; Kishimoto, S

1988-01-01

350

Differential typed vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor for optical logic gates with AND, OR, and INVERT functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical logic gates with AND, OR, and INVERT functionality are demonstrated by vertical cavity lasers with depleted optical thyristor structure using our differential switching operation schemes which control a reference input light.

Woonkyung Choi; Doo-Gun Kim; Yon-Tae Moon; Young-Wan Choi

2007-01-01

351

Differential Abundance of Microbial Functional Groups along the Elevation Gradient from the Coast to the Luquillo Mountains  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial communities respond to multiple abiotic and biotic factors that change along elevation gradients. We compare changes in microbial community composition in soil and review previous research on differential abundance of microbial functional groups along an elevation gradi...

352

Asymptotic stability, contractivity and dissipativity of one-leg theta-method for non-autonomous delay functional differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on asymptotic stability, contractivity and dissipativity of non-autonomous nonlinear delay functional differential equations with bounded lag, and the corresponding dynamical properties of one-leg ?-method. Sufficient conditions for these delay functional differential equations to be dissipative, asymptotically stable and contractive are established. One-leg ?-method is constructed to solve such equations numerically. An important result on the growth of

Hongjiong Tian; Ni Guo

2008-01-01

353

Instrumented Functional Reach Test Differentiates Individuals at High Risk for Parkinson's Disease from Controls  

PubMed Central

The functional reach (FR) test as a complex measure of balance including limits of stability has been proven to differentiate between patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and controls (CO). Recently, it has been shown that the instrumentation of the FR (iFR) with a wearable sensor may increase this diagnostic accuracy. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating whether the iFR has the potential to differentiate individuals with high risk for PD (HRPD) from CO, as the delineation of such individuals would allow for, e.g., early neuromodulation. Thirteen PD patients, 13 CO, and 31 HRPD were investigated. HRPD was defined by presence of an enlarged area of hyperechogenicity in the mesencephalon on transcranial sonography and either one motor sign or two risk and prodromal markers of PD. All participants were asked to reach with their right arm forward as far as possible and hold this position for 10?s. During this period, sway parameters were assessed with an accelerometer (Dynaport, McRoberts) worn at the lower back. Extracted parameters that differed significantly between PD patients and CO in our cohort [FR distance (shorter in PD), anterior–posterior and mediolateral acceleration (both lower in PD)] as well as JERK, which has been shown to differentiate HRPD from CO and PD in a previous study, were included in a model, which was then used to differentiate HRPD from CO. The model yielded an area under the curve of 0.77, with a specificity of 85%, and a sensitivity of 74%. These results suggest that the iFR can contribute to an assessment panel focusing on the definition of HRPD individuals. PMID:25386137

Hasmann, Sandra E.; Berg, Daniela; Hobert, Markus A.; Weiss, David; Lindemann, Ulrich; Streffer, Johannes; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Maetzler, Walter

2014-01-01

354

Simplified detection of myocardial ischemia by seismocardiography. Differentiation between causes of altered myocardial function.  

PubMed

Seismocardiography (SCG) is a noninvasive technique for recording cardiac vibrations. Changes in these waves have been correlated with chronic and acute alterations in myocardial function. This analysis is complex and clinical integration limited. The current study aimed to simplify the utilization of SCG by fast Fourier transformation for a reliable discrimination between different intra- and postoperative causes of hypotension (i.e., myocardial ischemia or hypovolemia). We operated on nine pigs and recorded SCG at baseline, at hypovolemia (occlusion of the inferior vena cava), and at ischemia (occlusion of the right coronary artery). In conclusion, SCG enables detection and differentiation of ischemia and hypovolemia as important causes of altered myocardial function during and after surgery. Thus, this simple and noninvasive diagnostic tool may be used intra- and postoperatively to identify patients at risk. PMID:23793836

Becker, M; Roehl, A B; Siekmann, U; Koch, A; de la Fuente, M; Roissant, R; Radermacher, K; Marx, N; Hein, M

2014-08-01

355

Structural and Mutational Analysis of Functional Differentiation between Synaptotagmins-1 and -7  

PubMed Central

Synaptotagmins are known to mediate diverse forms of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis through their C2 domains, but the principles underlying functional differentiation among them are unclear. Synaptotagmin-1 functions as a Ca2+ sensor in neurotransmitter release at central nervous system synapses, but synaptotagmin-7 does not, and yet both isoforms act as Ca2+ sensors in chromaffin cells. To shed light into this apparent paradox, we have performed rescue experiments in neurons from synaptotagmin-1 knockout mice using a chimera that contains the synaptotagmin-1 sequence with its C2B domain replaced by the synaptotagmin-7 C2B domain (Syt1/7). Rescue was not achieved either with the WT Syt1/7 chimera or with nine mutants where residues that are distinct in synaptotagmin-7 were restored to those present in synaptotagmin-1. To investigate whether these results arise because of unique conformational features of the synaptotagmin-7 C2B domain, we determined its crystal structure at 1.44 Å resolution. The synaptotagmin-7 C2B domain structure is very similar to that of the synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain and contains three Ca2+-binding sites. Two of the Ca2+-binding sites of the synaptotagmin-7 C2B domain are also present in the synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain and have analogous ligands to those determined for the latter by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting that a discrepancy observed in a crystal structure of the synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain arose from crystal contacts. Overall, our results suggest that functional differentiation in synaptotagmins arises in part from subtle sequence changes that yield dramatic functional differences. PMID:20824061

Shin, Ok-Ho; Li, Liyi; Brautigam, Chad A.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizo, Josep

2010-01-01

356

Differential item functioning of pathological gambling criteria: an examination of gender, race/ethnicity, and age.  

PubMed

This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference groups (i.e., Male, Caucasian, and ages 25-59 years), women (OR = 0.62; P < .001) and Asian Americans (OR = 0.33; P < .001) were less likely to endorse preoccupation (Criterion 1). Women were more likely to endorse gambling to escape (Criterion 5) (OR = 2.22; P < .001) but young adults (OR = 0.62; P < .05) were less likely to endorse it. African Americans (OR = 2.50; P < .001) and Hispanics were more likely to endorse trying to cut back (Criterion 3) (OR = 2.01; P < .01). African Americans were more likely to endorse the suffering losses (OR = 2.27; P < .01) criterion. Young adults were more likely to endorse chasing losses (Criterion 9) (OR = 1.81; P < .01) while older adults were less likely to endorse this criterion (OR = 0.76; P < .05). Further research is needed to identify factors contributing to DIF, address criteria level bias, and examine differential test functioning. PMID:20623329

Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Woods, Carol; Unick, G Jay

2011-06-01

357

Macaque accessory optic system: II. Connections with the pretectum.  

PubMed

Connections of the accessory optic system (AOS) with the pretectum are described in the macaque monkey. Injections of tritiated amino acids in the pretectum demonstrate a major contralateral projection to the dorsal (DTN), lateral (LTN), and medial (MTN) terminal nuclei of the AOS and a sparser projection to the ipsilateral LTN. Injections of retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB), or wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) plus nonconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the LTN show that the pretectal-LTN projection originates from two nuclei. The main source of pretectal efferents to the LTN is from the pretectal olivary nucleus (OPN) and is entirely contralateral. This projection, which appears unique to primates, originates from the large multipolar cells of the OPN. In addition to this projection, the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) projects to the ipsilateral LTN, as in nonprimates. Injection of WGA-HRP in the pretectum shows a reciprocal predominantely ipsilateral projection from the LTN to the pretectum. Retinas were observed after injection of FB in the LTN. The retinal ganglion cells projecting to the AOS are mainly distributed near the fovea and in the nasal region of the contralateral eye, suggesting a nasotemporal pattern of decussation. The demonstration of a direct connection between LTN and OPN forces to a reconsideration of the functional role of the AOS. Previous descriptions of luminance responsive cells in the LTN support a possible participation of this nucleus in the control of the pupillary light reflex. PMID:1705270

Baleydier, C; Magnin, M; Cooper, H M

1990-12-01

358

A novel application of radial basis functions for solving a model of first-order integro-ordinary differential equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions (RBFs) have been considered; one is computed through the differentiation process (DRBF) and the other one is computed through the integration process (IRBF). We investigate these two approaches on the Volterra's Population Model which is an integro-differential equation without converting it to an ordinary differential equation. To solve the problem, we use four well-known radial basis functions: Multiquadrics (MQ), Inverse multiquadrics (IMQ), Gaussian (GA) and Hyperbolic secant (sech) which is a newborn RBF. Numerical results and residual norm (?R(t)?2) show good accuracy and rate of convergence of two common approaches.

Parand, K.; Abbasbandy, S.; Kazem, S.; Rad, J. A.

2011-11-01

359

Histologic confirmation of neuronal cell bodies along the spinal accessory nerve.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Most sources conclude that the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) is a purely motor nerve. There are some reports that suggest a sensory component, although the exact nature of such sensory fibers has yet to be elucidated. With such discrepancies in the literature and with well-established pain syndromes of unknown etiology following SAN injury, the authors performed the present study to better clarify this anatomy. Materials and methods. The entire accessory nerve was harvested from 10 adult cadavers. Samples were then submitted for immunohistochemical analyses. Results. Occasional microganglia cells were identified along the SAN in all specimens. These ganglia were most numerous along the intracranial segment of the SAN, but none was found along the cranial rootlets of the accessory nerve. Conclusions. Neuronal cell bodies were identified along the course of the SAN in human cadavers. Although the function is not certain, such cells have been found in other animals to be nocioceptive in nature. Pending further study, these cells may be found to be involved in enigmatic pain syndromes thought to arise in the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. PMID:24902994

Tubbs, R Shane; Sorenson, Edward P; Watanabe, Koichi; Loukas, Marios; Hattab, Eyas; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2014-12-01

360

Functional analyses of differentially expressed isoforms of the Arabidopsis inositol phosphorylceramide synthase.  

PubMed

Sphingolipids are key components of eukaryotic plasma membranes that are involved in many functions, including the formation signal transduction complexes. In addition, these lipid species and their catabolites function as secondary signalling molecules in, amongst other processes, apoptosis. The biosynthetic pathway for the formation of sphingolipid is largely conserved. However, unlike mammalian cells, fungi, protozoa and plants synthesize inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) as their primary phosphosphingolipid. This key step involves the transfer of the phosphorylinositol group from phosphatidylinositol (PI) to phytoceramide, a process catalysed by IPC synthase in plants and fungi. This enzyme activity is at least partly encoded by the AUR1 gene in the fungi, and recently the distantly related functional orthologue of this gene has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis. Here we functionally analysed all three predicted Arabidopsis IPC synthases, confirming them as aureobasidin A resistant AUR1p orthologues. Expression profiling revealed that the genes encoding these orthologues are differentially expressed in various tissue types isolated from Arabidopsis. PMID:20309609

Mina, J G; Okada, Y; Wansadhipathi-Kannangara, N K; Pratt, S; Shams-Eldin, H; Schwarz, R T; Steel, P G; Fawcett, T; Denny, P W

2010-07-01

361

Collagen functionalized bioactive nanofiber matrices for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Scaffold architecture, surface topography, biochemical and mechanical cues have been shown to significantly improve cellular events and in vivo tissue regeneration. Specifically electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained tremendous interest due to their intrinsic structural resemblance to native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). The present study reports on the electrospun nanofiber matrices of polycaprolactone (PCL)-chitosan (CS) blends and effect of type I collagen surface functionalization in regulating rat bone marrow derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) differentiation into osteogenic lineage. Collagen was covalently attached to blend nanofibers via carbodiimide (EDC) coupling. Bead-free smooth nanofibers (diameter-700-850 nm) obtained at the optimized conditions of polymer concentration and electrospinning parameters were used for the study. EDC collagen coupling resulted in 0.120+/-0.016 micro g of collagen immobilization onto a 1 cm2 area of the PCL/CS nanofibers, which was 2.6-folds higher than the amount of collagen that can be retained by physical adsorption. Significantly improved rBMSCs adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was observed on the collagen functionalized COL-PCULCS nanofiber matrices as compared to control groups. Osteogenic phenotypic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization were found to be significantly higher on COL-PCL/CS nanofiber matrices as compared to controls. Elevated gene expression profiles of osteogenic markers such as osteocalcin (0CN), osteopontin (OPN) and ALP further corroborate the osteoinductive nature of the collagen functionalized PCL/CS nanofiber matrices. These fiber matrices and modification techniques could be extended to other scaffold systems for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24738337

Cheng, Yixing; Ramos, Daisy; Lee, Paul; Liang, Danni; Yu, Xiaojun; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

2014-02-01

362

Differentiations and Functional State of Osteogenic Cells in Conditions of Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space flight factors (space radiation, magnetic fields etc.) affect considerably the state of bone tissue, leading to the development of osteoporosis and osteopenia in the bone skeleton. Many aspects of reactions of bone tissue cells still remain unclear until now. With the use of electron microscopy and autoradiography with 3H-thymidine we studied the samples gathered from the femoral bone epiphyses and metaphyses of rats flown on board American Spacelab -2 and in experiments with modeling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method). In our work the main attention is focused on studying the ultrastructure and metabolism of osteogenetic cells. The degree of differentiation and functional state are evaluated according to the degree of development of organelles for specific biosynthesis: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgy complex (GC), as well as the state of mitochondria and cell nucleus. As compared with a control, the population of osteogenetic cells from zones of bone reconstruction shows a decrease in the number of functionally active forms. We can judge of this from the reduction volume of RER, GC, mitochondria in osteoblasts. RER loses architectonics typical for osteoblasts and, as against the control, is represented by short narrow canaliculi distributed throughout the cy-toplasm; some canals disintegrate. GC is slightly pronounced, mitochondria become smaller in size and acquire an optically dark matrix. These phenomena are supposed to be associated with the desorganization of microtubules and microfilaments in the cells under microgravity condi-tions. The number of degrading and apoptotic cells increases in the population of osteoblasts. The dynamics of labeled cells following various intervals after 3H-thymidine injection testifies to a delay in the rates of osteoblasts' differentiation and their transformation to osteocytes in the experiment animals. A lower 3H-glycine uptake by the osteogenic cells and bone matrix as compared with a control is indicative of a decrease of the osteoplastic process under hypokinesia and modeling microgravity. We concluded that microgravity results in low differentiations and reduction specific functions of osteogenic cells.

Onishchenko, Ganna; Rodionova, Natalia; Markevich, Ganna; Markevich, Ganna

363

Temporally tuned neuronal differentiation supports the functional remodeling of a neuronal network in Drosophila.  

PubMed

During insect metamorphosis, neuronal networks undergo extensive remodeling by restructuring their connectivity and recruiting newborn neurons from postembryonic lineages. The neuronal network that directs the essential behavior, ecdysis, generates a distinct behavioral sequence at each developmental transition. Larval ecdysis replaces the cuticle between larval stages, and pupal ecdysis externalizes and expands the head and appendages to their adult position. However, the network changes that support these differences are unknown. Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons and the peptide hormones they secrete are critical for ecdysis; their targeted ablation alters larval ecdysis progression and results in a failure of pupal ecdysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the CCAP neuron network is remodeled immediately before pupal ecdysis by the emergence of 12 late CCAP neurons. All 12 are CCAP efferents that exit the central nervous system. Importantly, these late CCAP neurons were found to be entirely sufficient for wild-type pupal ecdysis, even after targeted ablation of all other 42 CCAP neurons. Our evidence indicates that late CCAP neurons are derived from early, likely embryonic, lineages. However, they do not differentiate to express their peptide hormone battery, nor do they project an axon via lateral nerve trunks until pupariation, both of which are believed to be critical for the function of CCAP efferent neurons in ecdysis. Further analysis implicated ecdysone signaling via ecdysone receptors A/B1 and the nuclear receptor ftz-f1 as the differentiation trigger. These results demonstrate the utility of temporally tuned neuronal differentiation as a hard-wired developmental mechanism to remodel a neuronal network to generate a scheduled change in behavior. PMID:22393011

Veverytsa, Lyubov; Allan, Douglas W

2012-03-27

364

The Transcription Factor Rfx3 Regulates ?-Cell Differentiation, Function, and Glucokinase Expression  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Pancreatic islets of perinatal mice lacking the transcription factor Rfx3 exhibit a marked reduction in insulin-producing ?-cells. The objective of this work was to unravel the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this deficiency. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Immunofluorescence studies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments were used to study the emergence of insulin-positive cells, the expression of transcription factors implicated in the differentiation of ?-cells from endocrine progenitors, and the expression of mature ?-cell markers during development in Rfx3?/? and pancreas-specific Rfx3-knockout mice. RNA interference experiments were performed to document the consequences of downregulating Rfx3 expression in Min6 ?-cells. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), ChIP sequencing, and bandshift experiments were used to identify Rfx3 target genes. RESULTS Reduced development of insulin-positive cells in Rfx3?/? mice was not due to deficiencies in endocrine progenitors or ?-lineage specification, but reflected the accumulation of insulin-positive ?-cell precursors and defective ?-cells exhibiting reduced insulin, Glut-2, and Gck expression. Similar incompletely differentiated ?-cells developed in pancreas-specific Rfx3-deficient embryos. Defective ?-cells lacking Glut-2 and Gck expression dominate in Rfx3-deficent adults, leading to glucose intolerance. Attenuated Glut-2 and glucokinase expression, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, were also induced by RNA interference–mediated inhibition of Rfx3 expression in Min6 cells. Finally, Rfx3 was found to bind in Min6 cells and human islets to two well-known regulatory sequences, Pal-1 and Pal-2, in the neuroendocrine promoter of the glucokinase gene. CONCLUSIONS Our results show that Rfx3 is required for the differentiation and function of mature ?-cells and regulates the ?-cell promoter of the glucokinase gene. PMID:20413507

Ait-Lounis, Aouatef; Bonal, Claire; Seguin-Estevez, Queralt; Schmid, Christoph D.; Bucher, Philipp; Herrera, Pedro L.; Durand, Benedicte; Meda, Paolo; Reith, Walter

2010-01-01

365

Effectiveness of Combining Statistical Tests and Effect Sizes When Using Logistic Discriminant Function Regression to Detect Differential Item Functioning for Polytomous Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article was to find an optimal decision rule for identifying polytomous items with large or moderate amounts of differential functioning. The effectiveness of combining statistical tests with effect size measures was assessed using logistic discriminant function analysis and two effect size measures: R[superscript 2] and…

Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, Maria Dolores; Zumbo, Bruno D.

2013-01-01

366

Female gametophytic cell specification and seed development require the function of the putative Arabidopsis INCENP ortholog WYRD.  

PubMed

In plants, gametes, along with accessory cells, are formed by the haploid gametophytes through a series of mitotic divisions, cell specification and differentiation events. How the cells in the female gametophyte of flowering plants differentiate into gametes (the egg and central cell) and accessory cells remains largely unknown. In a screen for mutations that affect egg cell differentiation in Arabidopsis, we identified the wyrd (wyr) mutant, which produces additional egg cells at the expense of the accessory synergids. WYR not only restricts gametic fate in the egg apparatus, but is also necessary for central cell differentiation. In addition, wyr mutants impair mitotic divisions in the male gametophyte and endosperm, and have a parental effect on embryo cytokinesis, consistent with a function of WYR in cell cycle regulation. WYR is upregulated in gametic cells and encodes a putative plant ortholog of the inner centromere protein (INCENP), which is implicated in the control of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in yeast and animals. Our data reveal a novel developmental function of the conserved cell cycle-associated INCENP protein in plant reproduction, in particular in the regulation of egg and central cell fate and differentiation. PMID:21752930

Kirioukhova, Olga; Johnston, Amal J; Kleen, Daniela; Kägi, Christina; Baskar, Ramamurthy; Moore, James M; Bäumlein, Helmut; Gross-Hardt, Rita; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2011-08-01

367

Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation in mammary epithelia  

SciTech Connect

In the mammary gland, epithelial cells are embedded in a 'soft' environment and become functionally differentiated in culture when exposed to a laminin-rich extracellular matrix gel. Here, we define the processes by which mammary epithelial cells integrate biochemical and mechanical extracellular cues to maintain their differentiated phenotype. We used single cells cultured on top of gels in conditions permissive for {beta}-casein expression using atomic force microscopy to measure the elasticity of the cells and their underlying substrata. We found that maintenance of {beta}-casein expression required both laminin signalling and a 'soft' extracellular matrix, as is the case in normal tissues in vivo, and biomimetic intracellular elasticity, as is the case in primary mammary epithelial organoids. Conversely, two hallmarks of breast cancer development, stiffening of the extracellular matrix and loss of laminin signalling, led to the loss of {beta}-casein expression and non-biomimetic intracellular elasticity. Our data indicate that tissue-specific gene expression is controlled by both the tissues unique biochemical milieu and mechanical properties, processes involved in maintenance of tissue integrity and protection against tumorigenesis.

Alcaraz, Jordi; Xu, Ren; Mori, Hidetoshi; Nelson, Celeste M.; Mroue, Rana; Spencer, Virginia A.; Brownfield, Doug; Radisky, Derek C.; Bustamante, Carlos; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-10-20

368

Functional Differentiation of Bundle Sheath and Mesophyll Maize Chloroplasts Determined by Comparative ProteomicsW?  

PubMed Central

Chloroplasts of maize (Zea mays) leaves differentiate into specific bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) types to accommodate C4 photosynthesis. Consequences for other plastid functions are not well understood but are addressed here through a quantitative comparative proteome analysis of purified M and BS chloroplast stroma. Three independent techniques were used, including cleavable stable isotope coded affinity tags. Enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, nitrogen import, and tetrapyrrole and isoprenoid biosynthesis are preferentially located in the M chloroplasts. By contrast, enzymes involved in starch synthesis and sulfur import preferentially accumulate in BS chloroplasts. The different soluble antioxidative systems, in particular peroxiredoxins, accumulate at higher levels in M chloroplasts. We also observed differential accumulation of proteins involved in expression of plastid-encoded proteins (e.g., EF-Tu, EF-G, and mRNA binding proteins) and thylakoid formation (VIPP1), whereas others were equally distributed. Enzymes related to the C4 shuttle, the carboxylation and regeneration phase of the Calvin cycle, and several regulators (e.g., CP12) distributed as expected. However, enzymes involved in triose phosphate reduction and triose phosphate isomerase are primarily located in the M chloroplasts, indicating that the M-localized triose phosphate shuttle should be viewed as part of the BS-localized Calvin cycle, rather than a parallel pathway. PMID:16243905

Majeran, Wojciech; Cai, Yang; Sun, Qi; van Wijk, Klaas J.

2005-01-01

369

Differential and synergistic effects of mechanical stimulation and growth factor presentation on vascular wall function  

PubMed Central

We investigated the hypothesis that immobilizing TGF-?1 within fibrin hydrogels may act in synergy with cyclic mechanical stimulation to enhance the properties of vascular grafts. To this end, we engineered a fusion TGF-?1 protein that can covalently anchor to fibrin during polymerization upon the action of factor XIII. We also developed a 24-well based bioreactor in which vascular constructs can be mechanically stimulated by distending the silastic mandrel in the middle of each well. TGF-?1 was either conjugated to fibrin or supplied in the culture medium and the fibrin based constructs were cultured statically for a week followed by cyclic distention for another week. The tissues were examined for myogenic differentiation, vascular reactivity, mechanical properties and ECM content. Our results showed that some aspects of vascular function were differentially affected by growth factor presentation vs. pulsatile force application, while others were synergistically enhanced by both. Overall, this two-prong biomimetic approach improved ECM secretion, vascular reactivity and mechanical properties of vascular constructs. These findings may be applied in other tissue engineering applications such as cartilage, tendon or cardiac regeneration where growth factors TGF-?1 and mechano-stimulation play critical roles. PMID:23810080

Liang, Mao-Shih; Koobatian, Maxwell T.; Lei, Pedro; Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

2013-01-01

370

Restoring ciliary function to differentiated primary ciliary dyskinesia cells with a lentiviral vector.  

PubMed

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogenous autosomal recessive disease in which mutations disrupt ciliary function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance and life-long lung disease. Mouse tracheal cells with a targeted deletion in the axonemal dynein intermediate chain 1 (Dnaic1) gene differentiate normally in culture but lack ciliary activity. Gene transfer to undifferentiated cultures of mouse Dnaic1(-/-) cells with a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with avian influenza hemagglutinin restored Dnaic1 expression and ciliary activity. Importantly, apical treatment of well-differentiated cultures of mouse Dnaic1(-/-) cells with lentiviral vector also restored ciliary activity, demonstrating successful gene transfer from the apical surface. Treatment of Dnaic1(flox/flox) mice expressing an estrogen-responsive Cre recombinase with different doses of tamoxifen indicated that restoration of ?20% of ciliary activity may be sufficient to prevent the development of rhinosinusitis. However, although administration of a ?-galactosidase-expressing vector into control mice demonstrated efficient gene transfer to the nasal epithelium, treatment of Dnaic1(-/-) mice resulted in a low level of gene transfer, demonstrating that the severe rhinitis present in these animals impedes gene transfer. The results demonstrate that gene replacement therapy may be a viable treatment option for PCD, but further improvements in the efficiency of gene transfer are necessary. PMID:24451115

Ostrowski, L E; Yin, W; Patel, M; Sechelski, J; Rogers, T; Burns, K; Grubb, B R; Olsen, J C

2014-03-01

371

Helicobacter pylori hydrogenase accessory protein HypA and urease accessory protein UreG compete with each other for UreE recognition  

PubMed Central

Background The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori relies on nickel-containing urease and hydrogenase enzymes in order to colonize the host. Incorporation of Ni2+ into urease is essential for the function of the enzyme and requires the action of several accessory proteins, including the hydrogenase accessory proteins HypA and HypB and the urease accessory proteins UreE, UreF, UreG and UreH. Methods Optical biosensing methods (biolayer interferometry and plasmon surface resonance) were used to screen for interactions between HypA, HypB, UreE and UreG. Results Using both methods, affinity constants were found to be 5 nM and 13 nM for HypA–UreE and 8 µM and 14 µM for UreG-UreE. Neither Zn2+ nor Ni2+ had an effect on the kinetics or stability of the HypA–UreE complex. By contrast, addition of Zn2+, but not Ni2+, altered the kinetics and greatly increased the stability of the UreE–UreG complex, likely due in part to Zn2+-mediated oligomerization of UreE. Finally our results unambiguously show that HypA, UreE and UreG cannot form a heterotrimeric protein complex in vitro; instead, HypA and UreG compete with each other for UreE recognition. General significance Factors influencing the pathogen's nickel budget are important to understand pathogenesis and for future drug design. PMID:22698670

Benoit, Stéphane L.; McMurry, Jonathan L.; Hill, Stephanie A.; Maier, Robert J.

2014-01-01

372

Math 3333: A Continuous But Nowhere Differentiable Function Consider a sequence of partial sums of the form sn(x) =  

E-print Network

inequality comes from the mean value theorem: Given a = b there is a c between a and b such that cos(a) - cosMath 3333: A Continuous But Nowhere Differentiable Function Consider a sequence of partial sums that N > 3 2 + 1. From the theorem given above it's easy to see W defines a continuous function on R

Glowinski, Roland

373

Differential Item Functioning for Lesbians, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Women in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed whether the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) functions equivalently in assessing depressive symptom severity in lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women. Using differential item functioning methods, the authors examined (a) whether there is a bias in CES-D total scores and in individual item scores…

Birnholz, Justin L.; Young, Michael A.

2012-01-01

374

Speech disturbances and quality of life in schizophrenia: differential impacts on functioning and life satisfaction.  

PubMed

Speech disturbances in schizophrenia impact on the individual's communicative ability. Although they are considered a core feature of schizophrenia, comparatively little work has been done to examine their impact on the life experiences of patients. This study aimed to examine the relationship between schizophrenia speech disturbances, including those traditionally known as formal thought disorder (TD), and quality of life (QoL). It assessed effects on functioning (objective QoL) and satisfaction (subjective QoL) concurrently, while controlling for the influence of neurocognition and depression. Fifty-four patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder were administered the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), the PANSS, MADRS (with separate ratings for negative TD [verbal underproductivity] and positive TD [verbal disorganisation and pressured speech]) and Lehman's QOLI assessing both objective and subjective QoL. Ratings of positive and negative TD, depression, and general neurocognition were entered into hierarchical regressions to explore their relationship with both life functioning and satisfaction. Verbal underproductivity was a significant predictor of objective QoL, while pressured speech had a trend association with subjective QoL. This suggests a differential relationship between speech disturbances and QoL. Verbal underproductivity seems to affect daily functioning and relations with others, while pressured speech is predictive of satisfaction with life. The impact of verbal underproductivity on QoL suggests it to be an important target for rehabilitation in schizophrenia. PMID:24315617

Tan, Eric J; Thomas, Neil; Rossell, Susan L

2014-04-01

375

Dual amyloid domains promote differential functioning of the chaplin proteins during Streptomyces aerial morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The chaplin proteins are functional amyloids found in the filamentous Streptomyces bacteria. These secreted proteins are required for the aerial development of Streptomyces coelicolor, and contribute to an intricate rodlet ultrastructure that decorates the surfaces of aerial hyphae and spores. S. coelicolor encodes eight chaplin proteins. Previous studies have revealed that only three of these proteins (ChpC, ChpE, and ChpH) are necessary for promoting aerial development, and of these three, ChpH is the primary developmental determinant. Here, we show that the model chaplin, ChpH, contains two amyloidogenic domains: one in the N terminus and one in the C terminus of the mature protein. These domains have different polymerization properties as determined using fluorescence spectroscopy, secondary structure analyses, and electron microscopy. We coupled these in vitro assays with in vivo genetic studies to probe the connection between ChpH amyloidogenesis and its biological function. Using mutational analyses, we demonstrated that both N- and C-terminal amyloid domains of ChpH were required for promoting aerial hypha formation, while the N-terminal domain was dispensable for assembly of the rodlet ultrastructure. These results suggest that there is a functional differentiation of the dual amyloid domains in the chaplin proteins. PMID:21628577

Capstick, David S.; Jomaa, Ahmad; Hanke, Chistopher; Ortega, Joaquin; Elliot, Marie A.

2011-01-01

376

Ubiquitin E3 ligase Wwp1 negatively regulates osteoblast function by inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and migration  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitin E3 ligase-mediated protein degradation promotes proteasomal degradation of key positive regulators of osteoblast functions. For example, the E3 ligases, Smurf1, Itch and Wwp1, promote degradation of Runx2, JunB, and CXCR4 proteins to inhibit their functions. However, the role of E3 ligases in age-associated bone loss is unknown. We found that the expression level of Wwp1, but not Smurf1 or Itch, was significantly increased in CD45? bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from 6- and 12-month-old WT mice. Wwp1?/? mice developed increased bone mass as they aged, associated with increased bone formation rates and normal bone resorption parameters. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from Wwp1?/? mice formed increased numbers and areas of alkaline phosphatase+ and Alizarin Red+ nodules and had increased migration potential towards CXCL12 gradients. Runx2, JunB and CXCR4 protein levels were significantly increased in Wwp1?/? BMSCs. Wwp1?/?BMSCs had increased amount of ubiquitinated JunB protein, but Runx2 ubiquitination was no change. Knocking-down JunB in Wwp1?/? BMSCs returned Runx2 protein levels to that in WT cells. Thus, Wwp1 negatively regulates osteoblast functions by affecting both their migration and differentiation. Mechanisms designed to decrease Wwp1 levels in BMSCs may represent a new approach to prevent the decrease in osteoblastic bone formation associated with aging. PMID:23553732

Shu, Lei; Zhang, Hengwei; Boyce, Brendan; Xing, Lianping

2013-01-01

377

mTOR, metabolism, and the regulation of T-cell differentiation and function.  

PubMed

Upon antigen recognition, naive T cells undergo rapid expansion and activation. The energy requirements for this expansion are formidable, and T-cell activation is accompanied by dramatic changes in cellular metabolism. Furthermore, the outcome of antigen engagement is guided by multiple cues derived from the immune microenvironment. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is emerging as a central integrator of these signals playing a critical role in driving T-cell differentiation and function. Indeed, multiple metabolic programs are controlled by mTOR signaling. In this review, we discuss the role of mTOR in regulating metabolism and how these pathways intersect with the ability of mTOR to integrate cues that guide the outcome of T-cell receptor engagement. PMID:22889214

Waickman, Adam T; Powell, Jonathan D

2012-09-01

378

The effect of winter sex ratio on immune function and condition in a differential migrant.  

PubMed

The dark-eyed junco (Junco h. hyemalis) is a differential migrant in which females migrate farther south in winter than males. Hypotheses to explain this difference in migratory behavior have given limited consideration to physiological differences between the sexes, particularly with respect to immune function. We hypothesized that female migratory behavior could either be directly dependent on climate if migratory distance traveled is a product of interactions between climate and inherent sex differences in physiology, or indirectly dependent on climate owing to interactions between climate and aggressive encounters with males which are known to be behaviorally dominant to females and restrict their access to food. We tested the latter of these two hypotheses by measuring condition in females held in two sex ratio regimes in a common winter environment. Holding density constant in 28 replicate populations, we compared flocks composed of 100% female to mixed-sex flocks composed of 20% female. We assessed condition by measuring immune function via complement activity and response to a foreign antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin, as well as by indices of mass, fat, and pectoral muscle. Unexpectedly, females in mixed-sex flocks did not differ in condition from females housed only with females, despite increased aggressive interactions in mixed flocked cages. Combined, our results suggest that overwintering with males has no significant effect on female winter condition. Differential migration in the junco may be mediated by sex differences in ability to withstand harsh northern climate, as has been demonstrated in several mammalian systems, rather than dominance interactions. PMID:21134388

O'Neal, Dawn M; Kiley, Ryan P; Ketterson, Ellen D

2011-03-01

379

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

380

Axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl  

PubMed Central

We present herein a case of right axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl. A 14-year-old Japanese girl presented with an 11-month history of a tender, subcutaneous lesion in the right axillary fossa. Seven months later, she experienced menarche. Subsequently, the patient noticed pressure-induced galactorrhea from both nipples. Physical examination revealed an elastic, firm and well-demarcated subcutaneous tumor 3 × 2 cm in size. A biopsy specimen showed proliferation of mammary gland tissue in the stroma located below the subcutaneous fat tissue. On the basis of these findings the patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast. Interestingly, the galactorrhea ceased after surgical removal of the accessory breast. PMID:21547148

Kyo, Akemi; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Nagano, Tohru; Funasaka, Yoko; Nishigori, Chikako

2010-01-01

381

Exam #3, Math 309, Dr. M. Bohner, Dec 11, 2002. Name: A function f : I R is called differentiable at x0 I provided lim .  

E-print Network

satisfies . Rolle's Theorem states that . The two main mean value results on differentiable functions readExam #3, Math 309, Dr. M. Bohner, Dec 11, 2002. Name: A function f : I R is called differentiable at x0 I provided lim . The basic rules for differentiation (provided all occuring derivatives exist

Bohner, Martin

382

Reinnervation of avulsed brachial plexus using the spinal accessory nerve.  

PubMed

The use of the accessory nerve as a donor is one of the possibilities for the reinnervation of the brachial plexus in cases of paralysis due to root avulsion. In this paper, an analysis of the reinnervation of the musculocutaneous or axillary nerve using the spinal accessory nerve is made on 13 cases, 8 of total and 5 of upper partial avulsion. In all cases, Allieu's technique was used, but in seven cases reinnervation was supplemented by upper intercostal nerves when there was total avulsion and/or by the medial pectoral nerve when there was partial avulsion. The methods are discussed and compared with the intercostobrachial anastomosis. PMID:2154041

Samardzic, M; Grujicic, D; Antunovic, V; Joksimovic, M

1990-01-01

383

Dysbindin-1 gene contributes differentially to early- and adult-onset forms of functional psychosis.  

PubMed

Dysbindin-1 is a relatively ubiquitous protein in the brain which is involved in the modulation of synaptic homeostasis. The dysbindin-1 gene (DTNBP1) has been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder diagnoses. However, its contribution to the severity of the clinical and neurocognitive expression of these disorders remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association between DTNBP1 and the phenotypes which are more directly linked with the underlying biology, such as age at onset and neurocognitive impairment. The present family sample comprised 894 Caucasian individuals: 268 patients affected by functional psychosis [58% with illness onset before 18 years, mean age at onset (SD): 14.71 (2.10)], 483 parents and 143 siblings. Ten DTNBP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in all individuals and their transmission disequilibrium was tested in relation to: (i) the risk for psychosis; (ii) patients' age at onset; and (iii) familial neurocognitive performance (including IQ estimation and executive functioning). In early-onset families a 5-marker haplotype encompassing exons 2-4 and the surrounding introns was significantly over-transmitted to cases, while in adult-onset families two haplotypes corresponding to the region between introns 4 and 7 were over-transmitted to cases. Estimated IQ was associated with the rs760666 marker in the whole sample, whereas a significant association between executive functioning and the rs2619522 marker appeared in early-onset families. Our findings confirm the role of the dysbindin-1 gene in the risk for functional psychosis and show a differential haplotypic risk pattern in families with early as opposed to adult onset in the affected offspring. PMID:21305691

Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Papiol, Sergi; Estrada, Gemma; Bombín, Igor; Peralta, Victor; Rosa, Araceli; Parellada, Mara; Miret, Salvador; Martín, María; Lázaro, Luisa; Campanera, Sílvia; Muñoz, Ma José; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Arias, Bárbara; Navarro, Ma Eulalia; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Cuesta, Manuel J; Arango, Celso; Fañanás, Lourdes

2011-04-01

384

Correlation function analysis of the COBE differential microwave radiometer sky maps  

SciTech Connect

The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite has detected anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A two-point correlation function analysis which helped lead to this discovery is presented in detail. The results of a correlation function analysis of the two year DMR data set is presented. The first and second year data sets are compared and found to be reasonably consistent. The positive correlation for separation angles less than {approximately}20{degree} is robust to Galactic latitude cuts and is very stable from year to year. The Galactic latitude cut independence of the correlation function is strong evidence that the signal is not Galactic in origin. The statistical significance of the structure seen in the correlation function of the first, second and two year maps is respectively > 9{sigma}, > 10{sigma} and > 18{sigma} above the noise. The noise in the DMR sky maps is correlated at a low level. The structure of the pixel temperature covariance matrix is given. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky map is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occurs with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60{degree} due to the 60{degree} separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance of 60{degree} is 0.45%{sub {minus}0.14}{sup +0.18} of the mean variance. The noise properties of the DMR maps are thus well approximated by the noise properties of maps made by a single-beam experiment. Previously published DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

Lineweaver, C.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-08-01

385

The relation between reactive oxygen species and cytokines in andrological patients with or without male accessory gland infection.  

PubMed

The presence of various cytokines, namely hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA), and interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-6, and IL-8), as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile patients in order to evaluate the possible value of measuring these substances for the diagnosis of male accessory gland infection, and to assess the possible relationship between oxidative stress and cytokines during leucocytospermia and male accessory gland infection (MAGI). Our findings indicate that all of the measured cytokines seem to be produced locally as well as by white blood cells (WBC) and that, due to the presence of higher numbers of WBC, accessory gland infection may exert a deleterious effect on sperm quality through the production of ROS and/or of particular cytokines such as IL-1 alpha, IL-1 RA, and IL-8. The most specific marker for a sensitivity of 95% in discriminating between cases with or without MAGI is the measurement of IL-6 in seminal plasma. In the absence of WBC several cytokines are constitutively produced and correlate with sperm concentration (HGF, IL-8), alpha-glucosidase (IL-6), and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity (HGF). The measurement of these cytokines in semen may provide clinically useful information for the diagnosis of male accessory gland infection, as well as in the absence of WBC where it can provide information about certain mechanisms of male reproductive function and dysfunction. PMID:9016401

Depuydt, C E; Bosmans, E; Zalata, A; Schoonjans, F; Comhaire, F H

1996-01-01

386

The Grainyhead-like epithelial transactivator Get-1/Grhl3 regulates epidermal terminal differentiation and interacts functionally with LMO4.  

PubMed

Defective permeability barrier is an important feature of many skin diseases and causes mortality in premature infants. To investigate the control of barrier formation, we characterized the epidermally expressed Grainyhead-like epithelial transactivator (Get-1)/Grhl3, a conserved mammalian homologue of Grainyhead, which plays important roles in cuticle development in Drosophila. Get-1 interacts with the LIM-only protein LMO4, which is co-expressed in the developing mammalian epidermis. The epidermis of Get-1(-/-) mice showed a severe barrier function defect associated with impaired differentiation of the epidermis, including defects of the stratum corneum, extracellular lipid composition and cell adhesion in the granular layer. The Get-1 mutation affects multiple genes linked to terminal differentiation and barrier function, including most genes of the epidermal differentiation complex. Get-1 therefore directly or indirectly regulates a broad array of epidermal differentiation genes encoding structural proteins, lipid metabolizing enzymes and cell adhesion molecules. Although deletion of the LMO4 gene had no overt consequences for epidermal development, the epidermal terminal differentiation defect in mice deleted for both Get-1 and LMO4 is much more severe than in Get-1(-/-) mice with striking impairment of stratum corneum formation. These findings indicate that the Get-1 and LMO4 genes interact functionally to regulate epidermal terminal differentiation. PMID:16949565

Yu, Zhengquan; Lin, Kevin K; Bhandari, Ambica; Spencer, Joel A; Xu, Xiaoman; Wang, Ning; Lu, Zhongxian; Gill, Gordon N; Roop, Dennis R; Wertz, Philip; Andersen, Bogi

2006-11-01

387

A Novel Osteoclast Precursor Cell Line, 4B12, Recapitulates the Features of Primary Osteoclast Differentiation and Function: Enhanced Transfection Efficiency Before and After Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing multinucleated cells differentiated from monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. A novel osteoclast precursor cell line, 4B12 was established from Mac-1+c-Fms+RANK+ cells from calvaria of 14-day-old mouse embryos using immunofluorescence and cell-sorting methods. Like M-CSF-dependent bone marrow macrophages (M-BMMs), M-CSF is required for 4B12 cells to differentiate into TRAP-positive multinucleated cells [TRAP(+) MNCs] in the presence of RANKL. Bone-resorbing osteoclasts differentiated from 4B12 cells on dentine slices possess both a clear zone and ruffled borders and express osteoclast-specific genes. Bone-resorbing activity, but not TRAP, was enhanced in the presence of IL-1?. The number of TRAP(+) MNCs and the number of pits formed from 4B12 cells on dentine slices was four-fold higher than that from M-BMMs. 4B12 cells were identified as macrophages with Mac-1 and F4/80, yet lost these markers upon differentiation into osteoclasts as determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The 4B12 cells do not have the potential to differentiate into dendritic cells indicating commitment to the osteoclast lineage. 4B12 cells are readily transfectable with siRNA transfection before and after differentiation. These data show that 4B12 cells faithfully replicate the properties of primary cells and are a useful and powerful model for analyzing the molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. PMID:19492422

Amano, Shigeru; Sekine, Keisuke; Bonewald, Lynda; Ohmori, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

388

Approaches for analyzing the differential activities and functions of eIF4E family members.  

PubMed

The translational initiation factor eIF4E binds to the m(7)G-containing cap of mRNA and participates in recruitment of mRNA to ribosomes for protein synthesis. eIF4E also functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA, sequestration of mRNA in a nontranslatable state, and stabilization of mRNA against decay in the cytosol. Multiple eIF4E family members have been identified in a wide range of organisms that includes plants, flies, mammals, frogs, birds, nematodes, fish, and various protists. This chapter reviews methods that have been applied to learn the biochemical properties and physiological functions that differentiate eIF4E family members within a given organism. Much has been learned to date about approaches to discover new eIF4E family members, their in vitro properties (cap binding, stimulation of cell-free translation systems), tissue and developmental expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and their effects on the translation or repression of specific subsets of mRNA. Despite these advances, new eIF4E family members continue to be found and new physiological roles discovered. PMID:17913628

Rhoads, Robert E; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Jagus, Rosemary

2007-01-01

389

Real-time functional imaging for monitoring miR-133 during myogenic differentiation  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that act as negative regulators of gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNA and play various biological roles. miR-133 was identified as a muscle-specific miRNA that enhanced the proliferation of myoblasts during myogenic differentiation, although its activity in myogenesis has not been fully characterized. Here, we developed a novel retroviral vector system for monitoring muscle-specific miRNA in living cells by using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is connected to the target sequence of miR-133 via the UTR and a red fluorescent protein for normalization. We demonstrated that the functional promotion of miR-133 during myogenesis is visualized by the reduction of GFP carrying the miR-133 target sequence, suggesting that miR-133 specifically down-regulates its targets during myogenesis in accordance with its expression. Our cell-based miRNA functional assay monitoring miR-133 activity should be a useful tool in elucidating the role of miRNAs in various biological events. PMID:19398036

Kato, Yoshio; Miyaki, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Shigetoshi; Omori, Shin; Inoue, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Machiko; Asahara, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

390

Effect of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with lactoferrin in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LF) is a bioactive glycoprotein that became recently interesting in the field of bone regeneration for its modulatory effect on bone cells. On the basis of this evidence this work aims to functionalize biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals with LF to study their effect on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The orientation of LF on the HA surface was analyzed by spectroscopic and thermal techniques. Three samples with different amounts of LF attached to HA nanocrystals were tested in vitro. The combined effect of HA and LF on MSC proliferation and morphology, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene expression were evaluated at different time points. The sample with the lowest LF amount showed the best bioactivity probably due to the formation of a single layer of protein with a better molecular orientation. Coupling of HA-LF did not affect cell proliferation and morphology, while analysis of HA-LF on ALP activity and messenger RNA expression of the selected genes, demonstrated the role of HA-LF in the induction of osteogenic markers. HA-LF represents a promising system to be used to manufacture bioactive functional materials in tissue engineering (as scaffolds, injectable cements, or coatings for metallic implants) with enhanced anabolic activity to treat bone diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 224-234, 2015. PMID:24639083

Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Iafisco, Michele; Adamiano, Alessio; Tampieri, Anna

2015-01-01

391

Differential Pair Distribution Function Study of the Structure of Arsenate Adsorbed on Nanocrystalline [gamma]-Alumina  

SciTech Connect

Structural information is important for understanding surface adsorption mechanisms of contaminants on metal (hydr)oxides. In this work, a novel technique was employed to study the interfacial structure of arsenate oxyanions adsorbed on {gamma}-alumina nanoparticles, namely, differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray total scattering. The d-PDF is the difference of properly normalized PDFs obtained for samples with and without arsenate adsorbed, otherwise identically prepared. The real space pattern contains information on atomic pair correlations between adsorbed arsenate and the atoms on {gamma}-alumina surface (Al, O, etc.). PDF results on the arsenate adsorption sample on {gamma}-alumina prepared at 1 mM As concentration and pH 5 revealed two peaks at 1.66 {angstrom} and 3.09 {angstrom}, corresponding to As-O and As-Al atomic pair correlations. This observation is consistent with those measured by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, which suggests a first shell of As-O at 1.69 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} with a coordination number of 4 and a second shell of As-Al at 3.13 {+-} 0.04 {angstrom} with a coordination number of 2. These results are in agreement with a bidentate binuclear coordination environment to the octahedral Al of {gamma}-alumina as predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculation.

Li, Wei; Harrington, Richard; Tang, Yuanzhi; Kubicki, James D.; Aryanpour, Masoud; Reeder, Richard J.; Parise, John B.; Phillips, Brian L. (SBU); (Penn)

2012-03-15

392

Differential Patterns of Inputs Create Functional Zones in Central Nucleus of Inferior Colliculus  

PubMed Central

Distinct pathways carry monaural and binaural information from the lower auditory brainstem to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Previous anatomical and physiological studies suggest that differential ascending inputs to regions of the ICC create functionally distinct zones. Here, we provide direct evidence of this relationship by combining recordings of single unit responses to sound in the ICC with focal, iontophoretic injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-gold (FG) at the physiologically characterized sites. Three main patterns of anatomical inputs were observed. One pattern was identified by inputs from the cochlear nucleus and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) in isolation, and these injection sites were correlated with monaural responses. The second pattern had inputs only from the ipsilateral medial and lateral superior olive (MSO, LSO), and these sites were correlated with ITD-sensitive responses to low frequency (< 500 Hz). A third pattern had inputs from a variety of olivary and lemniscal sources, notably the contralateral lateral superior olive and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. These were correlated with high-frequency ITD sensitivity to complex acoustic stimuli. These data support the notion of anatomical regions formed by specific patterns of anatomical inputs to the ICC. Such synaptic domains may represent functional zones in ICC. PMID:20926666

Loftus, William C.; Bishop, Deborah C.; Oliver, Douglas L.

2010-01-01

393

The effect of winter sex ratio on immune function and condition in a differential migrant  

E-print Network

The dark-eyed junco (Junco h. hyemalis) is a differential migrant in which females migrate farther south behavior, and the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis hyemalis) is one such differential migrant in which effect on female winter condition. Differential migration in the junco may be mediated by sex differences

394

A new function of Nell1 protein in repressing adipogenic differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical inverse relationship has long been postulated for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation (bone versus adipose tissue differentiation). This inverse relationship in theory at least partially underlies the clinical entity of osteoporosis, in which marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a predilection for adipose differentiation that increases with age. In the present study, we assayed the potential anti-adipogenic effects of

Aaron W. James; Angel Pan; Michael Chiang; Janette N. Zara; Xinli Zhang; Kang Ting; Chia Soo

2011-01-01

395

Turtle Functions Downstream of Cut in Differentially Regulating Class Specific Dendrite Morphogenesis in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Dendritic morphology largely determines patterns of synaptic connectivity and electrochemical properties of a neuron. Neurons display a myriad diversity of dendritic geometries which serve as a basis for functional classification. Several types of molecules have recently been identified which regulate dendrite morphology by acting at the levels of transcriptional regulation, direct interactions with the cytoskeleton and organelles, and cell surface interactions. Although there has been substantial progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of dendrite morphogenesis, the specification of class-specific dendritic arbors remains largely unexplained. Furthermore, the presence of numerous regulators suggests that they must work in concert. However, presently, few genetic pathways regulating dendrite development have been defined. Methodology/Principal Findings The Drosophila gene turtle belongs to an evolutionarily conserved class of immunoglobulin superfamily members found in the nervous systems of diverse organisms. We demonstrate that Turtle is differentially expressed in Drosophila da neurons. Moreover, MARCM analyses reveal Turtle acts cell autonomously to exert class specific effects on dendritic growth and/or branching in da neuron subclasses. Using transgenic overexpression of different Turtle isoforms, we find context-dependent, isoform-specific effects on mediating dendritic branching in class II, III and IV da neurons. Finally, we demonstrate via chromatin immunoprecipitation, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry analyses that Turtle expression is positively regulated by the Cut homeodomain transcription factor and via genetic interaction studies that Turtle is downstream effector of Cut-mediated regulation of da neuron dendrite morphology. Conclusions/Significance Our findings reveal that Turtle proteins differentially regulate the acquisition of class-specific dendrite morphologies. In addition, we have established a transcriptional regulatory interaction between Cut and Turtle, representing a novel pathway for mediating class specific dendrite development. PMID:21811639

Sulkowski, Mikolaj J.; Iyer, Srividya Chandramouli; Kurosawa, Mathieu S.; Iyer, Eswar Prasad R.; Cox, Daniel N.

2011-01-01

396

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2011-04-01

397

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2012-04-01

398

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2013-04-01

399

29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto...Persons § 1919.27 Unit proof tests—winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto. (a) Winches, with the whole of the gear...

2010-07-01

400

77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request...luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U...accessed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http...viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at...

2012-03-15

401

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

402

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

403

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

404

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

405

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

406

Management of bile duct injuries combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Bile duct injuries (BDIs) are difficult to avoid absolutely when the biliary tract has a malformation, such as accessory hepatic duct. Here, we investigated the management strategies for BDI combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25232275

Ren, Pei-Tu; Lu, Bao-Chun; Yu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Xin

2014-01-01

407

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2014-04-01

408

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2013-04-01

409

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2011-04-01

410

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2012-04-01

411

Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene (sea) expression is not affected by the accessory gene regulator (agr).  

PubMed Central

The goal of this work was to determine whether staphylococcal enterotoxin type A gene (sea) expression is regulated by an accessory gene regulator (agr). The Tn551 insertionally inactivated agr allele of Staphylococcus aureus ISP546 was transferred to three Sea+ S. aureus strains. Each of the Agr- strains produced as much staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) as its parent strain. These results suggest that sea expression is regulated differently from that of seb, sec, and sed, which previously have been shown to require a functional agr system for maximal expression. Images PMID:7678101

Tremaine, M T; Brockman, D K; Betley, M J

1993-01-01

412

The cotton transcription factor TCP14 functions in auxin-mediated epidermal cell differentiation and elongation.  

PubMed

Plant-specific TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors play crucial roles in development, but their functional mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the cellular functions of the class I TCP transcription factor GhTCP14 from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). GhTCP14 is expressed predominantly in fiber cells, especially at the initiation and elongation stages of development, and its expression increased in response to exogenous auxin. Induced heterologous overexpression of GhTCP14 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enhanced initiation and elongation of trichomes and root hairs. In addition, root gravitropism was severely affected, similar to mutant of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) gene. Examination of auxin distribution in GhTCP14-expressing Arabidopsis by observation of auxin-responsive reporters revealed substantial alterations in auxin distribution in sepal trichomes and root cortical regions. Consistent with these changes, expression of the auxin uptake carrier AUXIN1 (AUX1) was up-regulated and PIN2 expression was down-regulated in the GhTCP14-expressing plants. The association of GhTCP14 with auxin responses was also evidenced by the enhanced expression of auxin response gene IAA3, a gene in the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) family. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GhTCP14 bound the promoters of PIN2, IAA3, and AUX1, and transactivation assays indicated that GhTCP14 had transcription activation activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GhTCP14 is a dual-function transcription factor able to positively or negatively regulate expression of auxin response and transporter genes, thus potentially acting as a crucial regulator in auxin-mediated differentiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells. PMID:23715527

Wang, Miao-Ying; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Cheng, Huan-Qing; Han, Li-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Min; Gao, Peng; Wang, Hai-Yun; Yang, Chun-Lin; Zhong, Nai-Qin; Zuo, Jian-Ru; Xia, Gui-Xian

2013-07-01

413

Couple of the Variational Iteration Method and Fractional-Order Legendre Functions Method for Fractional Differential Equations  

PubMed Central

We present a new numerical method to get the approximate solutions of fractional differential equations. A new operational matrix of integration for fractional-order Legendre functions (FLFs) is first derived. Then a modified variational iteration formula which can avoid “noise terms” is constructed. Finally a numerical method based on variational iteration method (VIM) and FLFs is developed for fractional differential equations (FDEs). Block-pulse functions (BPFs) are used to calculate the FLFs coefficient matrices of the nonlinear terms. Five examples are discussed to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique. PMID:24511303

Song, Junqiang; Leng, Hongze; Lu, Fengshun

2014-01-01

414

Next steps in using accessory minerals to date the evolution of silicic magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, 238U-230Th-206Pb isotopic dating of accessory minerals using the high spatial resolution and sensitivity of ion microprobe analysis has provided new insights into the longevity and thermochemical evolution of silicic magmas, but has also created new questions about the generation, differentiation, and construction of silicic magma chambers. An important conclusion from in situ dating is that accessory minerals such as zircon and allanite in silicic magmas may be 10's to 100's of thousands of years older than their age of eruption. Whether these relatively "old" crystals are derived from long-lived crystal-rich magma reservoirs or inherited due to remelting of frozen intrusions remains a difficult question to answer because long-lived centers of magmatism are characteristically dynamic and are open systems. Nevertheless, not all rhyolites from loci of repeated silicic magmatism carry a dominant "cargo" of antecrystic zircon (or other accessory minerals). Crystal-poor high-silica rhyolites from Coso volcanic field, eastern California, contain a bimodal population of young zircon that yield 238U-230Th ages concordant with their respective late Pleistocene 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages, and a population of Mesozoic zircon that are obvious xenocrysts derived from wallrocks. Rhyolites erupted from La Primavera caldera, Mexico, contain zircon and chevkinite that yield 238U-230Th ages that are within 10's of k.y. of their corresponding eruption ages between ca. 125-85 ka. Antecrysts from intrusions related to older episodes of rhyolitic magmatism appear absent or exceedingly rare. The relatively short timescales between crystallization and eruption suggest that these rhyolites, unlike otherwise similar rhyolites from other systems, were tapped shortly after highly effective differentiation and/or reheating. It is apparent that zircon ages alone are insufficient for resolving the thermochemical and differentiation histories of silicic magmas, and need to be keyed to crystal-scale variations in trace element and isotopic composition, and geothermometry, as well as the compositions and ages of associated major and other accessory phases. Combination of accessory mineral dating and geospeedomety may yield unique information because these methods resolve different aspects of magma evolution over long and short timescales. Zircon crystals from a ca. 260 ka post-collapse rhyolite at Yellowstone caldera yield U-Pb ages that are 10's to 100's of k.y. older than their eruption age, whereas diffusion profiles derived from relatively high temperature rims on sanidine and pyroxenes indicate 10's of k.y. residence since heating and rim growth. These contrasting timescales reflect different aspects of magma evolution. The range of zircon ages is likely to reflect a mixture of recycled crystal residue and renewed crystallization, which is supported by petrographic evidence for inherited plutonic cores in pyroxenes. This combined dating may provide a way to test whether any "old" crystals reflect freeze-thaw thermal cycles in the subvolcanic environment or protracted storage of magma in mushy or melt rich reservoirs.

Vazquez, J. A.

2011-12-01

415

Accessory lobes of the liver: A report of 3 cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary This article is about 3 cases of accessory lobes of the liver. Case One involved a pedunculated accessory lobe of the liver (ALL), Case Two involved a true ectopic liver, and Case Three involved a sessile accessory lobe of the liver. All 3 cases were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by surgical and histological examination. The pertinent literature on accessory lobes of the liver is also reviewed.

Wang, Chenglin; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Ziqin; Xie, Tingting; Ding, Heyu; Deng, Qianhua; Yuan, Zhidong

2012-01-01

416

A rare accessory coracobrachialis muscle: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

During previous dissections to investigate the incidence of the third head of the biceps brachii in neonate cadavers an accessory coracobrachialis muscle was unilaterally found in a neonate male cadaver. This muscle originated from the coracoid process and the capsule of the shoulder joint. It was inserted into the antebrachial fascia and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The coracobrachialis

C. Kopuz; N. ?çten; M. Yildirim

2002-01-01

417

Reliability of accessory motion testing at the carpal joints.  

PubMed

The testing of accessory motion has become a very important part of manual therapy practice. Its value is in assessing whether joint mobility is ideal or impaired. Despite its use, there is little evidence in the literature to support the reliability of such testing. Most of the research carried out on accessory motion testing has focused on the spine. In view of this we decided to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of accessory motion testing of carpal joints. Two skilled therapists tested the available motion and the end-feel response of carpal joints in 30 students and 15 patients on two separate occasions. Pain scores were also obtained. In students a moderate to good percentage of agreement [67-97%] was obtained for motion testing. In patients the percentage of agreement ranged from 60% to 100% and weighted kappa values were between 0.33 and 1.0. Intrarater reliability was better than interrater reliability in both groups. Intra- and interrater agreement on end-feel was very good. Overall, the reliability of accessory motion testing of carpal joints was acceptable. The results suggest that this form of testing can be valuable in the training of manual therapists and in clinical practice. PMID:18555731

Staes, Filip Ferdinand; Banks, Kevin James; De Smet, Luc; Daniels, Kim Josefine; Carels, Pieter

2009-06-01

418

Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle…

Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

419

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

420

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

421

The inheritance of accessory buds in Rubus idaeus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the red raspberry cultivar Lloyd George, accessory (secondary) bud formation is controlled by two complementary genesBd\\u000a 1 andBd\\u000a 2, whose expression is markedly influenced by homozygosity, minor genes, and environment.

Elizabeth Keep

1968-01-01

422

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe, valve, or...

2011-10-01

423

Psychosocial risk factors which may differentiate between women with Functional Voice Disorder, Organic Voice Disorder and a Control group.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore psychosocial factors contributing to the development of functional voice disorders (FVD) and those differentiating between organic voice disorders (OVD) and a non-voice-disordered control group. A case-control study was undertaken of 194 women aged 18-80 years diagnosed with FVD (n = 73), OVD (n = 55), and controls (n = 66). FVD women were allocated into psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) (n = 37) and muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) (n = 36) for sub-group analysis. Dependent variables included biographical and voice assessment data, the number and severity of life events and difficulties and conflict over speaking out (COSO) situations derived from the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), and psychological traits including emotional expressiveness scales. Four psychosocial components differentiated between the FVD and control group accounting for 84.9% of the variance: severe events, moderate events, severe COSO, and mild COSO difficulties. Severe events, severe and mild COSO difficulties differentiated between FVD and OVD groups, accounting for 80.5% of the variance. Moderate events differentiated between PVD and MTVD sub-groups, accounting for 58.9% of the variance. Psychological traits did not differentiate between groups. Stressful life events and COSO situations best differentiated FVD from OVD and control groups. More refined aetiological studies are needed to differentiate between PVD and MTVD. PMID:23075157

Baker, Janet; Ben-Tovim, David; Butcher, Andrew; Esterman, Adrian; McLaughlin, Kristin

2013-12-01

424

IL-13R?1 is a surface marker for M2 macrophages influencing their differentiation and function.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the role IL-13 receptor alpha 1 (IL-13R?1) plays in macrophage differentiation and function. The findings indicate that IL-13R?1 is expressed on the M2 but not on the M1 subset of macrophages and specifically heterodimerizes with the IL-4R? chain to form a type II receptor, which controls the differentiation and function of these cells. Indeed, BM cells from IL-13R?1(+/+) and IL-13R?1(-/-) mice yield equivalent numbers of macrophages when cultured under M2 polarizing conditions. However, IL-13R?1(-/-) BM cells yield a much higher number of macrophages than IL-13R?1(+/+) BM cells when the differentiation is carried out under M1-polarizing conditions. Further analyses indicated that macrophages that express IL-13R?1 also display surface markers associated with an M2 phenotype. In addition, the IL-13R?1(+) macrophages were highly efficient in phagocytizing zymosan bioparticles both in vitro and in vivo, and supported differentiation of naïve T cells to a Th2 phenotype. Finally, when stimulated by IL-13, a cytokine that uses the heteroreceptor, the cells were able to phosphorylate STAT6 efficiently. These previously unrecognized findings indicate that IL-13R?1 serves as a marker for M2 macrophages and the resulting heteroreceptor influences both their differentiation and function. PMID:24281978

Dhakal, Mermagya; Hardaway, John C; Guloglu, Fatma Betul; Miller, Mindy M; Hoeman, Christine M; Zaghouani, Adam A; Wan, Xiaoxiao; Rowland, Linda M; Cascio, Jason A; Sherman, Michael P; Zaghouani, Habib

2014-03-01

425

Results of simple excision technique in the surgical treatment of symptomatic accessory navicular bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAccessory navicular bones might cause not only cosmetic problems but also be a reason of discomfort and pain. In case of inefficient conservative treatment symptomatic accessory naviculars are treated surgically.Aim of paper: Presentation of results of simple excision of symptomatic accessory navicular.

Barbara Jasiewicz; Tomasz Potaczek; Wojciech K?cki; Maciej T?siorowski; Ewa Lipik

2008-01-01

426

WagTag: A Dog Collar Accessory for Monitoring Canine Activity Levels  

E-print Network

accessories with such apps are now emerging for the pet market. In this paper we describe WagTag, an accessory corporations are now actively working to bring new accessories to market, or to refine the ones already on the market. The corporations involved include computing giants such as Apple and Google, startups

Weiss, Gary

427

An accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle: a case report and embryologic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory fasciculi of the hypothenar muscles have been involved in vascular and nerve compressions. During a routine dissection an accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle arising from the tendon of the palmaris longus muscle was found in the lower third of the forearm. The accessory fasciculus ran through Guyon’s canal enclosing the ulnar nerve and vessels. It was

F. Soldado-Carrera; N. Vilar-Coromina; A. Rodríguez-Baeza

2000-01-01

428

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Consumers’ Conspicuous Consumption of Branded Fashion Accessories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempts to (1) demonstrate whether the purchase of branded fashion accessories is motivated by consumers’ desire to reflect their social status, convey their self-image, and boost their self-esteem; (2) find whether the purchase of luxury fashion accessories may fall under the umbrella of conspicuous consumption; and (3) examine whether conspicuous consumption of branded fashion accessories varies across cultures.

Nizar Souiden; Bouthaina M’Saad; Frank Pons

2011-01-01

429

A research on the market of Chinese brands of sportswear accessories and their designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sportswear accessories market in China, the competition is in keen environment. The famous brands having stationed in foreign countries, occupy a large market share, and are in domination, although some Chinese sportswear accessories brands promote faster and have made significant improvement in this business conditions. But on the whole, China sportswear accessories enterprises are still vulnerable. This article, basis

Lizhen Yang

2010-01-01

430

Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane  

SciTech Connect

An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar-like multicellular architecture. This culture system is unique among models of epithelial cell polarity in that it demonstrates several aspects of epithelial cell polarization: vectorial secretion, apical junctions, a sequestered compartment and formation of a basal lamina. These lumina-containing structures therefore reproduce the dual role of mammary epithelia to secrete vectorially and to sequester milk proteins. Thus, in addition to maintaining tissue-specific cytodifferentiation and function, a basement membrane promotes the expression of tissue-like morphogenesis.

BARCELLOS-HOFF, M. H; AGGELER, J.; RAM, T. G; BISSELL, M. J

1989-02-01

431

Clonal Tests of Conventional Kinesin Function during Cell Proliferation and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Null mutations in the Drosophila Kinesin heavy chain gene (Khc), which are lethal during the second larval instar, have shown that conventional kinesin is critical for fast axonal transport in neurons, but its functions elsewhere are uncertain. To test other tissues, single imaginal cells in young larvae were rendered null for Khc by mitotic recombination. Surprisingly, the null cells produced large clones of adult tissue. The rates of cell proliferation were not reduced, indicating that conventional kinesin is not essential for cell growth or division. This suggests that in undifferentiated cells vesicle transport from the Golgi to either the endoplasmic reticulum or the plasma membrane can proceed at normal rates without conventional kinesin. In adult eye clones produced by null founder cells, there were some defects in differentiation that caused mild ultrastructural changes, but they were not consistent with serious problems in the positioning or transport of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, or vesicles. In contrast, defective cuticle deposition by highly elongated Khc null bristle shafts suggests that conventional kinesin is critical for proper secretory vesicle transport in some cell types, particularly ones that must build and maintain long cytoplasmic extensions. The ubiquity and evolutionary conservation of kinesin heavy chain argue for functions in all cells. We suggest interphase organelle movements away from the cell center are driven by multilayered transport mechanisms; that is, individual organelles can use kinesin-related proteins and myosins, as well as conventional kinesin, to move toward the cell periphery. In this case, other motors can compensate for the loss of conventional kinesin except in cells that have extremely long transport tracks. PMID:10749933

Brendza, Robert P.; Sheehan, Kathy B.; Turner, F.R.; Saxton, William M.

2000-01-01

432

Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to assess whether {sup 131}I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can affect endocrine testicular function. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured in 103 patients periodically submitted for radioiodine therapy for residual or metastatic disease. Mean follow-up was 93.7{+-}54 mo (range 10-243 mo). Mean FSH values in {sup 131}I-treated patients tested after their last treatment were 15.3{+-}9.9 mU/ml, significantly higher than those of 19 untreated patients (6.5{+-}3.1 mU/ml). Considering the mean +3 s.d. FSH of untreated subjects as the upper limit of normal range, 36.8% of the patients had an abnormal increase in serum FSH. Longitudinal analysis performed in 21 patients showed that the behavior of FSH in response to {sup 131}I therapy was not universal. Six patients had no change or a slight increase in serum FSH after {sup 131}I administration; eleven patients had a transient increase above normal values 6-12 mo after {sup 131}I treatment, with return to normal levels in subsequent months. The administration of a second dose was followed by a similar increase in FSH levels. Finally, four patients, followed for a long period of time and treated with several {sup 131}I doses, showed a progressive increase in serum FSH, which eventually became permanent. Semen analysis, performed in a small subgroup of patients, showed a consistent reduction in the number of normokinetic sperm. No change was found in serum T levels between treated and untreated patients. The results indicate that {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid carcinoma is associated with transient impairment of testicular germinal cell function. The damage may become permanent for high-radiation activities delivered year after year and might pose a significant risk of infertility. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Pacini, F.; Gasperi, M.; Fugazzola, L. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)] [and others

1994-09-01

433

Growth differentiation factor 9:bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimers are potent regulators of ovarian functions  

PubMed Central

The TGF-? superfamily is the largest family of secreted proteins in mammals, and members of the TGF-? family are involved in most developmental and physiological processes. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), oocyte-secreted paralogs of the TGF-? superfamily, have been shown genetically to control ovarian physiology. Although previous studies found that GDF9 and BMP15 homodimers can modulate ovarian pathways in vitro, the functional species-specific significance of GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers remained unresolved. Therefore, we engineered and produced purified recombinant mouse and human GDF9 and BMP15 homodimers and GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers to compare their molecular characteristics and physiological functions. In mouse granulosa cell and cumulus cell expansion assays, mouse GDF9 and human BMP15 homodimers can up-regulate cumulus expansion-related genes (Ptx3, Has2, and Ptgs2) and promote cumulus expansion in vitro, whereas mouse BMP15 and human GDF9 homodimers are essentially inactive. However, we discovered that mouse GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer is ?10- to 30-fold more biopotent than mouse GDF9 homodimer, and human GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer is ?1,000- to 3,000-fold more bioactive than human BMP15 homodimer. We also demonstrate that the heterodimers require the kinase activities of ALK4/5/7 and BMPR2 to activate SMAD2/3 but unexpectedly need ALK6 as a coreceptor in the signaling complex in granulosa cells. Our findings that GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers are the most bioactive ligands in mice and humans compared with homodimers explain many puzzling genetic and physiological data generated during the last two decades and have important implications for improving female fertility in mammals. PMID:23382188

Peng, Jia; Li, Qinglei; Wigglesworth, Karen; Rangarajan, Adithya; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Peterson, Randall T.; Eppig, John J.; Thompson, Thomas B.; Matzuk, Martin M.

2013-01-01

434

Growth differentiation factor 9:bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimers are potent regulators of ovarian functions.  

PubMed

The TGF-? superfamily is the largest family of secreted proteins in mammals, and members of the TGF-? family are involved in most developmental and physiological processes. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), oocyte-secreted paralogs of the TGF-? superfamily, have been shown genetically to control ovarian physiology. Although previous studies found that GDF9 and BMP15 homodimers can modulate ovarian pathways in vitro, the functional species-specific significance of GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers remained unresolved. Therefore, we engineered and produced purified recombinant mouse and human GDF9 and BMP15 homodimers and GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers to compare their molecular characteristics and physiological functions. In mouse granulosa cell and cumulus cell expansion assays, mouse GDF9 and human BMP15 homodimers can up-regulate cumulus expansion-related genes (Ptx3, Has2, and Ptgs2) and promote cumulus expansion in vitro, whereas mouse BMP15 and human GDF9 homodimers are essentially inactive. However, we discovered that mouse GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer is ?10- to 30-fold more biopotent than mouse GDF9 homodimer, and human GDF9:BMP15 heterodimer is ?1,000- to 3,000-fold more bioactive than human BMP15 homodimer. We also demonstrate that the heterodimers require the kinase activities of ALK4/5/7 and BMPR2 to activate SMAD2/3 but unexpectedly need ALK6 as a coreceptor in the signaling complex in granulosa cells. Our findings that GDF9:BMP15 heterodimers are the most bioactive ligands in mice and humans compared with homodimers explain many puzzling genetic and physiological data generated during the last two decades and have important implications for improving female fertility in mammals. PMID:23382188

Peng, Jia; Li, Qinglei; Wigglesworth, Karen; Rangarajan, Adithya; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Peterson, Randall T; Eppig, John J; Thompson, Thomas B; Matzuk, Martin M

2013-02-19

435

Dexamethasone differentially regulates functional membrane properties in glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Similar to astrocytes, glioma cells form a well-coupled syncytium via gap junctions. This can be influenced, for example, by activated microglia, the main inflammatory cell population within the central nervous system (CNS). Under pathological conditions such as neoplastic cell growth, microglia number and activation state are enhanced. The aim of the present study is to analyze the influence of dexamethasone (DEX) on cellular and molecular properties in glial coculture models consisting of astroglia and microglia and human and rat glioma cell lines. Primary rat glial cocultures of astrocytes containing 5% (M5, representing "physiological" conditions) or 30% (M30, representing "pathological" conditions) microglia as well as rat and human glioma cell lines (F98, C6, U87) were incubated with DEX for 24 h. DEX-treated M30 cocultures showed significant increased gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). DEX treatment of glioma cells resulted in depolarization of the membrane resting potential (MRP) and a significant reduction of GJIC. Furthermore, DEX reduced the amount of activated microglia in M30 cocultures. DEX had no significant effects on the tested variables in the M5 coculture. DEX differentially regulates functional membrane properties of glioma cells and astrocytes in primary glial cocultures, which might resemble steroid effects in glioma cells and adjacent glial components in vivo. PMID:21107646

Hinkerohe, Daniel; Wolfkühler, Dörte; Haghikia, Aiden; Meier, Carola; Faustmann, Pedro M; Schlegel, Uwe

2011-07-01

436

Divergent functions of hematopoietic transcription factors in lineage priming and differentiation during erythro-megakaryopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Combinatorial actions of relatively few transcription factors control hematopoietic differentiation. To investigate this process in erythro-megakaryopoiesis, we correlated the genome-wide chromatin occupancy signatures of four master hematopoietic transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, and FLI1) and three diagnostic histone modification marks with the gene expression changes that occur during development of primary cultured megakaryocytes (MEG) and primary erythroblasts (ERY) from murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We identified a robust, genome-wide mechanism of MEG-specific lineage priming by a previously described stem/progenitor cell-expressed transcription factor heptad (GATA2, LYL1, TAL1, FLI1, ERG, RUNX1, LMO2) binding to MEG-associated cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in multipotential progenitors. This is followed by genome-wide GATA factor switching that mediates further induction of MEG-specific genes following lineage commitment. Interaction between GATA and ETS factors appears to be a key determinant of these processes. In contrast, ERY-specific lineage priming is biased toward GATA2-independent mechanisms. In addition to its role in MEG lineage priming, GATA2 plays an extensive role in late megakaryopoiesis as a transcriptional repressor at loci defined by a specific DNA signature. Our findings reveal important new insights into how ERY and MEG lineages arise from a common bipotential progenitor via overlapping and divergent functions of shared hematopoietic transcription factors. PMID:25319996

Pimkin, Maxim; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Mishra, Tejaswini; Morrissey, Christapher S.; Wu, Weisheng; Keller, Cheryl A.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Lee, Dongwon; Beer, Michael A.; Hardison, Ross C.

2014-01-01

437

Differential diagnosis of byssinosis by blood histamine and pulmonary function test: a review and an appraisal.  

PubMed

A study was conducted on byssinotic (N = 8) and nonbyssinotic (N = 16) mill workers exposed to cotton dust and on controls (N = 15) from a cotton dust-free zone. They were examined for chest tightness and breathlessness during successive days from Mondays to Fridays. In addition to monitoring the workers only on Mondays after shift work, their blood histamine levels and pulmonary function tests such as FEV1, PEFR, and FEF25-75% (PEFR represents airflow of larger airways, FEF25-75% reflects airflow in smaller airways, and FEV1 represents airflow in both central and peripheral airways) were screened, but Monday data were only counted to appraise a contrast between these two parameters. The results showed that the histamine levels were significantly higher in the cotton dust-exposed workers in association with significantly decreased FEV1, PEFR, and FEF25-75%, indicating bronchoconstriction of the central, larger, and peripheral airways. Histamine can cause a severe constriction of the central as well as peripheral airways in cotton dust-exposed workers, enabling a paradoxical effect for a differential diagnosis of byssinosis. PMID:11766129

Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H; Mohan-Rao, N; Panchal, G M

2001-01-01

438

Potential of comprehensive toxico-proteomics: quantitative and differential mining of functional proteomes from native samples.  

PubMed

It is becoming increasingly clear that the interactions of targets and biomarkers, drug modes of action and molecular mechanisms of side-effects and toxic effects are much more complex than previously anticipated, basically due to physiological compensation and cross-talk. Single genes often lead to hundreds or even thousands of functional protein molecules, modified at the post-translational level. Thus, the comprehensive analysis of proteins (proteomics) teaches us that physiological activity means dynamic, multidimensional processes among many thousands of different proteins within higher systems of organisation and correlation. Crucial for control and relevant reduction of this enormous complexity, which will enable new kinds of molecular drug screening, as well as a new type of molecular toxicology, is a consequently differential and quantitative protein analysis. Precise knowledge of key protein isoforms with specific post-translational modifications within kinetic and contextual relationships is accessible by powerful new technologies, which have emerged to analyse the surprisingly ambiguous world of proteins, where single molecular modules are involved in a diversity of often opposing signal transduction pathways in a most flexible way. PMID:23577445

Schrattenholz, André; Klemm, Martina; Cahill, Michael

2004-06-01

439

Differential brain effects of laser and needle acupuncture at LR8 using functional MRI  

PubMed Central

Objective While needle acupuncture is a well-accepted technique, laser acupuncture is being increasingly used in clinical practice. The differential effects of the two techniques are of interest. We examine this in relation to brain effects of activation of LR8, a putative acupuncture point for depression, using functional MRI (fMRI). Methods Sixteen healthy participants were randomised to receive low intensity laser acupuncture to LR8 on one side and needle acupuncture to the contralateral LR8. Stimulation was in an on-off block design and brain patterns were recorded under fMRI. Results Significant activation occurred in the left precuneus during laser acupuncture compared with needle acupuncture and significant activation occurred in the left precentral gyrus during needle acupuncture compared with laser acupuncture. Conclusions Laser and needle acupuncture at LR8 in healthy participants produced different brain patterns. Laser acupuncture activated the precuneus relevant to mood in the posterior default mode network while needle acupuncture activated the parietal cortical region associated with the primary motor cortex. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the clinical relevance of these effects. PMID:23920052

Quah-Smith, Im; Williams, Mark A; Lundeberg, Thomas; Suo, Chao; Sachdev, Perminder

2013-01-01

440

Racial/ethnic differences in responses to the everyday discrimination scale: a differential item functioning analysis.  

PubMed

The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996-1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the Everyday Discrimination Scale by race/ethnicity. After adjustment for age, education, and language of interview, meaningful DIF was observed for 3 (out of 10) items: "receiving poorer service in restaurants or stores," "being treated as if you are dishonest," and "being treated with less courtesy than other people" (all P's < 0.001). Consequently, the "profile" of everyday discrimination differed slightly for women of different racial/ethnic groups, with certain "public" experiences appearing to have more salience for African-American and Chinese women and "dishonesty" having more salience for racial/ethnic minority women overall. "Courtesy" appeared to have more salience for Hispanic women only in comparison with African-American women. Findings suggest that the Everyday Discrimination Scale could potentially be used across racial/ethnic groups as originally intended. However, researchers should use caution with items that demonstrated DIF. PMID:22306556

Lewis, Tené T; Yang, Frances M; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Fitchett, George

2012-03-01

441

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale: A Differential Item Functioning Analysis  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996–1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the Everyday Discrimination Scale by race/ethnicity. After adjustment for age, education, and language of interview, meaningful DIF was observed for 3 (out of 10) items: “receiving poorer service in restaurants or stores,” “being treated as if you are dishonest,” and “being treated with less courtesy than other people” (all P's < 0.001). Consequently, the “profile” of everyday discrimination differed slightly for women of different racial/ethnic groups, with certain “public” experiences appearing to have more salience for African-American and Chinese women and “dishonesty” having more salience for racial/ethnic minority women overall. “Courtesy” appeared to have more salience for Hispanic women only in comparison with African-American women. Findings suggest that the Everyday Discrimination Scale could potentially be used across racial/ethnic groups as originally intended. However, researchers should use caution with items that demonstrated DIF. PMID:22306556

Lewis, Tene T.; Yang, Frances M.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Fitchett, George

2012-01-01

442

Large-scale chromatin morpho-functional changes during mammalian oocyte growth and differentiation.  

PubMed

Mammalian oocyte development is characterized by impressive changes in chromatin structure and function within the germinal vesicle (GV). These changes are crucial to confer the oocyte with meiotic and developmental competencies. In cow, oocytes collected from early and middle antral follicles present four patterns of chromatin configuration, from GV0 to GV3, and its progressive condensation has been related to the achievement of developmental potential. During oogenesis, follicular cells are essential for the acquisition of meiotic and developmental competencies and communicate with the oocyte by paracrine and gap junction mediated mechanisms. We recently analyzed the role of gap junction communications (GJC) on chromatin remodeling process during the specific phase of folliculogenesis that coincides with the transcriptional silencing and sequential acquisition of meiotic and developmental capabilities. Our studies demonstrated that GJC between germinal and somatic compartments plays a fundamental role in the regulation of chromatin remodeling and transcription activities during the final oocyte differentiation, throughout cAMP dependent mechanism(s). PMID:23027353

Luciano, A M; Lodde, V; Franciosi, F; Tessaro, I; Corbani, D; Modina, S

2012-01-01

443

An investigation of differential item functioning across gender of BPD criteria.  

PubMed

Gender differences in prevalence rates of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) may reflect true differences between groups or may reflect some form of gender bias in diagnostic criteria. The detection of differential item functioning (DIF) using item response theory methods provides a powerful method of evaluating whether gender differences in prevalence rates of BPD reflect true mean differences or criterion bias. The aim of the current study was to evaluate gender-based DIF in DSM BPD criteria. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II: First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1994) was administered to 747 adult inpatients. Results indicated DIF for 2 BPD criteria (impulsivity and uncontrolled anger), such that it was easier for these items to be endorsed for men compared with women at the same level of latent trait. At the level of the test, men were expected to be rated slightly higher than women on the SCID-II at the same level of latent BPD liability. Implications of these results for research and clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:24661173

Sharp, Carla; Michonski, Jared; Steinberg, Lynne; Fowler, J Christopher; Frueh, B Christopher; Oldham, John M

2014-02-01

444

Large-scale chromatin morpho-functional changes during mammalian oocyte growth and differentiation  

PubMed Central

Mammalian oocyte development is characterized by impressive changes in chromatin structure and function within the germinal vesicle (GV). These changes are crucial to confer the oocyte with meiotic and developmental competencies. In cow, oocytes collected from early and middle antral follicles present four patterns of chromatin configuration, from GV0 to GV3, and its progressive condensation has been related to the achievement of developmental potential. During oogenesis, follicular cells are essential for the acquisition of meiotic and developmental competencies and communicate with the oocyte by paracrine and gap junction mediated mechanisms. We recently analyzed the role of gap junction communications (GJC) on chromatin remodeling process during the specific phase of folliculogenesis that coincides with the transcriptional silencing and sequential acquisition of meiotic and developmental capabilities. Our studies demonstrated that GJC between germinal and somatic compartments plays a fundamental role in the regulation of chromatin remodeling and transcription activities during the final oocyte differentiation, throughout cAMP dependent mechanism(s). PMID:23027353

Luciano, A.M.; Lodde, V.; Franciosi, F.; Tessaro, I.; Corbani, D.; Modina, S.C.

2012-01-01

445

On the differentiability of set-valued functions defined on a Banach space and mean value theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a new concept of differentiability for set-valued functions defined from an open set of a Banach space X to the family of all non-empty, bounded closed subsets of a Banach space Y and give some of its properties. We also give two forms of a mean-value theorem for this type of set-valued functions.

A. G. M. Ibrahim

1996-01-01

446

A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

2011-01-01

447

Differential Item Functioning Assessment in Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling: Application of the Wald Test to Investigate DIF in the DINA Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing examinees' responses using cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) has the advantage of providing diagnostic information. To ensure the validity of the results from these models, differential item functioning (DIF) in CDMs needs to be investigated. In this article, the Wald test is proposed to examine DIF in the context of CDMs. This…

Hou, Likun; de la Torre, Jimmy; Nandakumar, Ratna

2014-01-01

448

Differential Item Functioning Analyses for Mixed Response Data using IRT Likelihood-Ration Test, Logistic Regression, and GLLAMM Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With commonly usage of polytomously scored items in addition to dichotomously scored items in educational tests, it is likely to see these two item formats in a test. Several procedures are available to detect differential item functioning (DIF) for dichotomously scored items. Most of these procedures are extended to be adapted for polytomously scored items. DIF analyses are usually conducted

Burcu Atar

2006-01-01

449

Differential Item Functioning Detection and Effect Size: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Mantel-Haenszel Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares several procedures in their efficacy for detecting differential item functioning (DIF): logistic regression analysis, the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure, and the modified Mantel-Haenszel procedure by Mazor, Clauser, and Hambleton. It also compares the effect size measures that these procedures provide. In this study, different conditions of item parameters (difficulty and discrimination) and DIF magnitude were manipulated. Furthermore, both

M. Dolores Hidalgo; JosÉ Antonio LÓPez-Pina

2004-01-01

450

Differential prognosis of reading-disabled children as a function of gender, socieconomic status, IQ, and severity: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 104 reading-disabled subjects tested on two occasions over an average interval of nearly five years were used to test hypotheses of differential prognosis for reading performance and symbol-processing speed as a function of gender, socioeconomic status, general intelligence, and initial severity. With respect to reading performance, significant main effects due to intelligence and severity were found. Moreover, the

Michele C. Labuda; J. C. Defries

1989-01-01

451

Centering, Scale Indeterminacy, and Differential Item Functioning Detection in Hierarchical Generalized Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss and illustrate two centering and anchoring options available in differential item functioning (DIF) detection studies based on the hierarchical generalized linear and generalized linear mixed modeling frameworks. We compared and contrasted the assumptions of the two options, and examined the properties of their DIF…

Cheong, Yuk Fai; Kamata, Akihito

2013-01-01

452

Gender Differential Item Functioning in the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale with a Sample of Early Adolescent Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differential item functioning (DIF) in the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale (B. A. Bracken, 1992) was evaluated using 2 different methods to identify and describe DIF. Of 149 items from the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale, 42% exhibited gender DIF. Nonuniform, crossover DIF was evident in items throughout the instrument.

Young, Ellie L.; Sudweeks, Richard R.

2005-01-01

453

Differential Item Functioning in Biodata: Opportunity Access as an Explanation of Gender- and Race-Related DIF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations of differential item functioning (DIF) have been conducted mostly on ability tests and have found little evidence of easily interpretable differences across various demographic subgroups. In this study, we examined the degree to which DIF in biographical data items referencing academically relevant background, experiences, and…

Imus, Anna; Schmitt, Neal; Kim, Brian; Oswald, Frederick L.; Merritt, Stephanie; Wrestring, Alyssa Friede

2011-01-01

454

Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Science and Mathematics Items in the University Entrance Examinations in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is aimed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) items across gender groups, analyze item content for the possible sources of DIF, and eventually investigate the effect of DIF items on the criterion-related validity of the test scores in the quantitative section of the university entrance examination (UEE) in Turkey. The reason…

Kalaycioglu, Dilara Bakan; Berberoglu, Giray

2011-01-01

455

New bioactive motifs and their use in functionalized self-assembling peptides for NSC differentiation and neural tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing functionalized biomaterials for enhancing transplanted cell engraftment in vivo and stimulating the regeneration of injured tissues requires a multi-disciplinary approach customized for the tissue to be regenerated. In particular, nervous tissue engineering may take a great advantage from the discovery of novel functional motifs fostering transplanted stem cell engraftment and nervous fiber regeneration. Using phage display technology we have discovered new peptide sequences that bind to murine neural stem cell (NSC)-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), and promote their viability and differentiation in vitro when linked to LDLK12 self-assembling peptide (SAPeptide). We characterized the newly functionalized LDLK12 SAPeptides via atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism and rheology, obtaining nanostructured hydrogels that support human and murine NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro. One functionalized SAPeptide (Ac-FAQ), showing the highest stem cell viability and neural differentiation in vitro, was finally tested in acute contusive spinal cord injury in rats, where it fostered nervous tissue regrowth and improved locomotor recovery. Interestingly, animals treated with the non-functionalized LDLK12 had an axon sprouting/regeneration intermediate between Ac-FAQ-treated animals and controls. These results suggest that hydrogels functionalized with phage-derived peptides may constitute promising biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro NSC differentiation, as well as regenerative therapy of the injured nervous system. Moreover, this multi-disciplinary approach can be used to customize SAPeptides for other specific tissue engineering applications.Developing functionalized biomaterials for enhancing transplanted cell engraftment in vivo and stimulating the regeneration of injured tissues requires a multi-disciplinary approach customized for the tissue to be regenerated. In particular, nervous tissue engineering may take a great advantage from the discovery of novel functional motifs fostering transplanted stem cell engraftment and nervous fiber regeneration. Using phage display technology we have discovered new peptide sequences that bind to murine neural stem cell (NSC)-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), and promote their viability and differentiation in vitro when linked to LDLK12 self-assembling peptide (SAPeptide). We characterized the newly functionalized LDLK12 SAPeptides via atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism and rheology, obtaining nanostructured hydrogels that support human and murine NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro. One functionalized SAPeptide (Ac-FAQ), showing the highest stem cell viability and neural differentiation in vitro, was finally tested in acute contusive spinal cord injury in rats, where it fostered nervous tissue regrowth and improved locomotor recovery. Interestingly, animals treated with the non-functionalized LDLK12 had an axon sprouting/regeneration intermediate between Ac-FAQ-treated animals and controls. These results suggest that hydrogels functionalized with phage-derived peptides may constitute promising biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro NSC differentiation, as well as regenerative therapy of the injured nervous system. Moreover, this multi-disciplinary approach can be used to customize SAPeptides for other specific tissue engineering applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting methods and data about CD spectral analysis of SAPeptide solutions (Fig. S1), neural differentiation of murine and human NSCs (Fig. S2) on SAPeptide scaffolds, and their statistical analysis (Table S1). See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30220a

Gelain, F.; Cigognini, D.; Caprini, A.; Silva, D.; Colleoni, B.; Donegá, M.; Antonini, S.; Cohen, B. E.; Vescovi, A.

2012-04-01

456

Quality of life and psychometric functionality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the psychological performance and the quality of life in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, either during treatment with chronic suppressive doses of levothyroxine, or during the withdrawal of levothyroxine needed to perform whole-body scanning with radioactive iodine, with those of appropriate healthy controls. Eighteen women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and 18 euthyroid age-matched healthy women were recruited. Patients

J I Botella-Carretero; J M Galan; C Caballero; J Sancho; H F Escobar-Morreale

2003-01-01

457

Duration of differential activations is functionally related to fatigue prevention during low-level contractions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of duration of differential activations between the heads of the biceps brachii on local fatigue during prolonged low-level contractions. Fifteen subjects carried out isometric elbow flexion at 5% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 30 min. MVCs were performed before and at the end of the prolonged contraction. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from both heads of the biceps brachii. Differential activation was analysed based on the difference in EMG amplitude (activation) between electrodes situated at the two heads. Differential activations were quantified by the power spectral median frequency of the difference in activation between the heads throughout the contraction. The inverse of the median frequency was used to describe the average duration of the differential activations. The relation between average duration of the differential activations and the fatigue-induced reduction in maximal force was explored by linear regression analysis. The main finding was that the average duration of differential activation was positively associated to relative maximal force at the end of the 30 min contraction (R(2)=0.5, P<0.01). The findings of this study highlight the importance of duration of differential activations for local fatigue, and support the hypothesis that long term differential activations prevent fatigue during prolonged low-level contractions. PMID:19481957

Holtermann, A; Grönlund, C; Ingebrigtsen, J; Karlsson, J S; Roeleveld, K

2010-04-01

458

Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects  

PubMed Central

Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; J?rgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

2013-01-01

459

Role of the calcium-sensing receptor in calcium regulation of epidermal differentiation and function  

PubMed Central

The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium composed of proliferating basal and differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes. It serves as the body’s major physical and chemical barrier against infection and harsh environmental insults, as well as preventing excess water loss from the body into the atmosphere. Calcium is a key regulator of the proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. Elevated extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) raises the levels of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), promotes cell-cell adhesion, and activates differentiation-related genes. Keratinocytes deficient in the calcium-sensing receptor fail to respond to [Ca2+]o stimulation and to differentiate, indicating a role for the calcium-sensing receptor in transducing the [Ca2+]o signal during differentiation. The concepts derived from in vitro gene knockdown experiments have been evaluated and confirmed in three mouse models in vivo. PMID:23856269

Tu, Chia-Ling; Bikle, Daniel D

2013-01-01

460

Accessory cleido-occipitalis muscle: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

An aberrant muscular fascicle, the so-called "accessory cleido-occipital muscle", originated from the anterior border of the cleido-occipital portion of the right trapezius muscle, was detected during a routine dissection of a female cadaver. The aforementioned muscular bundle coursing in the posterior cervical triangle, almost parallel to the anterior border of the trapezius muscle, inserted ultimately to the clavicle's medial third. In addition, prior to its insertion, the muscle provided a fibrous arch attached to the midportion of clavicle, overlying the main trunk of supraclavicular nerves. We noted that during abduction of the right arm, the fibrous arch entrapped the supraclavicular nerve trunk, presumably leading to sensory disturbances in nerve's area distribution. We review the relative restricted data in the available literature concerning that muscular variant and elucidate its importance during differential diagnosis of a mass and surgical exploration of the posterior cervical triangle. PMID:24322047

Paraskevas, G K; Natsis, K; Ioannidis, O

2013-01-01

461

Morphological and functional differentiation in BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells by treatment with Trans-retinoic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Immortalized neuronal cell lines can be induced to differentiate into more mature neurons by adding specific compounds or growth factors to the culture medium. This property makes neuronal cell lines attractive as in vitro cell models to study neuronal functions and neurotoxicity. The clonal human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cell line is known to differentiate into a more prominent neuronal cell type by treatment with trans-retinoic acid. However, there is a lack of information on the morphological and functional aspects of these differentiated cells. Results We studied the effects of trans-retinoic acid treatment on (a) some differentiation marker proteins, (b) types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels and (c) Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter ([3H] glycine) release in cultured BE(2)-M17 cells. Cells treated with 10 ?M trans-retinoic acid (RA) for 72 hrs exhibited marked changes in morphology to include neurite extensions; presence of P/Q, N and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; and expression of neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?7 (nAChR-?7) and other neuronal markers. Moreover, retinoic acid treated cells had a significant increase in evoked Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release capacity. In toxicity studies of the toxic gas, phosgene (CG), that differentiation of M17 cells with RA was required to see the changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations following exposure to CG. Conclusion Taken together, retinoic acid treated cells had improved morphological features as well as neuronal characteristics and functions; thus, these retinoic acid differentiated BE(2)-M17 cells may serve as a better neuronal model to study neurobiology and/or neurotoxicity. PMID:23597229

2013-01-01

462

Genome-wide Functional Analysis of Plasmodium Protein Phosphatases Reveals Key Regulators of Parasite Development and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Summary Reversible protein phosphorylation regulated by kinases and phosphatases controls many cellular processes. Although essential functions for the malaria parasite kinome have been reported, the roles of most protein phosphatases (PPs) during Plasmodium development are unknown. We report a functional analysis of the Plasmodium berghei protein phosphatome, which exhibits high conservation with the P. falciparum phosphatome and comprises 30 predicted PPs with differential and distinct expression patterns during various stages of the life cycle. Gene disruption analysis of P. berghei PPs reveals that half of the genes are likely essential for asexual blood stage development, whereas six are required for sexual development/sporogony in mosquitoes. Phenotypic screening coupled with transcriptome sequencing unveiled morphological changes and altered gene expression in deletion mutants of two N-myristoylated PPs. These findings provide systematic functional analyses of PPs in Plasmodium, identify how phosphatases regulate parasite development and differentiation, and can inform the identification of drug targets for malaria. PMID:25011111

Guttery, David S.; Poulin, Benoit; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Wall, Richard J.; Ferguson, David J.P.; Brady, Declan; Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Whipple, Sarah; Straschil, Ursula; Wright, Megan H.; Mohamed, Alyaa M.A.H.; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Arold, Stefan T.; Tate, Edward W.; Holder, Anthony A.; Wickstead, Bill; Pain, Arnab; Tewari, Rita

2014-01-01

463

Genome-wide functional analysis of Plasmodium protein phosphatases reveals key regulators of parasite development and differentiation.  

PubMed

Reversible protein phosphorylation regulated by kinases and phosphatases controls many cellular processes. Although essential functions for the malaria parasite kinome have been reported, the roles of most protein phosphatases (PPs) during Plasmodium development are unknown. We report a functional analysis of the Plasmodium berghei protein phosphatome, which exhibits high conservation with the P. falciparum phosphatome and comprises 30 predicted PPs with differential and distinct expression patterns during various stages of the life cycle. Gene disruption analysis of P. berghei PPs reveals that half of the genes are likely essential for asexual blood stage development, whereas six are required for sexual development/sporogony in mosquitoes. Phenotypic screening coupled with transcriptome sequencing unveiled morphological changes and altered gene expression in deletion mutants of two N-myristoylated PPs. These findings provide systematic functional analyses of PPs in Plasmodium, identify how phosphatases regulate parasite development and differentiation, and can inform the identification of drug targets for malaria. PMID:25011111

Guttery, David S; Poulin, Benoit; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Wall, Richard J; Ferguson, David J P; Brady, Declan; Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Whipple, Sarah; Straschil, Ursula; Wright, Megan H; Mohamed, Alyaa M A H; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Arold, Stefan T; Tate, Edward W; Holder, Anthony A; Wickstead, Bill; Pain, Arnab; Tewari, Rita

2014-07-01

464

The Role of the PI3K Signaling Pathway in CD4+ T Cell Differentiation and Function  

PubMed Central

The relative activity of regulatory versus conventional CD4+ T cells ultimately maintains the delicate balance between immune tolerance and inflammation. At the molecular level, the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream positive and negative regulators has a major role in controlling the balance between immune regulation and activation of different subsets of effector CD4+ T cells. In contrast to effector T cells which require activation of the PI3K to differentiate and mediate their effector function, regulatory T cells rely on minimal activation of this pathway to develop and maintain their characteristic phenotype, function, and metabolic state. In this review, we discuss the role of the PI3K signaling pathway in CD4+ T cell differentiation and function, and focus on how modulation of this pathway in T cells can alter the outcome of an immune response, ultimately tipping the balance between tolerance and inflammation. PMID:22905034

Han, Jonathan M.; Patterson, Scott J.; Levings, Megan K.

2012-01-01